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Sample records for adverse clinical consequences

  1. Unintended adverse consequences of a clinical decision support system: two cases.

    PubMed

    Stone, Erin G

    2018-05-01

    Many institutions have implemented clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). While CDSS research papers have focused on benefits of these systems, there is a smaller body of literature showing that CDSSs may also produce unintended adverse consequences (UACs). Detailed here are 2 cases of UACs resulting from a CDSS. Both of these cases were related to external systems that fed data into the CDSS. In the first case, lack of knowledge of data categorization in an external pharmacy system produced a UAC; in the second case, the change of a clinical laboratory instrument produced the UAC. CDSSs rely on data from many external systems. These systems are dynamic and may have changes in hardware, software, vendors, or processes. Such changes can affect the accuracy of CDSSs. These cases point to the need for the CDSS team to be familiar with these external systems. This team (manager and alert builders) should include members in specific clinical specialties with deep knowledge of these external systems.

  2. Inadvertent adverse consequences of clinical and forensic hypnosis: minimizing the risks.

    PubMed

    Eimer, Bruce N

    2012-07-01

    Hypnosis is a psychological intervention tool that can make a gamut of psychological, medical, and dental treatments work more rapidly and effectively. It can also be used profitably with some witnesses, victims, and defendants in forensic and investigative contexts as a data gathering tool. As with any other power tool, its use entails some risks. Since risks cannot be totally avoided, this article examines some ways to minimize the risks of inadvertent adverse or negative consequences as a result of the use of the hypnosis tool. Fundamentals of hypnosis risk management are covered as a foundation for beginners and as a review for experienced practitioners. Various straightforward safeguards that should be heeded by all practitioners are discussed.

  3. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  4. Adverse consequences of neonatal antibiotic exposure.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics have not only saved lives and improved outcomes, but they also influence the evolving microbiome. This review summarizes reports on neonatal infections and variation in antibiotic utilization, discusses the emergence of resistant organisms, and presents data from human neonates and animal models demonstrating the impact of antibiotics on the microbiome, and how microbiome alterations impact health. The importance of antibiotic stewardship is also discussed. Infections increase neonatal morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the clinical presentation of infections can be subtle, prompting clinicians to empirically start antibiotics when infection is a possibility. Antibiotic-resistant infections are a growing problem. Cohort studies have identified extensive center variations in antibiotic usage and associations between antibiotic exposures and outcomes. Studies of antibiotic-induced microbiome alterations and downstream effects on the developing immune system have increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between antibiotics and adverse outcomes. The emergence of resistant microorganisms and recent evidence linking antibiotic practice variations with health outcomes has led to the initiation of antibiotic stewardship programs. The review encourages practitioners to assess local antibiotic use with regard to local microbiology, and to adopt steps to reduce infections and use antibiotics wisely.

  5. Clinical consequences of feedback on ear surgery: the continuous recording of adverse events and complications with regard to reducing the number of surgeons who perform otosclerosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Rombout, Jan; Van Zanten, Bert; Fokkens, Wytske J; Pauw, Bernard K H

    2002-08-01

    Electronically stored data may be used to generate feedback overviews. This paper describes a method for establishing a picture of ear surgery complications. In this prospective study, the working definition of adverse events and complications is "incidents that are not intrinsic to the surgical procedure and that have a potential or actual negative effect on surgical outcome or postoperative morbidity". A simple method is used to categorise otologic adverse events and complications. This scale varies from adverse events (grade A) to death (grade D). All adverse events and complications in ear surgery that met this definition were documented electronically as part of continuous follow-up between 1 July 1992 and 30 June 1999. In the first 3 years, 1,009 ear operations were performed, and in 51 (5%) of them, adverse events or complications were noted during or after surgery. There were 30 (3%) grade A (adverse events), 18 (2%) grade B (minor complications), 3 (0.3%) grade C (major complications) and no grade D complications. Otosclerosis surgery was evaluated additionally, because halfway through a 7-year period, the number of surgeons was changed. Only three experienced, senior members of staff were involved, and inexperienced residents no longer were allowed to perform this kind of surgery. The reduction of surgeon numbers did indeed improve the outcome of the stapes surgery. Our results were comparable to the literature. This monitoring of outcome-results in relation to changes in care can be seen as a study of care quality. A review of this kind links daily clinical practice to the literature and induces an improvement in quality.

  6. Workplace bullying: a tale of adverse consequences.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution.

  7. Consequences of emergency contraceptives: the adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Thomin, Anne; Keller, Valentin; Daraï, Emile; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) offers women an important strategy to prevent unintended pregnancy following intercourse. Despite the constant improvement of availability of different molecules and techniques already existing (Yuzpe regimen, levonorgestrel, intrauterine device) and the emergence of ulipristal acetate, the numbers of unintended pregnancies and unplanned births could still be reduced. This review will evaluate all the information about the potential adverse effects and tolerability of each method of EC by putting them in balance with their safety and effectiveness. A literature search until December 2013 was performed to identify all trials studying the safety data available concerning EC. Different means of EC have been demonstrated to be generally safe and well tolerated. These data support women information in order to improve use and efficacy of EC.

  8. New Unintended Adverse Consequences of Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Sittig, D F; Wright, A; Ash, J; Singh, H

    2016-11-10

    Although the health information technology industry has made considerable progress in the design, development, implementation, and use of electronic health records (EHRs), the lofty expectations of the early pioneers have not been met. In 2006, the Provider Order Entry Team at Oregon Health & Science University described a set of unintended adverse consequences (UACs), or unpredictable, emergent problems associated with computer-based provider order entry implementation, use, and maintenance. Many of these originally identified UACs have not been completely addressed or alleviated, some have evolved over time, and some new ones have emerged as EHRs became more widely available. The rapid increase in the adoption of EHRs, coupled with the changes in the types and attitudes of clinical users, has led to several new UACs, specifically: complete clinical information unavailable at the point of care; lack of innovations to improve system usability leading to frustrating user experiences; inadvertent disclosure of large amounts of patient-specific information; increased focus on computer-based quality measurement negatively affecting clinical workflows and patient-provider interactions; information overload from marginally useful computer-generated data; and a decline in the development and use of internally-developed EHRs. While each of these new UACs poses significant challenges to EHR developers and users alike, they also offer many opportunities. The challenge for clinical informatics researchers is to continue to refine our current systems while exploring new methods of overcoming these challenges and developing innovations to improve EHR interoperability, usability, security, functionality, clinical quality measurement, and information summarization and display.

  9. New Unintended Adverse Consequences of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Wright, A.; Ash, J.; Singh, H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Although the health information technology industry has made considerable progress in the design, development, implementation, and use of electronic health records (EHRs), the lofty expectations of the early pioneers have not been met. In 2006, the Provider Order Entry Team at Oregon Health & Science University described a set of unintended adverse consequences (UACs), or unpredictable, emergent problems associated with computer-based provider order entry implementation, use, and maintenance. Many of these originally identified UACs have not been completely addressed or alleviated, some have evolved over time, and some new ones have emerged as EHRs became more widely available. The rapid increase in the adoption of EHRs, coupled with the changes in the types and attitudes of clinical users, has led to several new UACs, specifically: complete clinical information unavailable at the point of care; lack of innovations to improve system usability leading to frustrating user experiences; inadvertent disclosure of large amounts of patient-specific information; increased focus on computer-based quality measurement negatively affecting clinical workflows and patient-provider interactions; information overload from marginally useful computer-generated data; and a decline in the development and use of internally-developed EHRs. While each of these new UACs poses significant challenges to EHR developers and users alike, they also offer many opportunities. The challenge for clinical informatics researchers is to continue to refine our current systems while exploring new methods of overcoming these challenges and developing innovations to improve EHR interoperability, usability, security, functionality, clinical quality measurement, and information summarization and display. PMID:27830226

  10. Neutron radiobiology and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Withers, H R

    1985-12-01

    The present day rationale for anticipating a therapeutic advantage of neutrons over X-rays is reviewed. It is based on the following characteristics of tumorous tissue: hypoxia, poor cell cycle redistribution, large repair capacity and rapid growth. It is obvious that not all of the possible reasons why X-ray therapy may fail can be circumvented by the use of neutrons. Therefore the practical consequences of the mentioned rationales must be the planning of randomized clinical trials. With patients selected for poorly reoxygenating tumors, tumors in which clonogens proliferate slowly and others where they grow rapidly and/or show an early regenerative response. Predictive assays for such a selection are, however, only scarcely available and need to be developed to supplement the indication given by conventional staging and grading. Other important consequences of radiobiological considerations are finally concerning treatment strategies. Regardless of the exact dose per fraction chosen, it seems prudent to use relatively low doses per fraction initially to maximize the chance of detecting any benefit inherent in the use of neutrons, before exploring increased doses for reasons of improved cost-effectiveness.

  11. Mindfulness as a mediator of the association between adverse childhood experiences and alcohol use and consequences.

    PubMed

    Brett, Emma I; Espeleta, Hannah C; Lopez, Susanna V; Leavens, Eleanor L S; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2018-04-04

    One-third of college students report past-year heavy episodic drinking, making college student alcohol use an important area for continued research. Research has consistently linked early experiences of adversity to problematic substance use in adolescence and adulthood. Given the negative health consequences associated with heavy episodic drinking, it is imperative to identify mechanisms that contribute to this relation. Low levels of mindfulness have been linked to early adversity as well as impulsivity and alcohol use, therefore, the current study aims to examine the mediating role of mindfulness in the relation between early adversity and current alcohol use and consequences. Undergraduate students (N = 385) at a Midwestern university completed an online questionnaire assessing experiences of childhood adversity, trait mindfulness, and current alcohol use and related consequences. Results indicated that increased adverse experiences and lower levels of mindfulness predicted both increased alcohol consumption and consequences (ps < 0.025), with mindfulness mediating the relationships. Mindfulness is a predictor of alcohol outcomes and appears to mediate the relation between early adversity and alcohol use and consequences. Findings suggest that students with a history of adversity are more likely to exhibit lower levels of mindfulness, which may lead to an increase in alcohol consumption and consequences in early adulthood. Targeted alcohol intervention efforts that incorporate mindfulness skills may be particularly beneficial for those who have experienced early adversity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Needle phobia: etiology, adverse consequences, and patient management.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Chester J; Giovannitti, Joseph A; Boynes, Sean G

    2010-10-01

    Needle phobia has profound health, dental, societal, and legal implications, and severe psychological, social, and physiologic consequences. There is genetic evidence for the physiologic response to needle puncture, and a significant familial psychological component, showing evidence of inheritance. Needle phobia is also a learned behavior. The dental practitioner must recognize patients with needle phobia before the administration of local anesthetics to identify patients who are potentially reactive and to prevent untoward sequelae. Needle phobia is highly associated with avoidance behavior, and the dentist must exhibit compassion and respect. To avoid bradycardia, hypotension, unconsciousness, convulsions, and possibly asystole, oral premedication with benzodiazepines or other antianxiety agents must be considered for patients who are needle phobic. Management of needle phobiaeinduced syncope includes perioperative monitoring, oxygen administration, positioning, atropine, and vasopressors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Hilton, Michael F.; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Shea, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, perhaps the result of physiologic maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. To begin to understand underlying mechanisms, we determined the effects of such misalignment between behavioral cycles (fasting/feeding and sleep/wake cycles) and endogenous circadian cycles on metabolic, autonomic, and endocrine predictors of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. Ten adults (5 female) underwent a 10-day laboratory protocol, wherein subjects ate and slept at all phases of the circadian cycle—achieved by scheduling a recurring 28-h “day.” Subjects ate 4 isocaloric meals each 28-h “day.” For 8 days, plasma leptin, insulin, glucose, and cortisol were measured hourly, urinary catecholamines 2 hourly (totaling ≈1,000 assays/subject), and blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac vagal modulation, oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, and polysomnographic sleep daily. Core body temperature was recorded continuously for 10 days to assess circadian phase. Circadian misalignment, when subjects ate and slept ≈12 h out of phase from their habitual times, systematically decreased leptin (−17%, P < 0.001), increased glucose (+6%, P < 0.001) despite increased insulin (+22%, P = 0.006), completely reversed the daily cortisol rhythm (P < 0.001), increased mean arterial pressure (+3%, P = 0.001), and reduced sleep efficiency (−20%, P < 0.002). Notably, circadian misalignment caused 3 of 8 subjects (with sufficient available data) to exhibit postprandial glucose responses in the range typical of a prediabetic state. These findings demonstrate the adverse cardiometabolic implications of circadian misalignment, as occurs acutely with jet lag and chronically with shift work. PMID:19255424

  14. Child hunger and long-term adverse consequences for health.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; McIntyre, Lynn; Potestio, Melissa L

    2010-08-01

    To examine the effects of hunger, an extreme manifestation of food insecurity, on subsequent health outcomes using data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Longitudinal survey, 1994-2004/2005. Canada. A total of 5809 children aged 10 to 15 years and 3333 youth aged 16 to 21 years. Longitudinal survey data spanning a 10-year period were analyzed using logistic regression. Measures of hunger from NLSCY cycles 1 through 5 were used to differentiate participants who were ever hungry from those who were never hungry. A 3-level variable was created to assess the effect of repeated episodes of hunger. Covariates included participants' age, sex, baseline health, and household sociodemographic characteristics. Stratified models were used to examine the relation between hunger and health among boys and girls separately. The NLCSY cycle 6 outcomes included poor general health, chronic health conditions, and asthma. Among children, both ever being hungry and multiple episodes of hunger were associated with poorer general health but not with chronic conditions or asthma. Higher odds of chronic conditions and of asthma were observed among youth who experienced multiple episodes of hunger compared with those who were never hungry. Associations between hunger and poorer health outcomes persisted among girls in stratified analyses. Children and youth who experience hunger are more likely to have poorer health, and repeated exposure appears to be particularly toxic. Our findings point to the relevance of food insecurity in childhood as a marker of vulnerability, with implications for clinical practice and advocacy.

  15. Alcohol-related adverse consequences: cross-cultural variations in attribution process among young adults.

    PubMed

    Kuendig, Hervé; Plant, Martin A; Plant, Moira L; Miller, Patrick; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard

    2008-08-01

    Social norms around what is culturally accepted in terms of alcohol consumption and drunken comportment appear important regarding the acceptance of alcohol-related adverse consequences; however, investigations often neglect to consider differences in terms of attribution. This study aims at assessing cross-cultural differences in the reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences. It also considers differences across consequences that might explain which type of consequences (mainly acute or mainly chronic) are most affected by an attribution process. Conditional regression models were estimated based on data from eight European countries participating in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture--An International Study (GENACIS) project. Cases were matched to controls based on usual drinking patterns in order to control for average volume of alcohol and frequency of 'risky single occasion drinking' (RSOD). Differences among the patterns of associations between countries and consequences were evident. The distinction between Nordic and other European countries was persistent. A higher variability of associations was observed for some consequences, namely the mainly acute instances. Finally, the Isle of Man and Switzerland showed specific trends with associations across consequences. Reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences seemed strongly affected by cultural norms. The latter may be exemplified by viewing drinking as 'time-out' behaviour. Respondents in countries with a stereotypical history of being 'dry' or with a stereotyped 'binge' drinking culture were more likely to attribute consequences to their alcohol consumption than people in 'wet' countries. This was particularly true for consequences that related to episodic 'time-out' heavy drinking.

  16. Obesity and pregnancy: mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Patrick M; Shankar, Kartik

    2017-02-08

    Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies. Metabolically, obese women have increased insulin resistance in early pregnancy, which becomes manifest clinically in late gestation as glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth. At term, the risk of cesarean delivery and wound complications is increased. Postpartum, obese women have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, depression, and difficulty with breast feeding. Because 50-60% of overweight or obese women gain more than recommended by Institute of Medicine gestational weight guidelines, postpartum weight retention increases future cardiometabolic risks and prepregnancy obesity in subsequent pregnancies. Neonates of obese women have increased body fat at birth, which increases the risk of childhood obesity. Although there is no unifying mechanism responsible for the adverse perinatal outcomes associated with maternal obesity, on the basis of the available data, increased prepregnancy maternal insulin resistance and accompanying hyperinsulinemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress seem to contribute to early placental and fetal dysfunction. We will review the pathophysiology underlying these data and try to shed light on the specific underlying mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Clinical spectrum of adverse reactions to tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Collins-Williams, C

    1985-01-01

    Tartrazine, a common additive in foods and drugs, often causes adverse reactions such as recurrent urticaria, angioedema, and asthma and is frequently implicated in hyperkinesis. This paper summarizes the recent literature on the subject and outlines a practical approach for the practicing physician to diagnose and treat these patients in an optimal manner.

  18. Alcohol-related adverse consequences: cross-cultural variations in attribution process among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Martin A.; Plant, Moira L.; Miller, Patrick; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Social norms around what is culturally accepted in terms of alcohol consumption and drunken comportment appear important regarding the acceptance of alcohol-related adverse consequences; however, investigations often neglect to consider differences in terms of attribution. This study aims at assessing cross-cultural differences in the reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences. It also considers differences across consequences that might explain which type of consequences (mainly acute or mainly chronic) are most affected by an attribution process. Methods: Conditional regression models were estimated based on data from eight European countries participating in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture—An International Study (GENACIS) project. Cases were matched to controls based on usual drinking patterns in order to control for average volume of alcohol and frequency of ‘risky single occasion drinking’ (RSOD). Results: Differences among the patterns of associations between countries and consequences were evident. The distinction between Nordic and other European countries was persistent. A higher variability of associations was observed for some consequences, namely the mainly acute instances. Finally, the Isle of Man and Switzerland showed specific trends with associations across consequences. Conclusion: Reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences seemed strongly affected by cultural norms. The latter may be exemplified by viewing drinking as ‘time-out’ behaviour. Respondents in countries with a stereotypical history of being ‘dry’ or with a stereotyped ‘binge’ drinking culture were more likely to attribute consequences to their alcohol consumption than people in ‘wet’ countries. This was particularly true for consequences that related to episodic ‘time-out’ heavy drinking. PMID:18287104

  19. Obesity and pregnancy: Mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomal...

  20. Increases in Wheelchair Breakdowns, Repairs, and Adverse Consequences for People with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Worobey, Lynn; Oyster, Michelle; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Cooper, Rory; Boninger, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to report the current incidence of wheelchair breakdowns, repairs, and consequences and to compare current data with historical data. Design A convenience sample survey of 723 participants with spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for more than 40 hrs/wk treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems center was conducted. Results Significant increases were found in the number of participants reporting repairs (7.8%) and adverse consequences (23.5%) in a 6-mo period (2006Y2011) compared with historical data (2004Y2006) (P G 0.001). When examining current data, minorities experienced a greater frequency and higher number of reported consequences (P = 0.03). Power wheelchair users reported a higher number of repairs and consequences than did manual wheelchair users (P G 0.001). Wheelchairs equipped with seat functions were associated with a greater frequency of adverse consequences (P = 0.01). Repairs did not vary across funding source, but individuals with wheelchairs provided by Medicare and Medicaid reported a higher frequency of consequences than did the combined group of the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation, Worker’s Compensation, and the Veterans Administration (P = 0.034 and P = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions The incidence and consequences of repairs are increasing from what was already a very high statistic in this United States population. Further investigation into causality is required, and intervention is needed to reverse this potential trend. PMID:22549473

  1. Adverse consequences of student drinking: the role of sex, social anxiety, drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Melissa M; Olivier, Jake; Alperstein, Dion M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Norton, Alice R

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether biological sex, social anxiety, and drinking motives relate differently to distinct types of alcohol-related consequences using Poisson regression. One hundred eighteen college students completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives and social anxiety and an interview assessing alcohol consumption and consequences. Highly socially anxious women were particularly apt to experience adverse role functioning consequences, while men were particularly apt to experience physical consequences. Although highly socially anxious women reported more personal consequences than did women with low to moderate social anxiety, men with low to moderate social anxiety reported experiencing more social and personal consequences than did women with low to moderate social anxiety. When taking into consideration the above associations, coping motives were statistically associated with social consequences and marginally related to personal consequences, while enhancement motives were significantly associated with physical consequences. Targeting these factors may lead to effective interventions for individuals with co-occurring social anxiety and drinking problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unintended adverse consequences of introducing electronic health records in residential aged care homes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Zhang, Yiting; Gong, Yang; Zhang, Jiajie

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unintended adverse consequences of introducing electronic health records (EHR) in residential aged care homes (RACHs) and to examine the causes of these unintended adverse consequences. A qualitative interview study was conducted in nine RACHs belonging to three organisations in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, Australia. A longitudinal investigation after the implementation of the aged care EHR systems was conducted at two data points: January 2009 to December 2009 and December 2010 to February 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 care staff members identified through convenience sampling, representing all levels of care staff who worked in these facilities. Data analysis was guided by DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model, in reference with the previous studies of unintended consequences for the introduction of computerised provider order entry systems in hospitals. Eight categories of unintended adverse consequences emerged from 266 data items mentioned by the interviewees. In descending order of the number and percentage of staff mentioning them, they are: inability/difficulty in data entry and information retrieval, end user resistance to using the system, increased complexity of information management, end user concerns about access, increased documentation burden, the reduction of communication, lack of space to place enough computers in the work place and increasing difficulties in delivering care services. The unintended consequences were caused by the initial conditions, the nature of the EHR system and the way the system was implemented and used by nursing staff members. Although the benefits of the EHR systems were obvious, as found by our previous study, introducing EHR systems in RACH can also cause adverse consequences of EHR avoidance, difficulty in access, increased complexity in information management, increased documentation

  3. Clinical consequences of spina bifida occulta.

    PubMed

    Gregerson, D M

    1997-10-01

    To study data concerning the pathogenesis, frequency of occurrence, clinical manifestations and associated abnormalities of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and re-evaluate the clinical importance of the lesion. International journal articles indexed through Medline, and specific related texts, the majority of which were published after 1989. Key indexing terms used were spina bifida occulta, tethered cord syndrome and spondylolysis. The reported frequency of occurrence of SBO varies widely, depending largely on the age groups included in a particular study. The most accurate estimate of occurrence rate is 17% of examined spines. There is a significant association of some cutaneous stigmata, most notably hypertrichosis, with midline posterior arch defects. An increasing amount of evidence links SBO with a number of specific anomalies and clinical syndromes, including intraspinal lipoma, tethered cord syndrome, genitourinary dysfunction, increased incidence of disc pathology, lumbar spondylolysis, foot deformities and syringomyelia. A questionable association exists with epilepsy. A supposed link between constipation and SBO is lacking sufficient data to support it. SBO may be associated with pathology and significant sequelae, although the majority of lesions pose no clinical threat. The predictive value for adverse sequelae in a particular lesion is difficult to assess; however, multilevel occurrence and more expansive involvement in a given segment seem to be associated with higher risk of sequela. The treatment for SBO with progressive neurologic deficit is surgical intervention; however, reversal of the deficit is unusual and a halting of neurologic deterioration is a more realistic goal. Early diagnosis of this lesion, before the age of 3 yr, is associated with better surgical outcomes.

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  5. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Clinical Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Keusch, Gerald T.; Denno, Donna M.; Black, Robert E.; Duggan, Christopher; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lavery, James V.; Nataro, James P.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.; Ryan, Edward T.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Ward, Honorine; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Coovadia, Hoosen; Lima, Aldo; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Hay Burgess, Deborah C.; Brewer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is common in young children in developing countries, and is associated with increased morbidity, developmental delays, and mortality. Its complex pathogenesis likely involves poor intrauterine and postnatal nutrition, exposure to microbes, and the metabolic consequences of repeated infections. Acquired enteropathy affecting both gut structure and function likely plays a significant role in this outcome, especially in the first few months of life, and serve as a precursor to later interactions of infection and malnutrition. However, the lack of validated clinical diagnostic criteria has limited the ability to study its role, identify causative factors, and determine cost-effective interventions. This review addresses these issues through a historical approach, and provides recommendations to define and validate a working clinical diagnosis and to guide critical research in this area to effectively proceed. Prevention of early gut functional changes and inflammation may preclude or mitigate the later adverse vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. PMID:25305288

  6. Adverse event reporting in cancer clinical trial publications.

    PubMed

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Latif, Asma; McBride, Russell B; Stensland, Kristian D; Wisnivesky, Juan; Haines, Lindsay; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D

    2014-01-10

    Reporting adverse events is a critical element of a clinical trial publication. In 2003, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) group generated recommendations regarding the appropriate reporting of adverse events. The degree to which these recommendations are followed in oncology publications has not been comprehensively evaluated. A review of citations from PubMed, Medline, and Embase published between Jan 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011, identified eligible randomized, controlled phase III trials in metastatic solid malignancies. Publications were assessed for 14 adverse event-reporting elements derived from the CONSORT harms extension statement; a completeness score (range, 0 to 14) was calculated by adding the number of elements reported. Linear regression analysis identified which publication characteristics associated with reporting completeness. A total of 175 publications, with data for 96,125 patients, were included in the analysis. The median completeness score was eight (range, three to 12). Most publications (96%) reported only adverse events occurring above a threshold rate or severity, 37% did not specify the criteria used to select which adverse events were reported, and 88% grouped together adverse events of varying severity. Regression analysis revealed that trials without a stated funding source and with an earlier year of publication had significantly lower completeness scores. Reporting of adverse events in oncology publications of randomized trials is suboptimal and characterized by substantial selectivity and heterogeneity. The development of oncology-specific standards for adverse event reporting should be established to ensure consistency and provide critical information required for medical decision-making.

  7. Effects of alcohol-induced working memory decline on alcohol consumption and adverse consequences of use.

    PubMed

    Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.

  8. Adverse health consequences of performance-enhancing drugs: an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    PubMed

    Pope, Harrison G; Wood, Ruth I; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs.

  9. Adverse Health Consequences of Performance-Enhancing Drugs: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Harrison G.; Wood, Ruth I.; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981

  10. Childhood adversities and clinical symptomatology in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Maija; Mäntylä, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mantere, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    In addition to severe traumatic experiences, milder, more common childhood adversities reflecting psychosocial burden may also be common in people with psychotic disorders and have an effect on symptomatology and functioning. We explored eleven negative childhood experiences and their influence on clinical symptoms among young adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP, n = 75) and matched population controls (n = 51). Individuals with FEP reported more adversities than controls. Specifically serious conflicts within the family, bullying at school, maternal mental health problems, and one's own and parents' serious illness during childhood were experienced by the patients more often than by controls. In the FEP group, the severity of adversity was associated with increased anxiety, manic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but not with the severity of positive psychotic symptoms. Adversity produced a more pronounced effect on symptoms in male patients than in female patients. To conclude, in line with earlier studies of more chronic psychosis, a majority of the participants with FEP reported exposure to childhood adversities, with the FEP group reporting more adversities than controls. High levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in patients with FEP may be related to cumulative exposure to childhood adversities. This should be taken into account in the treatment for FEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The automation of clinical trial serious adverse event reporting workflow.

    PubMed

    London, Jack W; Smalley, Karl J; Conner, Kyle; Smith, J Bruce

    2009-10-01

    The reporting of serious adverse events is a requirement when conducting a clinical trial involving human subjects, necessary for the protection of the participants. The reporting process is a multi-step procedure, involving a number of individuals from initiation to final review, and must be completed in a timely fashion. The purpose of this project was to automate the adverse event reporting process, replacing paper-based processes with computer-based processes, so that personnel effort and time required for serious adverse event reporting was reduced, and the monitoring of reporting performance and adverse event characteristics was facilitated. Use case analysis was employed to understand the reporting workflow and generate software requirements. The automation of the workflow was then implemented, employing computer databases, web-based forms, electronic signatures, and email communication. In the initial year (2007) of full deployment, 588 SAE reports were processed by the automated system, eSAEy. The median time from initiation to Principal Investigator electronic signature was <2 days (mean 7 +/- 0.7 days). This was a significant reduction from the prior paper-based system, which had a median time for signature of 24 days (mean of 45 +/- 5.7 days). With eSAEy, reports on adverse event characteristics (type, grade, etc.) were easily obtained and had consistent values based on standard terminologies.Limitation The automated system described was designed specifically for the workflow at Thomas Jefferson University. While the methodology for system design, and the system requirements derived from common clinical trials adverse reporting procedures are applicable in general, specific workflow details may not be relevant at other institutions. The system facilitated analysis of individual investigator reporting performance, as well as the aggregation and analysis of the nature of reported adverse events.

  12. Clinically assessed consequences of workplace physical violence.

    PubMed

    De Puy, Jacqueline; Romain-Glassey, Nathalie; Gut, Melody; Wild, Pascal; Pascal, Wild; Mangin, Patrice; Danuser, Brigitta

    2015-02-01

    To assess consequences of physical violence at work and identify their predictors. Among the patients in a medicolegal consultation from 2007 to 2010, the subsample of workplace violence victims (n = 185) was identified and contacted again in average 30 months after the assault. Eighty-six victims (47 %) participated. Ordinal logistic regression analyses assessed the effect of 9 potential risk factors on physical, psychological and work consequences summarized in a severity score (0-9). Severity score distribution was as follows: 4+: 14 %; 1-3: 42 %; and 0: 44 %. Initial psychological distress resulting from the violence was a strong predictor (p < 0.001) of the severity score both on work and long-term psychological consequences. Gender and age did not reach significant levels in multivariable analyses even though female victims had overall more severe consequences. Unexpectedly, only among workers whose jobs implied high awareness of the risk of violence, first-time violence was associated with long-term psychological and physical consequences (p = 0.004). Among the factors assessed at follow-up, perceived lack of employers' support or absence of employer was associated with higher values on the severity score. The seven other assessed factors (initial physical injuries; previous experience of violence; preexisting health problems; working alone; internal violence; lack of support from colleagues; and lack of support from family or friends) were not significantly associated with the severity score. Being a victim of workplace violence can result in long-term consequences on health and employment, their severity increases with the seriousness of initial psychological distress. Support from the employer can help prevent negative outcomes.

  13. Incidence, causes, and consequences of preventable adverse drug events: protocol for an overview of reviews.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Brian; Kanji, Salmaan; McDonald, Erika; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Wolfe, Dianna; Thavorn, Kednapa; Pepper, Sally; Chapman, Laurie; Skidmore, Becky; Moher, David

    2016-12-05

    Medication errors represent a noteworthy source of harm to patients. In recent years, several systematic reviews have assessed the frequency and causes of these events, as well as other factors such as commonly associated drugs, their incidence in different specialties, and their consequences to patients. Despite this past literature, there remains a need to study discrepancies between these reviews and establish the current state of the evidence. The planned review will bring together, compare, and contract existing evidence related to the occurrence of medication errors in acute and continuing/long-term care settings. A systematic review of reviews will be performed. A literature search designed by an experienced information specialist will be carried out in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We will seek systematic reviews and meta-analyses of primary research studies that evaluate one or more of the following aspects of the occurrence of preventable adverse drug events in hospitals and long-term care centers: the incidence of preventable adverse drug events, either overall or within subgroups of interest related to setting; drug or patient characteristics; cited consequences of these events to patients, including death, emergency room visits, or other outcomes; and established causes of the preventable adverse drug events. Two researchers will independently screen all abstracts and full texts for study selection and subsequently perform data extraction from all included studies. Quality of the reviews will be assessed using the assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Where objectives from two or more reviews overlap, we will employ the Jadad framework to assess the causes of any noted discrepancies between reviews. An overall summary of results will be performed using tabular and graphical approaches and will be supplemented by narrative description. This overview will help synthesize the broad degree of information

  14. Beyond drinking: differential effects of demographic and socioeconomic factors on alcohol-related adverse consequences across European countries.

    PubMed

    Kuendig, Hervé; Plant, Moira L; Plant, Martin A; Kuntsche, Sandra; Miller, Patrick; Gmel, Gerhard; Ahlström, Salme; Bergmark, Karin Helmersson; Olafsdóttir, Hildigunnur; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Csemy, Ladislav; Knibbe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Evidence underlines the importance of drinking patterns and individual characteristics in experiencing adverse alcohol-related consequences; however, little research has been conducted to explore who does and who does not experience consequences with similar drinking patterns. Using data from seven European countries, this study assesses the association between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and six adverse consequences. Conditional logistic regression models were estimated, cases (experiencing a consequence) being matched to controls (not experiencing the consequence) by drinking patterns. In general, protective effects with increasing age and being in a partnership were consistent. Gender effects were mixed, but mainly protective for women. Educational achievement and economic status showed consistent effects across countries, but different directions of effect across consequences. Consequences mostly associated with individual drinking pattern (injury, blackout, and loss of control over drinking) exhibited similar patterns of associations, but varying ones arose for consequences additionally influenced by societal reaction to drinking (guilt, role failure, and pressure to cut down drinking). Differences in strengths and directions of effects across consequences pointed to the possibility that the reporting of adverse consequences is not only influenced by alcohol consumption, but also by attributional processes related to demographic and socioeconomic statuses. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Dentists Survey on Adverse Events During Their Clinical Training.

    PubMed

    Osegueda-Espinosa, Alfredo Alan; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; Perea-Pérez, Bernardo; Labajo-González, Elena; Acosta-Gio, A Enrique

    2017-11-04

    Adverse events (AEs) begin challenging the safe practice of dentistry early when students start treating patients at dental school. We assessed the frequency with which dentists caused common AEs during their undergraduate clinical training. A convenience sample of dentists, graduated from more than 34 dental schools in Mexico and other Spanish speaking countries, answered a confidential, self-administered questionnaire with closed-format questions on common AEs they caused and their active errors that could have led to AEs in the teaching clinics. Of 207 participants, 80% had graduated recently. As undergraduates, 79% caused AEs; 38% admitted to causing one adverse event, 41% to causing two or more, and 36% committed active errors that could have hurt patients. No significant associations between AEs and sex or type of school were observed. The results indicate that dental students caused AEs or committed errors that placed patients at risk, during their clinical training. Dental schools must identify challenges to patient safety at their teaching clinics and introduce risk reduction strategies to protect their patients and foster a safety culture in dental education.

  16. The association between adverse childhood experiences and adolescent pregnancy, long-term psychosocial consequences, and fetal death.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Susan D; Anda, Robert F; Dube, Shanta R; Felitti, Vincent J; Marchbanks, Polly A; Marks, James S

    2004-02-01

    Few reports address the impact of cumulative exposure to childhood abuse and family dysfunction on teen pregnancy and consequences commonly attributed to teen pregnancy. Therefore, we examined whether adolescent pregnancy increased as types of adverse childhood experiences (ACE score) increased and whether ACEs or adolescent pregnancy was the principal source of elevated risk for long-term psychosocial consequences and fetal death. A retrospective cohort study of 9159 women aged > or = 18 years (mean 56 years) who attended a primary care clinic in San Diego, California in 1995-1997. Adolescent pregnancy, psychosocial consequences, and fetal death, compared by ACE score (emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; exposure to domestic violence, substance abusing, mentally ill, or criminal household member; or separated/divorced parent). Sixty-six percent (n = 6015) of women reported > or = 1 ACE. Teen pregnancy occurred in 16%, 21%, 26%, 29%, 32%, 40%, 43%, and 53% of those with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 to 8 ACEs. As the ACE score rose from zero to 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and > or = 5, odds ratios for each adult consequence increased (family problems: 1.0, 1.5, 2.2, 3.3; financial problems: 1.0, 1.6, 2.3, 2.4; job problems: 1.0, 1.4, 2.3, 2.9; high stress: 1.0, 1.4, 1.9, 2.2; and uncontrollable anger: 1.0, 1.6, 2.8, 4.5, respectively). Adolescent pregnancy was not associated with any of these adult outcomes in the absence of childhood adversity (ACEs: 0). The ACE score was associated with increased fetal death after first pregnancy (odds ratios for 0, 1-2, 3-4, and 5-8 ACEs: 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.8, respectively); teen pregnancy was not related to fetal death. The relationship between ACEs and adolescent pregnancy is strong and graded. Moreover, the negative psychosocial sequelae and fetal deaths commonly attributed to adolescent pregnancy seem to result from underlying ACEs rather than adolescent pregnancy per se.

  17. Disclosing clinical adverse events to patients: can practice inform policy?

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Ros; Iedema, Rick; Piper, Donella; Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison; Tuckett, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives  To understand patients’ and health professionals’ experience of Open Disclosure and how practice can inform policy. Background  Open Disclosure procedures are being implemented in health services worldwide yet empirical evidence on which to base models of patient–clinician communication and policy development is scant. Design, setting and participants  A qualitative method was employed using semi‐structured open‐ended interviews with 154 respondents (20 nursing, 49 medical, 59 clinical/administrative managerial, 3 policy coordinators, 15 patients and 8 family members) in 21 hospitals and health services in four Australian states. Results  Both patients and health professionals were positive about Open Disclosure, although each differed in their assessments of practice effectiveness. We found that five major elements influenced patients’ and professionals’ experience of openly disclosing adverse events namely: initiating the disclosure, apologizing for the adverse event, taking the patient’s perspective, communicating the adverse event and being culturally aware. Conclusions  Evaluating the impact of Open Disclosure refines policy implementation because it provides an evidence base to inform policy. Health services can use specific properties relating to each of the five Open Disclosure elements identified in this study as training standards and to assess the progress of policy implementation. However, health services must surmount their sensitivity to revealing the extent of error so that research into patient experiences can inform practice and policy development. PMID:19804555

  18. Epilepsy genetics: clinical beginnings and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J A; Rees, M I; Smith, P E M

    2009-07-01

    The approach to epilepsy care has transformed in the last 30 years, with more and better anti-epileptic medications, improved cerebral imaging and increased surgical options. Alongside this, developments in neuroscience and molecular genetics have furthered the understanding of epileptogenesis. Future developments in pharmacogenomics hold the promise of antiepileptic drugs matched to specific genotypes. Despite this rapid progress, one-third of epilepsy patients remain refractory to medication, with their seizures impacting upon day-to-day activity, social well-being, independence, economic output and quality of life. International genome collaborations, such as HapMap and the Welcome Trust Case-Control Consortium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping project have identified common genetic variations in diseases of major public health importance. Such genetic signposts should help to identify at-risk populations with a view to producing more effective pharmaceutical treatments. Neurological disorders, despite comprising one-fifth of UK acute medical hospital admissions, are surprisingly under-represented in these projects. Epilepsy is the commonest serious neurological disorder worldwide. Although physically, psychologically, socially and financially disabling, it rarely receives deserved attention from physicians, scientists and governmental bodies. As outlined in this article, research into epilepsy genetics presents unique challenges. These help to explain why the identification of its complex genetic traits has lagged well behind other disciplines, particularly the efforts made in neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical beginnings must underpin any genetic understanding in epilepsy. Success in identifying genetic traits in other disorders does not make the automatic case for genome-wide screening in epilepsy, but such is a desired goal. The essential clinical approach of accurately phenotyping, diagnosing and interpreting the dynamic nature of epilepsy

  19. Clinical assessment of immune-related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Aaron; Lopez Cadena, Esther; Simon Olive, Cristina; Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Immunotherapy through checkpoint inhibitors is now standard practice for a growing number of cancer types, supported by overall improvement of clinical outcomes and better tolerance. One anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab), two anti-PD-1 antibodies (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and three anti-PD-L1 antibodies (atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab) have been approved for clear benefits across diverse trials. Adverse events of an immune nature associated with these agents frequently affect the skin, colon, endocrine glands, lungs and liver. Most of these effects are mild and can be managed through transient immunosuppression with corticosteroids, but high-grade events often require hospitalization and specialized treatment. However, since immunotherapy is recent, physicians with clinical experience in the diagnosis and management of immune toxicities are frequently those who actively participated in trials, but many practicing oncologists are still not familiarized with the assessment of these events. This review focuses on the incidence, diagnostic assessment and recommended management of the most relevant immune-related adverse events. PMID:29623110

  20. Social support attenuates the adverse consequences of social deprivation stress in domestic piglets.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Ellen; Hameister, Theresa; Tuchscherer, Margret; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger

    2014-03-01

    Social deprivation is a severe stressor affecting a number of behavioral and physiological functions of gregarious species. It is assumed that, dependent upon the level of familiarity, social support given by a conspecific may attenuate the adverse consequences of stress. We investigated the effects of a 4h maternal and littermate deprivation on behavioral reactions, stress hormone responses and brain corticosteroid receptor expression in 7-, 21- and 35-day-old domestic piglets (Sus scrofa) that were left alone or in the presence either of a familiar or unfamiliar age-matched piglet. Compared to control animals, all of the socially deprived piglets showed significant stress responses, such as impaired habituation in repeated open-field/novel-object tests, enhanced ACTH and cortisol release, and altered corticosteroid receptor expression in the hypothalamus. In addition, our results demonstrated that younger piglets had more difficulty coping with stress. The presence of an age-matched conspecific had a direct calming effect on the deprived piglet during the deprivation procedure, which was revealed by diminished stress-induced HPA activity and altered reactions in the behavioral test situations (e.g., activity, escape, and vocalization). Furthermore, because the presence of a familiar piglet causes a more pronounced buffering effect, we have shown for the first time that the degree of familiarity between the piglets may influence the effectiveness of social support. Our study emphasizes the benefits of social partners on positive welfare and the ability for pigs to cope with stress; therefore, our results should be taken into account during handling practices such as weaning and mixing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The adverse consequences of pyoderma gangrenosum in a 13 year old child

    PubMed Central

    Lambropoulos, Vassilis; Patsatsi, Aikaterini; Tsona, Afroditi; Papakonstantinou, Antonios; Filippopoulos, Antonios; Sotiriadis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon, but serious, non infectious, neutrophilic dermatosis that causes cutaneous necrosis with a characteristically rapid evolution. Presentation of case A 13 year-old girl was admitted with a postoperative infected wound, which was surgically debrided. A new more aggressive lesion on the left upper extremity led the patient to the intensive care unit. Clinical diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum was introduced with a crucial delay. An immediate clinical improvement after immunosuppressive therapy with systemic corticosteroids and cyclosporine was observed. The extensive cutaneous deficits were covered with keratinocyte cultured cells with an aesthetically good outcome. Discussion Diagnosis of PG in young children is very difficult, especially without dermatological evaluation. This deforming ulcerative skin disease is probably a result of altered immunologic reactivity. Its early recognition may prevent unnecessary surgical treatment which leads to dangerous complications. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first case of PG with such a widespread distribution reported in a child, as a consequence of iatrogenic pathergy. PMID:22096733

  2. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-02

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  3. Challenges in Coding Adverse Events in Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Maund, Emma; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Misclassification of adverse events in clinical trials can sometimes have serious consequences. Therefore, each of the many steps involved, from a patient's adverse experience to presentation in tables in publications, should be as standardised as possible, minimising the scope for interpretation. Adverse events are categorised by a predefined dictionary, e.g. MedDRA, which is updated biannually with many new categories. The objective of this paper is to study interobserver variation and other challenges of coding. Methods Systematic review using PRISMA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. All studies were screened for eligibility by two authors. Results Our search returned 520 unique studies of which 12 were included. Only one study investigated interobserver variation. It reported that 12% of the codes were evaluated differently by two coders. Independent physicians found that 8% of all the codes deviated from the original description. Other studies found that product summaries could be greatly affected by the choice of dictionary. With the introduction of MedDRA, it seems to have become harder to identify adverse events statistically because each code is divided in subgroups. To account for this, lumping techniques have been developed but are rarely used, and guidance on when to use them is vague. An additional challenge is that adverse events are censored if they already occurred in the run-in period of a trial. As there are more than 26 ways of determining whether an event has already occurred, this can lead to bias, particularly because data analysis is rarely performed blindly. Conclusion There is a lack of evidence that coding of adverse events is a reliable, unbiased and reproducible process. The increase in categories has made detecting adverse events harder, potentially compromising safety. It is crucial that readers of medical publications are aware of these challenges. Comprehensive interobserver studies are needed. PMID

  4. Challenges in coding adverse events in clinical trials: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Maund, Emma; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Misclassification of adverse events in clinical trials can sometimes have serious consequences. Therefore, each of the many steps involved, from a patient's adverse experience to presentation in tables in publications, should be as standardised as possible, minimising the scope for interpretation. Adverse events are categorised by a predefined dictionary, e.g. MedDRA, which is updated biannually with many new categories. The objective of this paper is to study interobserver variation and other challenges of coding. Systematic review using PRISMA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. All studies were screened for eligibility by two authors. Our search returned 520 unique studies of which 12 were included. Only one study investigated interobserver variation. It reported that 12% of the codes were evaluated differently by two coders. Independent physicians found that 8% of all the codes deviated from the original description. Other studies found that product summaries could be greatly affected by the choice of dictionary. With the introduction of MedDRA, it seems to have become harder to identify adverse events statistically because each code is divided in subgroups. To account for this, lumping techniques have been developed but are rarely used, and guidance on when to use them is vague. An additional challenge is that adverse events are censored if they already occurred in the run-in period of a trial. As there are more than 26 ways of determining whether an event has already occurred, this can lead to bias, particularly because data analysis is rarely performed blindly. There is a lack of evidence that coding of adverse events is a reliable, unbiased and reproducible process. The increase in categories has made detecting adverse events harder, potentially compromising safety. It is crucial that readers of medical publications are aware of these challenges. Comprehensive interobserver studies are needed.

  5. EMBRYONIC VASCULAR DISRUPTION ADVERSE OUTCOMES: LINKING HIGH THROUGHPUT SIGNALING SIGNATURES WITH FUNCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) given the knowledge that chemical disruption of early cardiovascular system development leads to broad prenatal defects. High throughput screening (HTS) assays provide potential building blocks for AOP d...

  6. Eliciting adverse effects data from participants in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Allen, Elizabeth N; Chandler, Clare Ir; Mandimika, Nyaradzo; Leisegang, Cordelia; Barnes, Karen

    2018-01-16

    Analysis of drug safety in clinical trials involves assessing adverse events (AEs) individually or by aggregate statistical synthesis to provide evidence of likely adverse drug reactions (ADR). While some AEs may be ascertained from physical examinations or tests, there is great reliance on reports from participants to detect subjective symptoms, where he/she is often the only source of information. There is no consensus on how these reports should be elicited, although it is known that questioning methods influence the extent and nature of data detected. This leaves room for measurement error and undermines comparisons between studies and pooled analyses. This review investigated comparisons of methods used in trials to elicit participant-reported AEs. This should contribute to knowledge about the methodological challenges and possible solutions for achieving better, or more consistent, AE ascertainment in trials. To systematically review the research that has compared methods used within clinical drug trials (or methods that would be specific for such trials) to elicit information about AEs defined in the protocol or in the planning for the trial. Databases (searched to March 2015 unless indicated otherwise) included: Embase; MEDLINE; MEDLINE in Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; Cochrane Methodology Register (July 2012); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (February 2015); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (January 2015); Health Technology Assessment database (January 2015); CINAHL; CAB Abstracts; BIOSIS (July 2013); Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. The search used thesaurus headings and synonyms for the following concepts: (A): Adverse events AND measurement; (B): Participants AND elicitation (also other synonyms for extraction of information about adverse effects from people); (C): Participants AND checklists (also other

  7. 45 CFR 60.11 - Reporting adverse actions on clinical privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting adverse actions on clinical privileges... NATIONAL PRACTITIONER DATA BANK FOR ADVERSE INFORMATION ON PHYSICIANS AND OTHER HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS Reporting of Information § 60.11 Reporting adverse actions on clinical privileges. (a) Reporting to the...

  8. Pathways to Disease: The Biological Consequences of Social Adversity on Asthma in Minority Youth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    levels were noted among kids with asthma by adversity exposure. Similarly, we found that CHI3L1 (YKL-40), a cytokine elevated in asthma, was...28609485 o Books or other non-periodical, one-time publications: Nothing to Report o Other publications, conference papers, and presentations. o Website(s

  9. Capitalizing on Advances in Science to Reduce the Health Consequences of Early Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P

    2016-10-01

    Advances in biology are providing deeper insights into how early experiences are built into the body with lasting effects on learning, behavior, and health. Numerous evaluations of interventions for young children facing adversity have demonstrated multiple, positive effects but they have been highly variable and difficult to sustain or scale. New research on plasticity and critical periods in development, increasing understanding of how gene-environment interaction affects variation in stress susceptibility and resilience, and the emerging availability of measures of toxic stress effects that are sensitive to intervention provide much-needed fuel for science-informed innovation in the early childhood arena. This growing knowledge base suggests 4 shifts in thinking about policy and practice: (1) early experiences affect lifelong health, not just learning; (2) healthy brain development requires protection from toxic stress, not just enrichment; (3) achieving breakthrough outcomes for young children facing adversity requires supporting the adults who care for them to transform their own lives; and (4) more effective interventions are needed in the prenatal period and first 3 years after birth for the most disadvantaged children and families. The time has come to leverage 21st-century science to catalyze the design, testing, and scaling of more powerful approaches for reducing lifelong disease by mitigating the effects of early adversity.

  10. Embryonic vascular disruption adverse outcomes: Linking high-throughput signaling signatures with functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Settivari, Raja S; McCoy, Alene T; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Franzosa, Jill; Knudsen, Thomas B; Carney, Edward W

    2017-04-13

    Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as chemical disruption of cardiovascular development induces broad prenatal defects. High-throughput screening (HTS) assays aid AOP development although linking in vitro data to in vivo apical endpoints remains challenging. This study evaluated two anti-angiogenic agents, 5HPP-33 and TNP-470, across the ToxCastDB HTS assay platform and anchored the results to complex in vitro functional assays: the rat aortic explant assay (AEA), rat whole embryo culture (WEC), and the zebrafish embryotoxicity (ZET) assay. Both were identified as putative vascular disruptive compounds (pVDCs) in ToxCastDB and disrupted angiogenesis and embryogenesis in the functional assays. Differences were observed in potency and adverse effects: 5HPP-33 was embryolethal (WEC and ZET); TNP-470 produced caudal defects at lower concentrations. This study demonstrates how a tiered approach using HTS signatures and complex functional in vitro assays might be used to prioritize further in vivo developmental toxicity testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Embryonic vascular disruption adverse outcomes: Linking high throughput signaling signatures with functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Settivari, Raja S; McCoy, Alene T; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Franzosa, Jill; Knudsen, Thomas B; Carney, Edward W

    2017-06-01

    Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as chemical disruption of cardiovascular development induces broad prenatal defects. High throughput screening (HTS) assays aid AOP development although linking in vitro data to in vivo apical endpoints remains challenging. This study evaluated two anti-angiogenic agents, 5HPP-33 and TNP-470, across the ToxCastDB HTS assay platform and anchored the results to complex in vitro functional assays: the rat aortic explant assay (AEA), rat whole embryo culture (WEC), and the zebrafish embryotoxicity (ZET) assay. Both were identified as putative vascular disruptive compounds (pVDCs) in ToxCastDB and disrupted angiogenesis and embryogenesis in the functional assays. Differences were observed in potency and adverse effects: 5HPP-33 was embryolethal (WEC and ZET); TNP-470 produced caudal defects at lower concentrations. This study demonstrates how a tiered approach using HTS signatures and complex functional in vitro assays might be used to prioritize further in vivo developmental toxicity testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adverse selection and moral hazard in the provision of clinical trial ancillary care.

    PubMed

    Richards, Michael R; Helmchen, Lorens A

    2013-04-01

    As more and more clinical trials are conducted in developing countries, concerns arise about non-trial medical care available to study participants. Recent work argues for ancillary care - medical care not part of the clinical trial per se - to be formally incorporated into these studies. Although the provision of ancillary care is often justified on ethical grounds, a number of crucial implementation issues remain unresolved, including its scope, duration and financing. Drawing on lessons from health insurance benefit design, we highlight two overlooked challenges for ancillary care adoption - adverse selection and moral hazard - and offer recommendations that could attenuate their consequences. Specifically, adverse selection and moral hazard could be reduced by offering a choice between ancillary medical care and monetary compensation or rewarding low ancillary care utilization. Alternatively, researchers' financial risk due to ancillary care could be shifted to a third-party insurer. Recognizing participants' behavioral responses to prospective offers of ancillary medical care would allow funders and research teams to forecast the demand for ancillary care more accurately and to prepare for its provision more adequately.

  13. Adverse effects of orthodontic treatment: A clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Talic, Nabeel F.

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment is associated with a number of adverse effects, such as root resorption, pain, pulpal changes, periodontal disease, and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Orthodontists should be aware of these effects and associated risk factors. Risk factors linked to root resorption include the duration of treatment, length, and shape of the root, trauma history, habits, and genetic predisposition. PMID:24151415

  14. Automated Detection of Surgical Adverse Events from Retrospective Clinical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The Detection of surgical adverse events has become increasingly important with the growing demand for quality improvement and public health surveillance with surgery. Event reporting is one of the key steps in determining the impact of postoperative complications from a variety of perspectives and is an integral component of improving…

  15. Cardiovascular responses to heat stress and their adverse consequences in healthy and vulnerable human populations.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G C; Keatinge, W R; Saunders, R D

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic thermoregulatory physiology of healthy people in relation to hazards from external heat stress and internal heat loads generated by physical exercise or radiofrequency (RF) radiation. In addition, members of the population are identified who may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of heat stress. These data are examined in relation to current international guidance on occupational and public exposure to RF radiation. When body temperature rises, heat balance of the body is normally restored by increased blood flow to the skin and by sweating. These responses increase the work of the heart and cause loss of salt and water from the body. They impair working efficiency and can overload the heart and cause haemoconcentration, which can lead to coronary and cerebral thrombosis, particularly in elderly people with atheromatous arteries. These adverse effects of thermoregulatory adjustments occur with even mild heat loads and account for the great majority of heat-related illness and death. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to determination of safe population exposures to additional sources of heat stress. It is concluded that exposure to RF levels currently recommended as safe for the general population, equivalent to heat loads of about one tenth basal metabolic rate, could continue to be regarded as trivial in this context, but that prolonged exposures of the general population to RF levels higher than that could not be regarded as safe in all circumstances.

  16. The health care work environment and adverse health and safety consequences for nurses.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Lipscomb, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Nurses' working conditions are inextricably linked to the quality of care that is provided to patients and patients' safety. These same working conditions are associated with health and safety outcomes for nurses and other health care providers. This chapter describes aspects of the nursing work environment that have been linked to hazards and adverse exposures for nurses, as well as the most common health and safety outcomes of nursing work. We include studies from 2000 to the present by nurse researchers, studies of nurses as subjects, and studies of workers under similar working conditions that could translate to nurses' work environment. We explore a number of work organization factors including shift work and extended work hours, safety climate and culture, teamwork, and communication. We also describe environmental hazards, including chemical hazards (e.g., waste anesthetics, hazardous drugs, cleaning compounds) and airborne and bloodborne pathogen exposure. Nurses' health and safety outcomes include physical (e.g., musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal, slips, trips and falls, physical assault) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g., burnout, work-family conflict). Finally, we present recommendations for future research to further protect nurses and all health care workers from a range of hazardous working conditions.

  17. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience (EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience (EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate (NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors (including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments (including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed. PMID:28271667

  18. Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter during Specific Gestational Periods Produces Adverse Obstetric Consequences in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Jason L.; Chen, Lung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies associate inhalation of fine-sized particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy with preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) but disagree over which time frames are most sensitive, or if effects are cumulative. Objectives: Our objective was to provide experimental plausibility for epidemiological observations by testing the hypothesis that exposure to PM2.5 during discrete periods of pregnancy results in PTB and LBW. Methods: For the first study, timed-pregnant B6C3F1 mice were exposed to concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAPs) or filtered air (FA) throughout pregnancy [6 h/d from gestational day (GD) 0.5 through GD16.5]. A follow-up study examined the effects of CAPs exposure during discrete gestational periods (1: GD0.5–5.5; 2: GD6.5–14.5; 3: GD14.5–16.5; 4: GD0.5–16.5) aligning to milestones during human development. Results: In the first experiment, exposure to 160 μg CAPs/m3 throughout pregnancy decreased gestational term by 0.5 d (∼1.1  wk decrease for humans) and birth weight by 11.4% compared with FA. The follow-up experiment investigated timing of CAPs exposure (mean concentrations at 178, 193, 171, and 173 μg/m3 for periods 1–4, respectively). Pregnancy was significantly shortened (vs. FA) by ∼0.4d when exposure occurred during gestational periods 2 and 4, and by ∼0.5d if exposure occurred during period 3. Exposure during periods 1, 2, and 4 reduced birth weight by ∼10% compared with FA, and placental weight was reduced (∼8%) on GD17.5 if exposure occurred only during period 3. Conclusions: Adverse PM2.5-induced outcomes such as PTB and LBW are dependent upon the periods of maternal exposure. The results of these experimental studies could contribute significantly to air pollution policy decisions in the future. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1029 PMID:28893721

  19. Factors associated with adverse clinical outcomes among obstetrics trainees.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Catherine E; Aiken, Abigail R; Park, Hannah; Brockelsby, Jeremy C; Prentice, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether UK obstetrics trainees transitioning from directly to indirectly supervised practice have a higher likelihood of recording adverse patient outcomes in operative deliveries compared with other indirectly supervised trainees, and to examine whether performing more procedures under direct supervision is associated with fewer adverse outcomes in initial practice under indirect supervision. We examined all deliveries (13 856) conducted by obstetricians at a single centre over 6 years (2008-2013). Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to compare estimated blood loss (EBL), maternal trauma, umbilical arterial pH, delayed neonatal respiration, failed instrumental delivery, and critical incidents for trainees in their first indirectly supervised year with those for trainees in all other years of indirect supervision. Outcomes for trainees in their first indirectly supervised 3 months were compared with their outcomes for the remainder of the year. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between number of procedures performed under direct supervision and initial outcomes under indirect supervision. Trainees in their first indirectly supervised year had a higher likelihood of recording EBL of > 2 L at any delivery (odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.64; p < 0.05) and of failed instrumental delivery (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.37-3.29; p < 0.05) compared with other indirectly supervised trainees. Other measured outcomes showed no significant differences. In the first 3 months of indirect supervision, the likelihood of operative vaginal deliveries with EBL of > 1 L (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.88-3.20; p < 0.05) was higher than in the remainder of the first year. Performing more deliveries under direct supervision prior to beginning indirectly supervised training was associated with decreased risk for recording EBL of > 1 L (p < 0.05). Obstetrics trainees in their first year of

  20. Childhood adversity and social functioning in psychosis: Exploring clinical and cognitive mediators.

    PubMed

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Berry, Katherine; Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Emsley, Richard; Parker, Sophie; Drake, Richard; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-30

    Childhood adversity may increase risk of impaired social functioning across the continuum of psychosis. However, the pathways by which adversity dictates functional outcome remain underexplored. This study investigated the association between childhood adversity and social functioning, and the clinical and cognitive mediators of this relationship. Fifty-four clinical (20 chronic, 20 first episode, 14 at ultra-high risk) and 120 non-clinical participants completed standardised questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and tests of theory of mind ability. The authors used multiple group structural equation modelling to fit mediation models allowing for differential relationships between the clinical and non-clinical samples. When examining each pathway separately, depression, paranoia and anxious attachment mediated the effect of childhood adversity on social functioning. In a combined model, depression was the only significant mediating variable with greater adversity predicting lower mood across groups. Childhood adversity did not significantly predict theory of mind ability in any of the models. This is the first study to indicate that childhood adversity acts on social functioning by increasing levels of depression, suggesting a common mechanism across the spectrum of psychosis. Clinical interventions should target low mood in order to improve social functioning at all stages of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adverse interactions between herbal and dietary substances and prescription medications: a clinical survey.

    PubMed

    Bush, Thomas M; Rayburn, Keith S; Holloway, Sandra W; Sanchez-Yamamoto, Deanna S; Allen, Blaine L; Lam, Tiffany; So, Brian K; Tran, De H; Greyber, Elizabeth R; Kantor, Sophia; Roth, Larry W

    2007-01-01

    Patients often combine prescription medications with herbal and dietary substances (herein referred to as herbal medicines). A variety of potential adverse herb-drug interactions exist based on the pharmacological properties of herbal and prescription medications. To determine the incidence of potential and observed adverse herb-drug interactions in patients using herbal medicines with prescription medications. Consecutive patients were questioned about their use of herbal medicines in 6 outpatient clinics. Patients reporting use of these products provided a list of their prescription medications, which were reviewed for any potential adverse herb-drug interactions using a comprehensive natural medicine database. Any potential adverse herb-drug interactions prompted a review of the patient's chart for evidence of an observed adverse herb-drug interaction. The rate of potential and observed adverse herb-drug interactions. Eight hundred four patients were surveyed, and 122 (15%) used herbal medicines. Eighty-five potential adverse herb-drug interactions were found in 49 patients (40% of herbal medicine users). Twelve possible adverse herb-drug interactions in 8 patients (7% of herbal medicine users) were observed. In all 12 cases, the severity scores were rated as mild, including 8 cases of hypoglycemia in diabetics taking nopal (prickly pear cactus). A substantial number of potential adverse herb-drug interactions were detected and a small number of adverse herb-drug interactions observed, particularly in diabetics taking nopal. Screening for herbal medicine usage in 804 patients did not uncover any serious adverse interactions with prescription medications.

  2. Adverse consequences of immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The therapeutic uses of immunostimulatory agents are generally in the treatments of infections or cancer. The traditional example of vaccination is one form of immunostimulation used in the prevention of pathogenic infections or cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus vaccine). Recombinant cytokines are increasingly used to stimulate immune system function. For example, interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) and interleukin (IL)-2 have been used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection and metastatic melanoma, respectively. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies are used to target malignant cells for elimination via antibody-dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms or apoptosis, including the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-CD56 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab used in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, and the anti-erb2 receptor antibody trastuzumab used in the treatment of breast cancer. Finally, immunostimulation may develop via modulation of pathways involved in immune system regulation. For example, the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody TGN1412 was developed as an agonist of regulatory T-cells for treatment of T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases or leukemias. A panel was convened to discuss potential toxicities associated with immunostimulation. At the Immunotoxicology IV meeting in 2006, a panel, moderated by Dr. Robert House (Dynport Vaccine Co., Frederick, MD), included Drs. Gary Burleson (Burleson Research Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, NC), Kenneth Hastings (US FDA, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research [CDER], Rockville, MD), Barbara Mounho (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), Rafael Ponce (ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA), Mark Wing (Huntington Life Sciences, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom), Lauren Black (Navigators Consulting, Sparks, NV) and Anne Pilaro (US FDA, CDER, Rockville, MD). This paper reviews the major identified toxicities associated with immunostimulation, including the acute phase response, cell and tissue abnormalities/injury, cytokine release/cytokine storm, tumor lysis syndrome, vascular leak, and autoimmunity that were discussed by this panel.

  3. The Rate of Adverse Events Related to Hypnosis During Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Jared W

    2018-04-01

    The rate of adverse events associated with medical and psychological interventions is important to regulators who oversee clinical research. There have been relatively few reports on the frequency of adverse events associated with hypnosis. The current article collected data from a publically available register (ClinicalTrials.gov) on adverse events reported during clinical trials that used hypnosis. The rate of serious adverse events likely attributable to hypnosis was 0%. The rate of other adverse events was 0.47%. This rate was similar to previous reports. However, several trials in the register that used hypnosis did not report adverse event data. For the trials that did report adverse events, there was substantial variability in reporting. Another limitation was the lack of generalizability as all studies included in the analysis used hypnosis to treat side-effects related to medical conditions or procedures as opposed to psychiatric conditions. Future clinical trials using hypnosis should use more precise assessment methods to report adverse events, especially when tested in samples with mental health disorders.

  4. Estimating the scale of adverse animal welfare consequences of movement restriction and mitigation strategies in a classical swine fever outbreak.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shankar; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2017-04-04

    The study aim was to quantify the impact of movement restriction on the well-being of pigs and the associated mitigation responses during a classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak. We developed a stochastic risk assessment model and incorporated Indiana swine industry statistics to estimate the timing and number of swine premises that would encounter overcrowding or feed interruption resulting from movement restriction. Our model also quantified the amount of on-farm euthanasia and movement of pigs to slaughter plants required to alleviate those conditions. We simulated various single-site (i.e., an outbreak initiated from one location) and multiple-site (i.e., an outbreak initiated from more than one location) outbreak scenarios in Indiana to estimate outputs. The study estimated that 14% of the swine premises in Indiana would encounter overcrowding or feed interruption due to movement restriction implemented during a CSF outbreak. The number of premises that would experience animal welfare conditions was about 2.5 fold of the number of infected premises. On-farm euthanasia needed to be performed on 33% of those swine premises to alleviate adverse animal welfare conditions, and more than 90% of on-farm euthanasia had to be carried out within 2 weeks after the implementation of movement restriction. Conversely, movement of pigs to slaughter plants could alleviate 67% of adverse animal welfare conditions due to movement restriction, and only less than 1% of movement of pigs to slaughter plants had to be initiated in the first 2 weeks of movement restrictions. The risk of secondary outbreaks due to movement of pigs from movement restriction areas to slaughter plants was low and only seven pigs from each shipment needed to be tested for CSF infection to prevent a secondary outbreak. We found that the scale of adverse animal welfare consequences of movement restriction during a CSF outbreak in Indiana was substantial, and controlled movement of pigs to slaughter plants

  5. Economic consequences of the adverse reactions related with antipsychotics: an economic model comparing tolerability of ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Julio; Cañas, Fernando; Rejas, Javier; Mackell, Joan

    2004-12-01

    Frequency of adverse reactions (ARs) related with antipsychotics usage is high. Along with clinical implications, economic impact might be important. The purpose of this study was to model the economic consequences of ARs related with ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in Spain, by means of a cost-effectiveness model developed using a Markov modeling approach. The model simulated treatment of a cohort of 1000 schizophrenics for 12 months, initiating treatment with one of four antipsychotic drugs; haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine and ziprasidone. Conditional probabilities of developing any of four adverse events were calculated. Treatment was modified (decrease dose, switch medication) according to incidence of ARs and physician judgments, obtained from a local cross-sectional study and clinical trials previously published. The analysis was conducted in year 2002 from a third party payer perspective. Results are shown as annual cost per month with psychotic symptoms controlled and included univariate sensitivity analysis. The therapeutic strategy starting with ziprasidone showed the lower costs and the greater number of months with symptoms controlled in most scenarios evaluated versus the other options considered, although the differences were weak: 9.6, 9.3, 9.5 and 9.5 controlled months per patient in base scenario, with annual cost per patient per month with symptoms controlled of 1035 Euros, 1084 Euros, 1087 Euros and 1090 Euros for ziprasidone, haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine, respectively. Results were robust to one-way sensitivity analysis. Despite the unlike drug prices of antipsychotics, a considerable economic impact due to adverse reactions was seen in our setting. These results should be taken into account by health decision makers and clinicians in the management of patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Biochemical consequences of bariatric surgery for extreme clinical obesity.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Anita; Meek, Claire L; Park, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index over 30 kg/m(2) for adults, poses a major healthcare challenge with important economic, personal and social consequences. Although public health measures, lifestyle change and pharmacological therapies have an important role in the management of obesity, patients with established morbid obesity (body mass index over 40 kg/m(2)) may also require bariatric surgery. Bariatric or metabolic surgery is associated with effective and enduring weight loss but is also known to improve glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and dyslipidaemia. Patients who have bariatric surgery need lifelong clinical follow-up to identify and prevent nutritional deficiencies and other complications. Clinical biochemistry laboratories have an important role in the nutritional assessment of obese patients and in the identification of complications following bariatric surgery. The aim of this article is to review the different bariatric procedures available and to summarize their complications, especially nutrient deficiencies and those of particular relevance to clinical biochemistry laboratories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. [Depression: clinical features and consequences among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Navarro, Sara; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Among geriatric syndromes, chronic and recurrent depression is salient due to its ravaging effects. Depression is a predisposing factor for chronic diseases and decreases functional status. In the United States, depression alone represents a forty three billion dollar annual expense. Although the prevalence of depression may vary depending on the population studied and the methodology applied, its range is between 10 to 27%. Fatigue, insomnia, and anorexia, in a cyclical fashion, are the milestone symptoms of depression among the elderly. Nevertheless, these symptoms have poor diagnostic specificity, mainly because they may be observed among healthy elders; thus the importance of using reliable screening tools that allow early detection. In order to shed light on this disease, the present article reviews its clinical course and consequences, and describes the use of the geriatric depression scale as the most popular screening instrument for this patient population.

  8. Bisphosphonates: Clinical Applications and Adverse Events in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Polymeri, Angeliki A; Kodovazenitis, George J; Polymeris, Antonios D; Komboli, Mado

    2015-01-01

    To review the mechanisms of action and clinical applications of bisphosphonate drugs, which are widely used in the management of metastatic bone cancer and systemic metabolic bone diseases, as well as the complications related to bisphosphonate treatment, emphasising the occurrence and management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). A search of the medical and dental literature was conducted in Medline and Embase using a combination of the key words bisphosphonates, jaw, complications, osteonecrosis, osteoporosis and periodontal disease. A manual search of the references of the retrieved articles was also performed. BRONJ predominantly affects cancer patients being treated with high-dose intravenous bisphosphonates and is characterised by the appearance of necrotic bone in the oral cavity either spontaneously or following an invasive surgical procedure such as dental extraction. The severity of this condition warrants a thorough medical and dental history in every patient in order to identify high risk patients. It is important that dental practitioners be aware of the association between bisphosphonate treatment and osteonecrosis of the jaws. Clinicians should perform a thorough oral examination in cancer patients before they begin intravenous bisphosphonate treatment. Optimal oral hygiene and regular dental care can lower BRONJ risk. Further clinical research is necessary to unveil the full therapeutic potential of bisphosphonates, their mechanisms of action and the factors that induce unwanted side-effects.

  9. From adverse drug event detection to prevention. A novel clinical decision support framework for medication safety.

    PubMed

    Koutkias, V G; McNair, P; Kilintzis, V; Skovhus Andersen, K; Niès, J; Sarfati, J-C; Ammenwerth, E; Chazard, E; Jensen, S; Beuscart, R; Maglaveras, N

    2014-01-01

    Errors related to medication seriously affect patient safety and the quality of healthcare. It has been widely argued that various types of such errors may be prevented by introducing Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) at the point of care. Although significant research has been conducted in the field, still medication safety is a crucial issue, while few research outcomes are mature enough to be considered for use in actual clinical settings. In this paper, we present a clinical decision support framework targeting medication safety with major focus on adverse drug event (ADE) prevention. The novelty of the framework lies in its design that approaches the problem holistically, i.e., starting from knowledge discovery to provide reliable numbers about ADEs per hospital or medical unit to describe their consequences and probable causes, and next employing the acquired knowledge for decision support services development and deployment. Major design features of the framework's services are: a) their adaptation to the context of care (i.e. patient characteristics, place of care, and significance of ADEs), and b) their straightforward integration in the healthcare information technologies (IT) infrastructure thanks to the adoption of a service-oriented architecture (SOA) and relevant standards. Our results illustrate the successful interoperability of the framework with two commercially available IT products, i.e., a Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) and an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system, respectively, along with a Web prototype that is independent of existing healthcare IT products. The conducted clinical validation with domain experts and test cases illustrates that the impact of the framework is expected to be major, with respect to patient safety, and towards introducing the CDSS functionality in practical use. This study illustrates an important potential for the applicability of the presented framework in delivering contextualized decision

  10. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. Objectives The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Methods Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. Results In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older

  11. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older patients (older than 40 years) were more

  12. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; De Moortel, Deborah; Muntaner, Carles; Davis, Owen; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2016-12-01

    Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach.

  13. The reporting of adverse events following spinal manipulation in randomized clinical trials-a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gorrell, Lindsay M; Engel, Roger M; Brown, Benjamin; Lystad, Reidar P

    2016-09-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is commonly used to treat spinal disorders. Although clinical practice guidelines recommend the use of SMT in the treatment of neck and back disorders, concerns exist about the nature and incidence of adverse events associated with the intervention. Comprehensive reporting of adverse events in clinical trials could allow for accurate incidence estimates through meta-analysis. However, it is not clear if randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that involve SMT are currently reporting adverse events adequately. This study aimed to describe the extent of adverse events reporting in published RCTs involving SMT, and to determine whether the quality of reporting has improved since publication of the 2010 Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. This is a systematic literature review. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for RCTs involving SMT. Domains of interest included classifications of adverse events, completeness of adverse events reporting, nomenclature used to describe the events, methodological quality of the study, and details of the publishing journal. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Frequencies and proportions of trials reporting on each of the specified domains above were calculated. Differences in proportions between pre- and post-CONSORT trials were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, and statistical comparisons were analyzed using tests for equality of proportions with continuity correction. There was no funding obtained for this study. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Of 7,398 records identified in the electronic searches, 368 articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. Adverse events were reported in 140 (38.0%) articles. There was a significant increase in the reporting of adverse events post-CONSORT (p=.001). There were two major adverse events

  14. Clinical and histopathologic analysis of 46 cases of cutaneous adverse reactions to imatinib.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Lee, Mi Woo

    2016-05-01

    Although many cases of cutaneous adverse reactions to imatinib have been reported, their clinical and histopathologic characteristics are not well documented. The present study investigated clinical and histopathologic characteristics of cutaneous adverse reactions to imatinib. This retrospective study referred to 46 patients who experienced cutaneous adverse reactions to imatinib. Clinical data including age, sex, skin lesion morphology, underlying disorders, and imatinib treatment parameters (duration of imatinib medication, initial dose, and treatment modifications at the time of the study) were collected. Histopathologic data were available for all patients. Cutaneous adverse reactions to imatinib developed at 1-24 weeks (median onset: 8 weeks) after imatinib administration. The severity of the reaction was categorized as grade 1 in 22%, grade 2 in 41%, and grade 3 in 37% of patients. Onset was earlier in high-severity reactions than in low-severity reactions. The severity of the reaction was dependent on imatinib dose. Grade 3 reactions were noted in nine of 16 (56%) patients administered "high-dose" (600 mg/d) imatinib. Spongiosis (78% of patients) and papillary dermal edema (83% of patients) were common histopathologic findings in the epidermis and dermis, respectively. Lymphohistiocytes were more predominant than eosinophils in dermal inflammatory infiltration. Histopathologic findings did not differ according to dose of imatinib or severity of the reaction. Although the clinical features of cutaneous adverse reactions to imatinib depend on imatinib dose and the severity of the reaction, histopathologic findings are not associated with these clinical variables. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Acute hazardous substance releases resulting in adverse health consequences in children: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Wattigney, Wendy A; Kaye, Wendy E; Orr, Maureen F

    2007-11-01

    Because of their small size and ongoing organ development, children may be more susceptible than adults to the harmful effects of toxic chemicals. The objective of the study reported here was to identify frequent locations, released substances, and factors contributing to short-term chemical exposures associated with adverse health consequences experienced by children. The study examined the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system data from 1996-2003. Eligible events involved the acute release of a hazardous substance associated with at least one child being injured. The study found that injured children were predominantly at school, home, or a recreational center when events took place. School-related events were associated with the accidental release of acids and the release of pepper spray by pranksters. Carbon monoxide poisonings occurring in the home, retail stores, entertainment facilities, and hotels were responsible for about 10 percent of events involving child victims. Chlorine was one of the top chemicals harmful to children, particularly at public swimming pools. Although human error contributed to the majority of releases involving child victims, equipment failure was responsible for most chlorine and ammonia releases. The authors conclude that chemical releases resulting in injury to children occur mostly in schools, homes, and recreational areas. Surveillance of acute hazardous chemical releases helped identify contributing causes and can guide the development of prevention outreach activities. Chemical accidents cannot be entirely prevented, but efforts can be taken to provide safer environments in which children can live, learn, and play. Wide dissemination of safety recommendations and education programs is required to protect children from needless environmental dangers.

  16. GHB and synthetic cathinones: clinical effects and potential consequences.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Reynaud, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Designer drugs belong to a group of legally or illegally produced substances that are structurally and pharmacologically very similar to illicit drugs. In the past, designer drugs were often used during all-night dance parties, but they are now consumed in multiple settings from college bars to parks to private house parties. Most of these club drugs can be bought on legal websites and home-delivered for private parties. Recently, legal highs have once again become a burning media issue across the world. Our review will focus on GHB and synthetic cathinones. Literature searches were conducted for the period from 1975 to July 2010 using PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Internet underground and governmental websites using the following keywords alone or in combination: designer drugs, club drugs, party drugs, GHB, synthetic cathinones, mephedrone, methylone, flephedrone, MDAI, and MDVP. Available epidemiological, neurobiological, and clinical data for each compound are described. There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may occur in recreational and chronic users. The addictive potential of designer drugs is not weak. Non-fatal overdoses and deaths related to GHB/GBL or synthetic cathinones have been reported. Clinicians must be careful with GBL or synthetic cathinones, which are being sold and used as substitutes for GHB and MDMA, respectively. Interventions for drug prevention and harm reduction in response to the use of these drugs should be implemented on the Internet and in recreational settings. Prevention, Information, Action, and Treatment are the main goals that must be addressed for this new potentially addictive problem. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Clinical review: insulin pump-associated adverse events in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Ross, P L; Milburn, J; Reith, D M; Wiltshire, E; Wheeler, B J

    2015-12-01

    Insulin pumps are a vital and rapidly developing tool in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus in both adults and children. Many studies have highlighted outcomes and assessed their potential advantages, but much of the data on adverse outcomes are limited and often based on outdated technology. We aimed to review and summarize the available literature on insulin pump-associated adverse events in adults and children. A literature search was undertaken using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library. Articles were then screened by title, followed by abstract, and full text as needed. A by-hand search of reference lists in identified papers was also utilised. All searches were limited to English language material, but no time limits were used. Current and past literature regarding insulin pump-associated adverse events is discussed, including potential metabolic and non-metabolic adverse events, in particular: pump malfunction; infusion set/site issues; and cutaneous problems. We show that even with modern technology, adverse events are common, occurring in over 40 % of users per year, with a minority, particularly in children, requiring hospital management. Hyperglycaemia and ketosis are now the most common consequences of adverse events and are usually associated with infusion set failure. This differs from older technology where infected infusion sites predominated. This timely review covers all potential insulin pump-associated adverse events, including their incidence, features, impacts, and contributory factors such as the pump user. The importance of ongoing anticipatory education and support for patients and families using this intensive insulin technology is highlighted, which if done well should improve the overall experience of pump therapy for users, and hopefully reduce the incidence and impact of severe adverse events.

  18. Understanding the role of human variation in vaccine adverse events: the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network.

    PubMed

    LaRussa, Philip S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Dekker, Cornelia L; Klein, Nicola P; Halsey, Neal A; Marchant, Colin; Baxter, Roger; Engler, Renata J M; Kissner, Jennifer; Slade, Barbara A

    2011-05-01

    The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 6 academic medical centers to provide support for immunization safety assessment and research. The CISA Network was established by the CDC in 2001 with 4 primary goals: (1) develop research protocols for clinical evaluation, diagnosis, and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI); (2) improve the understanding of AEFI at the individual level, including determining possible genetic and other risk factors for predisposed people and subpopulations at high risk; (3) develop evidence-based algorithms for vaccination of people at risk of serious AEFI; and (4) serve as subject-matter experts for clinical vaccine-safety inquiries. CISA Network investigators bring in-depth clinical, pathophysiologic, and epidemiologic expertise to assessing causal relationships between vaccines and adverse events and to understanding the pathogenesis of AEFI. CISA Network researchers conduct expert reviews of clinically significant adverse events and determine the validity of the recorded diagnoses on the basis of clinical and laboratory criteria. They also conduct special studies to investigate the possible pathogenesis of adverse events, assess relationships between vaccines and adverse events, and maintain a centralized repository for clinical specimens. The CISA Network provides specific clinical guidance to both health care providers who administer vaccines and those who evaluate and treat patients with possible AEFI. The CISA Network plays an important role in providing critical immunization-safety data and expertise to inform vaccine policy-makers. The CISA Network serves as a unique resource for vaccine-safety monitoring efforts conducted at the CDC.

  19. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C; Twine, Rhian; Gómez Olivé, F Xavier; Collinson, Mark; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Masanja, Honratio; Mathew, Alexander; Pariyo, George; Peterson, Stefan; Ndyomughenyi, Donald; Bauni, Evasius; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odera, Victor Mung'ala; Mageto, James O; Ae-Ngibise, Ken; Akpalu, Bright; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Doku, Victor C K; Odermatt, Peter; Nutman, Thomas; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and preventable causes. Malnutrition and

  20. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. Methods We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Key Findings Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. Significance There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and

  1. Better Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Could Mitigate the Adverse Consequences of Obesity on Cardiovascular Disease: The SUN Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Eguaras, Sonia; Toledo, Estefanía; Hernández-Hernández, Aitor; Cervantes, Sebastián; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Strong observational evidence supports the association between obesity and cardiovascular events. In elderly high-risk subjects, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was reported to counteract the adverse cardiovascular effects of adiposity. Whether this same attenuation is also present in younger subjects is not known. We prospectively examined the association between obesity and cardiovascular clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) after 10.9 years follow-up in 19,065 middle-aged men and women (average age 38 year) according to their adherence to the MedDiet (<6 points or ≥6 points in the Trichopoulou’s Mediterranean Diet Score). We observed 152 incident cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD). An increased risk of CVD across categories of body mass index (BMI) was apparent if adherence to the MedDiet was low, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs): 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.93–2.25) for ≥25 – <30 kg/m2 of BMI and 2.00 (1.04–3.83) for ≥30 kg/m2 of BMI, compared to a BMI < 25 kg/m2. In contrast, these estimates were 0.77 (0.35–1.67) and 1.15 (0.39–3.43) with good adherence to MedDiet. Better adherence to the MedDiet was associated with reduced CVD events (p for trend = 0.029). Our results suggest that the MedDiet could mitigate the harmful cardiovascular effect of overweight/obesity. PMID:26556370

  2. Better Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Could Mitigate the Adverse Consequences of Obesity on Cardiovascular Disease: The SUN Prospective Cohort.

    PubMed

    Eguaras, Sonia; Toledo, Estefanía; Hernández-Hernández, Aitor; Cervantes, Sebastián; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2015-11-05

    Strong observational evidence supports the association between obesity and cardiovascular events. In elderly high-risk subjects, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was reported to counteract the adverse cardiovascular effects of adiposity. Whether this same attenuation is also present in younger subjects is not known. We prospectively examined the association between obesity and cardiovascular clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) after 10.9 years follow-up in 19,065 middle-aged men and women (average age 38 year) according to their adherence to the MedDiet (<6 points or ≥6 points in the Trichopoulou's Mediterranean Diet Score). We observed 152 incident cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD). An increased risk of CVD across categories of body mass index (BMI) was apparent if adherence to the MedDiet was low, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs): 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.93-2.25) for ≥25 - <30 kg/m² of BMI and 2.00 (1.04-3.83) for ≥30 kg/m² of BMI, compared to a BMI < 25 kg/m². In contrast, these estimates were 0.77 (0.35-1.67) and 1.15 (0.39-3.43) with good adherence to MedDiet. Better adherence to the MedDiet was associated with reduced CVD events (p for trend = 0.029). Our results suggest that the MedDiet could mitigate the harmful cardiovascular effect of overweight/obesity.

  3. Use of the adverse outcome pathway framework to represent cross-species consequences of specific pathway perturbations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework has been developed as a means for assembling scientifically defensible descriptions of how particular molecular perturbations, termed molecular initiating events (MIEs), can evoke a set of predictable responses at different levels of bi...

  4. Consequences of Contextual Factors on Clinical Reasoning in Resident Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have…

  5. 236 children with developmental hydrocephalus: causes and clinical consequences

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Hannah M; Ishak, Gisele E; Rue, Tessa C; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Browd, Samuel R; Millen, Kathleen J; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic assessments of developmental forms of hydrocephalus exist. We reviewed MRIs and clinical records of patients with infancy-onset hydrocephalus. Among 411 infants, 236 had hydrocephalus with no recognizable extrinsic cause. These children were assigned to one of five subtypes and compared on the basis of clinical characteristics, developmental and surgical outcomes. At an average age of 5.3 years, 72% of children were walking independently and 87% could eat by mouth. 18% had epilepsy. Distinct patterns of associated malformations and syndromes were observed within each subtype. On average, children with aqueductal obstruction, cysts and encephaloceles had worse clinical outcomes than those with other forms of developmental hydrocephalus. 53% of surgically-treated patients experienced at least one shunt failure, but hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa crowding required fewer shunt revisions. We conclude that each subtype of developmental hydrocephalus is associated with distinct clinical characteristics, syndromology, and outcomes, suggesting differences in underlying mechanisms. PMID:26184484

  6. [Value of nutritional risk screening in evaluating adverse clinical outcomes in children with severe pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Yan-Feng; Wang, Jiang-Bo; Han, Shu-Zhen; Miao, Jing; Cui, Min

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the nutritional risk in children with severe pneumonia using the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP) and the association between nutritional risk and adverse clinical outcomes. According to the STAMP score, 216 children with severe pneumonia were classified into high nutritional risk group (HR group; n=98), moderate nutritional risk group (MR group; n=65), and low nutritional risk group (LR group; n=53). Fasting blood samples were collected to measure the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), adiponectin, leptin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, and retinol binding protein (RBP). The adverse clinical outcomes were recorded. Compared with the MR and LR groups, the HR group had significantly lower serum levels of IGF-1, leptin, adiponectin, prealbumin, and RBP, as well as a significantly higher serum level of NEFA (P<0.05). Compared with the MR and LR groups, the HR group had a significantly higher proportion of children admitted to the intensive care unit and a significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation (P<0.05). The HR group had a significantly longer mean hospital stay and a significantly higher incidence rate of complications compared with the LR and MR groups (P<0.05). Nutritional risk screening has an important value in evaluating the clinical outcome of children with severe pneumonia, and children at a higher nutritional risk tend to have more adverse clinical outcomes.

  7. Clinical roundtable monograph. New alternatives in CLL therapy: managing adverse events.

    PubMed

    Chanan-Khan, Asher; Kipps, Thomas; Stilgenbauer, Stephan

    2010-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell leukemia mainly affecting older adults. Historically, CLL has been regarded as an incurable disease, and treatment has been confined to cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. However, prognosis for patients treated with these agents remained poor, prompting the development of new, targeted agents. The introduction of rituximab, a CD20-targeted monoclonal antibody, revolutionized the treatment for this disease. Rituximab in combination with fludarabine improved response rates and length of progression-free survival. The success of rituximab in this setting has prompted the development of many more investigational agents for CLL, including other antibody agents. However, as with any medication, the potential benefit achieved with CLL therapies is mitigated by the safety risk for the patient. These agents have been associated with adverse events such as immunosuppression, reactivation of cytomegalovirus, and infusion-related reactions that can occur with antibody administration. Adverse events can greatly affect the patient’s quality of life and ability to tolerate therapy. Management of adverse events is a critical component of the overall treatment strategy for CLL, particularly in elderly patients. In this clinical roundtable monograph, 3 expert physicians discuss the latest clinical studies evaluating the treatment of CLL, focusing on the adverse events associated with each agent and the potential interventions that can be used to manage their occurrence.

  8. Viral Cirrhosis: an Overview of Haemostatic Alterations and Clinical Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; De Stefano, Valerio; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major health problem worldwide, the principal cause of cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Once cirrhosis occurs, the consequences of liver dysfunction and portal hypertension become evident and, sometimes, life threatening for patients. Among the various complications of liver cirrhosis, the alteration of haemostatic balance is often a hard challenge for the clinician, since it is capable to predispose both to bleeding or thrombosis. In this review, we analyze the principal aspects of procoagulant, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic capacity of cirrhotic patients, which appears to be variably altered in all these aspects, not only in the direction of a tendency to bleeding. Laboratory investigations, at present, may provide only a partial representation of this condition, because of the impossibility to obtain a test capable to furnish a global overview of the haemostatic system and to reproduce in vivo conditions. Furthermore, we describe the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bleeding manifestations and thrombosis development in cirrhotic patients, which should be considered not only as obvious consequences of the advanced liver disease but, rather, as the result of a complex interaction between inherited and acquired factors. PMID:21415961

  9. Area-Level Deprivation and Adverse Consequences in People With Substance Use Disorders: Findings From the Psychiatric and Addictive Dual Disorder in Italy (PADDI) Study.

    PubMed

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Borrelli, Paola; Tabacchi, Tommaso; Bartoli, Francesco; Popa, Ioana; Montomoli, Cristina; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-03-21

    Environmental factors may operate with individual ones to influence the risk of substance use. Research has focused on severe adverse consequences influenced by contextual variables. However, the literature on community level factors influencing substance use behaviors is relatively limited across Europe so far. We capitalized on data from a National survey, exploring individual and contextual characteristics, to study adverse consequences among people with substance use disorders. The impact of area-level deprivation on nonfatal overdose, hepatitis C or B infections, and major involvement with the criminal justice system, was explored. Logistic regression models with cluster-robust errors, modeling subject-level and area-level effects, were used. Living in deprived and intermediate areas, as compared with affluent ones, was associated with greater likelihood of both nonfatal overdose and jail sentences longer than 6 months, though not of active viral hepatitis. Area-level deprivation may play an important role in determining adverse consequences in people with substance use disorders, also after controlling for individual-level characteristics. More research is needed to understand the aspects of social and physical environments that matter for drug outcomes before effective policy and research interventions can be developed.

  10. [Clinical features and adverse pregnancy outcomes of new onset systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Z P; Yang, Y; Zhan, Y F; Chen, D Y; Liang, L Q; Yang, X Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with new onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of 263 pregnancies with SLE in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhongshan University from 2001 to 2015 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of all the 263 pregnancies, 188 were diagnosed before pregnancy and 75 were newly diagnosed during pregnancy. Among the 75 new onset SLE, 27, 31, 14 and 3 cases were diagnosed during first trimester, second trimester, third trimester and puerperium, respectively. Active lupus was noted in 81.3% of the patients with new onset SLE. The main clinical manifestations of new onset SLE were lupus nephritis (57.3%) and thrombocytopenia (38.7%). SLEPDAI scores as well as the prevalence of lupus nephritis, and thrombocytopenia in patients with new onset SLE was higher than those in the previously diagnosed ones ( P <0.05). Among the 75 new onset SLE pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomesoccurred in 53 patients, including 34 with pregnancy loss, 15with premature, 8with intrauterine growth restriction, 5with fetal distress and5 with neonatal lupus. Compared with patients withnon-newonset SLE, patients with newonset SLEhad a higher prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (56.4% vs 70.7%, P <0.05), and pregnancy loss (21.8% vs 45.3%, P <0.01) but less live birth (78.2% vs 54.7%, P <0.05). Conclusion: Most of the patients with new onset SLE occurred during the first and second trimester. The most common clinical features of new onset SLE were lupus nephritis and thrombocytopenia. Patients with new onset SLE were more prone to active lupus, lupus nephritis and thrombocytopenia, as well as more adverse pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy loss.

  11. Neurodevelopmental consequences of pediatric cancer and its treatment: applying an early adversity framework to understanding cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Iadipaolo, Allesandra S; Harper, Felicity W; Elrahal, Farrah; Taub, Jeffrey W; Goldberg, Elimelech; Rabinak, Christine A

    2017-12-22

    Today, children are surviving pediatric cancer at unprecedented rates, making it one of modern medicine's true success stories. However, we are increasingly becoming aware of several deleterious effects of cancer and the subsequent "cure" that extend beyond physical sequelae. Indeed, survivors of childhood cancer commonly report cognitive, emotional, and psychological difficulties, including attentional difficulties, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Cognitive late- and long-term effects have been largely attributed to neurotoxic effects of cancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, surgery) on brain development. The role of childhood adversity in pediatric cancer - namely, the presence of a life-threatening disease and endurance of invasive medical procedures - has been largely ignored in the existing neuroscientific literature, despite compelling research by our group and others showing that exposure to more commonly studied adverse childhood experiences (i.e., domestic and community violence, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) strongly imprints on neural development. While these adverse childhood experiences are different in many ways from the experience of childhood cancer (e.g., context, nature, source), they do share a common element of exposure to threat (i.e., threat to life or physical integrity). Therefore, we argue that the double hit of early threat and cancer treatments likely alters neural development, and ultimately, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. In this paper, we (1) review the existing neuroimaging research on child, adolescent, and adult survivors of childhood cancer, (2) summarize gaps in our current understanding, (3) propose a novel neurobiological framework that characterizes childhood cancer as a type of childhood adversity, particularly a form of early threat, focusing on development of the hippocampus and the salience and emotion network (SEN), and (4) outline future directions for

  12. Pathophysiology of endotoxin tolerance: mechanisms and clinical consequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance was first described in a study that exposed animals to a sublethal dose of bacterial endotoxin. The animals subsequently survived a lethal injection of endotoxin. This refractory state is associated with the innate immune system and, in particular, with monocytes and macrophages, which act as the main participants. Several mechanisms are involved in the control of endotoxin tolerance; however, a full understanding of this phenomenon remains elusive. A number of recent reports indicate that clinical examples of endotoxin tolerance include not only sepsis but also diseases such as cystic fibrosis and acute coronary syndrome. In these pathologies, the risk of new infections correlates with a refractory state. This review integrates the molecular basis and clinical implications of endotoxin tolerance in various pathologies. PMID:24229432

  13. Clinical and Molecular Consequences of NF1 Microdeletion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    attached. 2. Stephens K. Neurofibromatosis . In Molecular Pathology in Clinical Practice. D.G.B. Leonard, Ed. New York: Springer –Verlag, 2007...In our last progress report, this paper was submitted as a preprint. Electronic proofs of the final publication are attached; pdfs of chapters were...derived Schwann cell line. J Neurosci Res 85:1347-1357, 2007. 4 Introduction About 5-10% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are

  14. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes of a Fully Hydroxyapatite-Coated Femoral Revision Stem: Excessive Stress Shielding Incidence and its Consequences.

    PubMed

    Sanli, Ilknur; Arts, Jacobus Johannes Christiaan; Geurts, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Stress shielding remains a concern in total hip arthroplasty. The consequences of stress shielding in hydroxyapatite-coated femoral component revisions were evaluated in a prospective cohort study. A total of 106 patients operated on by revision total hip arthroplasty were identified. Sixty-three patients were eligible for clinical and radiologic assessment of osseointegration, bone remodeling, and stress shielding. Five patients showed evidence of excessive stress shielding. One patient experienced a periprosthetic fracture. No adverse events occurred in the remaining patients with a low rate of thigh pain and reliable osseointegration. This is the only available study concerning mid- to long-term consequences of excessive stress shielding in hydroxyapatite-coated revision stems. We advocate surgeons using these stems to remain vigilant and be aware of possible stress shielding side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    SANT’ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; de CAMPOS, Marinele R.; PASSANEZI, Selma Campos; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; PASSANEZI, Euloir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG – "no intervention" (n=17) or IG- "intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (<37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), late abortion (14-24 weeks) or abortion (<14 weeks). The results obtained were statistically evaluated according to OR, unpaired t test and paired t test at 5% significance level. Results No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline examination. Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p>0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001), except for PI. Significant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001). The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. Conclusions Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21552714

  17. A perspective from clinical and business ethics on adverse events in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J T; Meier, C; Higdon, T

    1997-11-01

    Adverse events occur in a significant, but undetermined, number of hospitalized patients. These types of patient injuries are more often the result of faulty systems than human maleficence. A culture exists among health care providers that discourages the reporting of such events and resists the implementation of formal efforts to eliminate them. This resistance serves to perpetuate the problem. Both business and clinical ethics argue that sound reasons exist for hospitals to reduce, if not eliminate, adverse events. To do so is cost effective, particularly in a managed care environment. It is also at the heart of responsible professional behavior. Physicians are afforded an opportunity to be at the forefront in this quality improvement effort.

  18. Endometriosis: hormone regulation and clinical consequences of chemotaxis and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Fernando M.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The recruitment of immune cells by chemokines and the regulation of endometrial cell apoptosis are critical aspects of endometriosis biology. Here, we review the local (paracrine) and systemic hormone (endocrine) modulation of these two specific, but highly related phenomena. METHODS We searched Pubmed for items published in English between September 1991 and September 2011 and selected the studies evaluating the effects of hormones on chemokines or apoptosis in normal human endometrium and endometriosis. RESULTS Estradiol has proinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in endometrial cells, and these effects appear to be exacerbated in women with endometriosis. In these women, physiological estradiol concentrations are able to induce an enhanced inflammatory response mediated by local chemokine production and to reinforce mechanisms of cell survival mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases and Bcl-2. The main effect of progestogens is to inhibit interleukin-8 and other chemokines in stromal cells from both eutopic and ectopic endometrium. Progesterone is also effective in inducing apoptosis in endometrial and endometriotic cells through the inhibition of Bcl-2 and nuclear factor-κB. CONCLUSIONS Estrogens and progestogens modulate chemotaxis and apoptosis in human endometrium and endometriotic cells and tissues. These endocrine and paracrine pathways are perturbed in women with endometriosis, contributing to inflammatory responses, abnormal tissue remodeling, therapeutic refractoriness and disease persistence. Ultimately, they promote adhesion formation and the clinical symptoms of pelvic pain and infertility. A more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved will offer new opportunities for novel pharmacological strategies to diagnose and treat endometriosis. PMID:23539633

  19. GI Consequences of Cancer Treatment: A Clinical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, H Jervoise N

    2016-04-01

    In an era when extensive research is being funded to mitigate the radiation risks of a human traveling to Mars or the potential effects of a nuclear detonation in an urban environment, it is difficult to understand why the medical and research community remains largely uninterested in pelvic radiation disease (PRD), a condition that afflicts half a million patients every year after radiotherapy for pelvic cancer. There has been significant progress in understanding the nature of normal tissue injury, especially as it affects the GI tract. Clear clinical data exist on how best to assess and improve symptoms and there are a number of options for how to modulate the underlying progressive pathophysiology of PRD. Annually, there are more patients who develop PRD than inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the similarity in PRD and IBD symptoms, the same expertise that promotes assessment, treatment and disease-modifying approaches as standard of care in IBD is almost nonexistent for those suffering from PRD, and as a result the unmet need is enormous. Curing or controlling cancer without addressing quality of life is no longer acceptable when half of all patients diagnosed with cancer live for 10 years after treatment. For those patients afflicted with PRD it can cause significant misery, and this situation is unacceptable; investment in training and research cannot be delayed any longer.

  20. Sleep Apnea: Types, Mechanisms, and Clinical Cardiovascular Consequences.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Shahrokh; Barbe, Ferran; Campos-Rodriguez, Francisco; Dempsey, Jerome A; Khayat, Rami; Javaheri, Sogol; Malhotra, Atul; Martinez-Garcia, Miguel A; Mehra, Reena; Pack, Allan I; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Redline, Susan; Somers, Virend K

    2017-02-21

    Sleep apnea is highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. These disordered breathing events are associated with a profile of perturbations that include intermittent hypoxia, oxidative stress, sympathetic activation, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which are critical mediators of cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports a causal association of sleep apnea with the incidence and morbidity of hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, and stroke. Several discoveries in the pathogenesis, along with developments in the treatment of sleep apnea, have accumulated in recent years. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of sleep apnea, the evidence that addresses the links between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease, and research that has addressed the effect of sleep apnea treatment on cardiovascular disease and clinical endpoints. Finally, we review the recent development in sleep apnea treatment options, with special consideration of treating patients with heart disease. Future directions for selective areas are suggested. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms of cryoablation: clinical consequences on malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Baust, J G; Gage, A A; Bjerklund Johansen, T E; Baust, J M

    2014-02-01

    While the destructive actions of a cryoablative freeze cycle are long recognized, more recent evidence has revealed a complex set of molecular responses that provides a path for optimization. The importance of optimization relates to the observation that the cryosurgical treatment of tumors yields success only equivalent to alternative therapies. This is also true of all existing therapies of cancer, which while applied with curative intent; provide only disease suppression for periods ranging from months to years. Recent research has led to an important new understanding of the nature of cancer, which has implications for primary therapies, including cryosurgical treatment. We now recognize that a cancer is a highly organized tissue dependent on other supporting cells for its establishment, growth and invasion. Further, cancer stem cells are now recognized as an origin of disease and prove resistant to many treatment modalities. Growth is dependent on endothelial cells essential to blood vessel formation, fibroblasts production of growth factors, and protective functions of cells of the immune system. This review discusses the biology of cancer, which has profound implications for the diverse therapies of the disease, including cryosurgery. We also describe the cryosurgical treatment of diverse cancers, citing results, types of adjunctive therapy intended to improve clinical outcomes, and comment briefly on other energy-based ablative therapies. With an expanded view of tumor complexity we identify those elements key to effective cryoablation and strategies designed to optimize cancer cell mortality with a consideration of the now recognized hallmarks of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Profile and Consequences of Atrial Fibrillation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rowin, Ethan J; Hausvater, Anais; Link, Mark S; Abt, Patrick; Gionfriddo, William; Wang, Wendy; Rastegar, Hassan; Estes, N A Mark; Maron, Martin S; Maron, Barry J

    2017-12-19

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), is capable of producing symptoms that impact quality of life and is associated with risk for embolic stroke. However, the influence of AF on clinical course and outcome in HCM remains incompletely resolved. Records of 1558 consecutive patients followed at the Tufts Medical Center Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Institute for 4.8±3.4 years (from 2004 to 2014) were accessed. Of the 1558 patients with HCM, 304 (20%) had episodes of AF, of which 226 (74%) were confined to symptomatic paroxysmal AF (average, 5±5; range, 1 to >20), whereas 78 (26%) developed permanent AF, preceded by 7±6 paroxysmal AF episodes. At last evaluation, 277 patients (91%) are alive at 62±13 years of age, including 89% in New York Heart Association class I or II. No difference was found in outcome measures for patients with AF and age- and sex-matched patients with HCM without AF. Four percent of patients with AF died of HCM-related causes (n=11), with annual mortality 0.7%; mortality directly attributable to AF (thromboembolism without prophylactic anticoagulation) was 0.1% per year (n=2 patients). Patients were treated with antiarrhythmic drugs (most commonly amiodarone [n=103] or sotalol [n=78]) and AF catheter ablation (n=49) or the Maze procedure at surgical myectomy (n=72). Freedom from AF recurrence at 1 year was 44% for ablation patients and 75% with the Maze procedure ( P <0.001). Embolic events were less common with anticoagulation prophylaxis (4/233, 2%) than without (9/66, 14%) ( P <0.001). Transient symptomatic episodes of AF, often responsible for impaired quality of life, are unpredictable in frequency and timing, but amenable to effective contemporary treatments, and infrequently progress to permanent AF. AF is not a major contributor to heart failure morbidity or a cause of arrhythmic sudden death; when treated, it is associated with low disease-related mortality, no different

  3. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    PubMed

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Big Data Mining and Adverse Event Pattern Analysis in Clinical Drug Trials.

    PubMed

    Federer, Callie; Yoo, Minjae; Tan, Aik Choon

    2016-12-01

    Drug adverse events (AEs) are a major health threat to patients seeking medical treatment and a significant barrier in drug discovery and development. AEs are now required to be submitted during clinical trials and can be extracted from ClinicalTrials.gov ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ), a database of clinical studies around the world. By extracting drug and AE information from ClinicalTrials.gov and structuring it into a database, drug-AEs could be established for future drug development and repositioning. To our knowledge, current AE databases contain mainly U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. However, our database contains both FDA-approved and experimental compounds extracted from ClinicalTrials.gov . Our database contains 8,161 clinical trials of 3,102,675 patients and 713,103 reported AEs. We extracted the information from ClinicalTrials.gov using a set of python scripts, and then used regular expressions and a drug dictionary to process and structure relevant information into a relational database. We performed data mining and pattern analysis of drug-AEs in our database. Our database can serve as a tool to assist researchers to discover drug-AE relationships for developing, repositioning, and repurposing drugs.

  5. Consequences, measurement, and evaluation of the costs associated with adverse drug reactions among hospitalized patients in China.

    PubMed

    Qing-ping, Shi; Xiao-dong, Jiang; Feng, Ding; Yan, Liu; Mei-ling, Yu; Jin-xiu, Zhu; Shu-qiang, Zhang

    2014-02-17

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a leading cause of morbidity in developed countries and represent a substantial burden on health-care resources. Many countries spent 15% to 20% of their hospital budgets to treat drug complications. However, few studies have measured the pharmacoeconomic effects of ADRs on hospitalized patients in China. The study estimates the costs of ADRs as identified from the spontaneous voluntary reports completed from healthcare professionals. To do so, we calculate these costs, determine the sum of Medicare payments and their proportion of total healthcare spending, and evaluate the incidence of ADRs, characteristics of hospitalized ADR patients, and outcomes of ADRs in China. This retrospective survey studied patients who experienced ADRs during their hospitalization at a Chinese tertiary-care teaching hospital. The patients were divided into group A and group B according to general ADRs and serious ADRs in Provisions for Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring and Reporting. The direct costs included treatment fees, inspection fees, laboratory fees, materials fees, bed charges, drug charges, nursing care, meals, and other expenses and the sunk-cost losses were calculated according to the hospital information system (HIS). Indirect costs of ADR treatment were calculated according to the human capital approach. The epidemiological characteristics of ADRs were evaluated. 2739 were diagnosed with ADR during the study period, which translates to an ADR rate of 0.81%. The total socioeconomic loss from 2739 cases of ADR was estimated at ¥817401.69, consisting of direct costs of ¥603252.81 and indirect costs of ¥214148.88. On average, the costs per patient amounted to ¥196.10 in group A, ¥7032.29 in group B. The sum of medicare payment and proportion were ¥219061.13 (65.23%) and ¥105422.02 (39.42%) in group A and B. The ADR incidence in old-age patients was significantly higher than in other age groups (P < 0.0001). The most common drug

  6. Mitigation of adverse interactions in pairs of clinical practice guidelines using constraint logic programming.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Michalowski, Martin; Farion, Ken; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-04-01

    We propose a new method to mitigate (identify and address) adverse interactions (drug-drug or drug-disease) that occur when a patient with comorbid diseases is managed according to two concurrently applied clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). A lack of methods to facilitate the concurrent application of CPGs severely limits their use in clinical practice and the development of such methods is one of the grand challenges for clinical decision support. The proposed method responds to this challenge. We introduce and formally define logical models of CPGs and other related concepts, and develop the mitigation algorithm that operates on these concepts. In the algorithm we combine domain knowledge encoded as interaction and revision operators using the constraint logic programming (CLP) paradigm. The operators characterize adverse interactions and describe revisions to logical models required to address these interactions, while CLP allows us to efficiently solve the logical models - a solution represents a feasible therapy that may be safely applied to a patient. The mitigation algorithm accepts two CPGs and available (likely incomplete) patient information. It reports whether mitigation has been successful or not, and on success it gives a feasible therapy and points at identified interactions (if any) together with the revisions that address them. Thus, we consider the mitigation algorithm as an alerting tool to support a physician in the concurrent application of CPGs that can be implemented as a component of a clinical decision support system. We illustrate our method in the context of two clinical scenarios involving a patient with duodenal ulcer who experiences an episode of transient ischemic attack. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Do Fructose-Containing Sugars Lead to Adverse Health Consequences? Results of Recent Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses123

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Choo, Vivian LW; Mejia, Sonia Blanco; de Souza, Russell J; Sievenpiper, John L

    2015-01-01

    Sugars have replaced fat as the dominant public health nutrition concern. A fructose-centric view of cardiometabolic disease has emerged whereby fructose-containing sugars are thought to have deleterious effects on body weight, fasting and postprandial blood lipids, glycemia, blood pressure, uric acid, and markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Long-term prospective cohort studies have not supported these associations when assessing the relation between total fructose-containing sugars at any amount of intake and incident cardiometabolic disease. Conversely, a consistent signal for harm has been reported for sugary beverages when comparing the highest with the lowest intakes. These associations, however, do not hold at moderate intakes, which are more reflective of real-world intakes, are subject to important collinearity effects, and have small risk estimates with modest population-attributable risk fractions. Higher-level evidence from controlled feeding trials shows that fructose-containing sugars in either liquid or solid form have adverse cardiometabolic effects only when they supplement diets with excess calories compared with the same diets without the excess calories. In the absence of harm when fructose-containing sugars are exchanged for other sources of carbohydrate under energy-matched conditions, excess calories appear to be the dominant consideration. Like with the earlier fat story, it is difficult to separate the contribution of fructose-containing sugars from that of other sources of excess calories in the epidemic of obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Attention needs to remain focused on reducing the overconsumption of all caloric foods associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disease, including sugary beverages and foods, and promoting greater physical activity.

  8. Dictionary construction and identification of possible adverse drug events in Danish clinical narrative text.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Robert; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Frankild, Sune; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Brunak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Drugs have tremendous potential to cure and relieve disease, but the risk of unintended effects is always present. Healthcare providers increasingly record data in electronic patient records (EPRs), in which we aim to identify possible adverse events (AEs) and, specifically, possible adverse drug events (ADEs). Based on the undesirable effects section from the summary of product characteristics (SPC) of 7446 drugs, we have built a Danish ADE dictionary. Starting from this dictionary we have developed a pipeline for identifying possible ADEs in unstructured clinical narrative text. We use a named entity recognition (NER) tagger to identify dictionary matches in the text and post-coordination rules to construct ADE compound terms. Finally, we apply post-processing rules and filters to handle, for example, negations and sentences about subjects other than the patient. Moreover, this method allows synonyms to be identified and anatomical location descriptions can be merged to allow appropriate grouping of effects in the same location. The method identified 1 970 731 (35 477 unique) possible ADEs in a large corpus of 6011 psychiatric hospital patient records. Validation was performed through manual inspection of possible ADEs, resulting in precision of 89% and recall of 75%. The presented dictionary-building method could be used to construct other ADE dictionaries. The complication of compound words in Germanic languages was addressed. Additionally, the synonym and anatomical location collapse improve the method. The developed dictionary and method can be used to identify possible ADEs in Danish clinical narratives.

  9. Reactive hyperemia is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Paine, Nicola J; Hinderliter, Alan L; Blumenthal, James A; Adams, Kirkwood F; Sueta, Carla A; Chang, Patricia P; O'Connor, Christopher M; Sherwood, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Impaired endothelial function, as assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events. FMD is impaired in heart failure (HF) patients, but less is known about hyperemic brachial artery flow. We investigated the relationship between FMD and hyperemic flow with adverse clinical outcomes in HF patients. Brachial artery FMD and hyperemic flow were assessed in 156 patients (70.5 % Male; 45.5% Caucasian; mean age (± SD) = 56.2 (±12.4) years) with HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the potential explanatory association of FMD and hyperemic flow with the composite outcome of death or cardiovascular hospitalization over a median 5-year follow-up period. Both FMD and hyperemic flow were negatively correlated with age, but unrelated to sex, race, body mass index, LVEF or N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP). Reduced hyperemic flow, but not FMD, was associated with an increased risk of death or cardiac hospitalization after controlling for traditional risk factors. The association of reduced hyperemic flow with increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes suggests that micro-vascular function may be an important prognostic marker in patients with HF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of possible adverse drug reactions in clinical notes: The case of glucose-lowering medicines

    PubMed Central

    Warrer, Pernille; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Aagaard, Lise; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Brunak, Søren; Krag, Malene Hammer; Rossing, Peter; Almdal, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through manual review of clinical notes for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a Danish diabetes center, the aim of the study was to identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with three classes of glucose-lowering medicines: “Combinations of oral blood-glucose lowering medicines” (A10BD), “dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors” (A10BH), and “other blood glucose lowering medicines” (A10BX). Specifically, we aimed to describe the potential of clinical notes to identify new ADRs and to evaluate if sufficient information can be obtained for causality assessment. Methods: For observed adverse events (AEs) we extracted time to onset, outcome, and suspected medicine(s). AEs were assessed according to World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality criteria and analyzed with respect to suspected medicines, type of ADR (system organ class), seriousness and labeling status. Findings: A total of 207 patients were included in the study leading to the identification of 163 AEs. 14% were categorized as certain, 60% as probable/likely, and 26% as possible. 15 (9%) ADRs were unlabeled of which two were serious: peripheral edema associated with sitagliptin and stomach ulcer associated with liraglutide. Of the unlabeled ADRs, 13 (87%) were associated with “other blood glucose lowering medications,” the remaining 2 (13%) with “DDP-4 inhibitors.” Conclusion: Clinical notes could potentially reveal unlabeled ADRs associated with prescribed medicines and sufficient information is generally available for causality assessment. However, manual review of clinical notes is too time-consuming for routine use and hence there is a need for developing information technology (IT) tools for automatic screening of patient records with the purpose to detect information about potentially serious and unlabeled ADRs. PMID:25984543

  11. A systematic review of adverse event reporting in companion animal clinical trials evaluating cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Michelle A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate methods used to ascertain, define, and report adverse events (AEs) in companion animal clinical trials involving cancer treatment. DESIGN Systematic review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing prospective clinical trials involving dogs and cats with naturally occurring cancer published in peer-reviewed journals between 2008 and 2014. PROCEDURES Reports were identified via MEDLINE and CAB database searches combined with a hand-searching strategy. General article characteristics were abstracted and summarized. Data for AE reporting were collected with a 14-item checklist adapted from the 2004 CONSORT extension for reporting harms. Study characteristics associated with the AE reporting checklist score were identified by means of linear regression analysis. RESULTS 168 articles with data for 6,132 animals were included. Standardized terminology was significantly more likely to be used to describe AEs for trials that included chemotherapy (92/115 [80.0%]) than for trials that did not (16/53 [30.2%]). Median AE reporting checklist score was 5 out of 14 (range, 0 to 12). Poorly reported items included methods and time frame of AE ascertainment, AE data analysis, and reasons for treatment discontinuation and death. Trials with industry funding, a single-arm design, and treatment with chemotherapy were associated with a significantly higher quality of AE reporting. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Reporting of adverse events in veterinary clinical trials evaluating cancer treatment was selective and heterogeneous. Harms associated with cancer treatments could be underestimated because of suboptimal collection and reporting of AE data. Findings supported the adoption of a higher standard for AE surveillance and reporting in veterinary patients.

  12. Ocular Adverse Events Associated with Antibody–Drug Conjugates in Human Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paul E.; Mannis, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews ocular adverse events (AEs) reported in association with administration of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) in human clinical trials. References reporting ocular toxicity or AEs associated with ADCs were collected using online publication searches. Articles, abstracts, or citations were included if they cited ocular toxicities or vision-impairing AEs with a confirmed or suspected association with ADC administration. Twenty-two references were found citing ocular or vision-impairing AEs in association with ADC administration. All references reported use of ADCs in human clinical trials for treatment of various malignancies. The molecular target and cytotoxic agent varied depending on the ADC used. Ocular AEs affected a diversity of ocular tissues. The most commonly reported AEs involved the ocular surface and included blurred vision, dry eye, and corneal abnormalities (including microcystic corneal disease). Most ocular AEs were not severe (≤ grade 2) or dose limiting. Clinical outcomes were not consistently reported, but when specified, most AEs improved or resolved with cessation of treatment or with ameliorative therapy. A diverse range of ocular AEs are reported in association with administration of ADCs for the treatment of cancer. The toxicologic mechanism(s) and pathogenesis of such events are not well understood, but most are mild in severity and reversible. Drug development and medical professionals should be aware of the clinical features of these events to facilitate early recognition and intervention in the assessment of preclinical development programs and in human clinical trials. PMID:26539624

  13. Midterm eGFR and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The Clinical Significance of Gestational Hyperfiltration.

    PubMed

    Park, Sehoon; Lee, Seung Mi; Park, Joong Shin; Hong, Joon-Seok; Chin, Ho Jun; Na, Ki Young; Kim, Dong Ki; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2017-07-07

    Although hemodynamic adaptation plays a crucial role in maintaining gestation, the clinical significance of midterm renal hyperfiltration (MRH) on pregnancy outcomes is unknown. This was an observational cohort study. Women with a singleton pregnancy and a serum creatinine measurement during their second trimester were followed at two university hospitals in Korea between 2001 and 2015. Those with substantial renal function impairment or who delivered during the second trimester were not considered. MRH was represented by the highest eGFR, which was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration method. An adverse pregnancy event was defined by the composition of preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), and preeclampsia. Data from 1931 pregnancies were included. The relationship between midterm eGFR and adverse pregnancy outcomes, which occurred in 538 mothers, was defined by a nonlinear U-shaped curve. The adjusted odds ratio and associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of an adverse pregnancy outcome for eGFR levels below and above the reference level of 120-150 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 were 1.97 (95% CI, 1.34 to 2.89; P <0.001) for ≥150 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ; 1.57 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2.00; P <0.001) for 90-120 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ; and 4.93 (95% CI, 1.97 to 12.31; P< 0.001) for 60-90 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 . Moreover, among mothers without baseline CKD, women with adverse pregnancy outcomes had less prominent MRH than those without ( P <0.001). We identified a unique U-shaped relationship between midterm eGFR and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and the optimal range of midterm eGFR levels was 120-150 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 . In those without evident functional renal impairment, the absence of prominent MRH might be a significant risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. [Adverse effects of drugs on the oral mucosa--incidence and clinical picture in clinical patients].

    PubMed

    Gebel, K; Hornstein, O P

    1982-10-01

    The medical documents of 17.250 inpatients admitted to the Dermatological Department between 1970 and 1980 have retrospectively been examined concerning the frequency and clinical types of drug-induced side effects on the oral mucosa. Among 4.766 inpatients with registered side effects (27.63% to the total) there were 187 (3.92%) exhibiting drug-induced oral lesions. These conditions included, with decreasing prevalence rates, various types of enanthemas, mucosal oedemas, and erythema multiforme exsudativum, whereas other side effects (denture sore mouth, allergic contact stomatitis, lichenoid lesions, etc.) have been observed less frequently. Among the drugs involved analgetics, antiphlogistics and anti-infective ones prevailed being followed by psychopharmaca and dental materials. In 91 our of 121 inpatients, the causative allergen(s) could be ascertained by allergologic examinations (mostly by epi- or intracutaneous testing, or controlled drug exposition). Middle-aged inpatients, in comparison to the total of inpatients, suffered overproportionally from drug-induced oral side effects.

  15. Adverse Event Profiles of 5-Fluorouracil and Capecitabine: Data Mining of the Public Version of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, AERS, and Reproducibility of Clinical Observations

    PubMed Central

    Kadoyama, Kaori; Miki, Ikuya; Tamura, Takao; Brown, JB; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The safety profiles of oral fluoropyrimidines were compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using adverse event reports (AERs) submitted to the Adverse Event Reporting System, AERS, of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods: After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving 5-FU and oral fluoropyrimidines were analyzed. Standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for the quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Results: Based on 22,017,956 co-occurrences, i.e., drug-adverse event pairs, found in 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, it was suggested that leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were more frequently accompanied by the use of 5-FU than capecitabine, whereas diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and hand-foot syndrome were more frequently associated with capecitabine. The total number of co-occurrences was not large enough to compare tegafur, tegafur-uracil (UFT), tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil potassium (S-1), or doxifluridine to 5-FU. Conclusion: The results obtained herein were consistent with clinical observations, suggesting the usefulness of the FDA's AERS database and data mining methods used, but the number of co-occurrences is an important factor in signal detection. PMID:22211087

  16. Clinical assessment of serious adverse events in children receiving 2009 H1N1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pahud, Barbara A; Williams, S Elizabeth; Dekker, Cornelia L; Halsey, Neal; Larussa, Philip; Baxter, Roger P; Klein, Nicola P; Marchant, Colin D; Sparks, Robert C; Jakob, Kathleen; Aukes, Laurie; Swope, Susan; Barnett, Elizabeth; Lewis, Paige; Berger, Melvin; Dreskin, Stephen C; Donofrio, Peter D; Sejvar, James J; Slade, Barbara A; Gidudu, Jane; Vellozzi, Claudia; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2013-02-01

    Monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines were licensed and administered in the United States during the H1N1 influenza pandemic between 2009 and 2013. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System received reports of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) after H1N1 vaccination. Selected reports were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment network for additional review. We assessed causality using modified World Health Organization criteria. There were 3,928 reports of AEFI in children younger than age 18 years after 2009 H1N1 vaccination received by January 31, 2010. Of these, 214 (5.4%) were classified as serious nonfatal and 109 were referred to Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment for further evaluation. Ninety-nine (91%) had sufficient initial information to begin investigation and are described here. The mean age was 8 years (range, 6 months-17 years) and 38% were female. Median number of days between vaccination and symptom onset was 2 (range, -11 days to +41 days). Receipt of inactivated, live attenuated, or unknown type of 2009 H1N1 vaccines was reported by 68, 26 and 5 cases, respectively. Serious AEFI were categorized as neurologic events in 47 cases, as hypersensitivity in 15 cases and as respiratory events in 10 cases. At the time of evaluation, recovery was described as complete (61), partial (16), no improvement (1), or unknown (21). Causality assessment yielded the following likelihood of association with 2009 H1N1 vaccination: 8 definitely; 8 probably; 21 possibly; 43 unlikely; 17 unrelated; and 2 unclassifiable. Most AEFI in children evaluated were not causally related to vaccine and resolved without sequelae. Detailed clinical assessment of individual serious AEFI can provide reassurance of vaccine safety.

  17. Adverse Symptom Event Reporting by Patients vs Clinicians: Relationships With Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Heller, Glenn; Barz, Allison; Sit, Laura; Fruscione, Michael; Appawu, Mark; Iasonos, Alexia; Atkinson, Thomas; Goldfarb, Shari; Culkin, Ann; Kris, Mark G.; Schrag, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Background In cancer treatment trials, the standard source of adverse symptom data is clinician reporting by use of items from the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Patient self-reporting has been proposed as an additional data source, but the implications of such a shift are not understood. Methods Patients with lung cancer receiving chemotherapy and their clinicians independently reported six CTCAE symptoms and Karnofsky Performance Status longitudinally at sequential office visits. To compare how patient's vs clinician's reports relate to sentinel clinical events, a time-dependent Cox regression model was used to measure associations between reaching particular CTCAE grade severity thresholds with the risk of death and emergency room visits. To measure concordance of CTCAE reports with indices of daily health status, Kendall tau rank correlation coefficients were calculated for each symptom with EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaire and global question scores. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 163 patients were enrolled for an average of 12 months (range = 1–28 months), with a mean of 11 visits and 67 (41%) deaths. CTCAE reports were submitted by clinicians at 95% of visits and by patients at 80% of visits. Patients generally reported symptoms earlier and more frequently than clinicians. Statistically significant associations with death and emergency room admissions were seen for clinician reports of fatigue (P < .001), nausea (P = .01), constipation (P = .038), and Karnofsky Performance Status (P < .001) but not for patient reports of these items. Higher concordance with EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaire and global question scores was observed for patient-reported symptoms than for clinician-reported symptoms. Conclusions Longitudinally collected clinician CTCAE assessments better predict unfavorable clinical events, whereas patient reports better reflect daily health status. These perspectives are

  18. Understanding Interrater Reliability and Validity of Risk Assessment Tools Used to Predict Adverse Clinical Events.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Albert, Nancy M

    This article will describe how to assess interrater reliability and validity of risk assessment tools, using easy-to-follow formulas, and to provide calculations that demonstrate principles discussed. Clinical nurse specialists should be able to identify risk assessment tools that provide high-quality interrater reliability and the highest validity for predicting true events of importance to clinical settings. Making best practice recommendations for assessment tool use is critical to high-quality patient care and safe practices that impact patient outcomes and nursing resources. Optimal risk assessment tool selection requires knowledge about interrater reliability and tool validity. The clinical nurse specialist will understand the reliability and validity issues associated with risk assessment tools, and be able to evaluate tools using basic calculations. Risk assessment tools are developed to objectively predict quality and safety events and ultimately reduce the risk of event occurrence through preventive interventions. To ensure high-quality tool use, clinical nurse specialists must critically assess tool properties. The better the tool's ability to predict adverse events, the more likely that event risk is mediated. Interrater reliability and validity assessment is relatively an easy skill to master and will result in better decisions when selecting or making recommendations for risk assessment tool use.

  19. Adverse clinical events reported during Invisalign treatment: Analysis of the MAUDE database.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Nalliah, Romesh; Lee, Min Kyeong; Rampa, Sankeerth; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine adverse clinical events after the use of the Invisalign system and to provide an overview of the actions taken by the manufacturer to address these events. A retrospective analysis of the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database of the United States Food and Drug Administration was used. All medical device reports reported to the United States Food and Drug Administration pertaining to products of Align Technology from November 1, 2006, to November 30, 2016, were analyzed. Qualitative content analysis was conducted of event descriptions and manufacturer narrative reports. A total of 173 medical device reports were reported in the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database: 169 (97.7%) were designated as adverse event reports, and 45 (26%) were deemed by the treating doctor to be serious or life threatening. The most medical device reports that reported a serious or life-threatening event were in 2014 (50%). The most frequently reported adverse event was difficulty breathing (56 events) followed by sore throat (35 events), swollen throat (34 events), swollen tongue (31 events), hives and itchiness (31 events), anaphylaxis (30 events), swollen lips (27 events), and feeling of throat closing/tight airway/airway obstruction/laryngospasm (24 events). Serious or life-threatening events could be associated with use of Invisalign systems. Health care providers should be aware of these events and know how to handle them if they arise in their practices. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyproheptadine for prevention of neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Ghaeli, Padideh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Jafari, Sirous; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Khazaeipour, Zahra

    2013-03-01

    Cyproheptadine prevention of the neuropsychiatric adverse effects of an antiretroviral regimen including efavirenz has been evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Twenty-five patients (16 males and 9 females with mean±SD ages of 36±9 years) in a cyproheptadine group, and 26 patients (17 males and 9 females with mean±SD ages of 34±7 years) in a control group completed the trial. Sexual contact and injection drug use were the main routs of HIV infection in both groups. The patients' neuropsychiatric adverse effects were evaluated based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation, and Somatization Subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Cyproheptadine significantly decreased the scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation of the patients after 4 weeks in comparison with control group. All of the scores increased in control group following antiretroviral therapy. Although short duration of the patients' follow-up was a major limitation of the study, the results of the study showed that cyprohepradine is effective in prevention of depression, anxiety, hallucination, aggressive behaviors, emotional withdrawal, poor rapport, poor impulse control, active social avoidance, suicidal ideation, and improved sleep quality of HIV-positive patients after initiation of antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz.

  1. Evaluating the reporting of adverse events in controlled clinical trials conducted in 2010-2015 on migraine drug treatments.

    PubMed

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Lindqvist, Janus Kaufmann; Do, Thien Phu

    2018-01-01

    Background In 2008, the International Headache Society published guidelines on the "evaluation and registration of adverse events in clinical drug trials on migraine". They listed seven recommendations for reporting adverse events in randomized controlled trials on migraine. The present study aimed to evaluate adherence to these recommendations, and based on the results, to recommend improvements. Methods We searched the PubMed/MEDLINE database to identify controlled trials on migraine drugs published from 2010 to 2015. For each trial, we noted whether five of the recommended parameters were presented. In addition, we noted whether adverse events were reported in abstracts. Results We identified 73 trials; 51 studied acutely administered drugs and 22 studied prophylactic drugs for migraine. The number of patients with any adverse events were reported in 74% of acute-administration and 86% of prophylactic drug trials. Only 30 (41%) of the 73 studies reported adverse events with data in the abstracts, and 27 (37%) abstracts did not mention adverse events. Conclusion Adverse events, both frequency and symptoms, should be reported to allow a fair judgement of benefit/tolerability ratio when randomized controlled trials in migraine treatment are published. Clinically significant adverse events should be included in the abstract of every randomized controlled trial in migraine treatment.

  2. Predictive factors for reporting adverse events following spinal manipulation in randomized clinical trials - secondary analysis of a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gorrell, Lindsay M; Brown, Benjamin; Lystad, Reidar P; Engel, Roger M

    2017-08-01

    While spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is recommended for the treatment of spinal disorders, concerns exist about adverse events associated with the intervention. Adequate reporting of adverse events in clinical trials would allow for more accurate estimations of incidence statistics through meta-analysis. However, it is not currently known if there are factors influencing adverse events reporting following SMT in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Thus our objective was to investigate predictive factors for the reporting of adverse events in published RCTs involving SMT. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for RCTs involving SMT. Domains of interest included: sample size; publication date relative to the 2010 CONSORT statement; risk of bias; the region treated; and number of intervention sessions. 7398 records were identified, of which 368 articles were eligible for inclusion. A total of 140 (38.0%) articles reported on adverse events. Articles were more likely to report on adverse events if they possessed larger sample sizes, were published after the 2010 CONSORT statement, had a low risk of bias and involved multiple intervention sessions. The region treated was not a significant predictor for reporting on adverse events. Predictors for reporting on adverse events included larger sample size, publication after the 2010 CONSORT statement, low risk of bias and trials involving multiple intervention sessions. We recommend that researchers focus on developing robust methodologies and participant follow-up regimens for RCTs involving SMT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Air pollution and adverse cardiac remodeling: clinical effects and basic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yonggang; Goodson, Jamie M; Zhang, Bo; Chin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has long been known to trigger cardiovascular events, primarily through activation of local and systemic inflammatory pathways that affect the vasculature. Detrimental effects of air pollution exposure on heart failure and cardiac remodeling have also been described in human populations. Recent studies in both human subjects and animal models have provided insights into the basic physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a role in adverse cardiac remodeling. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease, describe the clinical effects of air pollution exposure on cardiac remodeling, describe the basic mechanisms that affect remodeling as described in human and animal systems and will discuss future areas of investigation.

  4. Dictionary construction and identification of possible adverse drug events in Danish clinical narrative text

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Robert; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Frankild, Sune; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Brunak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Objective Drugs have tremendous potential to cure and relieve disease, but the risk of unintended effects is always present. Healthcare providers increasingly record data in electronic patient records (EPRs), in which we aim to identify possible adverse events (AEs) and, specifically, possible adverse drug events (ADEs). Materials and methods Based on the undesirable effects section from the summary of product characteristics (SPC) of 7446 drugs, we have built a Danish ADE dictionary. Starting from this dictionary we have developed a pipeline for identifying possible ADEs in unstructured clinical narrative text. We use a named entity recognition (NER) tagger to identify dictionary matches in the text and post-coordination rules to construct ADE compound terms. Finally, we apply post-processing rules and filters to handle, for example, negations and sentences about subjects other than the patient. Moreover, this method allows synonyms to be identified and anatomical location descriptions can be merged to allow appropriate grouping of effects in the same location. Results The method identified 1 970 731 (35 477 unique) possible ADEs in a large corpus of 6011 psychiatric hospital patient records. Validation was performed through manual inspection of possible ADEs, resulting in precision of 89% and recall of 75%. Discussion The presented dictionary-building method could be used to construct other ADE dictionaries. The complication of compound words in Germanic languages was addressed. Additionally, the synonym and anatomical location collapse improve the method. Conclusions The developed dictionary and method can be used to identify possible ADEs in Danish clinical narratives. PMID:23703825

  5. Advanced Clinical Decision Support for Vaccine Adverse Event Detection and Reporting.

    PubMed

    Baker, Meghan A; Kaelber, David C; Bar-Shain, David S; Moro, Pedro L; Zambarano, Bob; Mazza, Megan; Garcia, Crystal; Henry, Adam; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2015-09-15

    Reporting of adverse events (AEs) following vaccination can help identify rare or unexpected complications of immunizations and aid in characterizing potential vaccine safety signals. We developed an open-source, generalizable clinical decision support system called Electronic Support for Public Health-Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (ESP-VAERS) to assist clinicians with AE detection and reporting. ESP-VAERS monitors patients' electronic health records for new diagnoses, changes in laboratory values, and new allergies following vaccinations. When suggestive events are found, ESP-VAERS sends the patient's clinician a secure electronic message with an invitation to affirm or refute the message, add comments, and submit an automated, prepopulated electronic report to VAERS. High-probability AEs are reported automatically if the clinician does not respond. We implemented ESP-VAERS in December 2012 throughout the MetroHealth System, an integrated healthcare system in Ohio. We queried the VAERS database to determine MetroHealth's baseline reporting rates from January 2009 to March 2012 and then assessed changes in reporting rates with ESP-VAERS. In the 8 months following implementation, 91 622 vaccinations were given. ESP-VAERS sent 1385 messages to responsible clinicians describing potential AEs. Clinicians opened 1304 (94.2%) messages, responded to 209 (15.1%), and confirmed 16 for transmission to VAERS. An additional 16 high-probability AEs were sent automatically. Reported events included seizure, pleural effusion, and lymphocytopenia. The odds of a VAERS report submission during the implementation period were 30.2 (95% confidence interval, 9.52-95.5) times greater than the odds during the comparable preimplementation period. An open-source, electronic health record-based clinical decision support system can increase AE detection and reporting rates in VAERS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society

  6. Psychiatric adverse events during treatment with brodalumab: Analysis of psoriasis clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Mark G; Papp, Kim A; Marangell, Lauren B; Koo, John; Blauvelt, Andrew; Gooderham, Melinda; Wu, Jashin J; Rastogi, Shipra; Harris, Susan; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Israel, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with psoriasis are at increased risk for psychiatric comorbidities, including suicidal ideation and behavior (SIB). To distinguish between the underlying risk and potential for treatment-induced psychiatric adverse events in patients with psoriasis being treated with brodalumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 17 receptor A monoclonal antibody. Data were evaluated from a placebo-controlled, phase 2 clinical trial; the open-label, long-term extension of the phase 2 clinical trial; and three phase 3, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials (AMAGINE-1, AMAGINE-2, and AMAGINE-3) and their open-label, long-term extensions of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. The analysis included 4464 patients with 9161.8 patient-years of brodalumab exposure. The follow-up time-adjusted incidence rates of SIB events were comparable between the brodalumab and ustekinumab groups throughout the 52-week controlled phases (0.20 vs 0.60 per 100 patient-years). In the brodalumab group, 4 completed suicides were reported, 1 of which was later adjudicated as indeterminate; all patients had underlying psychiatric disorders or stressors. There was no comparator arm past week 52. Controlled study periods were not powered to detect differences in rare events such as suicide. Comparison with controls and the timing of events do not indicate a causal relationship between SIB and brodalumab treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing the Number of Adverse Drug Reactions Reporting: the Role of Clinical Pharmacy Residents

    PubMed Central

    Baniasadi, Shadi; Habibi, Maryam; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Karimi Gamishan, Masoumeh; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Farasatinasab, Maryam; Farsaei, Shadi; Gharekhani, Afshin; Kafi, Hamidreza; Karimzadeh, Iman; Kharazmkia, Ali; Najmeddin, Farhad; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Oghazian, Mohammad Bagher; Rezaee, Haleh; Sadeghi, Kourosh; Tafazzoli, Ali; Shahsavari, Nahid; Fahimi, Fanak

    2014-01-01

    Detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in hospitals provides an important measure of the burden of drug related morbidity on the healthcare system. Spontaneous reporting of ADRs is scare and several obstacles to such reporting have been identified formerly. This study aimed to determine the role of clinical pharmacy residents in ADR reporting within a hospital setting. Clinical pharmacy residents were trained to report all suspected ADRs through ADR-reporting yellow cards. The incidence, pattern, seriousness, and preventability of the reported ADRs were analyzed. During the period of 12 months, for 8559 patients, 202 ADR reports were received. The most frequently reported reactions were due to anti-infective agents (38.38%). Rifampin accounted for the highest number of the reported ADRs among anti-infective agents. The gastro-intestinal system was the most frequently affected system (21.56%) of all reactions. Fifty four of the ADRs were reported as serious reactions. Eighteen of the ADRs were classified as preventable. Clinical pharmacy residents' involvement in the ADR reporting program could improve the ADR reporting system. PMID:24734083

  8. Adverse events following HPV immunization in Australia: Establishment of a clinical network.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Nigel W; Hodgson, Kate; Gold, Mike; Buttery, Jim; Wood, Nicholas

    2016-10-02

    To formalise a collaborative national Adverse Events Following Immunisation Clinical Assessment Network (AEFI-CAN) following the expansion of the Australian Human Papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation program to boys in 2013. AEFI-CAN linked state-based vaccine safety clinics and the Department of Health including the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Monthly teleconferences held to discuss HPV related cases. AEFI conditions of interest recorded in a centralised database. Between 1 st January 2013 - 31 st October 2014, 118 HPV AEFI were documented, 56% in males. The median age was 13 y (range 12-16 years). The majority of AEFI reports were after dose 1 (59%). 76 of 118 (64%) AEFI were seen in a vaccine safety clinic: 62% in Victoria, NSW (16%), South Australia (9%) and Western Australia (8%). Eight TeleHealth consultations were undertaken. AEFI were categorised as: rash 24% of reports (n = 28), urticaria/angioedema 23% (n = 27), anaphylaxis 3% (n = 4). Syncope was also reported (n = 12, 10%) and other neurological events (n = 22, 19%). We demonstrated the advantages of a national network, providing a collaborative approach to AEFI review and management. The vaccine safety network has applicability to any vaccination program, and has potential to collaborate more broadly with regional pharmacovigilance partners such as New Zealand.

  9. The perceived threat of SARS and its impact on precautionary actions and adverse consequences: a qualitative study among Chinese communities in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyi; Elam, Gillian; Yuen, Cicely; Voeten, Helene; de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Brug, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Although the SARS outbreak involved few probable cases of infection in Europe, swift international spread of infections raised the possibility of outbreaks. In particular, SARS presented a sociopsychological and economic threat to European Chinese communities because of their close links with the outbreak's origins. A qualitative study was conducted among Chinese residents in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands to identify the origins of SARS risk perceptions and their impact on precautionary actions and adverse consequences from the perspective of vulnerable communities living in unaffected regions. Analysis was informed by protection motivation theory. Results revealed that information from affected Asia influenced risk perceptions and protective behavior among the Chinese in Europe when more relevant local information was absent. When high risk perceptions were combined with low efficacy regarding precautionary measures, avoidance-based precautionary action appeared to dominate responses to SARS. These actions may have contributed to the adverse impacts of SARS on the communities. Experiences of European Chinese communities suggest that practical and timely information, and consistent implementation of protective measures from central governments are essential to protect vulnerable populations in unaffected regions from unnecessary alarm and harm during outbreaks of emerging infections.

  10. Bariatric surgery results: reporting clinical characteristics and adverse outcomes from an integrated healthcare delivery system.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert A; Fisher, David P; Dutta, Sanjoy; O'Brien, Rebecca M; Ackerson, Lynn M; Sorel, Michael E; Sidney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Limited data have been reported on bariatric surgery within a large, high-volume regional multicenter integrated healthcare delivery system. Review clinical characteristics and short- and intermediate-term outcomes and adverse events from a bariatric surgery program within an integrated healthcare delivery system. Single high-volume, multicenter regional integrated healthcare delivery system. Adult patients who underwent primary bariatric surgery during 2010-2011 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, outcomes, and weight loss results were extracted from the electronic medical record. A total of 2399 patients were identified within the study period. The 30-day rates of clinical outcomes for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n = 1313) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG; n = 1018) were 2.9% for readmission, 3.0% for major complications, .8% for reoperation, and 0% for mortality. One-year and 2-year weight loss results were as follows: percent weight loss (%WL) was 31.4 (±SD 8.5) and 34.2±12.0% for SG and 34.1±9.3 and 39.1±11.9 for RYGB; percent excess weight loss (%EBWL) was 64.2±18.0 and 69.8±23.7 for SG and 68.0±19.3 and 77.8±23.7 for RYGB; percent excess body mass index loss (%EBMIL) was 72.9±21.0 and 77.7±22.4 for SG and 76.6±22.1% and 85.6±21.6 for RYGB. Follow-up for each procedure at 1 year was 76% for SG (n = 778) and 80% for RYGB (n = 1052) and at 2 years was 65% for SG (n = 659) and 67% for RYGB (n = 875). A large regional high-volume multicenter bariatric program within an integrated healthcare delivery system can produce excellent short-term results with low rates of short- and intermediate-term adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of P-glycoprotein modulation on the clinical pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of morphine

    PubMed Central

    Drewe, Jürgen; Ball, Howard A; Beglinger, Christoph; Peng, Bin; Kemmler, Andreas; Schächinger, Hartmut; Haefeli, Walter E

    2000-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effect of acute P-glycoprotein inhibition by the multidrug-resistance (MDR) modulator valspodar (SDZ PSC 833; PSC) on the pharmacokinetics, and potentially adverse pharmacodynamic effects of morphine, and its principal pharmacologically active metabolites, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). Methods In a double-blind, three-way crossover study, the pharmacokinetic and potentially adverse pharmacodynamic effects (reaction time, transcutaneous PCO2, blood pressure) of morphine were compared with and without acute inhibition ofP-glycoprotein by PSC. The effects of PSC alone were also evaluated. The study was performed in 18 healthy male volunteers and pharmacodynamic effects analysed by measuring the area under the effect (AUE) curve. 150 mg PSC (or its placebo) was given as an i.v. infusion over 2 h. With the expected inhibition of Pgp 1 h after starting PSC infusion, 7.5 morphine HCl (or its placebo) was infused over 2 h. Results The infusion of PSC resulted in blood concentrations expected to inhibit Pgp mediated transport. While the pharmacokinetics of plasma morphine and M6G. were unaffected there was a small but statistically significant increase in the AUC and Cmax of M3G (11.8 and 8.3%, respectively). The t½ and tmax were unaffected. The pharmacokinetic parameters of PSC were not affected by coadministration with morphine. PSC did not significantly affect the adverse events of morphine, as assessed by spontaneous reporting. Compared with PSC alone, morphine elicited an increase in reaction time (Emax 48 ms, compared with the predose absolute reaction time of 644 ms), which was not detected by the alertness-drowsiness score, indicating only slight sedation. There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (Emin−9 mmHg), and a trend for a fall in diastolic blood pressure (Emin−14.5 mmHg) and respiratory rate (Emin−1.8 breath·min−1). For all these parameters, the effects of PSC/morphine were

  12. Correlation of Clinical and Dosimetric Factors With Adverse Pulmonary Outcomes in Children After Lung Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatramani, Rajkumar, E-mail: rvenkatramani@chla.usc.edu; Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Kamath, Sunil

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. Results: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The followingmore » pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V{sub 22} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥22 Gy) and V{sub 30} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and V{sub dose} (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). Conclusions: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than

  13. Seven basic dimensions of personality pathology and their clinical consequences: Are all personalities equally harmful?

    PubMed

    Vall, Gemma; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Peri, Josep M; Gárriz, Miguel; Ferraz, Liliana; Baillés, Eva; Obiols, Jordi E

    2015-11-01

    Dimensional pathology models are increasingly being accepted for the assessment of disordered personalities, but their ability to predict negative outcomes is yet to be studied. We examine the relative clinical impact of seven basic dimensions of personality pathology through their associations with a wide range of clinical outcomes. A sample of 960 outpatients was assessed through a 7-factor model integrating the Cloninger, the Livesley, and the DSM taxonomies. Thirty-six indicators of clinical outcome covering three areas - dissatisfaction, functional difficulties, and clinical severity - were also assessed. The unique contribution of each personality dimension to clinical outcome was estimated through multiple regressions. Overall, personality dimensions explained 17.6% of the variance of clinical outcome, but varied substantially in terms of their unique contributions. Negative Emotionality had the greatest impact in all areas, contributing 43.9% of the explained variance. The remaining dimensions led to idiosyncratic patterns of clinical outcomes but had a comparatively minor clinical impact. A certain effect was also found for combinations of dimensions such as Negative Emotionality × Impulsive Sensation Seeking, but most interactions were clinically irrelevant. Our findings suggest that the most relevant dimensions of personality pathology are associated with very different clinical consequences and levels of harmfulness. The relative clinical impact of seven basic dimensions of personality pathology is examined. Negative Emotionality (Neuroticism) is 6-14 times as harmful as other pathological dimensions. The remaining dimensions and their interactions have very specific and comparatively minor clinical consequences. We examine only a handful of clinical outcomes. Our results may not be generalizable to other clinical or life outcomes. Our variables are self-reported and hence susceptible to bias. Our design does not allow us to establish causal

  14. [Academic discussion of adverse reaction of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ping; Yu, Ming; Wang, Li; Jiang, Xi-ren; Li, Xiao-bin; Wang, Hua-wei; Cao, Ying; Liu, Kai; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-01-01

    Data of clinical trial projects involved by clinical trial institutions certified by the State Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to November 2012 were collected to summarize adverse reactions in project summary/statistical reports, analyze the rate of adverse reactions of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors, and increase the awareness of the safety of new traditional Chinese medicines. A total of 73 050 cases in 209 projects of 14 specialties were collected, including 49 689 cases in the new traditional Chinese medicine group and 271 adverse reaction cases, with an incidence rate of adverse reactions at 0.55%. The adverse reaction rate in 3 months < middle long course ≤ 6 months was the highest (1.04%), whereas that in short course ≤ half a month was the lowest (0.48%). The adverse reaction was closely related with the route of administration, 1.28% for topical > 0.63% for injection > 0.50% for oral. In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate of patches was the highest (2.68%), whereas that of aerosols and suppositories was lowest (0). In the combined administration of the test drug and the simulation agent, the adverse reaction rate of external test patch + capsule was the highest (3.38%), whereas that of capsule + oral liquid, pills + granules, tablets + oral liquid, tablets + pills, tablet + capsule was the lowest (0). In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate was 0.47%; In the combined administration with simulation agent (drug volume increase), the adverse reaction rate was 0.74%. Different doses caused adverse reaction different rates; The adverse reaction rate of drugs with whole-course dose between 1 100-1 200 g was the highest (3.36%), that for whole-course doses of 500-600, 900-1 000, 1 400-1 500, 1 600-1 700, 1 800-1 900 g was the lowest (0). In conclusion, the adverse reaction rate of new traditional Chinese medicines was still up to 0

  15. Accuracy of Adverse Event Ascertainment in Clinical Trials for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimei; Kavcic, Marko; Troxel, Andrea B.; Huang, Yuan-Shun V.; Sung, Lillian; Alonzo, Todd A.; Gerbing, Robert; Hall, Matt; Daves, Marla H.; Horton, Terzah M.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Pollard, Jessica A.; Bagatell, Rochelle; Seif, Alix E.; Fisher, Brian T.; Luger, Selina; Gamis, Alan S.; Adamson, Peter C.; Aplenc, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Reporting of adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials is critical to understanding treatment safety, but data on AE accuracy are limited. This study sought to determine the accuracy of AE reporting for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia clinical trials and to test whether an external electronic data source can improve reporting. Methods Reported AEs were evaluated on two trials, Children’s Oncology Group AAML03P1 and AAML0531 arm B, with identical chemotherapy regimens but with different toxicity reporting requirements. Chart review for 12 AEs for patients enrolled in AAML0531 at 14 hospitals was the gold standard. The sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) of the AAML0531 AE report and AEs detected by review of Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) billing and microbiology data were compared with chart data. Results Select AE rates from AAML03P1 and AAML0531 arm B differed significantly and correlated with the targeted toxicities of each trial. Chart abstraction was performed on 204 patients (758 courses) on AAML0531. AE report sensitivity was < 50% for eight AEs, but PPV was > 75% for six AEs. AE reports for viridans group streptococcal bacteremia, a targeted toxicity on AAML0531, had a sensitivity of 78.3% and PPV of 98.1%. PHIS billing data had higher sensitivity (> 50% for nine AEs), but lower PPV (< 75% for 10 AEs). Viridans group streptococcal detection using PHIS microbiology data had high sensitivity (92.3%) and PPV (97.3%). Conclusion The current system of AE reporting for cooperative oncology group clinical trials in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia underestimates AE rates. The high sensitivity and PPV of PHIS microbiology data suggest that using external data sources may improve the accuracy of AE reporting. PMID:26884558

  16. Prospective validation of clinical criteria to identify emergency department patients at high risk for adverse drug events.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Corinne M; Badke, Katherin; Zhao, Amy; Wickham, Maeve E; Woo, Stephanie A; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2018-03-08

    Adverse drug events cause or contribute to one in nine emergency department presentations in North America, and are often misdiagnosed. Emergency departments have insufficient clinical pharmacists to complete medication reviews in all incoming patients, even though pharmacist-led medications reviews have been associated with improved health outcomes. Our objective was to validate clinical decision rules to identify patients presenting with adverse drug events so they could be prioritized for pharmacist-led medication review. This multicentre, prospective study was conducted in two tertiary and one community hospital in Canada. We enrolled 1529 adults presenting to emergency departments over 12 months. We applied two clinical decision rules and collected baseline variables prior to assessments by clinical pharmacists and physicians. We compared the physician and pharmacist diagnoses with the decision rule results. The primary outcome was a moderate or severe adverse drug event, defined as an unintended and harmful event related to medication use or misuse, which required a change in medical therapy, diagnostic testing, consultation, or admission. An independent committee adjudicated uncertain and discordant cases. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of both rules. Among 1529 patients, 184 (12.0%) were diagnosed with an adverse drug event. Rule 1 contained the variables (i) having a pre-existing medical condition or having taken antibiotics within one week, and (ii) age >80 or having a medication change within 28 days. They had a sensitivity of 91.3% (95%CI: 86.3 to 95.0%) and a specificity of 37.9% (95%CI: 35.3 to 40.6%) for adverse drug events. Our study validated clinical decision rules that can be applied by clinical pharmacists to limit the number of patients requiring medication review, while identifying the majority of patients presenting with clinically significant adverse drug events. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This

  17. Assessing the detection, reporting and investigation of adverse events in clinical trial protocols implemented in Cameroon: a documentary review of clinical trial protocols.

    PubMed

    Ebile, Akoh Walter; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Yakum, Martin Ndinakie; Djuidje, Marceline Ngounoue; Watcho, Pierre

    2015-09-29

    International guidelines recommend ethical and scientific quality standards for managing and reporting adverse events occurring during clinical trials to competent research ethics committees and regulatory authorities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical trial protocols in Cameroon are developed in line with national requirements and international guidelines as far as detecting, reporting and investigating of adverse events is concerned. It was a documentary review of all approved clinical trial protocols that were submitted at the Cameroon National Ethics Committee for evaluation from 1997 through 2012. Data were extracted using a preconceived and validated grid. Protocol review process targeted the title, abstract, objectives, methodology, resources, and the chapter on safety. In total, 106 (4.9 %) clinical trial protocols were identified from 2173 protocols seen in the archive and 104 (4.8 %) included for review. Seventy six (73.1 %) trials did not include the surveillance of adverse events as part of their objective. A total of 91 (87.5 %) protocols did not budget for adverse event surveillance, 76 (73.1 %) did not have a data safety management board (DSMB), 11(10.6 %) included insurance for participants, 47 (45.2 %) did not include a case definition for serious adverse events, 33 (31.7 %) described procedures to detect adverse events, 33 (31.7 %) described procedure for reporting and 22 (21.2 %) described procedure for investigating adverse events. Most clinical trial protocols in Cameroon are developed to focus on benefits and pay little attention to harms. The development of national guidelines can improve the surveillance of adverse events in clinical trial research conducted in Cameroon. Adverse events surveillance tools and a budget are critical for an adequate planning for adverse event surveillance when developing trial protocols. Clinical trial protocols submitted in the Cameroon National Ethics Committee do not adequately plan

  18. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat: A Document Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Penninga, Elisabeth I.; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials. Methods and Findings We received the CSRs from seven randomised placebo controlled orlistat trials (4,225 participants) submitted by Roche. The CSRs consisted of 8,716 pages and included protocols. Two researchers independently extracted data on adverse events from protocols and CSRs. Corresponding published papers were identified on PubMed and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about adverse events. In CSRs, gastrointestinal adverse events were only coded if the participant reported that they were “bothersome,” a condition that was not specified in the protocol for two of the trials. Serious adverse events were assessed for relationship to the drug by the sponsor, and all adverse events were coded by the sponsor using a glossary that could be updated by the sponsor. The criteria for withdrawal due to adverse events were in one case related to efficacy (high fasting glucose led to withdrawal), which meant that one trial had more withdrawals due to adverse events in the placebo group. Finally, only between 3% and 33% of the total number of investigator-reported adverse events from the trials were reported in the publications because of post hoc

  19. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat: A Document Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Penninga, Elisabeth I; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials. We received the CSRs from seven randomised placebo controlled orlistat trials (4,225 participants) submitted by Roche. The CSRs consisted of 8,716 pages and included protocols. Two researchers independently extracted data on adverse events from protocols and CSRs. Corresponding published papers were identified on PubMed and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about adverse events. In CSRs, gastrointestinal adverse events were only coded if the participant reported that they were "bothersome," a condition that was not specified in the protocol for two of the trials. Serious adverse events were assessed for relationship to the drug by the sponsor, and all adverse events were coded by the sponsor using a glossary that could be updated by the sponsor. The criteria for withdrawal due to adverse events were in one case related to efficacy (high fasting glucose led to withdrawal), which meant that one trial had more withdrawals due to adverse events in the placebo group. Finally, only between 3% and 33% of the total number of investigator-reported adverse events from the trials were reported in the publications because of post hoc filters, though six of seven papers

  20. Developing advanced clinical practice skills in gastrointestinal consequences of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Gee, Caroline; Andreyev, Jervoise; Muls, Ann

    2018-03-08

    This article explores the transition from a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) towards developing advanced clinical practice skills within a gastrointestinal consequences of cancer clinic. It presents data on the first 50 patients assessed by the CNS from a prospective service evaluation, demonstrating how this informed the nurse's future learning. There is high demand for advanced clinical practice skills to address unmet health needs and improve the quality, efficiency, and sustainability of healthcare services. However, a literature review found no literature on developing advanced clinical practice skills in this setting. Emerging themes from the service evaluation focused on barriers and enablers, ongoing support, organisational commitment and working in a multidisciplinary team. Blended learning provided both structured and opportunistic learning, embedding both formal and tacit knowledge, as roles require increasing flexibility. Clinical supervision and reflective practice were key in maintaining professional and peer support.

  1. Optimizing collection of adverse event data in cancer clinical trials supporting supplemental indications.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lee D; Melemed, Allen S; Preston, Alaknanda J; Chaudri Ross, Hilary A; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Fyfe, Gwendolyn A; Gough, Jacqueline M; Bushnell, William D; Stephens, Cynthia L; Mace, M Kelsey; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Schilsky, Richard L

    2010-12-01

    Although much is known about the safety of an anticancer agent at the time of initial marketing approval, sponsors customarily collect comprehensive safety data for studies that support supplemental indications. This adds significant cost and complexity to the study but may not provide useful new information. The main purpose of this analysis was to assess the amount of safety and concomitant medication data collected to determine a more optimal approach in the collection of these data when used in support of supplemental applications. Following a prospectively developed statistical analysis plan, we reanalyzed safety data from eight previously completed prospective randomized trials. A total of 107,884 adverse events and 136,608 concomitant medication records were reviewed for the analysis. Of these, four grade 1 to 2 and nine grade 3 and higher events were identified as drug effects that were not included in the previously established safety profiles and could potentially have been missed using subsampling. These events were frequently detected in subsamples of 400 patients or larger. Furthermore, none of the concomitant medication records contributed to labeling changes for the supplemental indications. Our study found that applying the optimized methodologic approach, described herein, has a high probability of detecting new drug safety signals. Focusing data collection on signals that cause physicians to modify or discontinue treatment ensures that safety issues of the highest concern for patients and regulators are captured and has significant potential to relieve strain on the clinical trials system.

  2. Impact of drug cost sharing on service use and adverse clinical outcomes in elderly receiving antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Philip S; Patrick, Amanda R; Dormuth, Colin; Maclure, Malcolm; Avorn, Jerry; Canning, Claire F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-03-01

    Depression imposes enormous burdens on the elderly. Despite this, rates of initiation of and adherence to recommended pharmacotherapy are frequently low in this population. Although initiatives such as the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) have improved seniors' access to antidepressants, there are concerns that the patient cost-sharing incorporated in the MMA may have unintended consequences if it reduces essential drug use. Age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes could make seniors particularly vulnerable to antidepressant regimens used inappropriately to save costs, increasing their risks of morbidity, hospitalizations, and nursing home placements. Two sequential large-scale "natural experiments'' in British Columbia provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the effect of cost sharing on outcomes and mental health service use among seniors. In January 2002 the province introduced a CAD 25 copay (CAD10 for low-income seniors). In May 2003 this copay policy was replaced by a second policy consisting of an income-based deductible, 25% coinsurance once the deductible was met, and full coverage once an out-of-pocket ceiling was met. The transition between the two policies is analogous to what many U.S. seniors experience when they transition from private insurance requiring copays to Medicare Part D requiring deductibles and coinsurance. To evaluate whether declines in antidepressant initiation after the introduction of two drug cost-sharing policies in British Columbia were associated with increased use of physician services, hospitalizations, and nursing home admissions among all British Columbia residents aged 65+. Records of physician service use, inpatient hospitalizations, and residential care admissions were obtained from administrative databases. Population-level patterns over time were plotted, and effects of implementing the cost-sharing policies examined in segmented linear regression models. Neither policy affected the rates of visits to

  3. Potential consequences of clinical application of artificial gametes: a systematic review of stakeholder views.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Saskia; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Hamer, Geert; Repping, Sjoerd; Dancet, Eline A F

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the formation of artificial gametes, i.e. gametes generated from progenitors or somatic cells, has led to scientific and societal discussion about their use in medically assisted reproduction. In animals, live births have already been achieved using artificial gametes of varying (cell type) sources and biological research seems to be progressing steadily toward clinical application in humans. Artificial gametes could potentially help not only infertile heterosexual couples of reproductive age of which one or both partners lacks functional gametes, but also post-menopausal women and same-sex couples, to conceive a child who will be genetically related to them. But as clinical application of these new technologies may have wider societal consequences, a proactive consideration of the possible impact seems timely and important. This review aims to contribute to this by providing a systematic overview of the potential consequences of clinical application of artificial gametes anticipated by different stakeholders. The electronic database 'Medline/Pubmed' was systematically searched with medical subject heading terms (MesH) for articles published in English between January 1970 and December 2013. Articles were selected based on eligibility and reference lists of eligible studies were hand searched. The reported potential consequences of clinical application of artificial gametes were extracted from the articles and were grouped into categories by content analysis. Per category, we noted which stakeholders referred to which potential consequences, based on author affiliations and, if applicable, study participants. The systematic search yielded 2424 articles, and 84 studies were included after screening. Nine positive consequences, 21 specific consequences requiring consideration and 22 recommendations referring to clinical application of artificial gametes were documented. All positive consequences, consequences requiring consideration and

  4. Adverse consequences of article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for persons with mental disabilities and an alternative way forward.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Matthé; Gather, Jakov

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted among medical ethicists that competence is a necessary condition for informed consent. In this view, if a patient is incompetent to make a particular treatment decision, the decision must be based on an advance directive or made by a substitute decision-maker on behalf of the patient. We call this the competence model. According to a recent report of the United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Human Rights, article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) presents a wholesale rejection of the competence model. The High Commissioner here adopts the interpretation of article 12 proposed by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. On this interpretation, CRPD article 12 renders it impermissible to deny persons with mental disabilities the right to make treatment decisions on the basis of impaired decision-making capacity and demands the replacement of all regimes of substitute decision-making by supported decision-making. In this paper, we explicate six adverse consequences of CRPD article 12 for persons with mental disabilities and propose an alternative way forward. The proposed model combines the strengths of the competence model and supported decision-making. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Adverse consequences of article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for persons with mental disabilities and an alternative way forward

    PubMed Central

    Gather, Jakov

    2018-01-01

    It is widely accepted among medical ethicists that competence is a necessary condition for informed consent. In this view, if a patient is incompetent to make a particular treatment decision, the decision must be based on an advance directive or made by a substitute decision-maker on behalf of the patient. We call this the competence model. According to a recent report of the United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Human Rights, article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) presents a wholesale rejection of the competence model. The High Commissioner here adopts the interpretation of article 12 proposed by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. On this interpretation, CRPD article 12 renders it impermissible to deny persons with mental disabilities the right to make treatment decisions on the basis of impaired decision-making capacity and demands the replacement of all regimes of substitute decision-making by supported decision-making. In this paper, we explicate six adverse consequences of CRPD article 12 for persons with mental disabilities and propose an alternative way forward. The proposed model combines the strengths of the competence model and supported decision-making. PMID:29070707

  6. Application of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) in human health and ecotoxicology capturing divergent consequences of conserved molecular initiating events via AOP networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework was developed to help organize and disseminate existing knowledge concerning the means through which specific perturbations of biological pathways can lead to adverse outcomes considered relevant to risk-based regulatory decision-making...

  7. Application of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in Human Health and Ecotoxicology Capturing Divergent Consequences of Conserved Molecular Initiating Events via AOP Networks (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework was developed to help organize and disseminate existing knowledge concerning the means through which specific perturbations of biological pathways can lead to adverse outcomes considered relevant to risk-based regulatory decision-making...

  8. Improving drug safety: From adverse drug reaction knowledge discovery to clinical implementation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuxiang; Hu, Yong; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Yin, Zhinan; Chen, Xue-Wen; Liu, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major public health concern, causing over 100,000 fatalities in the United States every year with an annual cost of $136 billion. Early detection and accurate prediction of ADRs is thus vital for drug development and patient safety. Multiple scientific disciplines, namely pharmacology, pharmacovigilance, and pharmacoinformatics, have been addressing the ADR problem from different perspectives. With the same goal of improving drug safety, this article summarizes and links the research efforts in the multiple disciplines into a single framework from comprehensive understanding of the interactions between drugs and biological system and the identification of genetic and phenotypic predispositions of patients susceptible to higher ADR risks and finally to the current state of implementation of medication-related decision support systems. We start by describing available computational resources for building drug-target interaction networks with biological annotations, which provides a fundamental knowledge for ADR prediction. Databases are classified by functions to help users in selection. Post-marketing surveillance is then introduced where data-driven approach can not only enhance the prediction accuracy of ADRs but also enables the discovery of genetic and phenotypic risk factors of ADRs. Understanding genetic risk factors for ADR requires well organized patient genetics information and analysis by pharmacogenomic approaches. Finally, current state of clinical decision support systems is presented and described how clinicians can be assisted with the integrated knowledgebase to minimize the risk of ADR. This review ends with a discussion of existing challenges in each of disciplines with potential solutions and future directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Is clinical performance adversely affected by wearing gloves during paediatric peripheral intravenous cannulation?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Lee, Mark; Knott, Susan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate if wearing protective gloves during paediatric intravenous cannulation affects performance of the procedure. This was a prospective observational study. Peripheral intravenous cannulation (PIVC) performed within the Paediatric ED was observed and recorded over a 12 month period. Data were compared between those clinicians wearing gloves and those not wearing gloves during PIVC. One thousand and twenty paediatric cannulations were recorded during the observed period. The mean age of the children was 5.79 years. The overall success rate of cannulation was 86.18% and first attempt success rate 76.08%. Overall, gloves were used by 54.31% of clinicians to establish vascular access; glove use was lowest in the registrar group (41.11% compliance rate). The glove-wearing group had comparable overall success rate of 85.74% (475/554) to the no-gloves group of 86.70% (404/466). The difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Higher incidence of significant blood spillage during the procedure was observed among clinicians wearing no gloves (16.74%) in comparison with their glove-wearing counterparts (9.03%, P < 0.05). One needlestick injury was recorded in the present study period. There was no difference in blood culture contamination rate between glove-wearing group and no-gloves group (3.94% vs 3.76%, P > 0.05). The present study shows that the use of protective gloves was not associated with adverse outcomes of clinical performance during paediatric cannulation. The low compliance rate of gloves use is alarming, and many clinicians might be exposed to potential blood-borne infections. Clinicians should be encouraged and supported to use gloves for paediatric cannulation. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. International consensus (ICON) on: clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity, a global problem.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Thomas, Wayne R; Chapman, Martin D; Lee, Bee Wah; Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie; Chew, Fook Tim; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Behrooz, Leili; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Pascal, Demoly; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Geller, Mario; Quirce, Santiago; Vrtala, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Ollert, Markus; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Calderón, Moises A; Barnes, Charles S; Custovic, Adnan; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Since mite allergens are the most relevant inducers of allergic diseases worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and increased burden on health services, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has proposed to issue an International Consensus (ICON) on the clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity. The objectives of this document are to highlight aspects of mite biology that are clinically relevant, to update the current knowledge on mite allergens, routes of sensitization, the genetics of IgE responses to mites, the epidemiologic aspects of mite hypersensitivity, the clinical pictures induced by mites, the diagnosis, specific immunotherapeutic approaches, and prevention.

  11. Vast Rise of Unconventional Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States, and the Extensive Adverse Ecological and Legal Consequences, Resulting from Failed Federal and State Regulatory Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokus, A.

    2017-12-01

    The quantity of unconventional HF campaigns has increased immensely, predominantly in the US, over the past decade. Numerous scholars have published research pertaining to the negative consequences resulting from HF. The principal contributor of the detrimental damage sustained, is the regulations administering HF, fail to protect against adverse externalities such as the increased frequency and intensity of injection induced seismicity. Induced earthquakes are now associated within the scope of civil litigation. Historically, seismicity has been perceived as an unpredictable catastrophic event. Currently, there is a plethora of litigation transpiring due to induced seismicity. These credible cases pose as a peril to existing legal theory, generating the potential to manifest profound consequences. Conducting qualitative policy oriented research indicated that regulations which protect against unfavorable repercussions, are administered by state authorities and corporations, who provide absolute governance. The EPA of 2005, 42 USCS § 15801 exempted HF from CWA, 33 USCS § 1251 and SWDA, 42 USCS § 300f. Applying an analytical jurisprudence approach, utilizing qualitative, longitudinal, and explanatory indagation, this study reviewed judicial dictum, orbiter dictum, along with transcripts related to every pending, dismissed, or settled litigated claim, related to damages involving induced seismicity in the states of AR, OK, and TX. Concluding that plaintiffs seeking declaratory and injunctive relief under RCRA, 42 U.S.C. § 6972(a)(1)(B) will be unsuccessful. District judges have followed precedent established by 319 U.S. 315 (1943), recently demonstrated in Sierra Club v. Chesapeake Operating, 5:16-CV-00134, and Pawnee Nation v. Eagle Road Oil, No. CIV-2017-803. Federal legislators can enact safe regulations under U.S. Const. art. I, § 8, cl. 3, articulated in 312 U.S. 100 (1941), reaffirmed by 317 U.S. 111 (1942), and 514 U.S. 549 (1995). OR has predicted a 40

  12. Fibrin clot properties independently predict adverse clinical outcome following acute coronary syndrome: a PLATO substudy.

    PubMed

    Sumaya, Wael; Wallentin, Lars; James, Stefan K; Siegbahn, Agneta; Gabrysch, Katja; Bertilsson, Maria; Himmelmann, Anders; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Storey, Robert F

    2018-01-29

    To determine whether fibrin clot properties are associated with clinical outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Plasma samples were collected at hospital discharge from 4354 ACS patients randomized to clopidogrel or ticagrelor in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. A validated turbidimetric assay was employed to study plasma clot lysis time and maximum turbidity (a measure of clot density). One-year rates of cardiovascular (CV) death, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and PLATO-defined major bleeding events were assessed after sample collection. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. After adjusting for CV risk factors, each 50% increase in lysis time was associated with CV death/spontaneous MI [HR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.31; P < 0.01] and CV death alone (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17-1.59; P < 0.001). Similarly, each 50% increase in maximum turbidity was associated with increased risk of CV death (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50; P = 0.024). After adjustment for other prognostic biomarkers (leukocyte count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity troponin T, cystatin C, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and growth differentiation factor-15), the association with CV death remained significant for lysis time (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01-1.42; P = 0.042) but not for maximum turbidity. These associations were consistent regardless of randomized antiplatelet treatment (all interaction P > 0.05). Neither lysis time nor maximum turbidity was associated with major bleeding events. Fibrin clots that are resistant to lysis independently predict adverse outcome in ACS patients. Novel therapies targeting fibrin clot properties might be a new avenue for improving prognosis in patients with ACS. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology

  13. The nature, patterns, clinical outcomes, and financial impact of intraoperative adverse events in emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Elie P; Bohnen, Jordan D; Farhat, Maha R; Razmdjou, Shadi; Mavros, Michael N; Yeh, Daniel D; Lee, Jarone; Butler, Kathryn; De Moya, Marc; Velmahos, George C; Kaafarani, Haytham M A

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about intraoperative adverse events (iAEs) in emergency surgery (ES). We sought to describe iAEs in ES and to investigate their clinical and financial impact. The 2007 to 2012 administrative and American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases at our tertiary academic center were: (1) linked, (2) queried for all ES procedures, and then (3) screened for iAEs using the ICD-9-CM-based Patient Safety Indicator "accidental puncture/laceration". Flagged cases were systematically reviewed to: (1) confirm or exclude the occurrence of iAEs (defined as inadvertent injuries during the operation) and (2) extract additional variables such as procedure type, approach, complexity (measured by relative value units), need for adhesiolysis, and extent of repair. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the independent impact of iAEs on 30-day morbidity, mortality, and hospital charges. Of a total of 9,288 patients, 1,284 (13.8%) patients underwent ES, of which 23 had iAEs (1.8%); 18 of 23 (78.3%) of the iAEs involved the small bowel or spleen, 10 of 23 (43.5%) required suture repair, and 8 of 23 (34.8%) required tissue or organ resection. Compared with those without iAEs, patients with iAEs were older (median age 62 vs 50; P = .04); their procedures were more complex (total relative value unit 46.7, interquartile range [27.5 to 52.6] vs 14.5 [.5 to 30.2]; P < .001), longer in duration (>3 hours: 52% vs 8%; P < .001), and more often required adhesiolysis (39.1% vs 13.5% P = .001). Patients with iAEs had increased total charges ($31,080 vs $11,330, P < .001), direct charges ($20,030 vs $7,387, P < .001), and indirect charges ($11,460 vs $4,088, P < .001). On multivariable analyses, iAEs were independently associated with increased 30-day morbidity (odds ratio, 3.56 [CI, 1.10 to 11.54]; P = .03) and prolonged postoperative length of stay (LOS; LOS >7 days; odds ratio, 5.60 [1.54 to 20.35]; P = .01]. A trend

  14. Long-term clinical consequences of urinary tract infections during childhood: a review.

    PubMed

    Toffolo, Antonella; Ammenti, Anita; Montini, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Kidney scarring related to urinary tract infection in childhood has been considered the cause of serious long-term clinical consequences. This assumption is now debated, as the advent of routine antenatal ultrasound in the 1980s has shown that a consistent part of the changes previously attributed to postinfectious scarring is mainly due to congenital malformations. With the aim of determining what is presently known on the long-term clinical consequences of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in childhood, we performed a review of the literature on the relation between UTIs and blood pressure, renal function, growth and pregnancy-related complications. By searching Medline/PubMed and Embase from 1980 to 2011, we identified 20 cohorts of children from 23 papers.   Renal function: there are no clear data to establish long-term consequences following UTIs during childhood. Most data seem to show that the outcome of renal function can already be delineated at first presentation or in the initial years of follow-up; only 0.4% of children with normal renal function at start presented a decrease during follow-up. Hypertension: there is a low risk, associated with renal damage. Growth and pregnancy-related complications: the few available data seem to exclude a major influence of UTIs. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Houdek, Devon

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testosterone decline in men on bone health are less well known. Much of our knowledge comes from observational studies and retrospective analysis on small groups of men with variable causes of primary or secondary hypogonadism and mild to overt testosterone deficiencies. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of adult male hypogonadism on bone metabolism. The direct and indirect effects of testosterone on bone cells will be explored as well as the important differences in male osteoporosis and assessment as compared to that in females. The clinical consequence of both primary and secondary hypogonadism, as well as testosterone decline in older males, on bone density and fracture risk in men will be summarized. Finally, the therapeutic options and their efficacy in male osteoporosis and hypogonadism will be discussed. PMID:28408926

  16. Conditions and consequences of medical futility--from a literature review to a clinical model.

    PubMed

    Löfmark, R; Nilstun, T

    2002-04-01

    To present an analysis of "futility" that is useful in the clinical setting. Literature review. According to Medline more than 750 articles have been published about medical futility. Three criteria (language, time period, and the authors expressed their own opinions) singled out 43 of them. The authors' opinions about futility were analysed using the scheme: "If certain conditions are satisfied, then a particular measure is futile" and "If a particular measure is futile, then certain moral consequences are implied". Regarding conditions, most authors stated that judgments about futility should be made by physicians. The measure was usually some kind of medical treatment, and the goals related to quality of life, physiological improvement, or prolongation of life. The probability of success in reaching the goal was in most cases described in semiquantitative terms. Regarding consequences, the authors stated that health care professionals may (sometimes ought or should) withhold or withdraw a futile measure, most often after a dialogue with the patient (29 articles), but sometimes without informing the patient (nine articles), or with one-way information (four articles). Over time more and more articles recommend that the patient should be involved in joint decision making. Based on this literature review a clinical model was developed. The model, requiring that conditions and consequences should be made explicit, may, in "futility situations", facilitate both the collection of the necessary information and make the moral implications visible. It also makes communication about measures considered to be futile possible without using such ambiguous terms as "futile".

  17. [Direct costs and clinical aspects of adverse drug reactions in patients admitted to a level 3 hospital internal medicine ward].

    PubMed

    Tribiño, Gabriel; Maldonado, Carlos; Segura, Omar; Díaz, Jorge

    2006-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occur frequently in hospitals and increase costs of health care; however, few studies have quantified the clinical and economic impact of ADRs in Colombia. These impacts were evaluated by calculating costs associated with ADRs in patients hospitalized in the internal medicine ward of a Level 3 hospital located in Bogotá, Colombia. In addition, salient clinical features of ADRs were identified and characterized. Intensive follow-ups for a cohort of patients were conducted for a five month period in order to detect ADRs; different ways to classify them, according to literature, were considered as well. Information was collected using the INVIMA reporting format, and causal probability was evaluated with the Naranjo algorithm. Direct costs were calculated from the perspective of payer, based on the following costs: additional hospital stay, medications, paraclinical tests, additional procedures, patient displacement to intermediate or intensive care units, and other costs. Of 836 patients admitted to the service, 268 adverse drug reactions were detected in 208 patients (incidence proportion 25.1%, occurence rate 0.32). About the ADRs found, 74.3% were classified as probable, 92.5% were type A, and 81.3% were moderate. The body system most often affected was the circulatory system (33.9%). Drugs acting on the blood were most frequently those ones associated with adverse reactions (37.6%). The costs resulting from medical care of adverse drug reactions varied from COL dollar 93,633,422 (USD dollar 35,014.92) to COL dollar 122,155,406 (USD dollar 45,680.94), according to insurance type, during the study period. Adverse drug reactions have a significant negative health and financial impact on patient welfare. Because of the substantial resources required for their medical care and the significant proportion of preventable adverse reactions, active programs of institutional pharmacovigilance are highly recommended.

  18. Acute bacterial meningitis in the intensive care unit and risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes: retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, D; Gonçalves-Pereira, J; Janeiro, S; Silvestre, J; Bento, L; Póvoa, P

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial meningitis constitutes a medical emergency. Its burden has driven from childhood to the elderly and the immunocompromised population. However, the admission of patients with bacterial meningitis to the intensive care unit (ICU) has been sparsely approached, as have the prognostic factors associated with an adverse clinical outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis during a 7-year period of patients older than 18 years admitted to 2 polyvalent ICUs. Clinical, demographic, and outcome data were collected to evaluate its clinical impact on the outcome of patients with acute bacterial meningitis. We identified 65 patients with the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis (mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, 23; hospital mortality, 40%). Upon clinical presentation, their most frequent signs were fever (84%), seizures (21.5%), and a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (GCS<8; 58.4%). Fifty-five patients (85%) required organ support. A definite microbiological diagnosis was achieved in 45 patients. An adverse clinical outcome was noted in 46 patients (71%). These patients were older (P=.005), had higher Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (P=.022), and had lower GCS (P=.022). In the multivariate analysis, older age (per year; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.059) was associated with an adverse outcome, whereas a higher GCS (per point; aOR, 0.826) and presence of fever upon admission (aOR, 0.142) increase the chance of a good recovery. Patients with acute bacterial meningitis admitted to ICU had substantial morbidity and mortality. Those with low GCS or absence of fever have a particularly high risk of an adverse outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhog, Raghavendra; Godhi, Brinda S; Nandlal, Bhojraj; Kumar, Shruti S; Raju, Veena; Rashmi, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence and severity of oral condition related to untreated dental caries with PUFA index and to relate period of institutional stay, oral hygiene practice and diet of orphan children to caries experience ratio. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional survey conducted among 488 children of 12-14 years living in 5 different orphanages of Mysore district, India. Data regarding oral hygiene practices and oral health status (PUFA, DMFT, OH I-S and GI) were collected through structured questionnaire and by type III clinical oral examinations. The collected data were processed statistically. Results: The PUFA ratio indicates 21% of decayed component had progressed to pulp involvement and abscess formation. The overall prevalence of PUFA was 37.7%. 31.1% children showed one or more pulpally involved tooth in their oral cavity. Correlation between periods for being the child in the institute to DMFT showed negative value indicting decrease in DMFT as the duration of stay in orphanage increases. Conclusion: The result show oral health condition in orphan children was neglected. Children from this disadvantaged background have shown a high prevalence of dental caries with low dental care utilization. PUFA index is an effective index in evaluating clinical consequences of un-treated caries. How to cite this article: Shanbhog R, Godhi BS, Nandlal B, Kumar SS, Raju V, Rashmi S. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):1-9. PMID:24324297

  20. Exploring the perception of nursing students about consequences of reflection in clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Shahnaz; Haghani, Fariba; Yamani, Nikoo; Kalyani, Majid Najafi

    2017-01-01

    Background Reflection on practical experiences is a key element that enables students to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses and develop nursing skills. Whilst reflection may enhance students’ learning in practice, there is little evidence about nursing students’ perception of the consequences of reflection in clinical settings. Objective This study aimed to explore Iranian nursing students’ perception regarding the consequences of reflection during clinical practices. Methods This qualitative study was conducted by a conventional content analysis approach in two nursing schools at Shiraz and Fasa Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews during 2015–2016, from 20 students selected by purposive sampling. All the interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by content analysis method. Rigor of this study was approved by member check and external audit. Results Two categories emerged from the data analysis, including movement toward professionalism and self-actualization of emotions. The former consisted of three subcategories of function modification, sharing experiences and generalizing experiences. The latter consisted of two subcategories of inner satisfaction and peace of mind. Conclusion The results indicated that nursing students’ reflection in clinical settings is effective in personal and professional levels. Reflection in a personal level led to positive emotions that increased the quality of care in patients. Accordingly, nursing educators need to create a nurturing climate as well as supporting reflective behaviors of nursing students. PMID:29038696

  1. Exploring the perception of nursing students about consequences of reflection in clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Shahnaz; Haghani, Fariba; Yamani, Nikoo; Kalyani, Majid Najafi

    2017-09-01

    Reflection on practical experiences is a key element that enables students to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses and develop nursing skills. Whilst reflection may enhance students' learning in practice, there is little evidence about nursing students' perception of the consequences of reflection in clinical settings. This study aimed to explore Iranian nursing students' perception regarding the consequences of reflection during clinical practices. This qualitative study was conducted by a conventional content analysis approach in two nursing schools at Shiraz and Fasa Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews during 2015-2016, from 20 students selected by purposive sampling. All the interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by content analysis method. Rigor of this study was approved by member check and external audit. Two categories emerged from the data analysis, including movement toward professionalism and self-actualization of emotions. The former consisted of three subcategories of function modification, sharing experiences and generalizing experiences. The latter consisted of two subcategories of inner satisfaction and peace of mind. The results indicated that nursing students' reflection in clinical settings is effective in personal and professional levels. Reflection in a personal level led to positive emotions that increased the quality of care in patients. Accordingly, nursing educators need to create a nurturing climate as well as supporting reflective behaviors of nursing students.

  2. Common data elements for secondary use of electronic health record data for clinical trial execution and serious adverse event reporting.

    PubMed

    Bruland, Philipp; McGilchrist, Mark; Zapletal, Eric; Acosta, Dionisio; Proeve, Johann; Askin, Scott; Ganslandt, Thomas; Doods, Justin; Dugas, Martin

    2016-11-22

    Data capture is one of the most expensive phases during the conduct of a clinical trial and the increasing use of electronic health records (EHR) offers significant savings to clinical research. To facilitate these secondary uses of routinely collected patient data, it is beneficial to know what data elements are captured in clinical trials. Therefore our aim here is to determine the most commonly used data elements in clinical trials and their availability in hospital EHR systems. Case report forms for 23 clinical trials in differing disease areas were analyzed. Through an iterative and consensus-based process of medical informatics professionals from academia and trial experts from the European pharmaceutical industry, data elements were compiled for all disease areas and with special focus on the reporting of adverse events. Afterwards, data elements were identified and statistics acquired from hospital sites providing data to the EHR4CR project. The analysis identified 133 unique data elements. Fifty elements were congruent with a published data inventory for patient recruitment and 83 new elements were identified for clinical trial execution, including adverse event reporting. Demographic and laboratory elements lead the list of available elements in hospitals EHR systems. For the reporting of serious adverse events only very few elements could be identified in the patient records. Common data elements in clinical trials have been identified and their availability in hospital systems elucidated. Several elements, often those related to reimbursement, are frequently available whereas more specialized elements are ranked at the bottom of the data inventory list. Hospitals that want to obtain the benefits of reusing data for research from their EHR are now able to prioritize their efforts based on this common data element list.

  3. [Hepatic transit times and liver elasticity compared with meld in predicting a 1 year adverse clinical outcome of a clinically diagnosed cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Koller, Tomáš; Piešťanská, Zuzana; Hlavatý, Tibor; Holomáň, Jozef; Glasa, Jozef; Payer, Juraj

    Hepatic transit times measured by the contrast enhanced ultrasonography and liver elasticity were found to predict a clinically significant portal hypertension. However, these modalities we not yet sufficiently evaluated in predicting adverse clinical outcome in patients with clinically diagnosed cirrhosis (D´Amico stages > 1), having a clinically significant portal hypertension. The aim of our study was to assess the predictive power of the liver transit times and the liver elasticity on an adverse clinical outcome of clinically diagnosed cirrhosis compared with the MELD score. The study group included 48 consecutive outpatients with cirrhosis in the 2., 3. and 4. DAmico stages. Patients with stage 4 could have jaundice, patients with other complications of portal hypertension were excluded. Transit times were measured from the time of intravenous administration of contrast agent (Sonovue) to a signal appearance in a hepatic vein (hepatic vein arrival time, HVAT) or time difference between the contrast signal in the hepatic artery and hepatic vein (hepatic transit time, HTT) in seconds. Elasticity was measured using the transient elastography (Fibroscan). The transit times and elasticity were measured at baseline and patients were followed for up for 1 year. Adverse outcome of cirrhosis was defined as the appearance of clinically apparent ascites and/or hospitalization for liver disease and/or death within 1 year. The mean age was 61 years, with female/male ratio 23/25. At baseline, the median Child-Pugh score was 5 (IQR 5.0-6.0), MELD 9.5 (IQR 7.6 to 12.1), median HVAT was 22 s (IQR 19-25) and HTT 6 (IQR 5-9). HTT and HVAT negatively correlated with Child-Pugh (-0.351 and -0.441, p = 0.002) and MELD (-0.479 and -0.388, p = 0.006) scores. The adverse outcome at 1-year was observed in 11 cases (22.9 %), including 6 deaths and 5 hospitalizations. Median HVAT in those with/without the adverse outcome was 20 seconds (IQR 19.3-23.5) compared with 22 s (IQR 19-26, p

  4. Frequency of changing enteral alimentation bags and tubing, and adverse clinical outcomes in patients in a long term care facility.

    PubMed

    Graham, S; McIntyre, M; Chicoine, J; Gerard, B; Laughren, R; Cowley, G; Morrison, J; Aoki, F Y; Nicolle, L E

    1993-01-01

    Enteral alimentation, given via nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes, is a well established practice to provide nutrition for patients with significant neurological injury. The frequency with which enteral feeding bags and tubes require change and potential adverse effects associated with bacterial contamination of tube feeds remain controversial. The authors studied different times between enteral feeding bag and tube changes, and the effect on adverse clinical outcomes in residents of a long term care facility. In the first study, residents were randomized to 24 h (n = 2), 48 h (n = 3) or 72 h (n = 6) tube feeding and bag changes with clinical status monitored in a standardized fashion for six months. In the second study, patients were randomized to 24 h (n = 6) or 72 h (n = 6) changes. Patient-days of follow-up were 382, 574 and 1000 for the three arms of the first study period and 556 and 496 for the two arms of the second study. No differences in potential clinical adverse events--including fever, gastrointestinal symptoms or pneumonia--were observed with different durations of tubing change. This study suggests it is appropriate to change alimentation tube and feeding bags every 72 h (rather than every 24 h). The less frequent changes will decrease supply costs and free nursing time for other activities.

  5. Incorporating clinical outcomes and economic consequences into drug formulary decisions: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Mather, D B; Sullivan, S D; Augenstein, D; Fullerton, D S; Atherly, D

    1999-03-01

    In 1994, Regence BlueShield (Regence), a large non-staff model health plan, adopted guidelines governing the review of new and existing drug products. However, certain limitations were apparent: adequate data were not available in a timely fashion; unpublished studies and information on unapproved indications were difficult to obtain; data addressing humanistic and economic outcomes were not routinely supplied by manufacturers; and the time required by Regence staff clinical pharmacists to assemble and summarize published clinical studies for the pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committee was excessive. To describe the process used by Regence to collect and review clinical, economic, and other health outcomes data as part of the plan's drug formulary adoption process. PROCESS DESCRIPTION: To address these limitations, Regence revised its process to require pharmaceutical manufacturers to submit a detailed dossier with clinical and economic data from published and unpublished studies, along with a disease-based economic model projecting the potential impact that introducing the product would have on health outcomes and economic consequences occurring across the entire Regence system. After performing independent literature reviews to ensure the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the information obtained, clinical pharmacists at Regence complete a detailed summary of each drug for the P&T committee. The new process has addressed the limitations of the previous system and, by improving the timeliness and relevance of available information, it supports Regence's goal of maintaining an evidence-based formulary.

  6. Design, implementation and evaluation of a clinical decision support system to prevent adverse drug events.

    PubMed

    Del Fiol, G; Rocha, B H; Nohama, P

    2000-01-01

    Adverse drug events are known to be a major health problem worldwide. It is estimated that the annual costs related to these events in the United States are greater than the total costs with cardiovascular disease care. Decision support systems that assist drug ordering have demonstrated to be a powerful tool to prevent prescription errors and adverse drug events. On the other hand, some issues related to the development, implementation, configuration, and evaluation of these decision support systems still need further research. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a decision support system prototype that helps with the prevention of adverse drug events by detecting drug-drug interactions in drug orders. The structure of the system tries to solve some of the problems described by the literature, such as integration with hospital information systems, adaptability to local needs, and knowledge base maintenance. The proposed model has shown to be an effective method for representing drug-drug interactions. The prototype was evaluated by a retrospective study using a dataset with 37.237 prescriptions. The system was able to detect 10.044 (27.0%) orders containing one or more drug-drug interactions. Among these interactions, 6.4% had high severity. In a future study, it is intended to apply the developed system in a real-time on-line environment, evaluating the benefits achieved in terms of improvement in medical practice and patient outcomes.

  7. From ultrasocial to antisocial: a role for oxytocin in the acute reinforcing effects and long-term adverse consequences of drug use?

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, I S; Callaghan, P D; Hunt, G E

    2008-01-01

    Addictive drugs can profoundly affect social behaviour both acutely and in the long-term. Effects range from the artificial sociability imbued by various intoxicating agents to the depressed and socially withdrawn state frequently observed in chronic drug users. Understanding such effects is of great potential significance in addiction neurobiology. In this review we focus on the ‘social neuropeptide' oxytocin and its possible role in acute and long-term effects of commonly used drugs. Oxytocin regulates social affiliation and social recognition in many species and modulates anxiety, mood and aggression. Recent evidence suggests that popular party drugs such as MDMA and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) may preferentially activate brain oxytocin systems to produce their characteristic prosocial and prosexual effects. Oxytocin interacts with the mesolimbic dopamine system to facilitate sexual and social behaviour, and this oxytocin-dopamine interaction may also influence the acquisition and expression of drug-seeking behaviour. An increasing body of evidence from animal models suggests that even brief exposure to drugs such as MDMA, cannabinoids, methamphetamine and phencyclidine can cause long lasting deficits in social behaviour. We discuss preliminary evidence that these adverse effects may reflect long-term neuroadaptations in brain oxytocin systems. Laboratory studies and preliminary clinical studies also indicate that raising brain oxytocin levels may ameliorate acute drug withdrawal symptoms. It is concluded that oxytocin may play an important, yet largely unexplored, role in drug addiction. Greater understanding of this role may ultimately lead to novel therapeutics for addiction that can improve mood and facilitate the recovery of persons with drug use disorders. PMID:18475254

  8. The metoclopramide black box warning for tardive dyskinesia: effect on clinical practice, adverse event reporting, and prescription drug lawsuits.

    PubMed

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D; Deepak, Parakkal; Sifuentes, Humberto; Devi, Radha; Du, Hongyan; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2013-06-01

    We examined the effects of the black box warning about the risk of tardive dyskinesia (TD) with chronic use of metoclopramide on management of gastroparesis within a single clinical practice, and on reporting of adverse events. Medical records of gastroparesis patients were evaluated for physician management choices. The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) was analyzed for event reports, and for lawyer-initiated reports, with metoclopramide from 2004 to 2010. Google Scholar was searched for court opinions against metoclopramide manufacturers. Before the black box warning, 69.8% of patients received metoclopramide for gastroparesis, compared with 23.7% after the warning. Gastroenterologists prescribed domperidone more often after than before the warning. Metoclopramide prescriptions decreased after 2008. Adverse event reporting increased after the warning. Only 3.6% of all FAERS reports but 70% of TD reports were filed by lawyers, suggesting a distortion in signal. Forty-seven legal opinions were identified, 33 from 2009-2010. The black box warning for metoclopramide has decreased its usage and increased its rate of adverse event reporting. Lawyer-initiated reports of TD hinder pharmacovigilance.

  9. [Clinical consequences of replacing milk with yogurt in persistent infantile diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Touhami, M; Boudraa, G; Mary, J Y; Soltana, R; Desjeux, J F

    1992-02-01

    Persistent diarrhea is an episode of diarrhea that begins acutely but lasts longer than expected for this usually self-limited disease. Treatment of this ill-defined syndrome is not well standardized but immediate intervention is required to minimize the risk of malnutrition with its various consequences. This randomized clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of substituting yogurt for milk, as the only treatment. After a one to two-day observation period during which a standard milk diet was given, 78 children aged 3 to 36 months with confirmed persistent diarrhea of more than 15 days but less than one month duration and negative tests for fecal blood were fed either milk (infant formula) or yogurt (infant formula fermented with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus). At inclusion both groups were comparable for age, nutritional status, diarrhea, and lactose hydrogen breath test results. Clinical treatment failure (weight loss greater than 5% in one day or persistent diarrhea after 5 days) was significantly less common in children fed yogurt (15 +/- 6%) than in children fed milk (45 +/- 8%). The beneficial effects of feeding yogurt were apparent within 48 hours in 67 +/- 8% of infants. In conclusion, these data confirm the clinical efficacy of substituting yogurt for milk in young children with persistent diarrhea. They also suggest that yogurt may be a good alternative for the initial treatment of persistent diarrhea.

  10. Two-Year Clinical Outcomes of the CONSEQUENT Trial: Can Femoropopliteal Lesions be Treated with Sustainable Clinical Results that are Economically Sound?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Thomas; Waliszewski, Matthias; Roca, Catherine; Redlich, Ulf; Tautenhahn, Jörg; Pech, Maciej; Halloul, Zuhir; Gögebakan, Özlem; Meyer, Dirk-Roelfs; Gemeinhardt, Ines; Zeller, Thomas; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Ott, Ilka; Tepe, Gunnar

    2018-03-27

    The previously reported 6-month angiographic and 12-month clinical outcomes of the CONSEQUENT trial demonstrated the safety and efficacy of a novel paclitaxel-resveratrol-coated balloon for the treatment of lesions in the femoropopliteal segment. The purpose of this report is to present the 2-year results including a cost-benefit analysis for Germany. Patients with symptomatic peripheral artery occlusive disease in femoropopliteal lesions were randomized either to drug-coated balloon (DCB, n = 78) or plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA, n = 75). As secondary endpoints, the 2-year clinical results consisting of target lesion revascularization (TLR), patency and increase in walking distance were recorded. Based on the Kaplan-Meier analyses for TLR and other adverse events, a cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the German DRG system. There were no additional TLRs in both groups between 14 and 24 months so that the corresponding rates remained significantly different between the treatment groups (DCB: 19.1 vs. POBA 40.6%, p = 0.007). At 2 years, the patency rate was significantly higher in the DCB group (72.3 vs. 48.4%, p = 0.006). The walking distance increase was also significantly higher after DCB angioplasty (172 ± 103 vs. 52 ± 136 m, p = 0.001). We estimated 2-year cost savings of € 1111.97 per patient treated with DCB instead of POBA. The use of paclitaxel-resveratrol matrix-coated peripheral balloons compared to POBA was associated with a significantly reduced TLR rate, superior patency and substantial cost savings at 2 years. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01970579.

  11. The costs associated with adverse event procedures for an international HIV clinical trial determined by activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Chou, Victoria B; Omer, Saad B; Hussain, Hamidah; Mugasha, Christine; Musisi, Maria; Mmiro, Francis; Musoke, Philippa; Jackson, J Brooks; Guay, Laura A

    2007-12-01

    To determine costs for adverse event (AE) procedures for a large HIV perinatal trial by analyzing actual resource consumption using activity-based costing (ABC) in an international research setting. The AE system for an ongoing clinical trial in Uganda was evaluated using ABC techniques to determine costs from the perspective of the study. Resources were organized into cost categories (eg, personnel, patient care expenses, laboratory testing, equipment). Cost drivers were quantified, and unit cost per AE was calculated. A subset of time and motion studies was performed prospectively to observe clinic personnel time required for AE identification. In 18 months, there were 9028 AEs, with 970 (11%) reported as serious adverse events. Unit cost per AE was $101.97. Overall, AE-related costs represented 32% ($920,581 of $2,834,692) of all study expenses. Personnel ($79.30) and patient care ($11.96) contributed the greatest proportion of component costs. Reported AEs were predominantly nonserious (mild or moderate severity) and unrelated to study drug(s) delivery. Intensive identification and management of AEs to conduct clinical trials ethically and protect human subjects require expenditure of substantial human and financial resources. Better understanding of these resource requirements should improve planning and funding of international HIV-related clinical trials.

  12. Potential adverse reactions to herbal medicines in patients attending a nephrology clinic in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Braik, Fatima A; Rutter, Paul M; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Brown, David T

    2011-02-01

    To provide data on herbal medicine (HM) use and safety in patients attending a nephrology clinic at Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC), Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A prospective, 3-month study between June and September 2007, investigated all patients presenting to the Nephrology Clinic of the Sheikh Khalifa Medical center (SKMC) in Abu Dhabi, UAE. A structured questionnaire determined previous and current HM use, and descriptions of associated adverse reactions. Corroborating evidence was sought from the patient's medical records. Causality was assessed by consensus from an expert panel using the Naranjo algorithm. The HM use was widespread (468 of 688; 68%). Over two-thirds (69%) reported currently taking 3 or more herbal preparations. Patients reported using over 100 different HMs, many of them compounded mixtures; 35% could not identify a single ingredient of these mixtures, and 70% had not informed the clinic doctors that they were taking HMs. Just 2 patients had HM use recorded in their medical record. Twenty-eight HM-related adverse reactions were identified in 26 (5.6%) patients; 12 probably and 16 possibly related to HMs. Seven involved HMs alone and 21, a HM/prescription medication (PM) interaction. The use of HMs in patients with underlying kidney problems was extensive and contributed additional pathology to the underlying renal disease, either alone or in combination with PMs. The reluctance of patients to inform their healthcare providers of concurrent use highlights a need to take a thorough drug history on clinic registration.

  13. Coding of adverse events of suicidality in clinical study reports of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder: descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Maund, Emma; Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Lundh, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-06-04

    To assess the effects of coding and coding conventions on summaries and tabulations of adverse events data on suicidality within clinical study reports. Systematic electronic search for adverse events of suicidality in tables, narratives, and listings of adverse events in individual patients within clinical study reports. Where possible, for each event we extracted the original term reported by the investigator, the term as coded by the medical coding dictionary, medical coding dictionary used, and the patient's trial identification number. Using the patient's trial identification number, we attempted to reconcile data on the same event between the different formats for presenting data on adverse events within the clinical study report. 9 randomised placebo controlled trials of duloxetine for major depressive disorder submitted to the European Medicines Agency for marketing approval. Clinical study reports obtained from the EMA in 2011. Six trials used the medical coding dictionary COSTART (Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms) and three used MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Suicides were clearly identifiable in all formats of adverse event data in clinical study reports. Suicide attempts presented in tables included both definitive and provisional diagnoses. Suicidal ideation and preparatory behaviour were obscured in some tables owing to the lack of specificity of the medical coding dictionary, especially COSTART. Furthermore, we found one event of suicidal ideation described in narrative text that was absent from tables and adverse event listings of individual patients. The reason for this is unclear, but may be due to the coding conventions used. Data on adverse events in tables in clinical study reports may not accurately represent the underlying patient data because of the medical dictionaries and coding conventions used. In clinical study reports, the listings of adverse events for individual patients and narratives

  14. Coding of adverse events of suicidality in clinical study reports of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder: descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Lundh, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of coding and coding conventions on summaries and tabulations of adverse events data on suicidality within clinical study reports. Design Systematic electronic search for adverse events of suicidality in tables, narratives, and listings of adverse events in individual patients within clinical study reports. Where possible, for each event we extracted the original term reported by the investigator, the term as coded by the medical coding dictionary, medical coding dictionary used, and the patient’s trial identification number. Using the patient’s trial identification number, we attempted to reconcile data on the same event between the different formats for presenting data on adverse events within the clinical study report. Setting 9 randomised placebo controlled trials of duloxetine for major depressive disorder submitted to the European Medicines Agency for marketing approval. Data sources Clinical study reports obtained from the EMA in 2011. Results Six trials used the medical coding dictionary COSTART (Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms) and three used MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Suicides were clearly identifiable in all formats of adverse event data in clinical study reports. Suicide attempts presented in tables included both definitive and provisional diagnoses. Suicidal ideation and preparatory behaviour were obscured in some tables owing to the lack of specificity of the medical coding dictionary, especially COSTART. Furthermore, we found one event of suicidal ideation described in narrative text that was absent from tables and adverse event listings of individual patients. The reason for this is unclear, but may be due to the coding conventions used. Conclusion Data on adverse events in tables in clinical study reports may not accurately represent the underlying patient data because of the medical dictionaries and coding conventions used. In clinical study reports, the

  15. Diabetes and cardiac autonomic neuropathy: Clinical manifestations, cardiovascular consequences, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Balcıoğlu, Akif Serhat; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a frequent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus with potentially life-threatening outcomes. CAN is caused by the impairment of the autonomic nerve fibers regulating heart rate, cardiac output, myocardial contractility, cardiac electrophysiology and blood vessel constriction and dilatation. It causes a wide range of cardiac disorders, including resting tachycardia, arrhythmias, intraoperative cardiovascular instability, asymptomatic myocardial ischemia and infarction and increased rate of mortality after myocardial infarction. Etiological factors associated with autonomic neuropathy include insufficient glycemic control, a longer period since the onset of diabetes, increased age, female sex and greater body mass index. The most commonly used methods for the diagnosis of CAN are based upon the assessment of heart rate variability (the physiological variation in the time interval between heartbeats), as it is one of the first findings in both clinically asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Clinical symptoms associated with CAN generally occur late in the disease process and include early fatigue and exhaustion during exercise, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, presyncope and syncope. Treatment is based on early diagnosis, life style changes, optimization of glycemic control and management of cardiovascular risk factors. Medical therapies, including aldose reductase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, prostoglandin analogs and alpha-lipoic acid, have been found to be effective in randomized controlled trials. The following article includes the epidemiology, clinical findings and cardiovascular consequences, diagnosis, and approaches to prevention and treatment of CAN. PMID:25685280

  16. COPD-OSA Overlap Syndrome: Evolving Evidence Regarding Epidemiology, Clinical Consequences, and Management.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2017-12-01

    COPD and OSA are both highly prevalent, which implies that both disorders occurring together (overlap syndrome) is likely to be common based on chance association alone. However, different clinical COPD phenotypes influence the likelihood of coexisting OSA in that the increased lung volumes and low BMI associated with the predominant emphysema phenotype protects against OSA, whereas the higher likelihood of peripheral edema and increased BMI associated with the predominant chronic bronchitis phenotype promotes OSA. Both COPD and OSA are associated with similar physiological and molecular consequences, such as hypoxia and systemic inflammation, that contribute to cardiovascular and other comorbidities, and pulmonary hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with the overlap syndrome. However, there have been few published reports that have evaluated systemic inflammation and other cardiovascular comorbidities in patients with overlap syndrome. The diagnosis of OSA in patients with COPD requires awareness of relevant clinical features, and screening questionnaires may help identify suitable patients for further overnight study. The recognition of coexisting OSA in patients with COPD has important clinical relevance, as the management of patients with overlap syndrome is different from the management of COPD alone, and the survival of patients with overlap syndrome that is not treated with nocturnal positive airway pressure is significantly inferior to that of patients with overlap syndrome that is appropriately treated. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [A study of incidence and clinical characteristics of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Esteban Jiménez, Óscar; Navarro Pemán, Cristina; González Rubio, Francisca; Lanuza Giménez, Francisco Javier; Montesa Lou, Cristina

    2017-12-22

    Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are one of the ten main causes of mortality in the world, as a cause of hospital admissions or prolongation hospitalizations days created an important health and economic impact. This study aimed to detect incidence and characterize ADRs that occurred during hospitalization and associated with admission in Internal Medicine service. Observational and prospective study of intensive RAM monitoring patients admitted in Internal Medicine services in a third level hospital over a twelve months period in 2014. The assessment consisted of a complete and protocol collecting information about the patients and related to suspected ADRs during hospitalization. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.20.0. The study included 253 patients and in 54 (21,34%) ADR were detected, the risk of experiencing an ADR was associated with the age (p=0.012). ADR-related hospitalizations incidence were 7,11%, and fatal ADR incidence were 1,97%. With regard to severity 81,2% were severe. Gastrointestinal disorders represented the most common ADRs followed by metabolism and nutrition disorders and vascular disorders. The drugs most frequently associated with ADRs were cardiovascular agents, antiinfective drugs and central nervous system agents. 72.2% of the patients who suffered ADR had polypharmacy. In our study incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients was 21,34%, this data and ADR´s related to admission to hospital or fatal ADR´s are mainly suffered by pluripathology and polymedicated elderly patients with worst renal function values. In these patients a more careful prescription should be made.

  18. Wear of novel ceramic-on-ceramic bearings under adverse and clinically relevant hip simulator conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Jennings, Louise M; Begand, Sabine; Oberbach, Thomas; Delfosse, Daniel; Fisher, John

    2013-11-01

    Further development of ceramic materials for total hip replacement aim to increase fracture toughness and further reduce the incidence of bearing fracture. Edge loading due to translational mal positioning (microseparation) has replicated stripe wear, wear rates, and bimodal wear debris observed on retrievals. This method has replicated the fracture of early zirconia ceramic-on-ceramic bearings. This has shown the necessity of introducing microseparation conditions to the gait cycle when assessing the tribological performance of new hip replacement bearings. Two novel ceramic matrix composite materials, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) and alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ), were developed by Mathys Orthopädie GmbH. In this study, ATZ-on-ATZ and ZTA-on-ZTA bearing combinations were tested and compared with alumina-on-alumina (Al2O3-on-Al2O3) bearings under adverse microseparation and edge loading conditions using the Leeds II physiological anatomical hip joint simulator. The wear rate (±95% confidence limit) of ZTA-on-ZTA was 0.14 ± 0.10 mm(3)/million cycles and that of ATZ-on-ATZ was 0.06 ± 0.004 mm(3)/million cycles compared with a wear rate of 0.74 ± 1.73 mm(3)/million cycles for Al2O3-on-Al2O3 bearings. Stripe wear was evident on all bearing combinations; however, the stripe formed on the ATZ and ZTA femoral heads was thinner and shallower that that formed on the Al2O3 heads. Posttest phase composition measurements for both ATZ and ZTA materials showed no significant change in the monoclinic zirconia content. ATZ-on-ATZ and ZTA-on-ZTA showed superior wear resistance properties when compared with Al2O3-on-Al2O3 under adverse edge loading conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Clinical safety plan in a university hospital complex. Initial diagnosis: study of adverse events].

    PubMed

    Lucas-Imbernón, F J; Aranaz-Andrés, J M; Gea-Velázquez de Castro, M T; Gallardo-Martínez, D; Limón-Ramírez, R; García-Fernández, C

    2012-01-01

    To establish the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and incidence of patients with AEs in the University Hospital Complex of Albacete (CHUA); to identify and define the AEs which are linked to health care; to analyse avoidable AE and determine their impact; to plan improvement actions. . Retrospective cohort study. Patients registered from 5 November to 19 November, 2007. Any accident or incident reported in the medical record which injured or may have injured the patient. Adverse Events Screening Guide, adapted from the Harvard study. Spanish version of the Modular Review Form (MRF2) for retrospective case record review. Univariate and bivariate analysis and logistic regression model. The incidence of patients with AEs linked to hospital care was 6.8%. The incidence was significantly different depending on: age, presence of intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors (excluding peripheral venous catheter); 8.2% of AE was linked to care; 14.3% to medication; 26.5% to nosocomial infections; 35.7% to technical problems in procedures; 11.2% to diagnosis, and the remaining 4.1% to other types of AEs. In these incidences, 12.2% were considered mild, 78.6% moderate and 8.2% serious. Half (50%) of AEs caused an increase in hospital stay, and in 34.7% cases determined hospitalisation. A total of 63.3% of AEs were considered avoidable. The study of AEs in the CHUA represents an improvement within the hospital quality program. Incidences of patients with AEs and those related to health care fall within the range of those found in the studies where the objective was quality improvement. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  1. OpenVigil FDA - Inspection of U.S. American Adverse Drug Events Pharmacovigilance Data and Novel Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ruwen; von Hehn, Leocadie; Herdegen, Thomas; Klein, Hans-Joachim; Bruhn, Oliver; Petri, Holger; Höcker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance contributes to health care. However, direct access to the underlying data for academic institutions and individual physicians or pharmacists is intricate, and easily employable analysis modes for everyday clinical situations are missing. This underlines the need for a tool to bring pharmacovigilance to the clinics. To address these issues, we have developed OpenVigil FDA, a novel web-based pharmacovigilance analysis tool which uses the openFDA online interface of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to access U.S. American and international pharmacovigilance data from the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). OpenVigil FDA provides disproportionality analyses to (i) identify the drug most likely evoking a new adverse event, (ii) compare two drugs concerning their safety profile, (iii) check arbitrary combinations of two drugs for unknown drug-drug interactions and (iv) enhance the relevance of results by identifying confounding factors and eliminating them using background correction. We present examples for these applications and discuss the promises and limits of pharmacovigilance, openFDA and OpenVigil FDA. OpenVigil FDA is the first public available tool to apply pharmacovigilance findings directly to real-life clinical problems. OpenVigil FDA does not require special licenses or statistical programs.

  2. Clinical signs and etiology of adverse reactions to procaine benzylpenicillin and sodium/potassium benzylpenicillin in horses.

    PubMed

    Olsén, L; Ingvast-Larsson, C; Broström, H; Larsson, P; Tjälve, H

    2007-06-01

    Case reports of 59 horses reacting adversely to procaine benzylpenicillin or to sodium or potassium benzylpenicillin in Sweden in 2003-2005 were obtained through contacts with horse-owners. For the assessment of the reports, various parameters were evaluated, such as the times to the reactions, information on previous penicillin treatment, the clinical signs and the actions taken in the reacting horses. Among the reports, two horses had received sodium or potassium benzylpenicillin intravenously, whereas the remaining 57 horses had been treated with procaine benzylpenicillin intramuscularly. Allergy may underlie the adverse reactions in the horses given sodium and potassium benzylpenicillin, and in a few of the horses given procaine benzylpenicillin. However, in most horses in the latter group, the clinical signs may be due to the toxic effects of procaine. In these horses, the dominating clinical signs were locomotor and behavioral changes. Some risk factors may enhance the probability that horses react to procaine. One is repeated injections, which increase the likelihood of intravascular administration and also may increase the sensitivity to procaine due to neuronal sensitization (kindling). Procaine is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to nontoxic metabolites. When high amounts of procaine enter the circulation, the hydrolyzing capacity may be exceeded and toxicity occurs. Analyses of plasma esterases from reacting horses showed lower activity than in nonreacting control horses. Low esterase activity may increase the possibility of procaine toxicity and constitute another risk factor.

  3. Clinical Pharmacology, Uses, and Adverse Reactions of Iodinated Contrast Agents: A Primer for the Non-radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Jeffrey J.; Williamson, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    Iodinated contrast agents have been in use since the 1950s to facilitate radiographic imaging modalities. Physicians in almost all specialties will either administer these agents or care for patients who have received these drugs. Different iodinated contrast agents vary greatly in their properties, uses, and toxic effects. Therefore, clinicians should be at least superficially familiar with the clinical pharmacology, administration, risks, and adverse effects associated with iodinated contrast agents. This primer offers the non-radiologist physician the opportunity to gain insight into the use of this class of drugs. PMID:22469351

  4. A randomized clinical trial on the effects of remote intercessory prayer in the adverse outcomes of pregnancies.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Maria Inês; Silva, Fabio Rosa; Silva, Bruno Rosa; Costa, Luciana Carvalho; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Silva, Napoleão Chiaramonte; Medeiros, Lidia Rosi de Freitas; Battisti, Iara Denise Endruweit; Azevedo, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    The scope of this article was to investigate whether intercessory prayer (IP) influences the adverse outcomes of pregnancies. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 564 pregnant women attending a prenatal public health care service. The women were randomly assigned to an IP group or to a control group (n = 289 per group). They were simultaneously and randomly assigned to practice prayer off-site or not. The following parameters were evaluated: Apgar scores, type of delivery and birth weight. The mean age of the women was 25.1 years of age (± 7.4), and the average gestational age was 23.4 weeks (± 8.1). The average number of years of schooling for the women was 8.1 years (± 3.1). The women in the IP and control groups presented a similar number of adverse medical events with non-significant p. No significant differences were detected in the frequency of adverse outcomes in pregnant women who practiced IP and those in the control group.

  5. Childhood adversity and adult personality.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Stephen; Rodgers, Bryan

    2006-05-01

    To explore how recalled childhood adversity affects trait measures of personality in three age cohorts of an Australian adult population and to examine the effects of particular adversities on adult personality traits. A total of 7485 randomly selected subjects in the age bands of 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were interviewed at the outset of a longitudinal community study of psychological health in the Canberra region of Australia. In the initial interview, subjects answered 17 questions about domestic adversity and three questions on positive aspects of upbringing to age 16 years. Personality traits were measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Behavioural Activation and Inhibition Scales, Positive and Negative Affect Scales and a measure of dissocial behaviours. Higher levels of childhood adversity substantially increase the risk of high neuroticism (OR = 2.6) and negative affect (OR = 2.6), less for behavioural inhibition (OR = 1.7) and for dissocial behaviour (OR = 1.7). No significant effect is seen for extraversion, psychoticism or behavioural activation. Age and gender had little effect on the pattern of risk. Maternal depression has significant and substantial independent effects on measures of neuroticism and negative affect as well as most other measures of personality. Childhood domestic adversity has substantial associations with clinically important aspects of personality: neuroticism and negative affect. Only small effects are seen on behavioural inhibition and dissocial behaviour, and no significant effect on extraversion and behavioural activation. These unexpected findings contradict clinical belief. Maternal psychological ill-health is pre-eminent among adversities predicting later disadvantageous traits, even for those traits that had only the slightest association with childhood adversity. Consequences of childhood adversity prevail throughout the lifespan in men and women equally. The study underlines the importance of childhood domestic

  6. Cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular disease: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; de Burgoa, Verónica Sanz; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This cohort retrospective study explored the cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular events (CVEs), in Spain. A total of 2,540 patients (68.1 years; 60.7% male; 8.4% smokers, 52.9% ex-smokers, and 38.7% never smokers) fulfilling the selection criteria and followed up throughout a period of 36 months after the event were considered eligible for analysis. Total costs were higher among current smokers in comparison with ex-smokers and never smokers (€7,981 versus [vs] €7,322 and €5,619, respectively) (P < 0.001). Both health care costs (€6,273 vs €5,673 and €4,823, respectively) (P < 001) and loss of productivity at work costs (€1,708 vs €1,650 and €796, respectively) (P < 001) accounted for such differences. There was also a difference in CVE recurrence rates (18.6% vs 16.5% and 9.6%, respectively) (P < 01). Smoking cessation in CVE outpatients was associated with lower cost and risk of CVE recurrence compared with smokers, and their health status was similar to that of never smokers, in routine clinical practice in Spain. PMID:23983479

  7. Molecular outcomes, clinical consequences, and genetic diagnosis of Oculocutaneous Albinism in Pakistani population

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Mohsin; Yousaf, Sairah; Waryah, Yar M.; Gul, Hadia; Kausar, Tasleem; Tariq, Nabeela; Mahmood, Umair; Ali, Muhammad; Khan, Muzammil A.; Waryah, Ali M.; Shaikh, Rehan S.; Riazuddin, Saima; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Anderson, Peter; Marchani Blue, Elizabeth; Annable, Marcus; Browning, Brian L.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Chen, Christina; Chin, Jennifer; Chong, Jessica X.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Davis, Colleen P.; Frazar, Christopher; Harrell, Tanya M.; He, Zongxiao; Jain, Preti; Jarvik, Gail P.; Jimenez, Guillaume; Johanson, Eric; Jun, Goo; Kircher, Martin; Kolar, Tom; Krauter, Stephanie A.; Krumm, Niklas; Leal, Suzanne M.; Luksic, Daniel; Marvin, Colby T.; McGee, Sean; Patterson, Karynne; Perez, Marcos; Phillips, Sam W.; Pijoan, Jessica; Poel, Christa; Ragan, Seamus; Reinier, Frederic; Robertson, Peggy D.; Santos-Cortez, Regie; Shankar, Aditi; Slattery, Krystal; Shephard, Cindy; Shively, Kathryn M.; Siegel, Deborah L.; Smith, Joshua D.; Tabor, Holly K.; Tackett, Monica; Wegener, Marc; Wang, Gao; Wheeler, Marsha M.; Wright, Amber; Yi, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Nonsyndromic oculocutaneous Albinism (nsOCA) is clinically characterized by the loss of pigmentation in the skin, hair, and iris. OCA is amongst the most common causes of vision impairment in children. To date, pathogenic variants in six genes have been identified in individuals with nsOCA. Here, we determined the identities, frequencies, and clinical consequences of OCA alleles in 94 previously unreported Pakistani families. Combination of Sanger and Exome sequencing revealed 38 alleles, including 22 novel variants, segregating with nsOCA phenotype in 80 families. Variants of TYR and OCA2 genes were the most common cause of nsOCA, occurring in 43 and 30 families, respectively. Twenty-two novel variants include nine missense, four splice site, two non-sense, one insertion and six gross deletions. In vitro studies revealed retention of OCA proteins harboring novel missense alleles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of transfected cells. Exon-trapping assays with constructs containing splice site alleles revealed errors in splicing. As eight alleles account for approximately 56% (95% CI: 46.52–65.24%) of nsOCA cases, primarily enrolled from Punjab province of Pakistan, hierarchical strategies for variant detection would be feasible and cost-efficient genetic tests for OCA in families with similar origin. Thus, we developed Tetra-primer ARMS assays for rapid, reliable, reproducible and economical screening of most of these common alleles. PMID:28266639

  8. Lost in Translation: The Unintended Consequences of Advance Directive Law on Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Lesley S.; Williams, Brie A.; Hooper, Sarah M.; Sabatino, Charles P.; Weithorn, Lois A.; Sudore, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Advance directive law may compromise the clinical effectiveness of advance directives. Purpose To identify unintended legal consequences of advance directive law that may prevent patients from communicating end-of-life preferences. Data Sources Advance directive legal statutes for all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia and English-language searches of LexisNexis, Westlaw, and MEDLINE from 1966 to August 2010. Study Selection Two independent reviewers selected 51 advance directive statutes and 20 articles. Three independent legal reviewers selected 105 legal proceedings. Data Extraction Two reviewers independently assessed data sources and used critical content analysis to determine legal barriers to the clinical effectiveness of advance directives. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data Synthesis Legal and content-related barriers included poor readability (that is, laws in all states were written above a 12th-grade reading level), health care agent or surrogate restrictions (for example, 40 states did not include same-sex or domestic partners as default surrogates), and execution requirements needed to make forms legally valid (for example, 35 states did not allow oral advance directives, and 48 states required witness signatures, a notary public, or both). Vulnerable populations most likely to be affected by these barriers included patients with limited literacy, limited English proficiency, or both who cannot read or execute advance directives; same-sex or domestic partners who may be without legally valid and trusted surrogates; and unbefriended, institutionalized, or homeless patients who may be without witnesses and suitable surrogates. Limitation Only appellate-level legal cases were available, which may have excluded relevant cases. Conclusion Unintended negative consequences of advance directive legal restrictions may prevent all patients, and particularly vulnerable patients, from making and communicating their end

  9. Clinical coding of prospectively identified paediatric adverse drug reactions--a retrospective review of patient records.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Jennifer R; Kirkham, Jamie J; Nunn, Anthony J; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2014-12-17

    National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK use a system of coding for patient episodes. The coding system used is the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). There are ICD-10 codes which may be associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and there is a possibility of using these codes for ADR surveillance. This study aimed to determine whether ADRs prospectively identified in children admitted to a paediatric hospital were coded appropriately using ICD-10. The electronic admission abstract for each patient with at least one ADR was reviewed. A record was made of whether the ADR(s) had been coded using ICD-10. Of 241 ADRs, 76 (31.5%) were coded using at least one ICD-10 ADR code. Of the oncology ADRs, 70/115 (61%) were coded using an ICD-10 ADR code compared with 6/126 (4.8%) non-oncology ADRs (difference in proportions 56%, 95% CI 46.2% to 65.8%; p < 0.001). The majority of ADRs detected in a prospective study at a paediatric centre would not have been identified if the study had relied on ICD-10 codes as a single means of detection. Data derived from administrative healthcare databases are not reliable for identifying ADRs by themselves, but may complement other methods of detection.

  10. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  11. Adverse reactions to chiropractic treatment and their effects on satisfaction and clinical outcomes among patients enrolled in the UCLA Neck Pain Study.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Eric L; Morgenstern, Hal; Vassilaki, Maria; Chiang, Lu-May

    2004-01-01

    Minor side effects associated with chiropractic are common. However, little is known about their predictors or the effects of reactions on satisfaction and clinical outcomes. The objectives of this study are to compare the relative effects of cervical spine manipulation and mobilization on adverse reactions and to estimate the effects of adverse reactions on satisfaction and clinical outcomes among patients with neck pain. Neck pain patients were randomized to receive cervical spine manipulation or mobilization. At 2 weeks, subjects were queried about possible treatment-related adverse reactions and followed for 6 months with assessments for pain and disability at 2, 6, 13, and 26 weeks. Numerical rating scales and the Neck Disability Index were used to measure pain and disability. Perceived improvement and satisfaction with care were assessed at 4 weeks. Of 960 eligible patients, 336 enrolled and 280 responded to the adverse event questionnaire. Thirty percent of respondents reported at least 1 adverse symptom, most commonly increased pain and headache. Patients randomized to manipulation were more likely than those randomized to mobilization to report an adverse reaction (adjusted odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval = 0.85, 2.43). Subjects reporting adverse reactions were less satisfied with care and less likely to have clinically meaningful improvements in pain and disability. Adverse reactions are more likely to be reported following cervical spine manipulation than mobilization. Chiropractors may reduce iatrogenesis and increase satisfaction and perhaps clinical outcomes by mobilizing rather than manipulating their neck pain patients.

  12. Overview of the Clinical Consult Case Review of Adverse Events Following Immunization: Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network (CISA) 2004-2009

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S Elizabeth; Klein, Nicola P; Halsey, Neal; Dekker, Cornelia L; Baxter, Roger P; Marchant, Colin D; LaRussa, Philip S; Sparks, Robert C; Tokars, Jerome I; Pahud, Barbara A; Aukes, Laurie; Jakob, Kathleen; Coronel, Silvia; Choi, Howard; Slade, Barbara A; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004 the Clinical Consult Case Review (CCCR) working group was formed within the CDC-funded Clinical immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network to review individual cases of adverse events following immunizations (AEFI). Methods Cases were referred by practitioners, health departments, or CDC employees. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) searches and literature reviews for similar cases were performed prior to review. After CCCR discussion, AEFI were assessed for a causal relationship with vaccination and recommendations regarding future immunizations were relayed back to the referring physicians. In 2010, surveys were sent to referring physicians to determine the utility and effectiveness of the CCCR service. Results CISA investigators reviewed 76 cases during 68 conference calls between April 2004 and December 2009. Almost half of cases (35/76) were neurological in nature. Similar AEFI for the specific vaccines received were discovered for 63 cases through VAERS searches and for 38 cases through PubMed searches. Causality assessment using the modified WHO criteria resulted in classifying 3 cases as definitely related to vaccine administration, 12 as probably related, 16 as possibly related, 18 as unlikely related, 10 as unrelated, and 17 had insufficient information to assign causality. The physician satisfaction survey was returned by 30 (57.7%) of those surveyed and a majority of respondents (93.3%) felt that the CCCR service was useful. Conclusions The CCCR provides advice about AEFI to practitioners, assigns potential causality, and contributes to an improved understanding of adverse health events following immunizations. PMID:21801776

  13. Overview of the Clinical Consult Case Review of adverse events following immunization: Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) network 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Williams, S Elizabeth; Klein, Nicola P; Halsey, Neal; Dekker, Cornelia L; Baxter, Roger P; Marchant, Colin D; LaRussa, Philip S; Sparks, Robert C; Tokars, Jerome I; Pahud, Barbara A; Aukes, Laurie; Jakob, Kathleen; Coronel, Silvia; Choi, Howard; Slade, Barbara A; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2011-09-16

    In 2004 the Clinical Consult Case Review (CCCR) working group was formed within the CDC-funded Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network to review individual cases of adverse events following immunizations (AEFI). Cases were referred by practitioners, health departments, or CDC employees. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) searches and literature reviews for similar cases were performed prior to review. After CCCR discussion, AEFI were assessed for a causal relationship with vaccination and recommendations regarding future immunizations were relayed back to the referring physicians. In 2010, surveys were sent to referring physicians to determine the utility and effectiveness of the CCCR service. CISA investigators reviewed 76 cases during 68 conference calls between April 2004 and December 2009. Almost half of the cases (35/76) were neurological in nature. Similar AEFI for the specific vaccines received were discovered for 63 cases through VAERS searches and for 38 cases through PubMed searches. Causality assessment using the modified WHO criteria resulted in classifying 3 cases as definitely related to vaccine administration, 12 as probably related, 16 as possibly related, 18 as unlikely related, 10 as unrelated, and 17 had insufficient information to assign causality. The physician satisfaction survey was returned by 30 (57.7%) of those surveyed and a majority of respondents (93.3%) felt that the CCCR service was useful. The CCCR provides advice about AEFI to practitioners, assigns potential causality, and contributes to an improved understanding of adverse health events following immunizations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Galectin-1 serum levels reflect tumor burden and adverse clinical features in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jing; Plütschow, Annette; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Reiners, Katrin S; Ponader, Sabine; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Neuberg, Donna; Engert, Andreas; Shipp, Margaret A

    2013-04-25

    Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a member of a highly conserved family of carbohydrate-binding proteins. It modulates innate and adaptive immune responses and fosters tumor-immune escape. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) Reed-Sternberg cells overexpress and secrete Gal1, which selectively kills T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells and cytotoxic T cells and promotes the immunosuppressive Th2/regulatory T-cell-predominant HL microenvironment. We developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed serum Gal1 levels in 293 newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with classical HL (cHL) enrolled in 3 risk-adapted clinical trials. Serum Gal1 levels were significantly higher in patients with cHL than in normal controls (P < .0001). Gal1 serum levels also increased with Ann Arbor stage (P = .012), areas of nodal involvement (P < .0001), and the International Prognostic Score (2-7, P = .019). We conclude that Gal1 serum levels are significantly associated with tumor burden and related clinical features in newly diagnosed cHL patients.

  15. Clinical and Economic Consequences of Early Cancer After Kidney Transplantation in Contemporary Practice.

    PubMed

    Dharnidharka, Vikas R; Naik, Abhijit S; Axelrod, David; Schnitzler, Mark A; Xiao, Huiling; Brennan, Daniel C; Segev, Dorry L; Randall, Henry; Chen, Jiajing; Kasiske, Bertram; Lentine, Krista L

    2017-04-01

    Current clinical and economic consequences of cancer after kidney transplantation are incompletely defined. We examined United States Renal Data System records of Medicare-insured kidney transplant recipients in 2000 to 2011 to determine clinical and economic impacts of cancer diagnosed within the first 3 years posttransplantation. Cancer diagnoses were identified using Medicare billing codes and categorized as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), viral-linked and "other" cancers. Associations of cancers with mortality and graft loss were estimated by time-varying Cox regression. Impacts of cancer diagnoses on inpatient and outpatient costs within each year were quantified by multivariate linear regression modeling. Among 67 157 recipients, by 3 years posttransplant, NMSC was diagnosed in 5.7%, viral-linked cancer in 1.9%, and "other" cancers in 6.3%. Viral-linked cancer was associated with more than 3-fold increased risk in subsequent mortality until the third transplant anniversary, and nearly twice the mortality risk after year 3. "Other" cancers had similar associations with death and graft loss, whereas NMSC was associated with 33% higher mortality beyond the third year posttransplant. Viral-linked cancer had the largest inpatient and outpatient cost impacts per case, followed by "other" cancer, whereas NMSC impacted only outpatient costs. Care of new cancer diagnoses was generally more costly than care of previously established diagnoses. Cancer accounted for 3% to 5.5% of total inpatient Medicare expenditures and 1.5% to 3.3% of outpatient expenditures in the first 3 years posttransplant. Early posttransplant malignancy is an expensive and morbid condition that warrants attention in efforts to improve pretransplant screening and management protocols before and after transplant.

  16. Neutropenia as an Adverse Event following Vaccination: Results from Randomized Clinical Trials in Healthy Adults and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Muturi-Kioi, Vincent; Lewis, David; Launay, Odile; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Anemona, Alessandra; Loulergue, Pierre; Bodinham, Caroline L.; Aerssens, Annelies; Groth, Nicola; Saul, Allan; Podda, Audino

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of early vaccine trials aimed at evaluating the safety profile of novel vaccines, abnormal haematological values, such as neutropenia, are often reported. It is therefore important to evaluate how these trials should be planned not to miss potentially important safety signals, but also to understand the implications and the clinical relevance. Methodology We report and discuss the results from five clinical trials (two with a new Shigella vaccine in the early stage of clinical development and three with licensed vaccines) where the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) were evaluated before and after vaccination. Additionally, we have performed a systematic review of the literature on cases of neutropenia reported during vaccine trials to discuss our results in a more general context. Principal Findings Both in our clinical trials and in the literature review, several cases of neutropenia have been reported, in the first two weeks after vaccination. However, neutropenia was generally transient and had a benign clinical outcome, after vaccination with either multiple novel candidates or well-known licensed vaccines. Additionally, the vaccine recipients with neutropenia frequently had lower baseline ANC than non-neutropenic vaccinees. In many instances neutropenia occurred in subjects of African descent, known to have lower ANC compared to western populations. Conclusions It is important to include ANC and other haematological tests in early vaccine trials to identify potential safety signals. Post-vaccination neutropenia is not uncommon, generally transient and clinically benign, but many vaccine trials do not have a sampling schedule that allows its detection. Given ethnic variability in the level of circulating neutrophils, normal ranges taking into account ethnicity should be used for determination of trial inclusion/exclusion criteria and classification of neutropenia related adverse events. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017899

  17. Symptoms, diagnoses, and sporting consequences among athletes referred to a Danish sports cardiology clinic.

    PubMed

    Kaiser-Nielsen, L V; Tischer, S G; Prescott, E B; Rasmusen, H K

    2017-01-01

    As the number of recreational athletes performing exercise and participating in competitions at a high-level increases, exercise-induced cardiac symptoms may become a more common problem, not least because recreational athletes often continue high-level exercise programs into advanced ages. We investigated the prevalence of cardiac symptoms and diagnoses among 201 athletes referred for cardiac evaluation at a Sports Cardiology Clinic in Denmark. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study of athletes referred for suspected cardiac disease. The athletes were all well-trained recreational to elite athletes who participated in various sports with different training loads and a wide age span (13-66 years). All patients were referred by physicians, primarily their general practitioner (38%), and palpitations were the most common cardiac symptom (40%). Cardiac symptoms had a sensitivity of 86% in detecting cardiac disease and a specificity of 13%. Cardiac disease was diagnosed in 44% of the patients, and atrial fibrillation was the most prevalent diagnosis (7.5%). Cardiac diseases with therapeutic- or sports-related consequences for the patients were diagnosed in 28% of the population, but only 1% received a recommendation to avoid high-level sports indefinitely. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Molar incisor hypomineralization: prevalence, severity and clinical consequences in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    da Costa-Silva, Cristiane Maria; Jeremias, Fabiano; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) varies considerably around the world; however, few studies have examined MIH in South American countries. To evaluate the prevalence, severity, and clinical consequences of MIH in Brazilian children residing in rural and urban areas of the municipality of Botelhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Children aged 6 to 12 years (n = 918) with all four-first permanent molars erupted had these teeth evaluated according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria. The examinations were conducted by two previously trained examiners, and the dental impact caused by MIH was evaluated with the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index (WHO). Molar incisor hypomineralization was present in 19.8% of the 918 children, with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The majority of the defects presented were demarcated opacities without post-eruptive structural loss, which has been considered as mild defects. Children with MIH had higher DMFT values. Despite the high prevalence of MIH, the severity of the defects was mild. The results indicate a positive association between MIH and the presence of dental caries. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Improving the Capture of Adverse Event Data in Clinical Trials: The Role of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Susan E.; Trotti, Andy; Ataman, Ozlem U.

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To report meetings of the Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), organized to discuss issues surrounding, and develop initiatives to improve, the recording of adverse events (AE) in clinical trials. Methods and Materials: A first meeting was held in Atlanta, GA (October 2004). A second meeting was held in Denver, CO (October 2005) and focused on AE data capture. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3 (CTCAE) was suggested during the first meeting as the preferred common platform for the collection and reporting of AE data inmore » its clinical trials. The second meeting identified and reviewed the current weaknesses and variations in the capture of AE data, and proposals to improve the quality and consistency of data capture were discussed. Results: There is heterogeneity in the collection of AE data between both institutions and individual clinicians. The use of multiple scoring systems hampers comparisons of treatment outcomes between centers and trials. There is often insufficient detail on normal tissue treatment effects, which leads to an underestimate of toxicity. Implementation of improved data capture was suggested for one of the ongoing IAEA clinical trials. Conclusions: There is a need to compare the quality and completeness of data between institutions and the efficacy of structured/directed vs. traditional passive data collection. Data collection using the CTCAE (with or without a questionnaire) will be investigated in an IAEA multinational trial of radiochemotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy in cervical cancer.« less

  20. Intestinal microbiota-dependent phosphatidylcholine metabolites, diastolic dysfunction, and adverse clinical outcomes in chronic systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tang, W H Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Shrestha, Kevin; Borowski, Allen G; Wu, Yuping; Troughton, Richard W; Klein, Allan L; Hazen, Stanley L

    2015-02-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to determine the prognostic value of TMAO and its dietary precursors, choline and betaine, in heart failure (HF). In 112 patients with chronic systolic HF with comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation, we measured plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine by mass spectrometry. Median (interquartile range) TMAO levels, choline, and betaine levels were 5.8 (3.6-12.1) μmol/L, 10.9 (8.4-14.0) μmol/L, and 43.8 (37.1-53.0) μmol/L, respectively, and were correlated with each other (all P < .0001 for both). TMAO levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus (9.4 [4.9-13.2] vs 4.8 [3.4-9.8] μmol/L; P = .005) and in subjects with New York Heart Association functional class III or greater (7.0 [4.7-14.8] vs 4.7 [3.4-11.3] μmol/L; P = .02). Elevated TMAO, choline, and betaine levels were each associated with higher plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and more advanced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, but not systolic dysfunction or inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers. Higher choline (hazard ratio [HR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.22-2.20; P = .001), betaine (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.08; P = .01), and TMAO (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.10-1.96; P = .01) predicted increased risk for 5-year adverse clinical events (death/transplantation). Only higher TMAO levels predicted incident adverse clinical events independently from age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, mitral E/septal Ea, and NT-proBNP levels (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.14; P = .03). Elevated plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine levels are each associated with more advanced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and portend poorer long-term adverse clinical outcomes in chronic systolic HF. However, only higher plasma TMAO was associated with poor prognosis after adjustment for cardiorenal indices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Virological failure to raltegravir in Spain: incidence, prevalence and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Santos, José Ramón; Blanco, José Luis; Masiá, Mar; Gutiérrez, Félix; Pérez-Elías, María Jesús; Iribarren, José Antonio; Force, Lluis; Antela, Antonio; Knobel, Hernando; Salavert, Miguel; López Bernaldo De Quirós, Juan Carlos; Pino, María; Paredes, Roger; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prevalence and clinical consequences of virological failure (VF) to raltegravir-based regimens in Spain. A multicentre, retrospective, observational study was performed in 10 tertiary hospitals (January 2006 to June 2013). The study included HIV-1-infected patients with loss of virological suppression (LVS; two consecutive HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL) while receiving raltegravir. VF and low-level viraemia (LLV) were defined as two consecutive HIV-1 RNA ≥200 copies/mL and 50 to <200 copies/mL, respectively. Integrase strand-transfer inhibitor resistance was investigated at LVS. During the 48 weeks following LVS, recorded data included clinical characteristics, treatment discontinuations, AIDS-associated events and deaths. Effectiveness of therapy following LVS was evaluated by ITT and PP. Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of efficacy. Of the 15 009 HIV-infected patients in participating centres, 2782 (18.5%) had received raltegravir-based regimens. Of those, 192 (6.9%), 125 (4.5%) and 67 (2.4%) experienced LVS, VF and LLV, respectively. The incidence of VF was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.1) per 100 patients/year. The prevalence of VF was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.8%-5.3%). Integrase-associated mutations were found in 78.8% of patients with integrase genotyping results available. High-level resistance to dolutegravir was not observed. Salvage therapy failed in 34.1% of patients; progression to AIDS/death occurred in 8.3% during the first year following LVS. The latter was associated with intravenous drug use, time on raltegravir and lower CD4+ count nadir in patients who started raltegravir-based treatments as salvage regimens. VF with raltegravir is infrequent, but often associated with major clinical complications in treatment-experienced patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  2. The Quality of Clinical Information in Adverse Drug Reaction Reports by Patients and Healthcare Professionals: A Retrospective Comparative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rolfes, Leàn; van Hunsel, Florence; van der Linden, Laura; Taxis, Katja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2017-07-01

    Clinical information is needed to assess the causal relationship between a drug and an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in a reliable way. Little is known about the level of relevant clinical information about the ADRs reported by patients. The aim was to determine to what extent patients report relevant clinical information about an ADR compared with their healthcare professional. A retrospective analysis of all ADR reports on the same case, i.e., cases with a report from both the patient and the patient's healthcare professional, selected from the database of the Dutch Pharmacovigilance Center Lareb, was conducted. The extent to which relevant clinical information was reported was assessed by trained pharmacovigilance assessors, using a structured tool. The following four domains were assessed: ADR, chronology, suspected drug, and patient characteristics. For each domain, the proportion of reported information in relation to information deemed relevant was calculated. An average score of all relevant domains was determined and categorized as poorly (≤45%), moderately (from 46 to 74%) or well (≥75%) reported. Data were analyzed using a paired sample t test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. A total of 197 cases were included. In 107 cases (54.3%), patients and healthcare professionals reported a similar level of clinical information. Statistical analysis demonstrated no overall differences between the groups (p = 0.126). In a unique study of cases of ADRs reported by patients and healthcare professionals, we found that patients report clinical information at a similar level as their healthcare professional. For an optimal pharmacovigilance, both healthcare professionals and patient should be encouraged to report.

  3. Comparing the effectiveness of computerized adverse drug event monitoring systems to enhance clinical decision support for hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Petratos, G N; Kim, Y; Evans, R S; Williams, S D; Gardner, R M

    2010-01-01

    Performance of computerized adverse drug event (ADE) monitoring of electronic health records through a prospective ADE Monitor and ICD9-coded clinical text review operating independently and simultaneously on the same patient population for a 10-year period are compared. Requirements are compiled for clinical decision support in pharmacy systems to enhance ADE detection. A large tertiary care facility in Utah, with a history of quality improvement using its advanced hospital information system, was leveraged in this study. ICD9-based review of clinical charts (ICD9 System) was compared quantitatively and qualitatively to computer-assisted pharmacist-verified ADEs (ADE Monitor). The capture-recapture statistical method was applied to the data to determine an estimated prevalence of ADEs. A total estimated ADE prevalence of 5.53% (13,420/242,599) was calculated, with the ICD9 system identifying 2,604 or 19.4%, and the ADE monitor 3,386 or 25.2% of all estimated ADEs. Both methods commonly identified 4.9% of all estimated ADEs and matched 62.0% of the time, each having its strength in detecting a slightly different domain of ADEs. 70% of the ADE documentation in the clinical notes was found in the discharge summaries. Coupled with spontaneous reporting, computerized methods account for approximately half of all ADEs that can currently be detected. To enhance ADE monitoring and patient safety in a hospitalized setting, pharmacy information systems should incorporate prospective structuring and coding of the text in clinical charts and using that data alongside computer-generated alerts of laboratory results and drug orders. Natural language processing can aid computerized detection by automating the coding, in real-time, of physician text from clinical charts so that decision support rules can be created and applied. New detection strategies and enhancements to existing systems should be researched to enhance the detection of ADEs since approximately half are not

  4. Cheminformatics Modeling of Adverse Drug Responses by Clinically Relevant Mutants of Human Androgen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Paul, Naman; Carabet, Lavinia A; Lallous, Nada; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Gleave, Martin E; Rennie, Paul S; Cherkasov, Artem

    2016-12-27

    The human androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Many forms of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) still rely on the AR for survival. Currently used antiandrogens face clinical limitations as drug resistance develops in patients over time since they all target the mutation-prone androgen binding site (ABS), where gain-of-function mutations eventually convert antagonists into agonists. With a significant number of reported distinct mutations located across the ABS, it is imperative to develop a prognostic platform which would equip clinicians with prior knowledge and actionable strategies if cases of previously unreported AR mutations are encountered. The goal of this study is to develop a theoretical approach that can predict such previously unreported AR mutants in response to current treatment options for PCa. The expected drug response by these mutants has been modeled using cheminformatics methodology. The corresponding QSAR pipeline has been created, which extracts key protein-ligand interactions and quantifies them by 4D molecular descriptors. The developed models reported with an accuracy reaching 90% and enable prediction of activation of AR mutants by its native ligand as well as assess whether known antiandrogens will act on them as agonists or antagonists. As a result, a previously uncharacterized mutant, T878G, has been predicted to be activated by the latest antiandrogen enzalutamide, and the corresponding experimental evaluation confirmed this prediction. Overall, the developed cheminformatics pipeline provides useful insights toward understanding the changing genomic landscape of advanced PCa.

  5. Is Day of Surgery Associated With Adverse Clinical and Economic Outcomes Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Boylan, Matthew R; Perfetti, Dean C; Naziri, Qais; Maheshwari, Aditya V; Paulino, Carl B; Mont, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    As orthopedics transition to value-based purchasing, hospitals and providers are incentivized to identify inefficiencies of care delivery. In our experience, weekends are characterized by decreased staffing of ancillary services to coordinate patient discharges, which can lead to prolonged hospital stays for many of our primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) admissions. We identified 115,053 patients who underwent primary TKA on a weekday between 2009 and 2013 in New York State. We used mixed effects regression models to compare length of stay (LOS), 90-day readmission, and cost according to the day of TKA. Mean LOS was significantly higher for surgeries performed on Wednesday (P < .001), Thursday (P < .001), and Friday (P < .001). There was no significant difference in 90-day readmission risk according to day of surgery. Mean cost was significantly higher for surgeries performed on Wednesday (P < .001), Thursday (P < .001), and Friday (P < .001). When LOS was held constant across every day of the week, the mean cost of TKA decreased by $247 for Wednesday, $627 for Thursday, and $394 for Friday. Primary TKA performed later in the week is associated with an increased LOS and increased costs of admission, but a similar risk of 90-day readmission. Preferential scheduling of primary TKA cases early in the week, as well as the development of standardized clinical care pathways with appropriate weekend staffing of social work and rehabilitation services, could help to decrease the daily variation in LOS and increase the value of TKA episodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of Guideline Adherence for Serial Evaluations With Survival and Adverse Clinical Events in Patients With Asymptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aisha; Sorajja, Paul; Garberich, Ross F; Farivar, R Saeid; Harris, Kevin M; Gössl, Mario

    2017-10-01

    For patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis and normal left ventricular function, current practice guidelines empirically recommend serial evaluations every 6 to 12 months. The benefit of this clinical monitoring is unknown. To determine the association of guideline adherence with clinical outcomes in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. This retrospective cohort study involved 300 patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis who were seen in the ambulatory Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital. Rates of survival and adverse clinical events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure hospitalization, were compared between patients who adhered to serial evaluation guidance and those who did not. Medical records were reviewed from July 25, 2007, to December 6, 2012. Data analysis took place from February 4, 2017, to July 10, 2017. All-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and major adverse clinical events during follow-up. The study population of 300 comprised 143 men (47.7%) and had a mean (SD) age of 78.6 (11.5) years. There were no differences in age, race/ethnicity, sex, comorbidities, insurance status, left ventricular function, and aortic stenosis severity between patients with (n = 202) and patients without (n = 98) guideline adherence. Aortic valve replacement (surgical or catheter based) was performed more frequently (54.0% vs 19.4%; P < .001) and the median (interquartile range) time for this performance was earlier (2.2 [1.2-3.6] years vs 3.5 [2.0-5.8] years; P < .001) in patients with guideline adherence. All-cause mortality was higher for nonadherent patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07-2.30; P < .001), and these patients also had a higher rate of hospital admission for heart failure decompensation in follow-up (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.27-2.18; P < .001). Four-year survival that is free from death and heart failure hospitalization was higher for

  7. Adverse Events in Home Care: Identifying and Responding with interRAI Scales and Clinical Assessment Protocols.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Chi-Ling Joanna; Betini, Raquel Souza Dias; Wright, Jennifer; Eckler, Lorri; Chang, Byung Wook; Hogeveen, Sophie; Turcotte, Luke; Hirdes, John P

    2018-03-01

    Outcomes of adverse events in home care are varied and multifactorial. This study tested a framework combining two health measures to identify home care recipients at higher risk of long-term care placement or death within one year. Both measures come from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC), a standardized comprehensive clinical assessment. Persons scoring high in the Method for Assigning Priority Levels (MAPLe) algorithm and Changes in Health, End-stage disease, Signs and Symptoms (CHESS) scale were at the greatest risk of placement or death and more than twice as likely to experience either outcome earlier than others. The target group was more likely to trigger mood, social relationship, and caregiver distress issues, suggesting mental health and psychosocial interventions might help in addition to medical care and/or personal support services. Home care agencies can use this framework to identify home care patients who may require a more intensive care coordinator approach.

  8. Retraumatization Mediates the Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Clinical Training-Related Secondary Traumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lisa D; Maguin, Eugene; Carello, Janice

    2018-01-01

    Previous research (Butler, Carello, & Maguin, 2016) has found that exposure to trauma-related material in graduate clinical coursework and field training can put students at risk for reactivations of feelings/memories from negative past experiences (retraumatization) and for secondary traumatic stress (STS) symptoms. The present report sought to examine the role, if any, of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in these outcomes. Using the Butler et al. (2016) sample, we examined: (1) rates of ACEs in 195 graduate social work students, (2) whether the total number of ACEs was associated with training-related retraumatization (TRT) and/or STS symptoms, and (3) if TRT mediated the relationship between ACEs and STS symptoms. The results indicate that more than three quarters of the sample had experienced one or more ACEs before age 18 and almost one third endorsed 4 or more. The most commonly reported ACEs were household mental illness, parental separation/divorce, household alcohol/substance abuse, and emotional abuse or neglect by a parent or household member. Higher ACE scores were associated with increased likelihood of TRT experiences and STS symptoms during training. A mediation analysis confirmed that TRT mediated the effect of ACE scores on STS symptoms; this finding also provides support for the role of proximal emotional reactions in mediating the effects of distal adverse experiences on the development of trauma symptoms. In summary, despite the evident resilience of this graduate student sample, those with ACE histories were at heightened risk for training-related distress. These results underscore the need for a trauma-informed approach to clinical training.

  9. Are parental ADHD problems associated with a more severe clinical presentation and greater family adversity in children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Zammit, Stanley; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate

    2013-06-01

    Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised to be a familial and heritable disorder, little is known about the broader family characteristics of having a parent with ADHD problems. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parent ADHD problems, child clinical presentation and family functioning in a sample of children with ADHD. The sample consisted of 570 children with ADHD. Child psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires were used to assess ADHD in the parents (childhood and current symptoms), family environment and mother/father-child relationship. Parental ADHD problems were associated with a range of adverse clinical outcomes in children with no difference in effects for mothers with ADHD problems compared to fathers with ADHD problems. Levels of maternal hostility were higher in families where mothers had ADHD problems, but reduced where fathers had ADHD problems. Parental ADHD problems index higher risk for more severe clinical presentation of ADHD in children and higher levels of family conflict (where there are maternal but not paternal ADHD problems). This study highlights that children with more severe behavioural symptoms are more likely to have a parent with persistent ADHD which has important implications when considering treatment and intervention strategies.

  10. Clinical practice guidelines and comorbid diseases: a MiniZinc representation of guideline models for mitigating adverse interactions.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Martin; Michalowski, Wojtek; Farion, Ken; Lin, Di; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    Managing a patient with comorbid diseases according to multiple clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) may result in adverse interactions that need to be mitigated (identified and addressed) so a safe therapy can be devised. However, mitigation poses both clinical and methodological challenges. It requires extensive domain knowledge and calls for advanced CPG models and efficient algorithms to process them. We respond to the above challenges by describing our algorithm that mitigates interactions between pairs of CPGs. The algorithm creates logical models of analyzed CPGs and uses constraint logic programming (CLP) together with domain knowledge, codified as interaction and revision operators, to process them. Logical CPG models are transformed into CLP-CPG models that are solved to find a safe therapy. We represent these CLP-CPG models using MiniZinc, a standard language for CLP models. As motivation and illustration of our mitigation algorithm we use a clinical case study describing a patient managed for hypertension and deep vein thrombosis according to two individual CPGs. We apply the algorithm to this scenario and present MiniZinc representations of the constructed CLP-CPG models.

  11. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries in German 5- and 8-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Grund, Katrin; Goddon, Inka; Schüler, Ina M; Lehmann, Thomas; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-11-04

    About half of all carious lesions in primary teeth of German 6- to 7-year-old children remain untreated, but no data regarding the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries are available. Therefore, this cross-sectional observational study aimed to assess the prevalence and experience of caries and odontogenic infections in the primary dentition of 5- and 8-year-old German children. Dental examinations were performed in 5-year-old pre-school children (n = 496) and in 8-year-old primary school children (n = 608) living in the Westphalian Ennepe-Ruhr district. Schools and preschools were selected by sociodemographic criteria including size, area, ownership, socio-economic status. Caries was recorded according to WHO criteria (1997). The Lorenz curves were used to display the polarisation of dental caries. Caries pattern in 5-year-olds was categorized by Wyne's (1997) definition of early childhood caries (ECC). Odontogenic infections as clinical consequence of untreated dental caries were assessed by the pufa index. The 'untreated caries-pufa ratio' was calculated, and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was used for evaluating the correlation between dmft and pufa scores. Categorical data were compared between groups using the chi-square test and continuous data were analysed by t-test. Caries prevalence and experience in the primary dentition was 26.2 %/0.9 ± 2.0 dmft in 5-year-olds and 48.8 %/2.1 ± 2.8 dmft in 8-year-olds. ECC type I (22 %) was the prevalent caries pattern in 5-year-olds. About 30 % of the tooth decay was treated (5y: 29.7 %/8y: 39.3 %). The Lorenz curves showed a strong caries polarisation on 20 % of the children. Pufa prevalence and experience was 4.4 %/0.1 ± 0.5 pufa in 5-year-olds and 16.6 %/0.3 ± 0.9 pufa in 8-year-olds. In 5-year-olds 14.2 % and in 8-year-olds 34.2 % of the d-component had progressed mainly to the pulp. A significant correlation between dmft and pufa scores exists in

  12. Long-Term Clinical and Electroencephalography (EEG) Consequences of Idiopathic Partial Epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Dörtcan, Nimet; Tekin Guveli, Betul; Dervent, Aysin

    2016-05-03

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic partial epilepsies of childhood (IPE) affect a considerable proportion of children. Three main electroclinical syndromes of IPE are the Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centro-temporal Spikes (BECTS), Panayiotopoulos Syndrome (PS), and Childhood Epilepsy with Occipital Paroxysms (CEOP). In this study we investigated the long-term prognosis of patients with IPE and discussed the semiological and electroencephalography (EEG) data in terms of syndromic characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included a group of consecutive patients with IPE who had been followed since 1990. Demographic and clinical variables were investigated. Patients were divided into 3 groups - A: Cases suitable for a single IPE (BECTS, PS and CEOP); B: cases with intermediate characteristics within IPEs; and C: cases with both IPE and IGE characteristics. Long-term data regarding the individual seizure types and EEG findings were re-evaluated. RESULTS A total of 61 patients were included in the study. Mean follow-up duration was 7.8 ± 4.50 years. The mean age at onset of seizures was 7.7 years. There were 40 patients in group A 40, 14 in group B, and 7 in group C. Seizure and EEG characteristics were also explored independently from the syndromic approach. Incidence of autonomic seizures is considerably high at 2-5 years and incidence of oromotor seizures is high at age 9-11 years. The EEG is most abnormal at 6-8 years. The vast majority (86%) of epileptic activity (EA) with parietooccipital is present at 2-5 years, whereas EA with fronto-temporal or multiple sites become more abundant between ages 6 and 11. CONCLUSIONS Results of the present study provide support for the age-related characteristics of the seizures and EEGs in IPE syndromes. Acknowledgement of those phenomena may improve the management of IPEs and give a better estimate of the future consequences.

  13. Chromosomal instability in mammalian pre-implantation embryos: potential causes, detection methods, and clinical consequences

    PubMed Central

    Daughtry, Brittany L.

    2017-01-01

    Formation of a totipotent blastocyst capable of implantation is one of the first major milestones in early mammalian embryogenesis, but less than half of in vitro fertilized embryos from most mammals will progress to this stage of development. Whole chromosomal abnormalities, or aneuploidy, are key determinants of whether human embryos will arrest or reach the blastocyst stage. Depending on the type of chromosomal abnormality, however, certain embryos still form blastocysts and may be morphologically indistinguishable from chromosomally normal embryos. Despite the implementation of pre-implantation genetic screening and other advanced in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques, the identification of aneuploid embryos remains complicated by high rates of mosaicism, atypical cell division, cellular fragmentation, sub-chromosomal instability, and micro-/multi-nucleation. Moreover, several of these processes occur in vivo following natural human conception, suggesting that they are not simply a consequence of culture conditions. Recent technological achievements in genetic, epigenetic, chromosomal, and non-invasive imaging have provided additional embryo assessment approaches, particularly at the single-cell level, and clinical trials investigating their efficacy are continuing to emerge. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms by which aneuploidy may arise, the various detection methods, and the technical advances (such as time-lapse imaging, “-omic” profiling, and next-generation sequencing) that have assisted in obtaining this data. We also discuss the possibility of aneuploidy resolution in embryos via various corrective mechanisms, including multi-polar divisions, fragment resorption, endoreduplication, and blastomere exclusion, and conclude by examining the potential implications of these findings for IVF success and human fecundity. PMID:26590822

  14. Chromosomal instability in mammalian pre-implantation embryos: potential causes, detection methods, and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Daughtry, Brittany L; Chavez, Shawn L

    2016-01-01

    Formation of a totipotent blastocyst capable of implantation is one of the first major milestones in early mammalian embryogenesis, but less than half of in vitro fertilized embryos from most mammals will progress to this stage of development. Whole chromosomal abnormalities, or aneuploidy, are key determinants of whether human embryos will arrest or reach the blastocyst stage. Depending on the type of chromosomal abnormality, however, certain embryos still form blastocysts and may be morphologically indistinguishable from chromosomally normal embryos. Despite the implementation of pre-implantation genetic screening and other advanced in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques, the identification of aneuploid embryos remains complicated by high rates of mosaicism, atypical cell division, cellular fragmentation, sub-chromosomal instability, and micro-/multi-nucleation. Moreover, several of these processes occur in vivo following natural human conception, suggesting that they are not simply a consequence of culture conditions. Recent technological achievements in genetic, epigenetic, chromosomal, and non-invasive imaging have provided additional embryo assessment approaches, particularly at the single-cell level, and clinical trials investigating their efficacy are continuing to emerge. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms by which aneuploidy may arise, the various detection methods, and the technical advances (such as time-lapse imaging, "-omic" profiling, and next-generation sequencing) that have assisted in obtaining this data. We also discuss the possibility of aneuploidy resolution in embryos via various corrective mechanisms, including multi-polar divisions, fragment resorption, endoreduplication, and blastomere exclusion, and conclude by examining the potential implications of these findings for IVF success and human fecundity.

  15. The relationship between drinking games and intentions to continue drinking, intentions to drive after drinking, and adverse consequences: results of a field study.

    PubMed

    Clapp, John D; Reed, Mark B; Ruderman, Danielle E

    2014-09-01

    Drinking games have become a nearly universal aspect of excessive drinking on university campuses with 50-62% of college students reporting playing drinking games in the past month. Participation in drinking games has been correlated with numerous negative consequences and increased consumption of alcohol. The present study addresses the influence of drinking games on three drinking-related outcomes: problems experienced the night of the drinking event, the intent to keep drinking, and the intent to drive after drinking. The data collected for the present study were part of a study testing environmental influences of drinking behaviors of young adults. A total of 226 randomly selected parties (representing 1725 partygoers) were selected for study inclusion. Three multilevel logistic regression models tested the relationship between drinking games and the three drinking-related outcomes. Participants who reported playing drinking games were 1.58 times more likely to report continued drinking intentions than participants who did not play drinking games. If drinking games were observed at a party, participants were 2.38 times more likely to plan to drive while intoxicated. Additionally, participants who reported playing drinking games were 1.59 times more likely to report experiencing a drinking-related problem than participants who did not play drinking games. Drinking games have consequences beyond increasing the level of intoxication; they contribute to problematic behavior at individual and environmental levels. Preventing drinking games is warranted.

  16. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  17. Mechanical Surface Area of Prosthetic Heart Valve: Adverse Clinical Impact of Large Mechanical Valve in Mitral Position.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang Hyun; Sung, Kiick; Kim, Wook Sung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Sung Mok; Park, Pyo Won

    2017-11-08

    Although thromboembolic accidents are serious adverse events associated with mechanical mitral valves, there have been no studies on the clinical impact of the large mechanical surface areas (MSAs) of mechanical mitral prostheses. Between 1995 and 2010, 488 consecutive adult patients underwent isolated mechanical mitral valve replacement. We measured the MSA via three-dimensional computed tomography for each prosthesis. Mean patient age was 50.6 ± 11.1 years. The mean body surface area (BSA) and MSA index (MSAI, MSA/BSA) were 1.6 ± 0.17 m and 12.9 ± 1.7 cm/m, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the median MSAI. Patients in the high MSAI group had higher indexed left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions and smaller BSAs. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that old age, New York Heart Association class III or IV, and high MSAI were independent predictors of death. With respect to thromboembolic complications, New York Heart Association class III or IV and high MSAI were identified as independent risk factors. There were 11 patients (3%) with mean pressure gradients across the mitral valve greater than 6 mm Hg 1 year after operation. A large MSA relative to patient size was identified as a predictor of poor clinical outcome after mechanical mitral valve replacement.

  18. Clinical review 1: Adverse effects of testosterone therapy in adult men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Balsells, M Mercè; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Lane, Melanie; Lampropulos, Juliana F; Albuquerque, Felipe; Mullan, Rebecca J; Agrwal, Neera; Elamin, Mohamed B; Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Wang, Amy T; Erwin, Patricia J; Bhasin, Shalender; Montori, Victor M

    2010-06-01

    The risks of testosterone therapy in men remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of testosterone trials to evaluate the adverse effects of testosterone treatment in men. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL from 2003 through August 2008. Review of reference lists and contact with experts further identified candidate studies. Eligible studies were comparative, randomized, and nonrandomized and reported the effects of testosterone on outcomes of interest (death, cardiovascular events and risk factors, prostate outcomes, and erythrocytosis). Reviewers, working independently and in duplicate, determined study eligibility. Reviewers working independently and in duplicate determined the methodological quality of studies and collected descriptive, quality, and outcome data. The methodological quality of the 51 included studies varied from low to medium, and follow-up duration ranged from 3 months to 3 yr. Testosterone treatment was associated with a significant increase in hemoglobin [weighted mean difference (WMD), 0.80 g/dl; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45 to 1.14] and hematocrit (WMD, 3.18%; 95% CI, 1.35 to 5.01), and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD, -0.49 mg/dl; 95% CI, -0.85 to -0.13). There was no significant effect on mortality, prostate, or cardiovascular outcomes. The adverse effects of testosterone therapy include an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit and a small decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These findings are of unknown clinical significance. Current evidence about the safety of testosterone treatment in men in terms of patient-important outcomes is of low quality and is hampered by the brief study follow-up.

  19. Analysis of the adverse events reported to the office of the clinical director at a dental school in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Huertas, María F; Gonzalez, Juliana; Camacho, Sandra; Sarralde, Ana L; Rodríguez, Adriana

    2017-04-01

    Dentistry is interested in identifying and controlling adverse events, understood as involuntary injuries to the patient during dental care. The aim of this study was to analyze the adverse events reported to the Office of the Clinical Director at the School of Dentistry at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (Colombia) during 2011-2012. It was an observational, descriptive study that evaluated 227 dental clinical records of patients who filed a complaint with the Office of the Clinical Director. Of these, 43 were adverse events and were used as the basis for this study. Of the 16,060 patients who received care during 2011 - 2012, 0.26% (43) filed a complaint involving an adverse event, of which 97.7 % were considered preventable. Most of these (76.18%, n= 32) occurred during clinical management of treatments in different specialties, 9.5% (4) were the result of deficient external dental laboratory quality, and 14.32% (6) were due to failure in document management, soft tissue injury, misdiagnosis and swallowing foreign objects. Of the patients involved, 65.2% (28) received care from postgraduate students, with the highest number of cases in the Oral Rehabilitation speciality. The occurrence of adverse events during dental care, indicates the need for information about their origin in order to establish protection barriers and prevent their incidence, particularly in the educational area under the student dental clinic service model. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  20. An epidemiological and clinical analysis of cutaneous adverse drug reactions seen in a tertiary hospital in Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Choon, Siew-Eng; Lai, Nai-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, clinical patterns, and causative drugs of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADR) vary among the different populations previously studied. To determine the prevalence, the clinical patterns of drug eruptions, and the common drugs implicated, particularly in severe cADR such as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in our population. We analyzed the database established for all cADR seen by the department of Dermatology from January 2001 till December 2010. A total of 362 cADR were seen among 42 170 new clinic attendees, yielding an incidence rate of 0.86%. The most common reaction pattern seen was maculopapular eruption (153 cases) followed by SJS/TEN (110 cases) and DRESS (34 cases). Antibiotics was the most commonly implicated drug group (146 cases) followed by anticonvulsants (81 cases) and antigout drugs (50 cases). The most frequently implicated drug was allopurinol (50 cases). Carbamazepine, allopurinol, and cotrimoxazole were the three main causative drugs of SJS/TEN accounting for 21.8%, 20.9%, and 12.7%, respectively, of the 110 cases seen, whereas DRESS was mainly caused by allopurinol (15 cases). Mortality rates for TEN, SJS, and DRESS were 28.6%, 2.2%, and 5.9%, respectively. The low rate of cADR with a high proportion of severe reactions observed in this study was probably due to referral bias. Otherwise, the reaction patterns and drugs causing cADR in our population were similar to those seen in other countries. Carbamazepine, allopurinol, and cotrimoxazole were the three main causative drugs of SJS/TEN in our population.

  1. Types, frequencies, and burden of nonspecific adverse events of drugs: analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Alfred; Golmard, Clara; Pham, Emilie; Iordache, Laura; Deville, Laure; Faure, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Scarce studies analyzing adverse event (AE) data from randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (RPCCTs) of selected illnesses suggested that a substantial proportion of collected AEs are unrelated to the drug taken. This study analyzed the nonspecific AEs occurring with active-drug exposure in RPCCTs for a large range of medical conditions. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials published in five prominent medical journals during 2006-2012 were searched. Only trials that evaluated orally or parenterally administered active drugs versus placebo in a head-to-head setting were selected. For AEs reported from ≥10 RPCCTs, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine the relationship between AE rates in placebo and active-drug recipients. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute proportions of nonspecific AEs, which were truncated at a maximum of 100%, in active-drug recipients. We included 231 trials addressing various medical domains or healthy participants. For the 88 analyzed AE variables, AE rates for placebo and active-drug recipients were in general strongly correlated (r > 0.50) or very strongly correlated (r > 0.80). The pooled proportions of nonspecific AEs for the active-drug recipients were 96.8% (95%CI: 95.5-98.1) for any AEs, 100% (97.9-100) for serious AEs, and 77.7% (72.7-83.2) for drug-related AEs. Results were similar for individual medical domains and healthy participants. The pooled proportion of nonspecificity of 82 system organ class and individual AE types ranged from 38% to 100%. The large proportion of nonspecific AEs reported in active-drug recipients of RPCCTs, including serious and drug-related AEs, highlights the limitations of clinical trial data to determine the tolerability of drugs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Assignment of adverse event indexing terms in randomized clinical trials involving spinal manipulative therapy: an audit of records in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases.

    PubMed

    Gorrell, Lindsay M; Engel, Roger M; Lystad, Reidar P; Brown, Benjamin T

    2017-03-14

    Reporting of adverse events in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is encouraged by the authors of The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. With robust methodological design and adequate reporting, RCTs have the potential to provide useful evidence on the incidence of adverse events associated with spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). During a previous investigation, it became apparent that comprehensive search strategies combining text words with indexing terms was not sufficiently sensitive for retrieving records that were known to contain reports on adverse events. The aim of this analysis was to compare the proportion of articles containing data on adverse events associated with SMT that were indexed in MEDLINE and/or EMBASE and the proportion of those that included adverse event-related words in their title or abstract. A sample of 140 RCT articles previously identified as containing data on adverse events associated with SMT was used. Articles were checked to determine if: (1) they had been indexed with relevant terms describing adverse events in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases; and (2) they mentioned adverse events (or any related terms) in the title or abstract. Of the 140 papers, 91% were MEDLINE records, 85% were EMBASE records, 81% were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, and 4% were not in either database. Only 19% mentioned adverse event-related text words in the title or abstract. There was no significant difference between MEDLINE and EMBASE records in the proportion of available papers (p = 0.078). Of the 113 papers that were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, only 3% had adverse event-related indexing terms assigned to them in both databases, while 81% were not assigned an adverse event-related indexing term in either database. While there was effective indexing of RCTs involving SMT in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, there was a failure of allocation of adverse event indexing terms in both databases. We

  3. High-Performing Families: Causes, Consequences, and Clinical Solutions. The Family Psychology and Counseling Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E., Ed.; Chase, Nancy D., Ed.

    This book explores the dilemma of the increasing obsession with work and the resulting imbalances between career and family life. Through theoretical frameworks and case examples it discusses the negative consequences of the societal phenomena of over-work and over-dedication to careers, which have been misdiagnosed or ignored by mental health…

  4. Chaos in the Clinic: Characteristics and Consequences of Practices Perceived as Chaotic.

    PubMed

    Perez, Hector R; Beyrouty, Matthew; Bennett, Katelyn; Baier Manwell, Linda; Brown, Roger L; Linzer, Mark; Schwartz, Mark D

    The Minimizing Error, Maximizing Outcome (MEMO) study of clinics in New York City, Chicago, and Wisconsin linked primary care work experiences to physician stress. We analyzed MEMO data to determine how chaos in the clinic was associated with work conditions and quality of care measures. Surveys and medical record audits determined practice characteristics and medical errors, respectively. Physicians rated clinic atmosphere on a scale of 1 (calm) to 5 (chaotic). Chaotic clinics were defined as practices rated either 4 or 5 by greater than 50% of clinic physicians. Forty of 112 MEMO clinics (36%) were chaotic. Compared with nonchaotic practices, these clinics served more minority and Medicaid patients and had a greater likelihood of clinic bottlenecks such as phone access (both p < .01). Physicians in chaotic clinics reported lower work control and job satisfaction, less emphasis on teamwork and professionalism, more stress and burnout, and a higher likelihood of leaving the practice within 2 years (all p < .05). Chaotic clinics had higher rates of medical errors and more missed opportunities to provide preventative services (both p < .05). More research should examine the effectiveness of organizational interventions to decrease chaos in the clinic and to mitigate its effects on patient safety.

  5. Transfusion of ABO-nonidentical platelets is not associated with adverse clinical outcomes in cardiovascular surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yulia; Callum, Jeannie L; Coovadia, Ahmed S; Murphy, Patricia M

    2002-02-01

    Current blood transfusion standards in Canada and the United States permit transfusion of ABO-nonidentical platelets when ABO-identical platelets are not available. This practice increases the availability of platelets, a component in chronic shortage in Ontario, Canada because of the 5-day shelf-life. The impact of transfusing ABO-nonidentical platelets on patient outcomes is unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS. A retrospective review of 1721 patients who had cardiovascular surgery between November 1989 and December 1999 and who had also received a platelet transfusion perioperatively was conducted. The impact of platelet and plasma incompatibility on clinical outcomes was analyzed. The analysis included 1691 patients who were divided into two groups according to the compatibility of the first platelet transfusion received: ABO-identical platelet transfusion (n = 1008) and ABO-nonidentical platelet transfusion (n = 683). The only difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups was that there were more urgent cases in the ABO-identical platelet transfusion group (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in mortality at 30 days (10% for both groups, p = NS) or in postoperative length of stay (median, 7.0 days for both groups, p = NS). No significant differences were found with respect to the use of blood components, indices of bleeding, incidence of infection, or platelet CCIs. Transfusion of ABO-nonidentical platelets in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery is not associated with an adverse impact on patient outcome.

  6. Parent-reported adverse food reactions in Hong Kong Chinese pre-schoolers: epidemiology, clinical spectrum and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting Fan; Yung, Edmund; Wong, Yun Sze; Lam, Christopher W K; Wong, Gary W K

    2009-06-01

    The epidemiology of adverse food reactions (AFRs), including the potentially life-threatening food allergy (FA), in Asia is unclear. AFR is believed to be less prevalent than in Caucasians. This study determines the prevalence, clinical features and risk factors for parent-reported AFR in Chinese pre-school children in Hong Kong. Children aged 2-7 yr living in Hong Kong were recruited through local nurseries and kindergartens to ascertain the occurrence and clinical spectrum of AFR and other atopic disorders. Subjects' parents answered a self-administered questionnaire that was modified and validated based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood. A total of 3827 children from 21 nurseries and kindergartens returned the study questionnaires, and information on AFR was analyzable for 3677 (96.1%) children. The prevalence rates of parent-reported AFR and parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed AFR were 8.1% and 4.6%, respectively, whereas 5.0% of pre-schoolers had doctor-diagnosed asthma. The six leading causes of AFR were shellfish (15.8%), egg (9.1%), peanut (8.1%), beef (6.4%), cow's milk (5.7%), and tree nuts (5.0%). When compared with children born and raised in Hong Kong, children born in mainland China (n = 253) had less parent-reported AFR (4.0% vs. 6.7%; p = 0.016). On logistic regression, parent-reported AFR was associated with younger age (p = 0.010), born in mainland China (p = 0.038), and AFR history in father (p = 0.001), mother (p < 0.001), siblings (p = 0.020), and paternal history of rhinitis (p = 0.044). This study shows that AFR is a common atopic disorder in Hong Kong pre-school children, and prevalence rates are comparable to the Caucasians.

  7. Management of Immune-Related Adverse Events in Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline.

    PubMed

    Brahmer, Julie R; Lacchetti, Christina; Schneider, Bryan J; Atkins, Michael B; Brassil, Kelly J; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chau, Ian; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gardner, Jennifer M; Ginex, Pamela; Hallmeyer, Sigrun; Holter Chakrabarty, Jennifer; Leighl, Natasha B; Mammen, Jennifer S; McDermott, David F; Naing, Aung; Nastoupil, Loretta J; Phillips, Tanyanika; Porter, Laura D; Puzanov, Igor; Reichner, Cristina A; Santomasso, Bianca D; Seigel, Carole; Spira, Alexander; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Wang, Yinghong; Weber, Jeffrey S; Wolchok, Jedd D; Thompson, John A

    2018-02-14

    Purpose To increase awareness, outline strategies, and offer guidance on the recommended management of immune-related adverse events in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPi) therapy. Methods A multidisciplinary, multi-organizational panel of experts in medical oncology, dermatology, gastroenterology, rheumatology, pulmonology, endocrinology, urology, neurology, hematology, emergency medicine, nursing, trialist, and advocacy was convened to develop the clinical practice guideline. Guideline development involved a systematic review of the literature and an informal consensus process. The systematic review focused on guidelines, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and case series published from 2000 through 2017. Results The systematic review identified 204 eligible publications. Much of the evidence consisted of systematic reviews of observational data, consensus guidelines, case series, and case reports. Due to the paucity of high-quality evidence on management of immune-related adverse events, recommendations are based on expert consensus. Recommendations Recommendations for specific organ system-based toxicity diagnosis and management are presented. While management varies according to organ system affected, in general, ICPi therapy should be continued with close monitoring for grade 1 toxicities, with the exception of some neurologic, hematologic, and cardiac toxicities. ICPi therapy may be suspended for most grade 2 toxicities, with consideration of resuming when symptoms revert to grade 1 or less. Corticosteroids may be administered. Grade 3 toxicities generally warrant suspension of ICPis and the initiation of high-dose corticosteroids (prednisone 1 to 2 mg/kg/d or methylprednisolone 1 to 2 mg/kg/d). Corticosteroids should be tapered over the course of at least 4 to 6 weeks. Some refractory cases may require infliximab or other immunosuppressive therapy. In general, permanent discontinuation of ICPis is

  8. Financial barriers and adverse clinical outcomes among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David J T; Manns, Braden J; Weaver, Robert G; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Sanmartin, Claudia

    2017-02-15

    Some patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease report financial barriers to achieving optimal health. Previous surveys report that the perception of having a financial barrier is associated with self-reported adverse clinical outcomes. We sought to confirm these findings using linked survey and administrative data to determine, among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases, if there is an association between perceived financial barriers and the outcomes of: (1) disease-related hospitalizations, (2) all-cause mortality and (3) inpatient healthcare costs. We used ten cycles of the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey (administered between 2000 and 2011) to identify a cohort of adults aged 45 and older with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. Perceived financial barriers to various aspects of chronic disease care and self-management were identified (including medications, healthful food and home care) from the survey questions, using similar questions to those used in previous studies. The cohort was linked to administrative data sources for outcome ascertainment (Discharge Abstract Database, Canadian Mortality Database, Patient Cost Estimator). We utilized Poisson regression techniques, adjusting for potential confounding variables (age, sex, education, multimorbidity, smoking status), to assess for associations between perceived financial barriers and disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. We used gross costing methodology and a variety of modelling approaches to assess the impact of financial barriers on hospital costs. We identified a cohort of 120,752 individuals over the age of 45 years with one or more of the following: hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. One in ten experienced financial barriers to at least one aspect of their care, with the two most common being financial barriers to accessing medications and healthful food. Even

  9. Elevated CETP activity during acute phase of myocardial infarction is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction and adverse clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Virginio, Vitor W M; Panzoldo, Natalia B; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Santos, Simone N; Modolo, Rodrigo G P; Andrade, Joalbo M; Quinaglia E Silva, Jose C; Nadruz-Junior, Wilson; de Faria, Eliana C; Sposito, Andrei C

    2014-12-01

    Recent data suggests that cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity may interact with acute stress conditions via inflammatory-oxidative response and thrombogenesis. We investigated this assumption in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Consecutive patients with STEMI (n = 116) were enrolled <24-h of symptoms onset and were followed for 180 days. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), 8-isoprostane, nitric oxide (NOx) and CETP activity were measured at enrollment (D1) and at fifth day (D5). Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed by ultrasound and coronary thrombus burden (CTB) was evaluated by angiography. Neither baseline nor the change of CETP activity from D1 to D5 was associated with CRP, IL-2, TNFα, 8-isoprostane levels or CTB. The rise in NOx from D1 to D5 was inferior [3.5(-1; 10) vs. 5.5(-1; 12); p < 0.001] and FMD was lower [5.9(5.5) vs. 9.6(6.6); p = 0.047] in patients with baseline CETP activity above the median value than in their counterparts. Oxidized HDL was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in isolated HDL particles and increased from D1 to D5, and remaining elevated at D30. The change in TBARS content in HDL was associated with CETP activity (r = 0.72; p = 0.014) and FMD (r = -0.61; p = 0.046). High CETP activity at admission was associated with the incidence of sudden death and recurrent MI at 30 days (OR 12.8; 95% CI 1.25-132; p = 0.032) and 180 days (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.03-10.7; p = 0.044). An enhanced CETP activity during acute phase of STEMI is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction and adverse clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anxiety, Depression, and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Starting Warfarin: Cardiovascular Research Network WAVE Study.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christine; Fan, Dongjie; Fang, Margaret C; Singer, Daniel E; Witt, Daniel M; Schmelzer, John R; Williams, Marc S; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Sung, Sue Hee; Go, Alan S

    2018-04-14

    Anxiety and depression are associated with worse outcomes in several cardiovascular conditions, but it is unclear whether they affect outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF). In a large diverse population of adults with AF, we evaluated the association of diagnosed anxiety and/or depression with stroke and bleeding outcomes. The Cardiovascular Research Network WAVE (Community-Based Control and Persistence of Warfarin Therapy and Associated Rates and Predictors of Adverse Clinical Events in Atrial Fibrillation and Venous Thromboembolism) Study included adults with AF newly starting warfarin between 2004 and 2007 within 5 health delivery systems in the United States. Diagnosed anxiety and depression and other patient characteristics were identified from electronic health records. We identified stroke and bleeding outcomes from hospitalization databases using validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision ( ICD-9 ), codes. We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the relation between anxiety and/or depression with outcomes after adjustment for stroke and bleeding risk factors. In 25 570 adults with AF initiating warfarin, 490 had an ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage (1.52 events per 100 person-years). In multivariable analyses, diagnosed anxiety was associated with a higher adjusted rate of combined ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.28). Results were not materially changed after additional adjustment for patient-level percentage of time in therapeutic anticoagulation range on warfarin (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.36). In contrast, neither isolated depression nor combined depression and anxiety were significantly associated with outcomes. Diagnosed anxiety was independently associated with increased risk of combined ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in adults with AF initiating warfarin that was not explained by differences in risk factors

  11. Clinical and economic burden of procedural sedation-related adverse events and their outcomes: analysis from five countries

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Rhodri; Davis, Jason A; Kranke, Peter; Weissbrod, Rachel; Whitaker, David K; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2018-01-01

    Background Studies have reported on the incidence of sedation-related adverse events (AEs), but little is known about their impact on health care costs and resource use. Methods Health care providers and payers in five countries were recruited for an online survey by independent administrators to ensure that investigators and respondents were blinded to each other. Surveys were conducted in the local language and began with a “screener” to ensure that respondents had relevant expertise and experience. Responses were analyzed using Excel and R, with the Dixon’s Q statistic used to identify and remove outliers. Global and country-specific average treatment patterns were calculated via bootstrapping; costs were mean values. The sum product of costs and intervention probability gave a cost per AE. Results Responses were received from 101 providers and 26 payers, the majority having >5 years of experience. At a minimum, the respondents performed a total of 3,430 procedural sedations per month. All AEs detailed occurred in clinical practice in the last year and were reported to cause procedural delays and cancellations in some patients. Standard procedural sedation costs ranged from €74 (Germany) to $2,300 (US). Respondents estimated that AEs would increase costs by between 16% (Italy) and 179% (US). Hypotension was reported as the most commonly observed AE with an associated global mean cost (interquartile range) of $43 ($27–$68). Other frequent AEs, including mild hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, mild oxygen desaturation, hypertension, and brief apnea, were estimated to increase health care spending on procedural sedation by $2.2 billion annually in the US. Conclusion All sedation-related AEs can increase health care costs and result in substantial delays or cancellations of subsequent procedures. The prevention of even minor AEs during procedural sedation may be crucial to ensuring its value as a health care service. PMID:29535525

  12. Clinical and economic burden of procedural sedation-related adverse events and their outcomes: analysis from five countries.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Rhodri; Davis, Jason A; Kranke, Peter; Weissbrod, Rachel; Whitaker, David K; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2018-01-01

    Studies have reported on the incidence of sedation-related adverse events (AEs), but little is known about their impact on health care costs and resource use. Health care providers and payers in five countries were recruited for an online survey by independent administrators to ensure that investigators and respondents were blinded to each other. Surveys were conducted in the local language and began with a "screener" to ensure that respondents had relevant expertise and experience. Responses were analyzed using Excel and R, with the Dixon's Q statistic used to identify and remove outliers. Global and country-specific average treatment patterns were calculated via bootstrapping; costs were mean values. The sum product of costs and intervention probability gave a cost per AE. Responses were received from 101 providers and 26 payers, the majority having >5 years of experience. At a minimum, the respondents performed a total of 3,430 procedural sedations per month. All AEs detailed occurred in clinical practice in the last year and were reported to cause procedural delays and cancellations in some patients. Standard procedural sedation costs ranged from €74 (Germany) to $2,300 (US). Respondents estimated that AEs would increase costs by between 16% (Italy) and 179% (US). Hypotension was reported as the most commonly observed AE with an associated global mean cost (interquartile range) of $43 ($27-$68). Other frequent AEs, including mild hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, mild oxygen desaturation, hypertension, and brief apnea, were estimated to increase health care spending on procedural sedation by $2.2 billion annually in the US. All sedation-related AEs can increase health care costs and result in substantial delays or cancellations of subsequent procedures. The prevention of even minor AEs during procedural sedation may be crucial to ensuring its value as a health care service.

  13. The renal concentrating mechanism and the clinical consequences of its loss

    PubMed Central

    Agaba, Emmanuel I.; Rohrscheib, Mark; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H.

    2012-01-01

    The integrity of the renal concentrating mechanism is maintained by the anatomical and functional arrangements of the renal transport mechanisms for solute (sodium, potassium, urea, etc) and water and by the function of the regulatory hormone for renal concentration, vasopressin. The discovery of aquaporins (water channels) in the cell membranes of the renal tubular epithelial cells has elucidated the mechanisms of renal actions of vasopressin. Loss of the concentrating mechanism results in uncontrolled polyuria with low urine osmolality and, if the patient is unable to consume (appropriately) large volumes of water, hypernatremia with dire neurological consequences. Loss of concentrating mechanism can be the consequence of defective secretion of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland (congenital or acquired central diabetes insipidus) or poor response of the target organ to vasopressin (congenital or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). The differentiation between the three major states producing polyuria with low urine osmolality (central diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia) is done by a standardized water deprivation test. Proper diagnosis is essential for the management, which differs between these three conditions. PMID:23293407

  14. Cardiometabolic consequences of therapy for chronic schizophrenia using second-generation antipsychotic agents in a medicaid population: clinical and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alex; Quon, Peter; Abouzaid, Safiya; Haber, Noah; Ahmed, Saed; Kim, Edward

    2013-02-01

    We assessed the potential clinical and economic impact of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes arising after the use of second-generation ("atypical") antipsychotic agents for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. We compared the use of these medications in patients with a higher risk of cardiometabolic adverse events (in a higher-risk scenario) and in patients with a lower risk (in a lower-risk scenario). Our U.S.-based analysis estimated the costs of CHD and diabetes arising from antipsychotic medication-related cardiometabolic effects. We constructed a health economic model to predict the 5-year incidence of CHD and diabetes and associated costs after treatment. In this cost-consequence model, we used CHD risk functions derived from the Framingham Heart Study and diabetes risk functions derived from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Patient characteristics and treatment effects on cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated from the Clinical Trials of Antipsychotic Treatment Effectiveness (CATIE) study. We evaluated two cost-consequence scenarios: the incidence of CHD and diabetes predicted for 1,000 patients with chronic schizophrenia in a higher-risk scenario based on data from CATIE associated with olanzapine (Zyprexa) and in a lower-risk scenario with ziprasidone (Geodon). We evaluated rates of adverse outcomes for each scenario and the cost of treatment for CHD and diabetes. All costs were reported in 2011 U.S. dollars. Because Medicaid is often the payer for patients with chronic schizophrenia, all costs in this analysis were derived from the perspective of Medicaid. Over a period of 5 years in 1,000 patients with chronic schizophrenia, the higher-risk scenario with olanzapine showed a 9% increased incidence of CHD and a 59% increased incidence of diabetes, compared with no change in treatment from baseline. By contrast, the lower-risk scenario with ziprasidone showed a 9% reduced incidence of CHD and a 10% reduced incidence of

  15. Changes and Clinical Consequences of Smoking Cessation in Patients With COPD: A Prospective Analysis From the CHAIN Cohort.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Cristina; Casanova, Ciro; de-Torres, Juan P; Marín, José M; de Lucas, Pilar; Fuster, Antonia; Cosío, Borja G; Calle, Myriam; Peces-Barba, Germán; Solanes, Ingrid; Agüero, Ramón; Feu-Collado, Nuria; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Romero Plaza, Amparo; Balcells, Eva; de Diego, Alfredo; Marín Royo, Margarita; Moreno, Amalia; Llunell Casanovas, Antonia; Galdiz, Juan B; Golpe, Rafael; Lacárcel Bautista, Celia; Cabrera, Carlos; Marin, Alicia; Soriano, Joan B; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis

    2018-02-22

    Despite the existing evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, chances of achieving that goal in real life are still low among patients with COPD. We sought to evaluate the clinical consequences of changes in smoking habits in a large cohort of patients with COPD. CHAIN (COPD History Assessment in Spain) is a Spanish multicenter study carried out at pulmonary clinics including active and former smokers with COPD. Smoking status was certified by clinical history and co-oximetry. Clinical presentation and disease impact were recorded via validated questionnaires, including the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). No specific smoking cessation intervention was carried out. Factors associated with and clinical consequences of smoking cessation were analyzed by multivariate regression and decision tree analyses. One thousand and eighty-one patients with COPD were included (male, 80.8%; age, 65.2 [SD 8.9] years; FEV 1 , 60.2 [20.5]%). During the 2-year follow-up time (visit 2, 906 patients; visit 3, 791 patients), the majority of patients maintained the same smoking habit. Decision tree analysis detected chronic expectoration as the most relevant variable to identify persistent quitters in the future, followed by an LCADL questionnaire (cutoff 9 points). Total anxiety HADS score was the most relevant clinical impact associated with giving up tobacco, followed by the LCADL questionnaire with a cutoff value of 10 points. In this real-life prospective COPD cohort with no specific antismoking intervention, the majority of patients did not change their smoking status. Our study also identifies baseline expectoration, anxiety, and dyspnea with daily activities as the major determinants of smoking status in COPD. ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT01122758; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tailoring exercise interventions to comorbidities and treatment-induced adverse effects in patients with early stage breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: a framework to support clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    van der Leeden, Marike; Huijsmans, Rosalie J; Geleijn, Edwin; de Rooij, Mariëtte; Konings, Inge R; Buffart, Laurien M; Dekker, Joost; Stuiver, Martijn M

    2018-02-01

    Delivery of exercise interventions to patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy requires complex clinical decisions. The purpose of this study was to develop a framework to support clinical decisions for tailoring exercise interventions to common comorbidities and cancer treatment-induced adverse effects. Tailored exercise prescriptions were developed in four steps, following the i3-S strategy. All steps were based on current best available evidence, complemented with expert opinions. First, common comorbidities and treatment-induced adverse effects were identified. In the subsequent steps, contra-indications and restrictions for exercise were described, along with possible exercise adaptations. In the final step, the obtained information was synthesized into a framework. Prevalent comorbidities were hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, (osteo)arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity. Adverse effects included conditions induced by pretreatment (e.g., lymphedema as a result of surgery) or by chemotherapy (e.g., reduced blood cell counts). Adaptations to the recommended exercise program were related to exercise tolerance, safety, and hygiene. A framework was proposed to guide clinical decisions during the exercise intervention. Comorbidities and adverse effects of breast cancer treatment require exercise adaptations. The proposed framework provides guidance on tailored exercise prescriptions in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Implications for Rehabilitation Exercise is recommended for patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy, but requires complex clinical decisions of the health professional. We identified the most important comorbidities and adverse effects of breast cancer treatment, and the resultant contra-indications and restrictions to exercise. We incorporated these findings into a clinical decision framework that provides suggestions for exercise adaptations in patients with

  17. Adverse consequences of tattoos and body piercings.

    PubMed

    Larzo, Melissa R; Poe, Susannah Grimm

    2006-03-01

    Body piercings and tattoos are becoming more common in the adolescent population today. Despite their movement into mainstream society, literature to aid in counseling of teens about these issues is scant. The practitioner dealing with this population of patients must be armed with the information necessary that will help adolescents make informed decisions about tattoos and piercings.

  18. Two Hundred Thirty-Six Children With Developmental Hydrocephalus: Causes and Clinical Consequences.

    PubMed

    Tully, Hannah M; Ishak, Gisele E; Rue, Tessa C; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Browd, Samuel R; Millen, Kathleen J; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-03-01

    Few systematic assessments of developmental forms of hydrocephalus exist. We reviewed magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and clinical records of patients with infancy-onset hydrocephalus. Among 411 infants, 236 had hydrocephalus with no recognizable extrinsic cause. These children were assigned to 1 of 5 subtypes and compared on the basis of clinical characteristics and developmental and surgical outcomes. At an average age of 5.3 years, 72% of children were walking independently and 87% could eat by mouth; in addition, 18% had epilepsy. Distinct patterns of associated malformations and syndromes were observed within each subtype. On average, children with aqueductal obstruction, cysts, and encephaloceles had worse clinical outcomes than those with other forms of developmental hydrocephalus. Overall, 53% of surgically treated patients experienced at least 1 shunt failure, but hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa crowding required fewer shunt revisions. We conclude that each subtype of developmental hydrocephalus is associated with distinct clinical characteristics, syndromology, and outcomes, suggesting differences in underlying mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Cardiovascular Consequences of Weightlessness Promote Advances in Clinical and Trauma Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    of syn- copal patients. In addition to physiological links to clinical problems, problems associated with post-flight orthostatic intolerance...reserve, gaining new insight and understanding of how these mechanisms contribute to cardiovascular collapse in presyn- copal astronauts in a

  20. Comparison of the adverse event profiles of levofloxacin 500 mg and 750 mg in clinical trials for the treatment of respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Khashab, Mohammed M; Xiang, Jim; Kahn, James B

    2006-10-01

    To compare safety data with levofloxacin 500 mg and 750 mg from clinical trials for the treatment of respiratory infections. We compared adverse event data for levofloxacin 500 mg and 750 mg from clinical trials in acute bacterial sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia. Adverse events occurring after the initiation of therapy were classified as treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE); drug-related adverse events (DRAE) were TEAE assessed by the clinical investigator as definitely/very likely or probably related to levofloxacin therapy. Overall, the safety profile of the two doses was similar but not identical. TEAE occurred in 49.0% (1601/3268) of those treated with 500 mg and in 45.5% (519/1141) of those treated with 750 mg (p = 0.042); the corresponding rates of DRAE were 7.6% (248/3268) and 8.0% (91/1141) (p = 0.699). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of overall TEAE and DRAE rates within each of the three infectious conditions, but there were in specific events, all of which are expected with levofloxacin therapy. The limitations of this analysis include that it utilized a subset of available safety data, that it includes data only from clinical trials, and that we report primarily on events occurring in > or = 2% of patients. Given similar adverse event profiles and the advantages of higher dose therapy, including shorter courses of therapy and potential impact on preventing resistance, clinicians should consider utilizing the 750 mg dose of levofloxacin when choosing between dosage strengths for treatment of indicated infections.

  1. The development and piloting of "ATTEND DR," a clinical teaching tool to identify and prioritize potential causes of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    King, Michelle; Khan, Sohil

    The identification, management, and reporting of adverse drug reactions are integral to clinical practice and education; however, undergraduate teaching related to adverse drug reactions may be inadequate for practice. Existing methods of causality assessment have a number of limitations in relation to clinical teaching, for example, they do not deal well with the concurrent use of other medications. To develop and pilot a teaching tool to guide students through the process of identifying and prioritizing potential causes of an adverse drug reaction. University-based School of Pharmacy, Australia: an undergraduate Quality Use of Medicines course. A contrived acronym (mnemonic) was developed from causality assessments and discussions with practitioners. The acronym ATTEND DR (abnormality, taken, timeline, evidence, nothing else?, dose, dechallenge, and rechallenge) was piloted in workshops that focussed on adverse drug reactions and their management. Students' responses to "What did you find most valuable about today's workshop?" and "How could we improve?" were analyzed. All attendees responded (65/65). Students indicated that the ATTEND DR acronym was easy to remember, and facilitated causality assessment in a clinical context, due to an easily followed, step-by-step, comprehensive process that was easy to remember. More practice case studies were requested. The ATTEND DR acronym was designed to address limitations of the existing methods of causality assessment in relation to clinical teaching and preparation of students for future clinical roles. Students responded favorably to its introduction, commenting that it was easily remembered and provided a comprehensive, clinically orientated, step-by-step process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Adverse reactions to vaccines].

    PubMed

    Eseverri, J L; Ranea, S; Marin, A

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reactions to vaccines are highly varied, ranging from mild local reactions to fatal outcomes. In the last few years many adverse reactions have been attributed to vaccines, often without justification. In agreement with the World Health Organization, these reactions can be classified as follows, depending on the cause: vaccination-induced reactions (due to an effect of the vaccine itself or to an idiosyncrasy); reactions due to errors in storage, manipulation and/or administration; and coincidental reactions (no causal relationship with the vaccine). Hypersensitivity reactions fall into six categories, depending on the causative agent: reactions due to some component of the infectious agent or one of its products; reactions due to adjuvants: aluminium hydroxide; reactions due to stabilizers: gelatin; reactions due to preservatives: thiomersal; reactions due to antibiotics: neomycin; and reactions due to a biological culture medium: chicken embryo cells. Allergic children should not be excluded from the normal vaccine calendar. Immunologically, allergic individuals are more susceptible to infection and to microbial and viral diseases, which often play an aggravating role. Rubella, whooping cough, and influenza usually exacerbate respiratory allergies. Non-vaccination carries a marked risk of contracting serious diseases such as poliomyelitis, tetanus, and diphtheria, etc. In a not too distant future, the techniques of genetic recombination and monoclonal antibody production will allow the creation of vaccines from organisms that cannot be cultivated in the laboratory or that produce small quantities of antigen. These techniques will also lead to identification of the antigens with the greatest immunogenic power and, consequently, to extremely pure vaccines. The adverse reactions to vaccines referred to our service account for between 0.59 % and 1.27 % of first visits in the last three years. We recorded a total of 48 adverse reactions to vaccines. Of these

  3. Stress and the gut: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Konturek, Peter C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J

    2011-12-01

    Stress, which is defined as an acute threat to homeostasis, shows both short- and long-term effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure to stress results in alterations of the brain-gut interactions ("brain-gut axis") ultimately leading to the development of a broad array of gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal diseases, food antigen-related adverse responses, peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The major effects of stress on gut physiology include: 1) alterations in gastrointestinal motility; 2) increase in visceral perception; 3) changes in gastrointestinal secretion; 4) increase in intestinal permeability; 5) negative effects on regenerative capacity of gastrointestinal mucosa and mucosal blood flow; and 6) negative effects on intestinal microbiota. Mast cells (MC) are important effectors of brain-gut axis that translate the stress signals into the release of a wide range of neurotransmitters and proinflammatory cytokines, which may profoundly affect the gastrointestinal physiology. IBS represents the most important gastrointestinal disorder in humans, and is characterized by chronic or recurrent pain associated with altered bowel motility. The diagnostic testing for IBS patients include routine blood tests, stool tests, celiac disease serology, abdominal sonography, breath testing to rule out carbohydrate (lactose, fructose, etc.) intolerance and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Colonoscopy is recommended if alarming symptoms are present or to obtain colonic biopsies especially in patients with diarrhoea predominant IBS. The management of IBS is based on a multifactorial approach and includes pharmacotherapy targeted against the predominant symptom, behavioural and psychological treatment, dietary alterations, education, reassurance and effective patient-physician relationship. When evaluating for the stress

  4. Effect of Valerian in Preventing Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Efavirenz in HIV-Positive Patients: A Pilot Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Motahareh; Khalili, Hossein; Abbasian, Ladan; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-06-01

    Several neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz are known. Preventing these adverse effects may improve patients' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of valerian in preventing neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive patients. In this pilot randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, 51 HIV-positive patients who were receiving efavirenz were recruited into the valerian (n = 25) or placebo (n = 26) group. Patients received valerian (530 mg) or placebo nightly 1 hour before sleep for 4 weeks. The neuropsychiatric status (sleep, anxiety, depression, suicidal thought, and psychosis) of patients was assessed at baseline and week 4 using validated questionnaires. Sleep ( P ≤ 0.001) and anxiety ( P = 0.001) significantly improved in the valerian group compared with the placebo group. Dizziness was the most common complaint of patients in first days of the intervention. In the valerian and placebo groups, 92% and 84.6% of patients experienced dizziness, respectively ( P = 0.35). Nausea was the second common adverse effect that 84% and 76.9% of patients in the valerian and placebo groups experienced ( P = 0.39). In the first 4 weeks of ART including efavirenz, valerian significantly improved sleep and anxiety in HIV-positive patients. Valerian may be considered as a potential option in preventing neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive patients.

  5. Prevalence, risk factors, clinical consequences, and treatment of enteral feed intolerance during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Gungabissoon, Usha; Hacquoil, Kimberley; Bains, Chanchal; Irizarry, Michael; Dukes, George; Williamson, Russell; Deane, Adam M; Heyland, Daren K

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence of enteral feed intolerance and factors associated with intolerance and to assess the influence of intolerance on nutrition and clinical outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from an international observational cohort study of nutrition practices among 167 intensive care units (ICUs). Data were collected on nutrition adequacy, ventilator-free days (VFDs), ICU stay, and 60-day mortality. Intolerance was defined as interruption of enteral nutrition (EN) due to gastrointestinal (GI) reasons (large gastric residuals, abdominal distension, emesis, diarrhea, or subjective discomfort). Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for intolerance and their clinical significance. A sensitivity analysis restricted to sites specifying a gastric residual volume ≥200 mL to identify intolerance was also conducted. Data from 1,888 ICU patients were included. The incidence of intolerance was 30.5% and occurred after a median 3 days from EN initiation. Patients remained intolerant for a mean (±SD) duration of 1.9 ± 1.3 days . Intolerance was associated with worse nutrition adequacy vs the tolerant (56% vs 64%, P < .0001), fewer VFDs (2.5 vs 11.2, P < .0001), increased ICU stay (14.4 vs 11.3 days, P < .0001), and increased mortality (30.8% vs 26.2, P = .04). The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that intolerance remained associated with negative outcomes. Although mortality was greater among the intolerant patients, this was not statistically significant. Intolerance occurs frequently during EN in critically ill patients and is associated with poorer nutrition and clinical outcomes. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. ARMC5 Mutations in a Large Cohort of Primary Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia: Clinical and Functional Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Espiard, Stéphanie; Drougat, Ludivine; Libé, Rossella; Assié, Guillaume; Perlemoine, Karine; Guignat, Laurence; Barrande, Gaelle; Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Doullay, Françoise; Lopez, Stephanie; Sonnet, Emmanuel; Torremocha, Florence; Pinsard, Denis; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Raffin-Sanson, Marie-Laure; Groussin, Lionel; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Coste, Joël; Bertagna, Xavier; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Beuschlein, Felix; Ragazzon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Context: Primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) is a rare cause of primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome (CS). ARMC5 germline mutations have been identified recently in PBMAH. Objective: To determine the prevalence of ARMC5 mutations and analyze genotype-phenotype correlation in a large cohort of unrelated PBMAH patients with subclinical or clinical CS. Patients and Methods: ARMC5 was sequenced in 98 unrelated PBMAH index cases. PBMAH was identified by bilateral adrenal nodular enlargement on computed tomography scan. The effect on apoptosis of ARMC5 missense mutants was tested in H295R and HeLa cells. Clinical and hormonal data were collected including midnight and urinary free cortisol levels, ACTH, androgens, renin/aldosterone ratio, cortisol after overnight dexamethasone suppression test, cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone after ACTH 1-24 stimulation and illegitimate receptor responses. Computed tomography and histological reports were analyzed. Results: ARMC5-damaging mutations were identified in 24 patients (26%). The missense mutants and the p.F700del deletion were unable to induce apoptosis in both H295R and HeLa cell lines, unlike the wild-type gene. ARMC5-mutated patients showed an overt CS more frequently, compared to wild-type patients: lower ACTH, higher midnight plasma cortisol, urinary free cortisol, and cortisol after dexamethasone suppression test (P = .003, .019, .006, and <.001, respectively). Adrenals of patients with mutations were bigger and had a higher number of nodules (P = .001 and <.001, respectively). Conclusions: ARMC5 germline mutations are common in PBMAH. Index cases of mutation carriers show a more severe hypercortisolism and larger adrenals. ARMC5 genotyping may help to identify clinical forms of PBMAH better and may also allow earlier diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25853793

  7. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options.

  8. Minimizing Adverse Events While Maintaining Clinical Improvement in a Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Crossover Trial with Dextroamphetamine and Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Aabech, Henning S.; Sundet, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the availability of both dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate provides an opportunity to minimize adverse events in a pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant trial. Methods: Thirty-six medication-naïve children 9–14 years of age, diagnosed with ADHD, were enrolled for 6 weeks in a crossover trial, with 2 weeks of methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and a placebo in a randomly assigned, counterbalanced sequence. Barkley's Side-Effect Rating Scale (SERS), rated by parents, was used to assess adverse events. SERS were available for 34 children, and data were analyzed both at the group and the single-subject level. Results: The side-effect profiles of dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate appeared similar at the group level. Overall, insomnia and decreased appetite were the only adverse events associated with the stimulants as compared with placebo. No significant increase from placebo to stimulant conditions was detected on SERS items reflecting emotional symptoms. Furthermore, dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate did not differ from each other on any SERS item, except that dextroamphetamine was associated with higher severity of “insomnia” and a higher prevalence of “unusually happy.” Single-subject analyses showed that one or more adverse events were reported in 14 children (41%), and were evenly distributed between those with dextroamphetamine as the drug that showed the greatest reduction in their ADHD symptoms (“best drug”) and those with methylphenidate as their best drug. Among children in whom both stimulants were associated with a decrease in ADHD symptoms, a clinically valid difference between the two stimulants in total adverse events score was found in 7 (39%) of the 18 cases. In these children, the availability of both stimulants provided an opportunity to minimize adverse events, while maintaining a reduction in ADHD symptoms. Conclusions

  9. The Molecular, Cellular and Clinical Consequences of Targeting the Estrogen Receptor Following Estrogen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ping; Maximov, Philipp Y.; Curpan, Ramona F.; Abderrahman, Balkees; Jordan, V. Craig

    2015-01-01

    During the past twenty years our understanding of the control of breast tumor development, growth and survival has changed dramatically. The once long forgotten application of high dose synthetic estrogen therapy as the first chemical therapy to treat any cancer has been resurrected, refined and reinvented as the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis. High dose estrogen therapy was cast aside once tamoxifen, from its origins as a failed “morning after pill”, was reinvented as the first targeted therapy to treat any cancer. The current understanding of the mechanism of estrogen-induced apoptosis is described as a consequence of acquired resistance to long term antihormone therapy in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. The ER signal transduction pathway remains a target for therapy in breast cancer despite “antiestrogen” resistance, but becomes a regulator of resistance. Multiple mechanisms of resistance come into play: Selective ER Modulator (SERM) stimulated growth, growth factor/ER crosstalk, estrogen-induced apoptosis and mutations of ER. But it is with the science of estrogen-induced apoptosis that the next innovation in women’s health will be developed. Recent evidence suggests that the glucocorticoid properties of medroxyprogesterone acetate blunt estrogen-induced apoptosis in estrogen deprived breast cancer cell populations. As a result breast cancer develops during long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). A new synthetic progestin with estrogen-like properties, such as the 19 nortestosterone derivatives used in oral contraceptives, will continue to protect the uterus from unopposed estrogen stimulation but at the same time, reinforce apoptosis in vulnerable populations of nascent breast cancer cells. PMID:26052034

  10. Variability of word discrimination scores in clinical practice and consequences on their sensitivity to hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Annie; Bernard, André; Tordella, Laurent; Vergne, Judith; Gisbert, Annie; Martin, Christian; Richard, Céline

    2017-05-01

    Speech perception scores are widely used to assess patient's functional hearing, yet most linguistic material used in these audiometric tests dates to before the availability of large computerized linguistic databases. In an ENT clinic population of 120 patients with median hearing loss of 43-dB HL, we quantified the variability and the sensitivity of speech perception scores to hearing loss, measured using disyllabic word lists, as a function of both the number of ten-word lists and type of scoring used (word, syllables or phonemes). The mean word recognition scores varied significantly across lists from 54 to 68%. The median of the variability of the word recognition score ranged from 30% for one ten-word list down to 20% for three ten-word lists. Syllabic and phonemic scores showed much less variability with standard deviations decreasing by 1.15 with the use of syllabic scores and by 1.45 with phonemic scores. The sensitivity of each list to hearing loss and distortions varied significantly. There was an increase in the minimum effect size that could be seen for syllabic scores compared to word scores, with no significant further improvement with phonemic scores. The use of at least two ten-word lists, quoted in syllables rather than in whole words, contributed to a large decrease in variability and an increase in sensitivity to hearing loss. However, those results emphasize the need of using updated linguistic material for clinical speech score assessments.

  11. Heterogeneity in Comorbidity between Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder and its Clinical Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Unick, George J; Snowden, Lonnie; Hastings, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalized Anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly comorbid and, as diagnoses, problematic because they are heterogeneous, may impair functioning even in sub-clinical manifestations, and may not predict important external criteria as well as an empirically-derived classifications. The present study employed a Latent Class Analysis using data from National Comorbidity Survey (1990–1992) and focused on respondents who endorsed at least one screening question for MDD and one for GAD (N=1009). Results revealed 4 symptom domains (Somatic Anxiety, Somatic Depression, Psychological Anxiety, and Psychological Depression) reflecting the heterogeneity of MDD and GAD, and 7 respondent classes. Analysis revealed that people in classes with a high prevalence of either somatic anxiety or somatic depression symptoms presented with the highest levels of disability, distress and service utilization. Evidence also was found for clinically meaningful sub-threshold co-morbid conditions. Anxiety-related and depression- related symptoms can be meaningfully differentiated, but differentiating between somatic and psychological symptoms has the greatest practical significance. PMID:19363376

  12. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Epidemiology and Clinical Consequences of an Emerging Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    David, Michael Z.; Daum, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), endovascular infections, pneumonia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were once confined largely to hospitals, other health care environments, and patients frequenting these facilities. Since the mid-1990s, however, there has been an explosion in the number of MRSA infections reported in populations lacking risk factors for exposure to the health care system. This increase in the incidence of MRSA infection has been associated with the recognition of new MRSA clones known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). CA-MRSA strains differ from the older, health care-associated MRSA strains; they infect a different group of patients, they cause different clinical syndromes, they differ in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, they spread rapidly among healthy people in the community, and they frequently cause infections in health care environments as well. This review details what is known about the epidemiology of CA-MRSA strains and the clinical spectrum of infectious syndromes associated with them that ranges from a commensal state to severe, overwhelming infection. It also addresses the therapy of these infections and strategies for their prevention. PMID:20610826

  13. Using clinical symptoms to predict adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with preeclampsia: data from the PIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk) study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tin-Wing; Payne, Beth; Qu, Ziguang; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Lee, Tang; Magee, Laura A; Walters, Barry N; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity. The clinical challenge lies in predicting which women with preeclampsia will suffer adverse outcomes and would benefit from treatment, while minimizing potentially harmful interventions. Our aim was to determine the ability of maternal symptoms (i.e., severe nausea or vomiting, headache, visual disturbance, right upper quadrant pain or epigastric pain, abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding, and chest pain or dyspnea) to predict adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. We used data from the PIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk) study, a multicentre, prospective cohort study designed to investigate the maternal risks associated with preeclampsia. Relative risks and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed for each preeclampsia symptom and outcome pair. Of 2023 women who underwent assessment, 52% experienced at least one preeclampsia symptom, with 5.2% and 5.3% respectively experiencing an adverse maternal or perinatal outcome. No symptom and outcome pair, in either of the maternal or perinatal groups, achieved an area under the ROC curve value > 0.7, which would be necessary to demonstrate a discriminatory predictive value. Maternal symptoms of preeclampsia are not independently valid predictors of maternal adverse outcome. Caution should be used when making clinical decisions on the basis of symptoms alone in the preeclamptic patient.

  14. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

  15. Clinical consequences of road traffic injuries among the elderly in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries among the elderly have recently become a public health issue; therefore, we investigated the clinical characteristics of such injuries among the elderly in Japan. Methods A retrospective study was performed using data from a medium-sized hospital emergency department. Data were extracted from medical records for one year, and patients were categorized into groups ages 18-64, 65-74 and 75+. Variables included demographic characteristics, injury circumstances, and nature of injury. Univariate and bivariate descriptive statistical analyses were performed, and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate injury severity and hospital admission by age groups. Results A total of 1,656 patients were studied. Patients aged 65+ had more chest wall injury, intracranial injury, lower extremity fracture, and intrathoracic injury than patients aged 18-64. Conclusions Injury circumstances and nature of injuries associated with traffic incidents showed different patterns by age groups, particularly among the elderly. PMID:20584283

  16. Clinical characteristics and economic consequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping-Feng; Chang, Yea-Yuan; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Wang, Fu-Der; Chan, Yu-Jiun; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2015-04-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess (KPLA) has emerged as an endemic disease in Taiwan, and its prevalence has been increasing in east Asian countries in the past three decades. The utilization of healthcare resources associated with KPLA is assumed to be substantial, and may be of future concern. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and economic burden of KPLA in Taiwan in 2011 and 2012. Adult patients with KPLA were identified retrospectively in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan from January 2011 to December 2012. The clinical characteristics, total and daily hospitalization expenditure, and the risk factors for the costs of KPLA were analyzed. Among patients with KPLA, the median cost was $5290.80 in US dollars, and the mean cost was $6337.50 ± $4363.40. Length of hospital stay was the only independent risk factor for the high total hospitalization expenditure. The duration of antibiotic use was nearly the same as the length of hospital stay. The prolonged stay in the general ward (≥21 days) also contributed to the high total cost of hospitalization. The independent risk factors for the high average daily cost of hospitalization were a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index and the requirement of intensive care on admission. The current study is the first to demonstrate the high economic burden resulting from KPLA in a medical center in Taiwan. Standardizing the treatment protocol for KPLA inpatients and introducing an outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy center to reduce the length of stay may reduce costs, whereas development of a vaccine may be necessary to tackle endemic KPLA in the future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Clinical consequences of relative biological effectiveness variations in proton radiotherapy of the prostate, brain and liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabe, Alejandro; España, Samuel; Grassberger, Clemens; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-04-01

    Proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is known to depend on the (α/β)x of irradiated tissues, with evidence of ˜60% variation over (α/β)x values from 1-10 Gy. The range of (α/β)x values reported for prostate tumors (1.2-5.0 Gy), brain tumors (10-15 Gy) and liver tumors (13-17 Gy) imply that the proton RBE for these tissues could vary significantly compared to the commonly used generic value of 1.1. Our aim is to evaluate the impact of this uncertainty on the proton dose in Gy(RBE) absorbed in normal and tumor tissues. This evaluation was performed for standard and hypofractionated regimens. RBE-weighted total dose (RWTD) distributions for 15 patients (five prostate tumors, five brain tumors and five liver tumors) were calculated using an in-house developed RBE model as a function of dose, dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd) and (α/β)x. Variations of the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the organs at risk due to changes of (α/β)x and fractionation regimen were calculated and the RWTD received by 10% and 90% of the organ volume reported. The goodness of the plan, bearing the uncertainties, was then evaluated compared to the delivered plan, which considers a constant RBE of 1.1. For standard fractionated regimens, the prostate tumors, liver tumors and all critical structures in the brain showed typically larger RBE values than 1.1. However, in hypofractionated regimens lower values of RBE than 1.1 were observed in most cases. Based on DVH analysis we found that the RBE variations were clinically significant in particular for the prostate GTV and the critical structures in the brain. Despite the uncertainties in the biological input parameters when estimating RBE values, the results show that the use of a variable RBE with dose, LETd and (α/β)x could help to further optimize the target dose in proton treatment planning. Most importantly, this study shows that the consideration of RBE variations could

  18. Incidence of skeletal muscle disorders after statins' treatment: consequences in clinical and EMG picture.

    PubMed

    Drobny, Michal; Pullmann, Rudolf; Odalos, Ivan; Skerenova, Maria; Saniova, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this clinical trial was to determine the incidence of undesirable side effects, and to ascertain any occurrence of genetic polymorphisms. Clinically, we looked for manifestations of a benign myositis and of serious rhabdomyolysis. We observed a group 198 patients treated with statins, primarially fluvastatin and rosuvastatin. There were 126 (mean age = 58.3 ± 4.1; male 91, mean age = 57.4 ± 5.9; female 35, mean age = 60.5 ± 6.5) patients in a subgroup where we administered rosuvastatin. Undesirable muscular signs and symptoms were present in 32 patients (25.39%). In 11 (8.73% of the total 126) CK level increased maximally to 4 times ULN, in 6 (4.7%) statins were excluded because of very intense subjective suffering. CK levels 2-5 times ULN were present in 9 (7.14%). CK blood levels over 10 times ULN or higher indicated statins exclusion in 2 (1.58%). Increased levels of the further muscular enzyme AST by 5 times ULN were present in 16 (12.69%), up to 10 times ULN in 2 (1.58%), and over 10 times ULN also in 2 (1.58%). We observed rhabdomyolysis in 6 patients (3.03% of the total 198 patients group) using other types of statins (three of them undergo chronic hemodialysis). In this group we performed molecular-genetic analysis of the following proteins relating to statin myopathy: SLCO1B1(388AA/AG-521TT) - (discovered polymorphism in 1 patient), further cytochroms Cyp 2C9 (in 1 patient), 2C8 (in 1 patient), Cyp SA/4 (non discovered positivity) and finally UGT1A1*2B (discovered in 2 patients). In the group of patients treated by rosuvastatin, we discovered not one case of rhabdomyolysis. In each patient with rhabdomyolysis (brown urine discoloration, mal-odorous urine, painful muscle cramps, muscle weakness, fatigue) at least one polymorphism of "statins´ genes" was present.

  19. Clinical consequences of microdeletions of the Y chromosome: the extended Münster experience.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Manuela; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2008-02-01

    A total of 3179 patients were screened for Y-chromosome microdeletions and 821 patients for partial AZFc deletions. Thirty-nine Y-chromosomal microdeletions were found (2.4% of men with <1 x 10(6)/ml spermatozoa): two AZFa, two AZFb, one AZFbc, one partial AZFb, one partial AZFb+c and 32 AZFc (b2/b4). Partial AZFc deletions were found in 45 patients (5.5%), mostly gr/gr deletions (n = 28). In patients with AZFc deletion, azoospermia was found in 53.1% and sperm concentrations of mostly <0.1 x 10(6)/ml were found in 46.9%. Semen analyses and FSH measurements showed no trend over time. Elongated spermatids were seen in 6/15 AZFc patients and bilateral Sertoli cell-only was found in 4/15. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) was attempted in 10 patients and spermatozoa were found in six. Compared with infertile men matched by sperm concentration, no differences in hormonal and seminal parameters could be found in patients with AZFc or gr/gr deletions. It is concluded that: (i) frequency of AZF deletions in Germany is much lower than in other countries; (ii) AZFc deletions are associated with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis and TESE is not possible in half of these patients; (iii) AZFc and gr/ gr deletions are not associated with any clinical diagnostic parameter; (iv) and no trend is apparent over time.

  20. Clinical results and nutritional consequences of biliopancreatic diversion: three years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Pacheco, D; Izaola, O; Terroba, M C; Cuellar, L; Martin, T

    2008-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment for morbid obesity, reducing obesity-associated comorbidities. The aim of our work was to describe clinical results and nutritional complications in morbidly obese patients with biliopancreatic diversion. We have analyzed a consecutive series of 64 patients who have been followed up for 3 years after undergoing open biliopancreatic diversion by the Scopinaro technique. Initial excess weight loss was 29.3% at 6 months and 61.5% at 3 years. A significant improvement of body mass index, weight, waist circumference, fat mass, glucose level, total cholesterol, uric acid and triglycerides levels was detected. Ferritin, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B(12), zinc and copper levels showed a low percentage of deficiency at basal time, but during the follow-up, the percentage of deficiency increased. Vitamin E and K did not show basal deficiency. However, after surgery, a moderate deficiency of both vitamins was detected (vitamin E 7.1% and vitamin K 8.3%). Folic acid deficiency was observed in 54.3% of the subjects at basal time, but decreased during the study. Biliopancreatic diversion is an effective method of sustainable weight loss. However, micronutrient deficiencies can occur. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The influence of thyroid function on the coagulation system and its clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Elbers, L P B; Fliers, E; Cannegieter, S C

    2018-04-01

    Several studies indicate that low plasma levels of thyroid hormone shift the hemostatic system towards a hypocoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic state, whereas high levels of thyroid hormone lead to more coagulation and less fibrinolysis. Low levels of thyroid hormone thereby seem to lead to an increased bleeding risk, whereas high levels, by contrast, increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. Hypothyroidism leads to a higher incidence of acquired von Willebrand's syndrome and with increasing levels of free thyroxine, levels of fibrinogen, factor VIII and von Willebrand factor, amongst others, increase gradually, to the extent that they may lead to symptomatic venous thromboembolism in patients with hyperthyroidism. Here, we discuss the literature on the effect of thyroid hormone on the hemostatic system and the associated risk of bleeding and venous thromboembolism. Patients with hypothyroidism are at increased risk of developing bleeding complications, which could be relevant in patients undergoing invasive procedures. Furthermore, physicians should be aware of the possibility of hyperthyroidism as an underlying risk factor for venous thromboembolism, especially in unexplained cases. Clinical studies are needed to further investigate the significance for general practice of these findings. Besides the effects of hyperthyroidism on venous thromboembolism, its effects on embolism secondary to atrial fibrillation are described. © 2018 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Modern concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency and its clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard; Fisher, Allyson L; Chase, Margot E; Brock, Carroll M; Gubler, K; Long, William B

    2009-01-01

    It is the purpose of this comprehensive report to outline a revolutionary strategy to prevent vitamin D deficiency in our nation. Vitamin D is a unique vitamin. Its metabolic product, calcitriol, is a profound secosteroid hormone that has impact on over 1000 genes in the human body. Recent clinical research has implicated vitamin D deficiency as a major factor in the etiology of rickets, a wide variety of cancers, as well as hypertension, stroke, heart attack, diabetes, bone fractures, periodontal disease, and even multiple sclerosis. There are two forms of vitamin D utilized in the human body: D2 and D3. Measurement of 25(OH)D is the most reliable method of detecting vitamin D deficiency. Several methods, including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemoluminescence, and radioimmunoassay (RIA), have been developed for the measurement of total 25(OH)D levels. Prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency is accomplished by regulated sun exposure as well as vitamin D, supplementation. This information describing our plan to prevent vitamin D deficiency in the patients and employees of Legacy Health System is a landmark accomplishment that should be replicated in every healthcare setting in our country to prevent vitamin D deficiency.

  3. Clinical and molecular consequences of exon 78 deletion in DMD gene.

    PubMed

    Traverso, Monica; Assereto, Stefania; Baratto, Serena; Iacomino, Michele; Pedemonte, Marina; Diana, Maria Cristina; Ferretti, Marta; Broda, Paolo; Minetti, Carlo; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Madia, Francesca; Bruno, Claudio; Zara, Federico; Fiorillo, Chiara

    2018-03-19

    We present a 13-year-old patient with persistent increase of serum Creatine Kinase (CK) and myalgia after exertion. Skeletal muscle biopsy showed marked reduction of dystrophin expression leading to genetic analysis of DMD gene by MLPA, which detected a single deletion of exon 78. To the best of our knowledge, DMD exon 78 deletion has never been described in literature and, according to prediction, it should lead to loss of reading frame in the dystrophin gene. To further assess the actual effect of exon 78 deletion, we analysed cDNA from muscle mRNA. This analysis confirmed the absence of 32 bp of exon 78. Exclusion of exon 78 changes the open reading frame of exon 79 and generate a downstream stop codon, producing a dystrophin protein of 3703 amino acids instead of 3685 amino acids. Albeit loss of reading frame usually leads to protein degradation and severe phenotype, in this case, we demonstrated that deletion of DMD exon 78 can be associated with a functional protein able to bind DGC complex and a very mild phenotype. This study adds a novel deletion in DMD gene in human and helps to define the compliance between maintaining/disrupting the reading frame and clinical form of the disease.

  4. [Potential antimicrobial drug interactions in clinical practice: consequences of polypharmacy and multidrug resistance].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Múgica, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Polypharmacy is a growing problem nowadays, which can increase the risk of potential drug interactions, and result in a loss of effectiveness. This is particularly relevant to the anti-infective therapy, especially when infection is produced by resistant bacteria, because therapeutic options are limited and interactions can cause treatment failure. All antimicrobial prescriptions were retrospectively reviewed during a week in the Pharmacy Department, in order to detect potential drug-interactions and analysing their clinical significance. A total of 314 antimicrobial prescriptions from 151 patients were checked. There was at least one potential interaction detected in 40% of patients, being more frequent and severe in those infected with multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Drugs most commonly involved were quinolones, azoles, linezolid and vancomycin. Potential drug interactions with antimicrobial agents are a frequent problem that can result in a loss of effectiveness. This is why they should be detected and avoided when possible, in order to optimize antimicrobial therapy, especially in case of multidrug resistant infections.

  5. Clinical characteristics of adverse reactions to nonionic low osmolality contrast media in patients transferred from the CT room to the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Ook; Kim, Dae Yong; Sohn, You Dong

    2016-01-01

    Nonionic low osmolality contrast media (LOCMs) are used universally in computed tomography (CT) imaging. Although adverse reactions due to nonionic LOCMs are a common cause of emergency room (ER) admissions, few studies have investigated these adverse reactions. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of patients who were transferred from the CT room to the ER due to adverse reactions to contrast media, and we determined the risk factors for severe adverse reactions. A single-center retrospective study was conducted over a 41-month period. Baseline and clinical characteristics were evaluated and analyzed according to moderate and severe severity. In particular, risk factors of severe reactions were determined using logistic regression analysis. In total, 70 patients were admitted to the ER with adverse reactions due to nonionic LOCMs. Of these, 33 developed a moderate reaction, and 37 developed a severe reaction. Compared with the moderate reaction group, the severe reaction group was older, had higher blood pressures, showed more symptoms indicating the cardiovascular and central nervous system, and developed faster reactions to LOCMs. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age of the patient and time to onset of reaction demonstrated a statistical relationship with severe adverse reactions. In the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal cutoff values for age and time to onset were 60 years and 5 min. In conclusion, clinicians should be attentive to anaphylaxis due to nonionic LOCM, in particular, for elderly patients aged older than 60 years and a time to reaction onset of less than 5 min.

  6. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences.

    PubMed

    Cope, Emily K; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pletcher, Steven D; Lynch, Susan V

    2017-05-12

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n = 59) and healthy individuals (n = 10) collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, predicted metagenomics, and RNA profiling of the mucosal immune response. We show that CRS patients cluster into distinct sub-groups (DSI-III), each defined by specific pattern of bacterial co-colonization (permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA); p = 0.001, r 2  = 0.318). Each sub-group was typically dominated by a pathogenic family: Streptococcaceae (DSI), Pseudomonadaceae (DSII), Corynebacteriaceae [DSIII(a)], or Staphylococcaceae [DSIII(b)]. Each pathogenic microbiota was predicted to be functionally distinct (PERMANOVA; p = 0.005, r 2  = 0.217) and encode uniquely enriched gene pathways including ansamycin biosynthesis (DSI), tryptophan metabolism (DSII), two-component response [DSIII(b)], and the PPAR-γ signaling pathway [DSIII(a)]. Each is also associated with significantly distinct host immune responses; DSI, II, and III(b) invoked a variety of pro-inflammatory, T H 1 responses, while DSIII(a), which exhibited significantly increased incidence of nasal polyps (Fisher's exact; p = 0.034, relative risk = 2.16), primarily induced IL-5 expression (Kruskal Wallis; q = 0.045). A large proportion of CRS patient heterogeneity may be explained by the composition of their sinus bacterial microbiota and related host immune response-features which may inform strategies for tailored therapy in this patient population.

  7. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) focused on adverse events (PRO-AEs) in adjuvant and metastatic breast cancer: clinical and translational implications.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Stefan; Wallwiener, Markus; Karic, Uros; Domschke, Christoph; Katic, Luka; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Pesic, Aleksandra; Hartkopf, Andreas; Hadji, Peyman; Teufel, Martin; Schuetz, Florian; Sohn, Christof; Fasching, Peter; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Brucker, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The capture of adequate treatment outcomes and quality of life (QOL) of advanced breast cancer patients in clinical routine represents a great challenge. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are data elements directly reported by patients about experiences with care, including symptoms, functional status, or quality of life. There is growing interest in the medical community for the evaluation and implementation of PROs of adverse events (PRO-AEs). Recent interest in PROs in health care has evolved in the context of patient centeredness. Our primary objective was to identify trials that had implemented PRO-AEs in the breast cancer treatment setting, thereby demonstrating its feasibility. We aimed to identify published studies that used patient reports to assess AEs during and after breast cancer treatment, to identify clinician underreported and modifiable AEs that are important to patients, and to analyze the feasibility and usefulness of PRO instrument implementation in everyday oncological practice with special attention given to electronic-based PRO instruments. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed for studies that used PRO instruments to assess AEs of breast cancer treatment in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. Two authors independently reviewed the search results and decided which studies fully met the predefined inclusion criteria. The search yielded 606 publications. The two reviewers found that 9 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three AEs were identified as important to patients but inadequately reported by health care providers, namely hot flushes, vaginal dryness, and weight gain. PROs and PRO-AEs are the consequence of contemporary concepts of patient-centered medicine and the growing feasibility, utility, and implications of collecting data using modern technology. Furthermore, the willingness of patients to utilize innovative applications for their own health has been increasing in parallel to the enhanced impact of the World Wide Web

  8. Clinical consequences of IL-1 genotype on early implant failures in patients under periodontal maintenance.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Henrik; Hamberg, Kristina; De Bruyn, Hugo; Bratthall, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    Implant failure and biologic complications such as periimplantitis are not completely avoidable. Are there any genetic and microbiologic parameters that could be used to identify patients at risk for implant failure, preferably prior to treatment? This would result in improvement of the diagnostics, treatment decision, and risk assessment. The aims of this retrospective study were to describe (1) the absolute failure rate of Brånemark System implants (Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) consecutively installed over a 10-year period in partially edentulous patients treated for periodontal disease prior to implant treatment and under regular professional maintenance, (2) the rate of interleukin-1 (IL-1) polymorphism in those patients who experienced at least one implant failure during the first year of function, and (3) the prevalence of periodontal pathogens in dental and periimplant sites with and without signs of inflammation. Of 766 patients, 81 encountered at least one implant failure; 22 patients were clinically examined and were tested genetically for IL-1 genotypes. The presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella nigrescens was analyzed. The absolute implant survival rate for the whole population was 95.32%; 10.57% of the patients encountered an implant loss. Implant loss in the examined group (n = 22) was 32 of 106 (30.1%); 10 (45%) of the 22 patients were smokers, and 6 (27%) of the 22 patients were IL-1 genotype positive. Patients positive for IL-1 genotype were not more prone to implant loss; however, a significant synergistic effect with smoking was demonstrated. Between patients who were IL-1 genotype positive and those who were IL-1 genotype negative, the differences in regard to bleeding on probing or periodontal pathogens did not reach statistical significance. The overall implant failure rate in a population treated and maintained for periodontal disease is similar to that of healthy subjects. A

  9. Ginger for Prevention of Antituberculosis-induced Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions Including Hepatotoxicity: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Emrani, Zahra; Shojaei, Esphandiar; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the potential benefits of ginger in preventing antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity have been evaluated in patients with tuberculosis. Patients in the ginger and placebo groups (30 patients in each group) received either 500 mg ginger (Zintoma)(®) or placebo one-half hour before each daily dose of antituberculosis drugs for 4 weeks. Patients' gastrointestinal complaints (nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain) and antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity were recorded during the study period. In this cohort, nausea was the most common antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Forty eight (80%) patients experienced nausea. Nausea was more common in the placebo than the ginger group [27 (90%) vs 21 (70%), respectively, p = 0.05]. During the study period, 16 (26.7%) patients experienced antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Patients in the ginger group experienced less, but not statistically significant, antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity than the placebo group (16.7% vs 36.7%, respectively, p = 0.07). In conclusion, ginger may be a potential option for prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Unsatisfactory Glucose Management and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Real World of Clinical Practice: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ru; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Yuan, Zhong-Shang; Gao, Ling; Zuo, Chang-Ting

    2018-05-05

    Facing the increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), this study aimed to evaluate the management of GDM and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The data of 996 inpatients with GDM who terminated pregnancies in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2015 were collected. Treatments during pregnancy and the last hospital admission before delivery were analyzed. Pregnancy outcomes of the GDM patients were compared with 996 nondiabetic subjects matched by delivery year and gestational age. The association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and adverse pregnancy outcomes was examined by logistic regression analyses. The average prevalence of GDM over the 5 years was 4.4% (1330/30,191). Within the GDM patients, 42.8% (426/996) received dietary intervention, whereas 19.1% (190/996) received insulin treatment. Adverse outcomes were more likely to occur in patients with unsatisfactory control of blood glucose such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, χ 2 = 13.373, P < 0.01). Elevated FPG was identified as an independent risk factor for premature birth (odds ratio [OR] = 1.460, P < 0.001), neonatal care unit admission (OR = 1.284, P < 0.001), RDS (OR = 1.322, P = 0.001), and stillbirth (OR = 1.427, P < 0.001). Management of GDM in the real world of clinical practice was unsatisfactory, which might have contributed to adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Feasibility of Patient Reporting of Symptomatic Adverse Events via the Patient-Reported Outcomes Version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) in a Chemoradiotherapy Cooperative Group Multicenter Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Basch, Ethan, E-mail: ebasch@med.unc.edu; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Pugh, Stephanie L.

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of measuring symptomatic adverse events (AEs) in a multicenter clinical trial using the National Cancer Institute's Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE). Methods and Materials: Patients enrolled in NRG Oncology's RTOG 1012 (Prophylactic Manuka Honey for Reduction of Chemoradiation Induced Esophagitis-Related Pain during Treatment of Lung Cancer) were asked to self-report 53 PRO-CTCAE items representing 30 symptomatic AEs at 6 time points (baseline; weekly ×4 during treatment; 12 weeks after treatment). Reporting was conducted via wireless tablet computers in clinic waiting areas. Compliance was defined as the proportion of visitsmore » when an expected PRO-CTCAE assessment was completed. Results: Among 226 study sites participating in RTOG 1012, 100% completed 35-minute PRO-CTCAE training for clinical research associates (CRAs); 80 sites enrolled patients, of which 34 (43%) required tablet computers to be provided. All 152 patients in RTOG 1012 agreed to self-report using the PRO-CTCAE (median age 66 years; 47% female; 84% white). Median time for CRAs to learn the system was 60 minutes (range, 30-240 minutes), and median time for CRAs to teach a patient to self-report was 10 minutes (range, 2-60 minutes). Compliance was high, particularly during active treatment, when patients self-reported at 86% of expected time points, although compliance was lower after treatment (72%). Common reasons for noncompliance were institutional errors, such as forgetting to provide computers to participants; patients missing clinic visits; Internet connectivity; and patients feeling “too sick.” Conclusions: Most patients enrolled in a multicenter chemoradiotherapy trial were willing and able to self-report symptomatic AEs at visits using tablet computers. Minimal effort was required by local site staff to support this system. The observed causes of missing data may be

  12. A review of treatment-emergent adverse events during olanzapine clinical trials in elderly patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila A; Jeste, Dilip V; Young, Carrie A; Polzer, John P; Roddy, Tamra E; Jansen, Joe F; Carlson, Janice L; Cavazzoni, Patrizia A

    2006-06-01

    Olanzapine and other antipsychotics are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat behavioral disturbances associated with dementia, but they are often prescribed to these patients. Although antipsychotics may be efficacious in this population, elderly patients with dementia may be particularly vulnerable to adverse events. This article reviews the safety of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia. Data from 6 studies comparing olanzapine to placebo, risperidone, or conventional antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia were analyzed for mortality, cerebrovascular adverse events (CVAEs), and other adverse events. These trials represent all Lilly olanzapine-comparator trials in this population. The data included integration of 5 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (olanzapine, N = 1184; placebo, N = 478; median age = 79 years; 1 study also compared olanzapine with risperidone, N = 196) and an open-label study comparing olanzapine (N = 150) with conventional antipsychotics (N = 143). Incidence of mortality was significantly higher in olanzapine- (3.5%) than in placebo-treated patients (1.5%; p = .024). There were no significant differences in the crude incidence of mortality between olanzapine- (2.9%) and risperidone- (2.0%) or olanzapine- (14.8%) and conventional antipsychotic-treated patients (16.1%; p = .871). Risk factors associated with mortality in olanzapine-treated patients included age >/= 80, concurrent benzodiazepine use, treatment-emergent sedation, or treatment-emergent pulmonary conditions. Incidence of CVAEs was approximately 3 times higher in olanzapine- (1.3%) than in placebo-treated patients (0.4%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of CVAEs between olanzapine- (2.5%) and risperidone- (2.0%; p = 1.0) or olanzapine- (3.4%) and conventional antipsychotic-treated patients (4.3%; p = .765). These findings should be considered if prescribers elect to treat behavioral disturbances associated with

  13. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  14. Effects of Steroids on Quality of Recovery and Adverse Events after General Anesthesia: Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Takahiro; Ishii, Tomoko; Ka, Koui; Goto, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Quality of recovery (QoR) after surgery is a relevant outcome. The early postoperative quality of recovery of a patient can be determined using the QoR-40 questionnaire. The aim of this meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis was to determine if perioperative administration of glucocorticosteroids improved patients' quality of recovery after general anesthesia and if adverse events occurred. We searched six databases, including trial registration sites. Randomized clinical trials reporting the efficacy of glucocorticosteroids on quality of recovery evaluated using the QoR-40 after general anesthesia were eligible. The QoR-40 data were combined as the mean difference with confidence intervals using a random-effects model. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. The quality of the trials was evaluated using the Cochrane methodology. Moreover, Trial Sequential Analysis was carried out to prevent the inflation of type 1 errors caused by multiple testing and sparse data. We also assessed adverse events. Three randomized clinical trials (totaling 301 patients) were analyzed. The results from one published and four unpublished randomized clinical trials were unavailable. Dexamethasone was investigated in all three trials, and the results suggested that it significantly improved QoR-40 at postoperative day one scores compared with placebo (mean difference [95% confidence interval]: 14.2 points [10.4 to 18.1]; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%). We could not conduct sensitivity analysis because of the absence of trials with low risk of bias. The Trial Sequential Analysis-adjusted confidence interval was -1.6 to 30.0, indicating that further trials are required. The reporting of adverse events was insufficient. These findings indicate that perioperative dexamethasone administration may improve short-term (i.e., one day) quality of recovery after general anesthesia and surgery. We need more randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias assessing the effects of

  15. The impact of anti HPV vaccination on cervical cancer incidence and HPV induced cervical lesions: consequences for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, J A; Caffrey, A S; Muderspach, L I; Roman, L D; Kast, W M

    2005-01-01

    prevent persistent infection with the virus are high and may be implemented in the near future. The consequences for clinical management may include a significant reduction in the frequency of Pap smear screening in the case of prophylactic vaccines, and the availability of less invasive and disfiguring treatment options for women with pre-existing HPV associated lesions in the case of therapeutic vaccines. Implementation of both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine regimens could result in a significant reduction of health care costs and reduction of worldwide cervical cancer incidence.

  16. German cardiac CT registry: indications, procedural data and clinical consequences in 7061 patients undergoing cardiac computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Schmermund, Axel; Schneider, Steffen; Bruder, Oliver; Hausleiter, Jörg; Schroeder, Stephen; Barth, Sebastian; Kerber, Sebastian; Leber, Alexander; Moshage, Werner; Senges, Jochen

    2018-05-01

    Cardiac computed tomography permits quantification of coronary calcification as well as detection of coronary artery stenoses after contrast enhancement. Moreover, cardiac CT offers high-resolution morphologic and functional imaging of cardiac structures which is valuable for various structural heart disease interventions and electrophysiology procedures. So far, only limited data exist regarding the spectrum of indications, image acquisition parameters as well as results and clinical consequences of cardiac CT examinations using state-of-the-art CT systems in experienced centers. Twelve cardiology centers with profound expertise in cardiovascular imaging participated in the German Cardiac CT Registry. Criteria for participation included adequate experience in cardiac CT as well of the availability of a 64-slice or newer CT system. Between 2009 and 2014, 7061 patients were prospectively enrolled. For all cardiac CT examinations, patient parameters, procedural data, indication and clinical consequences of the examination were documented. Mean patient age was 61 ± 12 years, 63% were males. The majority (63%) of all cardiac CT examinations were performed in an outpatient setting, 37% were performed during an inpatient stay. 91% were elective and 9% were scheduled in an acute setting. In most examinations (48%), reporting was performed by cardiologists, in 4% by radiologists and in 47% of the cases as a consensus reading. Cardiac CT was limited to native acquisitions for assessment of coronary artery calcification in 9% of patients, only contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography was performed in 16.6% and combined native and contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography was performed in 57.7% of patients. Non-coronary cardiac CT examinations constituted 16.6% of all cases. Coronary artery calcification assessment was performed using prospectively ECG-triggered acquisition in 76.9% of all cases. The median dose length product (DLP) was 42 mGy cm (estimated effective

  17. Association between nutritional risk and routine clinical laboratory measurements and adverse outcomes: a prospective study in hospitalized patients of wuhan tongji hospital

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z Y; Gao, C; Ye, T; Zuo, X Z; Wang, G H; Xu, X S; Yao, Y

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Nutritional risk screening (NRS-2002) and routine clinical laboratory measurements (RCLMs) had been shown to have a predictive value in adverse outcomes in some studies, respectively. This study analyzed the association between NRS-2002 and RCLMs and estimated their prospective value in predicting adverse outcomes. Subjects/Methods: A total of 916 hospitalized patients were screened on admission with NRS-2002 and Subjective Global Assessment; RCLMs, which include blood test, kidney and liver function and electrolytes, were recorded. Diagnosis, nutritional support, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, complications, mortality and hospital stay during hospitalization were collected. The X2-test, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, kappa (k) statistic and regression analyses were conducted. Results: An overall 48.1% of the 916 patients were at nutritional risk on admission. Comparing ‘at risk' with ‘no risk', a significantly higher incidence of abnormality was found not only in nutritional markers but also in other parameters of RCLMs (OR ranged from 1.5 to 3.5). Regression analyses showed that ‘at risk' determined at admission was not a significant predictor of adverse outcomes after adjusting for other confounding factors, although it was a strong predictor in univariate analysis, whereas hypoalbuminemia, low total lymphocyte count, abnormality of hepatic and renal function were predictors after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions: The findings suggest that NRS-2002 might be a global index of ‘sickness' rather than be only a nutritional screening tool. It being rated once at admission is insufficient and should be repeated for using it as a predictor, whereas RCLMs routinely measured at admission may be able to be used to predict adverse outcomes. PMID:25369828

  18. Association between nutritional risk and routine clinical laboratory measurements and adverse outcomes: a prospective study in hospitalized patients of Wuhan Tongji Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z Y; Gao, C; Ye, T; Zuo, X Z; Wang, G H; Xu, X S; Yao, Y

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional risk screening (NRS-2002) and routine clinical laboratory measurements (RCLMs) had been shown to have a predictive value in adverse outcomes in some studies, respectively. This study analyzed the association between NRS-2002 and RCLMs and estimated their prospective value in predicting adverse outcomes. A total of 916 hospitalized patients were screened on admission with NRS-2002 and Subjective Global Assessment; RCLMs, which include blood test, kidney and liver function and electrolytes, were recorded. Diagnosis, nutritional support, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, complications, mortality and hospital stay during hospitalization were collected. The X(2)-test, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, kappa (k) statistic and regression analyses were conducted. An overall 48.1% of the 916 patients were at nutritional risk on admission. Comparing 'at risk' with 'no risk', a significantly higher incidence of abnormality was found not only in nutritional markers but also in other parameters of RCLMs (OR ranged from 1.5 to 3.5). Regression analyses showed that 'at risk' determined at admission was not a significant predictor of adverse outcomes after adjusting for other confounding factors, although it was a strong predictor in univariate analysis, whereas hypoalbuminemia, low total lymphocyte count, abnormality of hepatic and renal function were predictors after adjusting for confounders. The findings suggest that NRS-2002 might be a global index of 'sickness' rather than be only a nutritional screening tool. It being rated once at admission is insufficient and should be repeated for using it as a predictor, whereas RCLMs routinely measured at admission may be able to be used to predict adverse outcomes.

  19. A Comparative Study of Clinical Presentation and Risk Factors for Adverse Outcome in Patients Hospitalised with Acute Respiratory Disease Due to MERS Coronavirus or Other Causes.

    PubMed

    Garbati, Musa A; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Fang, Vicky J; Skakni, Leila; Joseph, Mercy; Wani, Tariq A; Cowling, Benjamin J; Peiris, Malik; Hakawi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory syndrome (MERS) first emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and remains a global health concern. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS and in those with acute respiratory disease who were MERS-CoV negative, presenting to the King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh between October 2012 and May 2014. The demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS-CoV infection was compared with those testing negative MERS-CoV PCR. Health care workers (HCW) with MERS were compared with MERS patients who were not health care workers. One hundred and fifty nine patients were eligible for inclusion. Forty eight tested positive for MERS CoV, 44 (92%) being hospital acquired infections and 23 were HCW. There were 111 MERS-CoV negative patients with acute respiratory illnesses included in this study as "negative controls". Patient with confirmed MERS-CoV infection were not clinically distinguishable from those with negative MERS-CoV RT-PCR results although diarrhoea was commoner in MERS patients. A high level of suspicion in initiating laboratory tests for MERS-CoV is therefore indicated. Variables associated with adverse outcome were older age and diabetes as a co-morbid illness. Interestingly, co-morbid illnesses other than diabetes were not significantly associated with poor outcome. Health care workers with MERS had a markedly better clinical outcome compared to non HCW MERS patients.

  20. Relationship between glucocorticoid dose and adverse events in systemic lupus erythematosus: data from a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Emamikia, S; Gentline, C; Chatzidionysiou, K; Arnaud, L; van Vollenhoven, R

    2018-03-01

    The aim was to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) and adverse events (AEs) reported in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. We used data from the BLISS-76 trial on belimumab. The data were accessed through an agreement under the SHARE mechanism. AEs were grouped according to medical relevance, i.e. based on similarity of symptoms and pathophysiology. We studied the relationship between AEs and exposure to GCs at baseline and at any time-point, and compared the frequencies of each AE and groups of AEs between tertiles of cumulative GC dose. In total, 991 AEs were reported in the 819 patients of the trial. The frequencies of anaemia, pyrexia, oral herpes, and malaise were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients who were on GCs at baseline than in those who were not. The frequencies of several other AEs, including nausea, seasonal allergy, bacterial sinusitis, and viral upper respiratory infection, were significantly higher in patients without GCs. For cumulative GCs, tachycardia and proteinuria were significantly more frequent in the highest tertile than in the lowest tertile, but other AEs and groups of AEs were significantly more frequent in the lowest tertile. This study highlights the feasibility of post-hoc analyses of RCTs using the SHARE mechanism and demonstrates the association of GCs with various AEs. Contrary to expectations, there were also associations between lower cumulative GC dose and several other AEs.

  1. Comparison of Data on Serious Adverse Events and Mortality in ClinicalTrials.gov, Corresponding Journal Articles, and FDA Medical Reviews: Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Richeek; Singh, Sonal

    2018-04-11

    Inconsistencies in data on serious adverse events (SAEs) and mortality in ClinicalTrials.gov and corresponding journal articles pose a challenge to research transparency. The objective of this study was to compare data on SAEs and mortality from clinical trials reported in ClinicalTrials.gov and corresponding journal articles with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) medical reviews. We conducted a cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of new molecular entities approved during the study period 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. We extracted data on SAEs and mortality from 15 pivotal trials from ClinicalTrials.gov and corresponding journal articles (the two index resources), and FDA medical reviews (reference standard). We estimated the magnitude of deviations in rates of SAEs and mortality between the index resources and the reference standard. We found deviations in rates of SAEs (30% in ClinicalTrials.gov and 30% in corresponding journal articles) and mortality (72% in ClinicalTrials.gov and 53% in corresponding journal articles) when compared with the reference standard. The intra-class correlation coefficient between the three resources was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-0.99) for SAE rates and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) for mortality rates. There are differences in data on rates of SAEs and mortality in randomized clinical trials in both ClinicalTrials.gov and journal articles compared with FDA reviews. Further efforts should focus on decreasing existing discrepancies to enhance the transparency and reproducibility of data reporting in clinical trials.

  2. Multi-physiopathological consequences of the c.1392G>T CFTR mutation revealed by clinical and cellular investigations.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Raed; El-Seedy, Ayman; El-Moussaoui, Kamal; Pasquet, Marie-Claude; Adolphe, Catherine; Bieth, Eric; Languepin, Jeanne; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Kitzis, Alain; Ladevèze, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    This study combines a clinical approach and multiple level cellular analyses to determine the physiopathological consequences of the c.1392G>T (p.Lys464Asn) CFTR exon 10 mutation, detected in a CF patient with a frameshift deletion in trans and a TG(11)T(5) in cis. Minigene experiment, with different TG(m)T(n) alleles, and nasal cell mRNA extracts were used to study the impact of c.1392G>T on splicing in both in cellulo and in vivo studies. The processing and localization of p.Lys464Asn protein were evaluated, in cellulo, by western blotting analyses and confocal microscopy. Clinical and channel exploration tests were performed on the patient to determine the exact CF phenotype profile and the CFTR chloride transport activity. c.1392G>T affects exon 10 splicing by inducing its complete deletion and encoding a frameshift transcript. The polymorphism TG(11)T(5) aggravates the effects of this mutation on aberrant splicing. Analysis of mRNA obtained from parental airway epithelial cells confirmed these in cellulo results. At the protein level the p.Lys464Asn protein showed neither maturated form nor membrane localization. Furthermore, the in vivo channel tests confirmed the absence of CFTR activity. Thus, the c.1392G>T mutation alone or in association with the TG repeats and the poly T tract revealed obvious impacts on splicing and CFTR protein processing and functionality. The c.[T(5); 1392G>T] complex allele contributes to the CF phenotype by affecting splicing and inducing a severe misprocessing defect. These results demonstrate that the classical CFTR mutations classification is not sufficient: in vivo and in cellulo studies of a possible complex allele in a patient are required to provide correct CFTR mutation classification, adequate medical counseling, and adapted therapeutic strategies.

  3. Clinical and economic consequences of statin intolerance in the United States: Results from an integrated health system.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jove H; Sanchez, Robert J; Saseen, Joseph J; Mallya, Usha G; Panaccio, Mary P; Evans, Michael A

    Although statins are considered safe and effective, they have been associated with statin intolerance (SI) in clinical and observational studies. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and economic consequences of SI through comparison of an SI cohort of patients with matched controls. This study used data extracted from an integrated health system's electronic health records from 2008 to 2014. Adults with SI were matched to controls using a propensity score. Patients were hierarchically classified into 6 mutually exclusive cardiovascular (CV)-risk categories: recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS; ≤12 months preindex), coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, or primary prevention. The study endpoints, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment, medical costs, and time to first CV event were compared using conditional logistic regression, generalized linear, and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Patients with SI (n = 5190) were matched with controls (n = 15,570). Patients with SI incurred higher medical costs and were less likely to reach LDL-C goals than controls. Patients with SI were at higher risk for revascularization procedures in all CV risk categories except ACS, and those in the diabetes risk category were at higher risk for any CV event. There was a lower risk of all-cause death among patients with SI. Patients with SI were less likely to reach LDL-C goals, incurred higher health care costs, and experienced a higher risk for nonfatal CV events than patients without SI. Alternative management strategies are needed to better treat high CV risk patients. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Consequences of autopsies for the living : Causes of death in the clinical diagnosis "septic and toxic shock"].

    PubMed

    Ozretić, L; Schwindowski, A; Dienes, H-P; Büttner, R; Drebber, U; Fries, J W U

    2017-09-01

    There is reason to believe that the diagnosis of septic and toxic shock, as indicated on the death certificate, cannot be confirmed as the cause of death without autopsy and subsequent histological analysis. The external examination of the corpse can therefore not represent the sole basis for a reliable statement about the infection status of a corpse, e. g. as a prerequisite for embalming. The validity of autopsy in determining septic and toxic shock as the cause of death is demonstrated in 7 exemplary cases. Decades of experience in a university pathology institute have shown that an external examination of the corpse alone is not suitable for certifying the cause of death if an infectious disease is suspected. Consequently, only autopsy with subsequent histological analysis provides reliable statements on the etiopathogenesis of the underlying process. Possible problems and discrepancies between clinical and pathological diagnoses are discussed on the basis of several cases with or without autoptic confirmation of the septic shock. The case of a missionary from Africa infected with Lassa virus serves to point out the seriousness of the threat an undiagnosed infection may represent to the attending staff. During the treatment of patients suspected to have an infectious cause of fever of unknown origin, compliance with the usual safety regulations, including adequate disinfecting measures, is essential. In cases with fatal outcome, not infrequently under the clinical picture of a septic and toxic shock, autopsy should be regularly performed to confirm the type of infection and the infectious cause of death. Rapid and open communication between the professional groups involved plays a crucial role in this process.

  5. Using triggers in primary care patient records to flag increased adverse event risk and measure patient safety at clinic level.

    PubMed

    Eggleton, Kyle S; Dovey, Susan M

    2014-03-07

    Using triggers to identify adverse events is proposed as an efficient means of consistently measuring, and tracking events that result in harm to patients. We aimed to test whether using triggers in our large provincial general practice could provide meaningful directions for improving safety. A literature review identified potential triggers and established the number of patients whose records we should review. Two teams independently reviewed 170 randomly selected patients' records for trigger presence and for evidence of harm relating to that trigger. All triggers were tested for sensitivity and specificity: triggers with low specificity were removed. Logistic regression was used on both initial and refined trigger sets to measure the odds ratio (OR) of harm occurring if a trigger was present. Initially 36 triggers were identified. Applying these to 109.6 patient-years of records for 170 patients, we identified harm in the records of 46 (27.1%) patients. There were 7 occurrences of harm per 100 consultations (harm rate per consultation=0.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.09) and 41 per 100 consulting patient years (95%CI 29-55). All harms related to medication use. The initial triggers were sensitive (0.98) but non-specific (0.08): removing triggers with low specificity left only 8. The OR for harm occurring using the initial triggers was 4.0 (95% 0.5-30) and using the refined trigger set OR=6.3 (95%CI 2.7-14.8). 8 selected triggers are a useful way of measuring progress towards safer care for patients in primary care practice.

  6. The adverse prognostic hallmarks in identical twins with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a clinical report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chai, Damin; Tao, Yisheng; Bao, Zhengqi; Yang, Li; Feng, Zhenzhong; Ma, Li; Liang, Limei; Zhou, Xinwen

    2013-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of Langerhans cells accompanying eosinophils. It often attacks children under 10 years of age. LCH in identical twins is very rare and its prognosis is different. Here we report identical-twin sisters with LCH. Computed tomography (CT) revealed osteolytic change in each twin's skull, and the elder exhibited poor eyesight. There were massive histiocyte-like cells surrounded by eosinophils in pathologic specimen of the abnormal lesions, which is typical pathologic finding in LCH. These pathologic cells were positive for S-100 and the cell surface protein CD1 antigen (CD1α), the known markers of LCH. After treating them with surgery, no symptoms were seen in the younger until now. While the older was found another soft mass (about 2.0 cm in diameter) in the left temporal area 18 months later. The same treatment was given to the older after admission, and she is healthy to date. To explore the relationship between hallmarks and the prognosis of identical-twin patients with LCH, we retrieved the 16 literatures (16 identical-twin pairs, 31 patients) listed in PubMed during the past 60 years. The data revealed all those patients who have disseminated to the bone marrow, spleen and liver with symptoms of fever and hepatosplenomegaly exhibited worse prognosis (9 out of the 31 patients). The other identical-twin subjects without infiltration of those organs recovered well. In conclusion, this study reveals the adverse hallmarks of prognosis in identical-twin patients with LCH by reviewing relevant literatures.

  7. Clinical features, predictive correlates, and pathophysiology of immune-related adverse events in immune checkpoint inhibitor treatments in cancer: a short review.

    PubMed

    Yoest, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Identification and characterization of T-cell regulatory mechanisms, or checkpoints, have led to a wave of drug development aimed at inhibiting these targets to "remove the brakes" of the immune system. This class of anticancer therapeutics, termed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has harnessed the potential of the body's own immune system to recognize cancerous cells and selectively eliminate them, in some cases with alarming success. This new breakthrough, however, has not been without its drawbacks. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are adverse events encountered during treatment with ICIs that are thought to be mediated through the patient's immune system which can manifest with a variety of symptoms which often resemble autoimmunity. These events range widely in presentation and severity and are reported frequently. Here, we will discuss a large selection of case reports in order to inform the clinician, laboratorian, and researcher of the scope of organ systems affected, the severity of the conditions being encountered, and the responses of these events to treatment, as well as explore the use of ICIs in the setting of preexisting autoimmunity. We will also consider the ability to detect autoantibodies before and during irAEs as well as the correlations that irAEs have with clinical outcomes. Finally, we will conclude by exploring the possibility that two distinct pathways may be contributing to the phenomenon of irAEs within this class of drugs, and the role that this might play in future research and clinical practice.

  8. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Complement System and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Regal, Jean F.; Gilbert, Jeffrey S.; Burwick, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the feta allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  10. Clinical predictors and hemodynamic consequences of elevated peripheral chemosensitivity in optimally treated men with chronic systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Niewinski, Piotr; Engelman, Zoar J; Fudim, Marat; Tubek, Stanislaw; Paleczny, Bartlomiej; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Sobotka, Paul A; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Augmented peripheral chemoreflex response is an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure (CHF). This study characterizes prevalence and clinical predictors of this phenomenon in optimally managed male CHF patients, and seeks to describe the hemodynamic consequences of chemoreceptor hypersensitivity. Thirty-four optimally managed CHF patients and 16 control subjects were prospectively studied. Hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR)-a measure of peripheral chemosensitivity-was calculated with the use of short nitrogen gas administrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) following transient hypoxic challenges were recorded with a Nexfin monitor. Hemodynamic responses to hypoxia were expressed by the linear slopes between oxygen saturation (%) and SBP (mm Hg) or HR (beats/min). Elevated HVR was present in 15 (44%) of the CHF patients. Patients with elevated HVR exhibited higher levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation. CHF patients with elevated HVR had significantly greater SBP and HR responses to hypoxia than CHF patients with normal HVR. Despite comprehensive pharmacotherapy, elevated HVR is prevalent in CHF patients, related to severity of the disease and associated with augmented hemodynamic responses to hypoxia. CHF patients with elevated HVR may be prone to unfavorable hemodynamic changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren aged 8-10 years.

    PubMed

    Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Soares, Maria Eliza C; Alencar, Bruna Mota; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ramos-Jorge, Joana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences on the quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8-10 years. A randomly selected sample of 587 children underwent a clinical oral examination for the assessment of untreated dental caries and clinical consequences. The WHO criteria (decayed component of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth--D-DMFT in permanent teeth or d-dfmt in primary teeth) and the PUFA index, which records the presence of severely decayed permanent (upper case) and primary (lower case) teeth with visible pulpal involvement (P/p), as well as ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (U/u), fistula (F/f), and abscesses (A/a), were used for the oral examination. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was evaluated using the Child's Perception Questionnaire (CPQ8-10). Poisson regression was employed to test unadjusted and adjusted associations between untreated dental caries/clinical consequences and OHRQoL. The prevalence of untreated dental caries was 64.6% (D/d component of DMFT/dmft > 0) and 17.9% of children exhibited clinical consequences of caries (PUFA/pufa index >0). In the adjusted models, untreated caries was significantly associated with the total CPQ8-10 score and all subscale scores. The clinical consequences of dental caries (PUFA/pufa index >0) were significantly associated with the total CPQ8-10 as well as the oral symptoms and functional limitations' subscales. Untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences exerted a negative impact on the OHRQoL of the schoolchildren analyzed.

  12. Meta-analysis of positive effects, side effects and adverse events of holistic mind-body medicine (clinical holistic medicine): experience from Denmark, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    About 50% of the general population has a chronic disease not cured by biomedicine. Meta-analysis of holistic clinical medicine for which chronic patients were treated and outcomes were, 1) global quality of life, 2) self-rated physical/mental health, quality of life or ability of functioning, or 3) patients felt cured for a specific disease of dysfunction. MEDLINE and PsycLNFO and specific journals were searched in January 2009. Eleven clinical studies (18,500 participants) were identified. Positive effects: Quality of life Number Needed to Treat (NNT) = 2, physical health problems NNT = 3, mental health problems NNT = 2, sexual dysfunctions NNT = 2, self esteem NNT = 2, working/studying ability NNT = 2, anorgasmia NNT = 1, other specific sexual dysfunctions NNT = 2. Of 791 patients treated was 617, or 78.0% cured (NNT = 1). Side effects and adverse events: re-traumatization Number Needed to Harm (NNH) > 18,500; brief reactive psychosis (if mentally ill) NNH = 4,625; brief reactive psychosis (if not mentally ill) NNH > 9,250; brief reactive psychosis, all patients NNH = 9,250; depression NNH > 18,500; depersonalization and derealization NNH > 18,500; iatrogenic disturbances NNH > 18,500; minor bone fractures (ribs, hand) NNH = 4,625; serious bone fractures (spine, scull, pelvis) NNH > 18,500; suicides during or less than three month after therapy NNH > 18,500; suicide attempts during or less than three month after therapy NNH > 18,500. Suicide was prevented NNT = 1. Therapeutic value TV = NNH/NNT = 9,250. Holistic clinical medicine is an efficient complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment for chronic illnesses and health related problems. Every second patient with physical and mental disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and existential problems were healed. Holistic clinical medicine had no significant side effects or adverse events.

  13. Critical thinking about adverse drug effects: lessons from the psychology of risk and medical decision-making for clinical psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Andrew A; Smoller, Jordan W; Eidelman, Polina; Wu, Yelena P; Tilley, Claire A

    2008-01-01

    Systematic biases in decision-making have been well characterized in medical and nonmedical fields but mostly ignored in clinical psychopharmacology. The purpose of this paper is to sensitize clinicians who prescribe psychiatric drugs to the issues of the psychology of risk, especially as they pertain to the risk of side effects. Specifically, the present analysis focuses on heuristic organization and framing effects that create cognitive biases in medical practice. Our purpose is to increase the awareness of how pharmaceutical companies may influence physicians by framing the risk of medication side effects to favor their products. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Linking MedDRA®-coded Clinical Phenotypes to Biological Mechanisms by The Ontology of Adverse Events: A pilot study on Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs)

    PubMed Central

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Zhang, Shelley; Jagannathan, Desikan G.; Zaman, Shadia; Burkhart, Keith K.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; He, Yongqun; Athey, Brian D.; Abernethy, Darrell R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A translational bioinformatics challenge lies in connecting population and individual’s clinical phenotypes in various formats to biological mechanisms. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) is the default dictionary for Adverse Event (AE) reporting in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) represents AEs as pathological processes occurring after drug exposures. Objectives The aim is to establish a semantic framework to link biological mechanisms to phenotypes of AEs by combining OAE with MedDRA® in FAERS data analysis. We investigated the AEs associated with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tyrosine kinases. The selected 5 TKIs/mAbs (i.e., dasatinib, imatinib, lapatinib, cetuximab, and trastuzumab) are known to induce impaired ventricular function (non-QT) cardiotoxicity. Results Statistical analysis of FAERS data identified 1,053 distinct MedDRA® terms significantly associated with TKIs/mAbs, where 884 did not have corresponding OAE terms. We manually annotated these terms, added them to OAE by the standard OAE development strategy, and mapped them to MedDRA®. The data integration to provide insights into molecular mechanisms for drug-associated AEs is performed by including linkages in OAE for all related AE terms to MedDRA® and existing ontologies including Human Phenotype Ontology (HP), Uber Anatomy Ontology (UBERON), and Gene Ontology (GO). Sixteen AEs are shared by all 5 TKIs/mAbs, and each of 17 cardiotoxicity AEs was associated with at least one TKI/mAb. As an example, we analyzed ‘cardiac failure’ using the relations established in OAE with other ontologies, and demonstrated that one of the biological processes associated with cardiac failure maps to the genes associated with heart contraction. Conclusion By expanding existing OAE ontological design, our TKI use case demonstrates that the combination of OAE and Med

  15. Linking MedDRA(®)-Coded Clinical Phenotypes to Biological Mechanisms by the Ontology of Adverse Events: A Pilot Study on Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Zhang, Shelley; Jagannathan, Desikan G; Zaman, Shadia; Burkhart, Keith K; Omenn, Gilbert S; He, Yongqun; Athey, Brian D; Abernethy, Darrell R

    2016-07-01

    A translational bioinformatics challenge exists in connecting population and individual clinical phenotypes in various formats to biological mechanisms. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®)) is the default dictionary for adverse event (AE) reporting in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The ontology of adverse events (OAE) represents AEs as pathological processes occurring after drug exposures. The aim of this work was to establish a semantic framework to link biological mechanisms to phenotypes of AEs by combining OAE with MedDRA(®) in FAERS data analysis. We investigated the AEs associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tyrosine kinases. The five selected TKIs/mAbs (i.e., dasatinib, imatinib, lapatinib, cetuximab, and trastuzumab) are known to induce impaired ventricular function (non-QT) cardiotoxicity. Statistical analysis of FAERS data identified 1053 distinct MedDRA(®) terms significantly associated with TKIs/mAbs, where 884 did not have corresponding OAE terms. We manually annotated these terms, added them to OAE by the standard OAE development strategy, and mapped them to MedDRA(®). The data integration to provide insights into molecular mechanisms of drug-associated AEs was performed by including linkages in OAE for all related AE terms to MedDRA(®) and the existing ontologies, including the human phenotype ontology (HP), Uber anatomy ontology (UBERON), and gene ontology (GO). Sixteen AEs were shared by all five TKIs/mAbs, and each of 17 cardiotoxicity AEs was associated with at least one TKI/mAb. As an example, we analyzed "cardiac failure" using the relations established in OAE with other ontologies and demonstrated that one of the biological processes associated with cardiac failure maps to the genes associated with heart contraction. By expanding the existing OAE ontological design, our TKI use case demonstrated that the combination

  16. Amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate: an antibiotic combination. Mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, antimicrobial spectrum, clinical efficacy and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Weber, D J; Tolkoff-Rubin, N E; Rubin, R H

    1984-01-01

    The combination of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate will soon be marketed in 2:1 and 4:1 fixed ratio dosage forms. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that clavulanic acid, a potent inhibitor of many bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes, will increase the spectrum of amoxicillin to include, at achievable serum concentrations, Haemophilus influenzae, H. ducreyi, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus and Branhamella catarralis and, at achievable urine levels, many beta-lactamase-producing strains of E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus and Citrobacter. Both amoxicillin and clavulanic are well absorbed after oral administration, reach peak serum levels in 40-120 min and have similar half-lives of 45 to 90 min. This combination will be suitable for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, otitis media, sinusitis and respiratory tract infections. However, precise recommendations for its use will need to await further clinical trials that compare amoxicillin/clavulanate to alternative therapies.

  17. Evaluation of the use of atropine sulfate, a combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Alfaqeeh, Sameh M; Mustafa, Ghazi; Qura'n, Lara; Al-Majali, Ahmad M

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of atropine sulfate, butylscopolammonium bromide combined with metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate the clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses. 28 horses with piroplasmosis. 28 horses were randomly assigned to 4 equal groups according to the pretreatment administered. Fifteen minutes before administration of 2.4 mg of imidocarb dipropionate/kg IM, horses in the first group were pretreated with 0.02 mg of atropine sulfate/kg IV, the second group with a combination of 0.2 mg of butylscopolammonium bromide/kg IV and 25 mg of metamizole sodium/kg IV, the third group with 1.1 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg IV, and the fourth (control) group with 1 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution/50 kg IV. Physical examination, including evaluation of rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color, hydration status, abdominal sounds, signs of abdominal pain, salivation, diarrhea, and number of defecations, was performed. Imidocarb dipropionate use in the control group was associated with serious adverse effects including signs of abdominal pain (4/7 horses) and diarrhea (2/7). Horses pretreated with atropine had no diarrhea, but 6 had signs of abdominal pain. Only 1 horse that received butylscopolammonium-metamizole pretreatment had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea, which was numerically but not significantly different than the control group. Of horses pretreated with flunixin, 3 had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea. A combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium may be useful to ameliorate the adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses, although group size was small and significant differences from the control group were not found.

  18. [Adverse reactions to insulin].

    PubMed

    Liñana, J J; Montoro, F J; Hernández, M D; Basomba, A

    1997-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic reactions to insuline has decreased during the last few years. Probably this is due to the use of the newly-developed recombinant human insuline. At present, adverse reactions to insuline occur in 5-10% of patients on therapy with insuline. Adverse reactions may be local (more frequent) or systemic (rare). Insuline resistance consists in a different type of immunological reaction. Diagnosis of allergy to insuline is based on clinical history and cutaneous and serological tests. Treatment depends upon the severity of the reaction. When insuline is indispensable despite a previous allergic reaction, a desensitization protocol may be implemented.

  19. Adverse effects of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs: Validation from clinical and basic researches.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Kimino; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takao

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy requires the long-term administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and thus, we must consider the effects of prenatal AED exposure on fetus when treating female patients of child bearing age. Large prospective clinical researches in humans have demonstrated the following: (1) prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), carbamazepine, and phenobarbital increases the risk of congenital malformations in a dose-dependent manner and (2) prenatal exposure to VPA increases the risk of higher brain function impairments including intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders in the offspring. Furthermore, basic researches in animals have shown that prenatal exposure to specific AEDs causes microscopic structural abnormalities in the fetal brain. Specifically, prenatal exposure to VPA has been reported to inhibit the differentiation of neural progenitor cells during the early to middle phases of neuronogenesis, leading to increased number of projection neurons in the superficial layers of postnatal neocortices in mice. It is indispensable to prescribe AEDs that are associated with lower risk of congenital malformations and impairment of higher brain functions as well as to administer them at requisite minimum doses. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in Ebola virus disease in Moyamba District Sierra Leone.

    SciTech Connect

    Haaskjold, Yngvar Lunde; Bolkan, Hakon Angell; Krogh, Kurt Østhuus

    2016-05-01

    BACKGROUND The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has attacked 24000 people, killed more than 10000 and disrupted social life. METHODS We studied retrospectively the clinical presentation and risk factors for fatal outcome in EVD among all patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Center in Moyamba District, Sierra Leone. RESULTS Among a total of 88 admitted patients, eighty-two were tested by PCR and 31 (38%) were positive for Ebola virus. Ninety percent reported previous contact with EVD patients and 35% had participated in burials of EVD suspect deceased. No healthworkers were admitted. The most common symptomsmore » on admission were weakness (97%), diarrhea (68%), fever (62%), loss of appetite (62%), vomiting (58%), pain in muscles (62%) and joints (55%), headache (55%), abdominal pain (45%) and conjunctivitis (42%). On admission, bleeding was present in one-third (11/31), while more than half (17/31) bled during the hospital stay. Fifty-eight percent (18/31) died, most within 4-11 days of onset. Significant predictors for fatal outcome were shorter time from onset to admission (P=0.02), high initial viral load (P<0.001), bleeding (P=0.004), and severe pain (P=0.001). The only two patients with hiccups died. CONCLUSIONS Bleeding was more common in our cohort than reported elsewhere during this epidemic, and predicted poor prognosis. Severe pain was common, particularly in fatal cases, and calls for improved and safe palliation, for instance with transdermal opiates. The lack of fever in one third of EBV cases may have implications for screening procedures and case definitions.« less

  1. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  2. Clinical features, predictive correlates, and pathophysiology of immune-related adverse events in immune checkpoint inhibitor treatments in cancer: a short review

    PubMed Central

    Yoest, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Identification and characterization of T-cell regulatory mechanisms, or checkpoints, have led to a wave of drug development aimed at inhibiting these targets to “remove the brakes” of the immune system. This class of anticancer therapeutics, termed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has harnessed the potential of the body’s own immune system to recognize cancerous cells and selectively eliminate them, in some cases with alarming success. This new breakthrough, however, has not been without its drawbacks. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are adverse events encountered during treatment with ICIs that are thought to be mediated through the patient’s immune system which can manifest with a variety of symptoms which often resemble autoimmunity. These events range widely in presentation and severity and are reported frequently. Here, we will discuss a large selection of case reports in order to inform the clinician, laboratorian, and researcher of the scope of organ systems affected, the severity of the conditions being encountered, and the responses of these events to treatment, as well as explore the use of ICIs in the setting of preexisting autoimmunity. We will also consider the ability to detect autoantibodies before and during irAEs as well as the correlations that irAEs have with clinical outcomes. Finally, we will conclude by exploring the possibility that two distinct pathways may be contributing to the phenomenon of irAEs within this class of drugs, and the role that this might play in future research and clinical practice. PMID:29067284

  3. Immune-related Adverse Events of Dendritic Cell Vaccination Correlate With Immunologic and Clinical Outcome in Stage III and IV Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boudewijns, Steve; Westdorp, Harm; Koornstra, Rutger H.T.; Aarntzen, Erik H.J.G.; Schreibelt, Gerty; Creemers, Jeroen H.A.; Punt, Cornelis J.A.; Figdor, Carl G.; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Bol, Kalijn F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity profile of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in stage III and IV melanoma patients, and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between side effects and immunologic and clinical outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of 82 stage III and 137 stage IV melanoma patients, vaccinated with monocyte-derived or naturally circulating autologous DCs loaded with tumor-associated antigens gp100 and tyrosinase. Median follow-up time was 54.3 months in stage III patients and 12.9 months in stage IV patients. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 84% of patients; grade 3 toxicity was present in 3% of patients. Most common adverse events were flu-like symptoms (67%) and injection site reactions (50%), and both correlated with the presence of tetramer-positive CD8+ T cells (both P<0.001). In stage III melanoma patients experiencing flu-like symptoms, median overall survival (OS) was not reached versus 32.3 months in patients without flu-like symptoms (P=0.009); median OS in patients with an injection site reaction was not reached versus 53.7 months in patients without an injection site reaction (P<0.05). In stage IV melanoma patients (primary uveal and mucosal melanomas excluded), median OS in patients with or without flu-like symptoms was 13.1 versus 8.9 months, respectively (P=0.03); median OS in patients with an injection site reaction was 15.7 months versus 9.8 months in patients without an injection site reaction (P=0.003). In conclusion, DC vaccination is safe and tolerable and the occurrence of the immune-related side effects, such as flu-like symptoms and injection site reactions, correlates with immunologic and clinical outcome. PMID:27227325

  4. Focusing on Core Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cancer Clinical Trials: Symptomatic Adverse Events, Physical Function, and Disease-Related Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kluetz, Paul G; Slagle, Ashley; Papadopoulos, Elektra J; Johnson, Laura Lee; Donoghue, Martha; Kwitkowski, Virginia E; Chen, Wen-Hung; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Farrell, Ann T; Keegan, Patricia; Kim, Geoffrey; Pazdur, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Cancer clinical trials have relied on overall survival and measures of tumor growth or reduction to assess the efficacy of a drug. However, benefits are often accompanied by significant symptomatic toxicities. The degree to which a therapy improves disease symptoms and introduces symptomatic toxicity affects how patients function in their daily lives. These concepts are important contributors to health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In this article, we discuss patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment in cancer trials and challenges relying solely on static multi-item HRQOL instruments. We propose focusing on three separate measures of well-defined concepts: symptomatic adverse events, physical function, and disease-related symptoms, which are key contributors to the effect of a therapy on HRQOL. Separate measures of these three concepts may facilitate the incorporation of emerging contemporary instruments that can tailor the PRO assessment strategy to different trial contexts. Irrespective of the PRO measures used, continued improvement in trial design and conduct is crucial to decrease missing data and optimize the quality of PRO information. International stakeholder collaboration and continued research into optimal practices for PRO and other clinical outcome assessments are necessary to advance a common framework for generating and reporting rigorous patient-centered data from cancer clinical trials. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Serious adverse drug events related to non-investigational drugs in academic clinical trials: another source of safety data for risk assessment?

    PubMed

    Olivier, Pascale; Gimbert, Anne; Colin, Anne-Laurène; Salvo, Francesco; Becker, Madlyne; Marty, Valérie; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Petitpain, Nadine

    2016-10-01

    Sponsors of clinical trials have to analyze serious adverse events (SAEs). Both sponsors and investigators determine the relationship between the investigational medicinal product, the investigational device or procedure and SAEs. SAEs related to another cause, such as a non-investigational medicinal product (NIMP), do not have clear pharmacovigilance reporting requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and the nature of NIMP-related SAEs recorded by three French academic sponsors and to propose pharmacovigilance requirements for these cases. This was a retrospective descriptive study including all cases of NIMP-related SAEs occurring in clinical trials and reported to three academic sponsors between January 2009 and October 2014. Among 5870 cases of SAEs, 300 (5%) were related to a NIMP in 50 clinical trials. Involved NIMPs were mainly antithrombotics, cytostatics and immunosuppressants. Some of these drugs were currently followed by a risk management plan (e.g. rivoxaban). The most frequent NIMP-related SAEs were neurological, gastrointestinal and infectious disorders. Seven NIMP-related SAEs were known as 'rare' or 'very rare' and two were 'unlabelled'. As far as we know, this is the first study to focus about NIMP-related SAEs occurring in clinical trials. This work highlights the potential high quality source of safety data via NIMP-related SAE collection. Globally, we propose that NIMP-related SAEs occurring in clinical trials should systematically be notified to the pharmacovigilance system of the concerned country. Clearer procedures of interactions between safety units of academic sponsors and pharmacovigilance systems are needed to allow an effective recording of NIMP-related SAEs. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Serious adverse drug events related to non‐investigational drugs in academic clinical trials: another source of safety data for risk assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Gimbert, Anne; Colin, Anne‐Laurène; Salvo, Francesco; Becker, Madlyne; Marty, Valérie; Montastruc, Jean‐Louis; Petitpain, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Aims Sponsors of clinical trials have to analyze serious adverse events (SAEs). Both sponsors and investigators determine the relationship between the investigational medicinal product, the investigational device or procedure and SAEs. SAEs related to another cause, such as a non‐investigational medicinal product (NIMP), do not have clear pharmacovigilance reporting requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and the nature of NIMP‐related SAEs recorded by three French academic sponsors and to propose pharmacovigilance requirements for these cases. Methods This was a retrospective descriptive study including all cases of NIMP‐related SAEs occurring in clinical trials and reported to three academic sponsors between January 2009 and October 2014. Results Among 5870 cases of SAEs, 300 (5%) were related to a NIMP in 50 clinical trials. Involved NIMPs were mainly antithrombotics, cytostatics and immunosuppressants. Some of these drugs were currently followed by a risk management plan (e.g. rivoxaban). The most frequent NIMP‐related SAEs were neurological, gastrointestinal and infectious disorders. Seven NIMP‐related SAEs were known as ‘rare’ or ‘very rare’ and two were ‘unlabelled’. Conclusions As far as we know, this is the first study to focus about NIMP‐related SAEs occurring in clinical trials. This work highlights the potential high quality source of safety data via NIMP‐related SAE collection. Globally, we propose that NIMP‐related SAEs occurring in clinical trials should systematically be notified to the pharmacovigilance system of the concerned country. Clearer procedures of interactions between safety units of academic sponsors and pharmacovigilance systems are needed to allow an effective recording of NIMP‐related SAEs. PMID:27276241

  7. ["Re-evaluation upon suspected event" is an approach for post-marketing clinical study: lessons from adverse drug events related to Bupleuri Radix preparations].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-08-01

    We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in

  8. Comparison of escitalopram vs. citalopram and venlafaxine in the treatment of major depression in Spain: clinical and economic consequences.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Blanca-Tamayo, Milagrosa; Gimeno-de la Fuente, Victoria; Salvatella-Pasant, Jordi

    2010-12-01

    Population based study to determine the clinical consequences and economic impact of using escitalopram (ESC) vs. citalopram (CIT) and venlafaxine (VEN) in patients who initiate treatment for a new episode of major depression (MD) in real life conditions of outpatient practice. Observational, multicenter, retrospective study conducted using computerized medical records (administrative databases) of patients treated in six primary care centers and two hospitals between January 2003 and March 2007. patients >20 years of age diagnosed with a new episode of MD who initiate treatment with ESC, CIT or VEN who had not received any antidepressant treatment within the previous 6 months, and were followed for 18 months or more. socio-demographic variables, remission (defined as a patient completing 6 months of therapy), comorbidity, annual health care costs (medical visits, diagnostic and therapeutic tests, hospitalizations, emergency room and psychoactive drugs prescribed) and non-health care costs (productivity losses at work, mainly sick leave and disability). logistic regression and ANCOVA models. A total of 965 patients (ESC = 131; CIT = 491; VEN = 343) were identified and met study criteria. ESC-treated patients were younger, with a higher proportion of males, and had a lower specific comorbidity (p < 0.01). ESC-treated patients achieved higher remission rates compared to CIT (58.0% vs. 38.3%) or VEN patients (32.4%), p < 0.001, and had lower productivity work losses compared to VEN patients (32.7 vs. 43.8 days), p = 0.042. No differences in productivity work losses were observed between ESC and CIT patients. Compared to the ESC group, higher costs in average/unit of psychoactive drugs were found in the VEN group (€643.00), p = 0.003, whereas no differences were observed between the ESC and CIT groups (€294.70 vs. €265.20). In the corrected model, total costs (health care and non-health care cost) were lower with ESC (€2276.20) compared to CIT (

  9. Peritonitis before Peritoneal Dialysis Training: Analysis of Causative Organisms, Clinical Outcomes, Risk Factors, and Long-Term Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Terry King-Wing; Chow, Kai Ming; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Pang, Wing Fai; Leung, Chi Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Peritonitis before peritoneal dialysis (PD) training (pretraining peritonitis [PTP]) is an uncommon event. The study aim was to examine the causative organisms, clinical outcomes, risk factors, and long-term consequences of PTP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single–center, retrospective, observational study involving all incident patients on PD who developed PTP between 1998 and 2012, we examined the causative organisms, primary response rate, complete cure rate, risk factors, and associations of PTP with peritoneal equilibration test (PET) and patient survival. For each patient in the PTP group, the patients who underwent catheter insertion immediately before and after the index case were identified as controls. Results Among 1252 incident patients on PD, 52 (4.2%) patients developed PTP, and 104 patients were identified as controls. The two groups were similar in age, sex distribution, comorbidities, and residual renal function, but the PTP group had significantly lower hemoglobin and serum albumin. Patients were followed up for a median of 37.5 months (interquartile range [IQR], 16.3–62.2 months). The most common causative organisms of PTP were Staphylococcus aureus (30.8%) and polymicrobial (21.2%); 25% had negative growth. The primary response and complete cure rates were 82.7% and 78.8%, respectively. In the PTP group, 7.7% of patients died, 9.6% of patients required catheter removal, and PD training was significantly delayed (median =42.0; IQR, 26.0–65.8 days versus 27.5; IQR, 23.0–35.0 days; P=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum albumin was the only predictor of PTP (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89 per 1-g/dl increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.97). There were no differences in PET results and dialysis adequacy (measured around 1 month after PD training). The PTP group had significantly worse patient survival (median =41.2; IQR, 21.8–60.5 months versus 55.8; IQR

  10. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries assessed using PUFA index and its covariates in children residing in orphanages of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Ramsha; Farooq, Warda; Faisal, Mehreen Riaz; Jahangir, Faisal

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of untreated dental caries in Pakistani children residing in orphanages using the DMFT and PUFA index; association of decay and untreated dental caries with demographics including type of orphanage; behavioural and dental visiting pattern; and association of dental pain experience and type of orphanage with dental visiting. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a total of 753 orphan children belonging to 4-17 years of age group residing in twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Clinical examination of children was performed using the DMFT and PUFA index for the assessment of dental caries and untreated decay, followed by questionnaire enquiring about eating and oral hygiene habits, dental visiting pattern and dental pain and swelling experience. Association between dental decay, child's dental visiting and pain as a consequence of untreated decay was carried out using chi square test and logistic regression analysis. The overall caries prevalence was 34.8% and overall prevalence of PUFA/pufa was 15.9%. The mean score of DMFT and dmft was 1.18 (SD 0.39) and 1.04 (SD 0.23), and mean PUFA was 1.18 (SD 0.57) and mean pufa score 1.14 (SD 0.35). Untreated caries ratio was found to be 49.1% indicating half the decay had progressed to involve the pulp. No significant association of gender was found with DMFT, dmft, PUFA and pufa (p > 0.05), however, when analysed individually, the 'D' component of DMFT was significantly associated with male gender (p = 0.05). Furthermore, no significant association of DMFT/dmft or PUFA/pufa in either dentition was found with behavioural characteristics such as dietary and oral hygiene habits. Also, 66.2% children who experienced pain had not been to the dentist in the past year (p = 0.013) and 52.6% children who mentioned experiencing pain at night had not been to the dentist in the past year (p = 0.009). Children with decay were more

  11. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  12. The Effect of Computerized Physician Order Entry with Clinical Decision Support on the Rates of Adverse Drug Events: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wolfstadt, Jesse I.; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Field, Terry S.; Lee, Monica; Kalkar, Sunila; Wu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Context Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS) has been promoted as an effective strategy to prevent the development of a drug injury defined as an adverse drug event (ADE). Objective To systematically review studies evaluating the effects of CPOE with CDS on the development of an ADE as an outcome measure. Data Sources PUBMED versions of MEDLINE (from inception through March 2007) were searched to identify relevant studies. Reference lists of included studies were also searched. Methods We searched for original investigations, randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials, and observational studies that evaluated the effect of CPOE with CDS on the rates of ADEs. The studies identified were assessed to determine the type of computer system used, drug categories being evaluated, types of ADEs measured, and clinical outcomes assessed. Results Of the 543 citations identified, 10 studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies were grouped into categories based on their setting: hospital or ambulatory; no studies related to the long-term care setting were identified. CPOE with CDS contributed to a statistically significant (P ≤ .05) decrease in ADEs in 5 (50.0%) of the 10 studies. Four studies (40.0%) reported a nonstatistically significant reduction in ADE rates, and 1 study (10.0%) demonstrated no change in ADE rates. Conclusions Few studies have measured the effect of CPOE with CDS on the rates of ADEs, and none were randomized controlled trials. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of CPOE with CDS across the various clinical settings. PMID:18373144

  13. Reporting of adverse events and statistical details of efficacy estimates in randomized clinical trials of pain in temporomandibular disorders: Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Smith, Shannon M; McKeown, Andrew; Edwards, Kenessa; Narula, Aastha; Pawlowski, Joseph R; Rothstein, Daniel; Desjardins, Paul J; Dworkin, Samuel F; Gross, Robert A; Ohrbach, Richard; Rappaport, Bob A; Sessle, Barry J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2015-04-01

    Statistical methods and adverse events (that is, harms) data affect the accuracy of conclusions about the risk-to-benefit ratio of treatments for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The authors reviewed the quality of reporting in TMD clinical trials to highlight practices that are in need of improvement. The authors included articles published between 1969 and May 31, 2013, in which the investigators reported randomized clinical trials of TMD treatments with pain as a principal outcome variable. Investigators in trials of nonpharmacologic and noninvasive treatments were required to at least mask the participants and assessors; all others were required to be double masked. Ninety articles qualified for this review: 39 published between 1971 and 2005 (older articles) and 51 published between 2006 and 2013 (newer articles). Specification of primary outcome analyses, methods to accommodate missing data, and adverse event collection methods and rates were generally poor. In some cases, there was apparent improvement from the older to the newer cohort; however, reporting of these methodological details remained inadequate even in the newer articles. This review is designed to alert authors, reviewers, editors, and readers of TMD clinical trials to these issues and improve reporting quality in the future. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical Controversies in Clinical Research: Limitations of open-label studies assessing antiangiogenic therapies with regard to evaluation of vascular adverse drug events. A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trone, J C; Ollier, E; Chapelle, C; Bertoletti, L; Cucherat, M; Mismetti, P; Magné, N; Laporte, S

    2018-02-05

    Previous meta-analyses have shown paradoxical increased risk of bleeding and thrombotic events in patients receiving antiangiogenics (AA) that may be simply explained by the studies design included. By a meta-epidemiological approach, we aim to investigate the impact of double-blind (DB) and open-label study designs on the risks of bleeding, venous thrombotic events (VTE) and arterial thrombotic events (ATE) in cancer patients treated with AA. We searched Medline, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov databases, and proceedings of major oncology congresses for clinical trials published from January 2003 to January 2016. Randomized clinical trials that assigned patients with solid cancers to AA or control groups were eligible for inclusion. Combined odds ratios (OR) for the risks of bleeding events, VTE and ATE were calculated for open and DB trials. Estimation bias of the treatment effect was determined by the ratio of odds ratio (ROR), by dividing the OR values obtained in open-label trials by those obtained in DB trials. The literature-based meta-analysis included 166 trials (72,024 patients). For bleeding events, comparison of AA versus control yielded an overall OR of 2.41 (95% CI 2.12-2.73; P <0.001), but this risk was overestimated by 1.68 (95% CI 1.33-2.13) in open-label studies. Concerning VTE, the OR was 1.19 (95% CI 1.04-1.35; P =0.012) overall with AA, but this effect disappears when considering only DB trials (OR 0.99, 95% CI, 0.83-1.17). The corresponding ROR showed a significant overestimation of 1.53 (95% CI 1.19-1.96) in open-label trials. For ATE, an OR of 1.59 (95% CI 1.30-1.94; P <0.001) was observed, associated with a significant overestimation of 1.65 (95% CI 1.13-2.43) in open-label trials. Open-label studies overestimated the risk of vascular adverse events with AA by at least 50%. Meta-analyses assessing adverse drug events should therefore be restricted to DB randomized trials. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  15. Parental reporting of adverse drug reactions associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in children attending specialist paediatric clinics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Tobaiqy, Mansour; Stewart, Derek; Helms, Peter J; Williams, Justin; Crum, Jackie; Steer, Christopher; McLay, James

    2011-03-01

    The development of systems to ensure appropriate and informed use of medicines in children is a global priority. Current pharmacovigilance systems, such as the UK Yellow Card Scheme, are limited by opportunistic reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), lack of a denominator and lower than expected reporting rates. To develop a pharmacovigilance system able to target specific patient populations such as children, and specific medicines of interest, using specialist medical clinics. Between January and March 2010, parents of 578 children (3-16 years of age) receiving pharmacological therapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and attending a child and adolescent clinic in the UK were sent an ADR questionnaire to elicit information on possible ADRs associated with their child's medication use. Two approaches, free text and a symptom tick list, were used to elicit possible ADRs. Two hundred and seven questionnaires were returned, of which 200 were evaluable, giving a response rate of 35.9%. 123 questionnaires reported a total of 213 free-text ADRs perceived by the parents to be due to the medications under study. Two-thirds of reported ADRs were considered to be ongoing at the time of reporting. Duration of reported ADRs ranged from 1 week to 3 years. 81 returned questionnaires reported 134 different ADRs for methylphenidate monotherapy. For methylphenidate, the most frequently reported ADRs were loss of appetite (34.3%), headache (17.9%), mood and emotional problems (14.9%), stomach upset (14.9%), sleep disturbance (10.4%), and rash and other skin problems (5.2%). 467 possible drug-related symptoms were reported using the tick-list approach. Using the tick list, the most frequently reported symptoms were mood and emotional problems (28.1% [131/467]), stomach and abdominal problems (13.3% [62/467]), insomnia (12.8% [60/467]) and lack of appetite (12.6% [59/467]). The symptom tick list identified a broader range of possible adverse effects not reported as

  16. Large-scale adverse effects related to treatment evidence standardization (LAERTES): an open scalable system for linking pharmacovigilance evidence sources with clinical data.

    PubMed

    2017-03-07

    Integrating multiple sources of pharmacovigilance evidence has the potential to advance the science of safety signal detection and evaluation. In this regard, there is a need for more research on how to integrate multiple disparate evidence sources while making the evidence computable from a knowledge representation perspective (i.e., semantic enrichment). Existing frameworks suggest well-promising outcomes for such integration but employ a rather limited number of sources. In particular, none have been specifically designed to support both regulatory and clinical use cases, nor have any been designed to add new resources and use cases through an open architecture. This paper discusses the architecture and functionality of a system called Large-scale Adverse Effects Related to Treatment Evidence Standardization (LAERTES) that aims to address these shortcomings. LAERTES provides a standardized, open, and scalable architecture for linking evidence sources relevant to the association of drugs with health outcomes of interest (HOIs). Standard terminologies are used to represent different entities. For example, drugs and HOIs are represented in RxNorm and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms respectively. At the time of this writing, six evidence sources have been loaded into the LAERTES evidence base and are accessible through prototype evidence exploration user interface and a set of Web application programming interface services. This system operates within a larger software stack provided by the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics clinical research framework, including the relational Common Data Model for observational patient data created by the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership. Elements of the Linked Data paradigm facilitate the systematic and scalable integration of relevant evidence sources. The prototype LAERTES system provides useful functionality while creating opportunities for further research. Future work will

  17. Adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2014-12-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug use during pregnancy significantly reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission, delays disease progression in the women and reduces the risk of HIV transmission to HIV-serodiscordant partners. Pregnant women are susceptible to the same adverse reactions to ARVs as nonpregnant adults as well as to specific pregnancy-related reactions. In addition, we should consider adverse pregnancy outcomes and adverse reactions in children exposed to ARVs during intrauterine life. However, studies designed to assess the safety of ARV in pregnant women are rare, usually with few participants and short follow-up periods. In this review, we discuss studies reporting adverse reactions to ARV drugs, including maternal toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes and the consequences of exposure to ARV in infants. We included results of observational studies, both prospective and retrospective, as well as randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The benefits of ARV use during pregnancy outweigh the risks of adverse reactions identified to date. More studies are needed to assess the adverse effects in the medium- and long term in children exposed to ARVs during pregnancy, as well as pregnant women using lifelong antiretroviral therapy and more recently available drugs.

  18. Less is more ‥‥ Increased gonadotropin use for ovarian stimulation adversely influences clinical pregnancy and live birth following IVF

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Lubna; Jindal, Sangita; Witt, Barry R.; Santoro, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine if attempts to maximize oocyte yield during ovarian stimulation translates into improved outcome of IVF cycles. Design Retrospective. Setting Academic tertiary care IVF center. Patients and intervention Fresh non-donor IVF cycles (n=806) for the period 1/1/99–12/30/01 were evaluated. Outcomes Cycle cancellation-CC, clinical pregnancy- CP, spontaneous miscarriage SAB and live birth- LB following IVF. Results Advancing age, independent of ovarian reserve status (reflected by early follicular phase FSH and estradiol) augured a worse prognosis for all outcomes. Higher gonadotropin use, while lowering CC, was associated with significantly reduced likelihood of CP and LB, and a trend towards higher likelihood for spontaneous miscarriage following IVF. Conclusions Our data add to the accruing literature suggesting adverse influences of excess gonadotropin use on IVF outcomes. While an aggressive approach to COH results in significant reduction in CC, excessive use of gonadotropins detrimentally influences the eventual outcome of interest i.e. live birth following IVF. PMID:18440515

  19. What's in a side effect? The association between pulmonary vasodilator adverse drug events and clinical outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Leary, Peter J; Kang, Suhyun; Kolb, Todd M; Maron, Bradley A; Ralph, David D; Rao, Youlan; Tedford, Ryan J; Zamanian, Roham T

    2017-08-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) with pulmonary vasodilator use in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are common. ADEs may contribute to worse quality of life; however, their relationship to prognosis is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether common ADEs after initiating subcutaneous treprostinil were associated with prognosis in PAH. We assembled a retrospective cohort of participants from four clinical trials of treprostinil for PAH, including 908 participants who received subcutaneous treprostinil and 243 who received placebo at the time ADEs were ascertained. The occurrences of four common early ADEs (infusion reactions, headaches, jaw pain, or gastrointestinal side effects) were assessed during the eight weeks after starting the infusion. We used Cox proportional hazards to estimate associations between ADEs and mortality. No ADEs related to placebo were associated with mortality. In participants who received treprostinil, infusion reactions, headaches, and jaw pain were not associated with mortality. Gastrointestinal side effects occurring during the first eight weeks following treprostinil infusion were associated with a 57% increase in the hazard of mortality (95% CI: 14-118%). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for demographic differences and differences in baseline PAH severity. Gastrointestinal ADEs after starting subcutaneous treprostinil were associated with an increased risk for mortality. Increased mortality was not observed with other early ADEs or with gastrointestinal symptoms in participants who were not receiving treprostinil at the time. This hypothesis-generating association suggests ADEs may identify different phenotypes in PAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Obesity is not an independent risk factor for adverse perioperative and long-term clinical outcomes following open AAA repair or EVAR.

    PubMed

    Park, Brian; Dargon, Phong; Binette, Christopher; Babic, Bruna; Thomas, Tina; Divinagracia, Thomas; Dahn, Michael S; Menzoian, James O

    2011-10-01

    Moderate (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) and morbid obesity (BMI ≥35) is increasing at an alarming rate in vascular surgery patients. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on perioperative and long-term clinical outcomes following open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair or endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). This review includes patients that underwent open AAA repair (n = 403) or EVAR (n = 223) from 1999 to 2009. Specific patient characteristics such as comorbid diseases, medications, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Specific perioperative outcomes such as length of stay, myocardial infarctions, and mortality were reviewed. In addition, long-term outcomes such as rates of reintervention, permanent renal dysfunction, and mortality beyond 30 days were also assessed. The incidence of obesity in open AAA patients was 25.3% (documented incidence 1.5%) and for EVAR was 24.6% (documented incidence 4%). Moderate and morbid obesity was associated with longer intensive care unit (ICU) admissions for both open AAA or EVAR patients (P < .05). However, no significant differences in perioperative outcomes in terms of overall length of stay, myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, wound infections, or mortality were noted between obese and nonobese patients underoing open AAA repair or EVAR (P > .05). Similarly, moderate and morbid obesity was not associated with significant differences in rates of reintervention, permanent renal dysfunction, and mortality beyond 30 days for patients undergoing open AAA repair or EVAR (P > .05). The results of this study indicate that moderate and morbid obesity are not independently associated with adverse perioperative and long-term clinical outcomes for patients undergoing open AAA repair or EVAR. Therefore, either open AAA repair or EVAR can be accomplished safely in moderately obese and morbidly obese patients.

  1. The impact of statins on biological characteristics of stem cells provides a novel explanation for their pleiotropic beneficial and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Izadpanah, Reza; Schächtele, Deborah J; Pfnür, Andreas B; Lin, Dong; Slakey, Douglas P; Kadowitz, Philip J; Alt, Eckhard U

    2015-10-15

    Statins reduce atherosclerotic events and cardiovascular mortality. Their side effects include memory loss, myopathy, cataract formation, and increased risk of diabetes. As cardiovascular mortality relates to plaque instability, which depends on the integrity of the fibrous cap, we hypothesize that the inhibition of the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into macrophages would help to explain the long known, but less understood "non-lipid-associated" or pleiotropic benefit of statins on cardiovascular mortality. In the present investigation, MSCs were treated with atorvastatin or pravastatin at clinically relevant concentrations and their proliferation, differentiation potential, and gene expression profile were assessed. Both types of statins reduced the overall growth rate of MSCs. Especially, statins reduced the potential of MSCs to differentiate into macrophages while they exhibited no direct effect on macrophage function. These findings suggest that the limited capacity of MSCs to differentiate into macrophages could possibly result in decreased macrophage density within the arterial plaque, reduced inflammation, and subsequently enhance plaque stability. This would explain the non-lipid-associated reduction in cardiovascular events. On a negative side, statins impaired the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential of MSCs and increased cell senescence and apoptosis, as indicated by upregulation of p16, p53 and Caspase 3, 8, and 9. Statins also impaired the expression of DNA repair genes, including XRCC4, XRCC6, and Apex1. While the effect on macrophage differentiation explains the beneficial side of statins, their impact on other biologic properties of stem cells provides a novel explanation for their adverse clinical effects. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Confirmation of in vitro and clinical safety assessment of behentrimonium chloride-containing leave-on body lotions using post-marketing adverse event data.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D M; Donahue, D A; Costin, G-E; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Downey, M E; Billhimer, W L; Gilpin, S; Wilt, N; Simion, F A

    2013-12-01

    Behentrimonium chloride (BTC) is a straight-chain alkyltrimonium chloride compound commonly used as an antistatic, hair conditioning, emulsifier, or preservative agent in personal care products. Although the European Union recently restricted the use of alkyltrimonium chlorides and bromides as preservatives to ≤0.1%, these compounds have been safely used for many years at ≤5% in hundreds of cosmetic products for other uses than as a preservative. In vitro, clinical, and controlled consumer usage tests in barrier-impaired individuals were conducted to determine if whole body, leave-on skin care products containing 1-5% BTC cause dermal irritation or any other skin reaction with use. BTC-containing formulations were predicted to be non-irritants by the EpiDerm® skin irritation test and the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP)/chorioallantoic membrane vascular assay (CAMVA) ocular irritation test battery. No evidence of allergic contact dermatitis or cumulative dermal irritation was noted under the exaggerated conditions of human occlusive patch tests. No clinically assessed or self-reported adverse reactions were noted in adults or children with atopic, eczematous, and/or xerotic skin during two-week and four-week monitored home usage studies. These results were confirmed by post-marketing data for five body lotions, which showed only 0.69 undesirable effects (mostly skin irritation) reported per million shipped consumer units during 2006-2011; a value consistent with a non-irritating body lotion. No serious undesirable effects were reported during in-market use of the products. Therefore, if formulated in appropriate conditions at 1-5%, BTC will not cause dermal irritation or delayed contact sensitization when used in a whole-body, leave-on product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical management of the traumatic consequences of civil unrest incidents: causation, clinical approaches, needs and advanced planning criteria.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    toxicity or introduce additional local and/or systemic toxicity. By the very circumstances of civil unrest incidents, injuries are inevitable, particularly when emotions are heightened and police and security forces have to resort to various chemical and/or physical means of control. Trauma may include slight to severe physical and/or chemical injuries, psychological problems and occasional deaths. Hospitals should be prepared for a wide range of casualties, and the fact that those seeking help will constitute a heterogeneous group, including wide age range, male, female, and individuals with pre-existing ill health. A major civil unrest incident necessitates that the local receiving hospital should be prepared and equipped for decontamination and triage processes. It is necessary to reassure patients who have been exposed to sensory irritants that the signs and symptoms are rapidly reversible, and do not result in long-term sequelae. With respect to chemical exposures, detailed evaluation should be given to possible ocular, cutaneous, respiratory and gastrointestinal effects. Also, exposure to chemosensory irritants results in transient increases in blood pressure, bradycardia and increased intraocular pressure. This indicates that those with cardiovascular diseases and glaucoma may be at increased risk for the development of complications. This article details the pharmacological, toxicological and clinical effects of chemicals used in civil disturbance control and discusses the management of contaminated individuals. Additionally, the potential for adverse effects from delivery systems and other physical restraint procedures is summarised. Due to the emergency and specialised circumstances and conditions of a civil unrest incident, there is a clear need for advanced planning by healthcare institutions in the event that such an incident occurs in their catchment area. This should include ensuring a good information base, preparations for medical and support staff

  4. Glycosylated hemoglobin is associated with decreased endothelial function, high inflammatory response, and adverse clinical outcome in non-diabetic STEMI patients.

    PubMed

    Moura, Filipe A; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Teles, Bruna S B S; Barbosa, Meyrianne A; Pereira, Lara R; Costa, Ana P R; Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Almeida, Osório L R; Quinaglia E Silva, Jose C; Nadruz Junior, Wilson; Sposito, Andrei C

    2015-11-01

    Chronic dysglycemia was recently identified as a predictor for adverse outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by percutaneous coronary intervention. Data for non-diabetic patients who underwent thrombolysis is scarce. In this context, we aimed to study the effect of HbA1c on cardiovascular outcome after STEMI. A prospective cohort of 326 non-diabetic STEMI individuals was used for the analyses. We measured plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) upon admission and five days after STEMI (D5). Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was performed 30 days after STEMI. During clinical follow-up, we assessed patients for incident diabetes (progression to HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of fatal and non-fatal MI, sudden cardiac death, and angina requiring hospitalization. Using ROC-curve analysis, a 5.8% HbA1c best predicted MACE with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 53% (AUC 0.673, p = 0.001). Patients were categorized as high HbA1c if ≥ 5.8% and low HbA1c if <5.8%. Compared with patients with low HbA1c, those with high HbA1c presented with 20% higher CRP-D5 (p = 0.009) and 19% higher ΔCRP (p = 0.01), a 32% decrease in ΔNOx (p < 0.001), and 33% lower FMD (p < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 1.9 (1.1-2.8) years, patients with high HbA1c had more incident diabetes (HR 2.3 95% CI 1.01-5.2; p = 0.048) and MACE (HR 3.32 95% CI 1.09-10.03; p = 0.03). Non-diabetic STEMI patients with high HbA1c present with decreased endothelial function and increased inflammatory response and long-term risk of MACE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adverse reactions to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in new-born infants-an evaluation of the Danish strain 1331 SSI in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Hoffmann, Thomas; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Greisen, Gorm; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Pryds, Ole; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2016-05-11

    To evaluate adverse reactions of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Statens Serum Institut (SSI) (Danish strain 1331) used as intervention in a randomized clinical trial. A randomized clinical multicenter trial, The Danish Calmette Study, randomizing newborns to BCG or no intervention. Follow-up until 13 months of age. Pediatric and maternity wards at three Danish university hospitals. All women planning to give birth at the three study sites (n=16,521) during the recruitment period were invited to participate in the study. Four thousand one hundred and eighty four families consented to participate and 4262 children, gestational age 32 weeks and above, were randomized: 2129 to BCG vaccine and 2133 to no vaccine. None of the participants withdrew because of adverse reactions. Trial-registered adverse reactions after BCG vaccination at birth. Follow-up at 3 and 13 months by telephone interviews and clinical examinations. Among the 2118 BCG-vaccinated children we registered no cases of severe unexpected adverse reaction related to BCG vaccination and no cases of disseminated BCG disease. Two cases of regional lymphadenitis were hospitalized and thus classified as serious adverse reactions related to BCG. The most severe adverse reactions were 10 cases of suppurative lymphadenitis. This was nearly a fivefold increase compared to what was expected based on the summary of product characteristics of the vaccine. All cases were treated conservatively and recovered. Six of 10 (60%) families of children experiencing suppurative lymphadenitis compared to 117/2071 (6%) of those with no lymphadenitis indicated that the vaccine had more adverse effects than expected (p-value <0.001). BCG vaccination was associated with only mild morbidity and no mortality. A higher incidence of suppurative lymphadenitis than expected was observed. All children were treated conservatively without sequelae or complications. Trial registration number NCT01694108 at www

  6. Early termination of cardiovascular trials as a consequence of poor accrual: analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov 2006–2015

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Ileana; Lanera, Corrado; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To present a snapshot of experimental cardiovascular research with a focus on geographical and temporal patterns of early termination due to poor accrual. Setting The Aggregate Analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov (AACT) database, reflecting ClinicalTrials.gov as of 27 March 2016. Design The AACT database was searched for all cardiovascular clinical trials that started from January 2006 up to December 2015. Results Thirteen thousand and seven hundred twenty-nine cardiovascular trials were identified. Of these, 8900 (65%) were classified as closed studies. Globally, 11% of closed trials were terminated. This proportion varied from 9.6% to 14% for trials recruiting from Europe and Americas, respectively, with a slightly decreasing trend (p=0.02) over the study period. The most common reason for trials failing to complete was poor accrual (41%). Intercontinental trials exhibited lower figures of poor accrual as the reason for their early stopping, as compared with trials recruiting in a single continent (28% vs 44%, p=0.002). Conclusions Poor accrual significantly challenges the successful completion of cardiovascular clinical trials. Findings are suggestive of a positive effect of globalisation of cardiovascular clinical research on the achievement of enrolment goals within a reasonable time frame. PMID:28619765

  7. [Adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs].

    PubMed

    Suástegui-Rodríguez, Irvin; Campos-Jiménez, Karin Ivette; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs are any undesirable change in the structure or function of the skin. These are among the adverse side effects to common drugs. The most commonly implicated drugs are antibiotics and anticonvulsants. Cutaneous clinical manifestations are diverse ranging from mild or moderate reactions, such as urticaria and maculopapular rash, to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR), which are known due to their high morbidity and mortality (among these: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). The clinical pattern, etiology, prognosis and treatment differ among these skin reactions, which is why it is necessary a clear diagnosis based on a comprehensive clinical examination, skin biopsy, and specific laboratory tests. The therapeutic options depend on the clinical diagnosis. For all reactions, a symptomatic and adequate supportive therapy is necessary; in some cases, a systemic immunomodulatory therapy can be useful.

  8. Clinical observation of adverse drug reactions to non-ionic iodinated contrast media in population with underlying diseases and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Liu, Heng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Junling; Cai, Li; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of non-ionic iodinated contrast media in populations with underlying diseases and risk factors and to provide guidance for more safe and rational use of iodinated contrast media (ICMs) in the clinic. Methods: Data from 120,822 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination in our hospital from January 2014 to March 2016 were collected. A standardized case report form was used for data collection and analysis. Results: The incidence of ADRs was 0.4% and 0.44% in patients with and without underlying diseases, respectively (p = 0.378). Risk factor analysis revealed that patients with asthma had the highest incidence of ADRs, followed by patients with cardiac insufficiency and patients who were aged had the lowest incidence. There was a low incidence of ADRs in patients under metformin (0.36%) and β-adrenaline receptor antagonist (0.20%) medication. The incidence was the highest in patients with previous ADRs to ICMs (7.17%) and the lowest in those with a history of ICM usage but no previous reactions (0.32%). ADRs were more common in patients at high risk at a higher injection dose (≥100 ml; p < 0.01) and speed (≥5 ml s−1; p < 0.01). Conclusion: The incidence of ADRs was extremely low in patients regardless of underlying diseases. Some high-risk factors have certain correlations with the occurrence of ADRs. Particular attention should be given to patients at high risk when performing enhanced CT examination. Advances in knowledge: The correlation between various risk factors and underlying diseases and ADRs was comprehensively analyzed in a large-scale population. PMID:27928926

  9. High Pretreatment D-Dimer Levels Correlate with Adverse Clinical Features and Predict Poor Survival in Patients with Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Shu-mei; Liu, Pan-pan; Li, Zhi-ming; Jiang, Wen-qi

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels have been reported to predict survival in several types of malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of D-dimer levels in patients with newly diagnosed natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL). The cut-off value of D-dimer to predict survival was set as 1.2 μg/mL based on the receiver operating curve analysis. Patients with a D-dimer level ≥ 1.2 μg/mL had significantly more adverse clinical features, including poor performance status, advanced stage diseases, B symptoms, elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase levels, involvement of regional lymph nodes, more extranodal diseases, and higher International Prognostic Index and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma prognostic index scores. A D-dimer level ≥ 1.2 μg/mL was significantly associated with inferior 3-year overall survival (OS, 13.0 vs. 68.5%, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, a D-dimer level ≥ 1.2 μg/mL remained an independent predictor for worse OS (HR: 3.13, 95% CI: 1.47–6.68, P = 0.003) after adjusting for other confounding prognostic factors. Among patients with Ann Arbor stage I-II diseases, those with a D-dimer level ≥ 1.2 μg/mL had a significantly worse survival than those with a D-dimer level < 1.2 μg/mL (3 year-OS: 76.2 vs. 22.2%, P < 0.001). Survival of early-stage patients with a high D-dimer level was similar to that of the advanced-stage patients. In conclusion, pretreatment plasma D-dimer level may serve as a simple but effective predictor of prognosis in patients with NKTCL. PMID:27032016

  10. Clinical observation of adverse drug reactions to non-ionic iodinated contrast media in population with underlying diseases and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Liu, Heng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Junling; Cai, Li; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-02-01

    To determine the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of non-ionic iodinated contrast media in populations with underlying diseases and risk factors and to provide guidance for more safe and rational use of iodinated contrast media (ICMs) in the clinic. Data from 120,822 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination in our hospital from January 2014 to March 2016 were collected. A standardized case report form was used for data collection and analysis. The incidence of ADRs was 0.4% and 0.44% in patients with and without underlying diseases, respectively (p = 0.378). Risk factor analysis revealed that patients with asthma had the highest incidence of ADRs, followed by patients with cardiac insufficiency and patients who were aged had the lowest incidence. There was a low incidence of ADRs in patients under metformin (0.36%) and β-adrenaline receptor antagonist (0.20%) medication. The incidence was the highest in patients with previous ADRs to ICMs (7.17%) and the lowest in those with a history of ICM usage but no previous reactions (0.32%). ADRs were more common in patients at high risk at a higher injection dose (≥100 ml; p < 0.01) and speed (≥5 ml s -1 ; p < 0.01). The incidence of ADRs was extremely low in patients regardless of underlying diseases. Some high-risk factors have certain correlations with the occurrence of ADRs. Particular attention should be given to patients at high risk when performing enhanced CT examination. Advances in knowledge: The correlation between various risk factors and underlying diseases and ADRs was comprehensively analyzed in a large-scale population.

  11. Analysis of adverse events associated with dasatinib and nilotinib treatments in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients outside clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Suh, Koung Jin; Lee, Ji Yun; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Koh, Youngil; Bang, Soo-Mee; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Seonyang; Kim, Inho; Lee, Jeong-Ok

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed adverse events (AEs) in 201 chronic phase CML patients treated with nilotinib (n = 120) or dasatinib (n = 81) as first- or second-line therapy. The dasatinib group had significantly higher grade 3-4 AEs compared to the nilotinib group (22 vs. 54%, p < 0.001), and had more frequent dose reduction, interruption, and discontinuation (p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.006, respectively). Of 59 patients who discontinued treatment, 47 (80%) discontinued treatment due to AEs; 50% of the AEs causing drug discontinuation were of grade 2 severity. Compared to the second-line setting, discontinuation occurred more rapidly in the first-line setting (2.9 vs. 15.6 months, p = 0.015). Pleural effusion occurred in 35% (28/81) of the patients with dasatinib and led to dasatinib discontinuation in 14 patients (grade 2 of 79%). Pulmonary artery hypertension occurred in one patient with dasatinib. Stroke, acute coronary syndrome, and peripheral artery occlusive disease occurred in 5% (6/120) of the patients treated with nilotinib. The dasatinib group had shorter event-free survival than nilotinib group (first-line, p = 0.051; second-line, p = 0.025). In the clinical practice setting, nilotinib or dasatinib use was more frequently interrupted than recommended by guidelines in association with less severe AEs. We believe this phenomenon is attributable to the availability of other TKIs.

  12. A Pilot Study of Clinical Targeted Next Generation Sequencing for Prostate Cancer: Consequences for Treatment and Genetic Counseling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Heather H; Klemfuss, Nola; Montgomery, Bruce; Higano, Celestia S; Schweizer, Michael T; Mostaghel, Elahe A; McFerrin, Lisa G; Yu, Evan Y; Nelson, Peter S; Pritchard, Colin C

    2016-10-01

    Targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS) is increasingly used in oncology for therapeutic decision-making, but is not yet widely used for prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to determine current clinical utility of tNGS for prostate cancer management. Seven academic genitourinary medical oncologists recruited and consented patients with prostate cancer, largely with unusual clinical and/or pathologic features, from 2013 to 2015. UW-OncoPlex was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumors and/or metastatic biopsies. Results were discussed at a multidisciplinary precision tumor board prior to communicating to patients. FFPE tumor DNA was extracted for tNGS analysis of 194 cancer-associated genes. Results, multidisciplinary discussion, and treatment changes were recorded. Forty-five patients consented and 42 had reportable results. Findings included mutations in genes frequently observed in prostate cancer. We also found alterations in genes where targeted treatments were available and/or in clinical trials. 4/42 (10%) cases, change in treatment directly resulted from tNGS and multidisciplinary discussion. In 30/42 (71%) cases additional options were available but not pursued and/or were pending. Notably, 10/42 (24%) of patients harbored suspected germline mutations in moderate or high-penetrance cancer risk genes, including BRCA2, TP53, ATM, and CHEK2. One patient's tumor had bi-allelic MSH6 mutation and microsatellite instability. In total, 34/42 (81%) cases resulted in some measure of treatment actionability. Limitations include small size and limited clinical outcomes. Targeted NGS tumor sequencing may help guide immediate and future treatment options for men with prostate cancer. A substantial subset had germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes with potential clinical management implications for men and their relatives. Prostate 76:1303-1311, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of Loading Dose of Atorvastatin Prior to Planned Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome: The SECURE-PCI Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Berwanger, Otavio; Santucci, Eliana Vieira; de Barros E Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo; Jesuíno, Isabella de Andrade; Damiani, Lucas Petri; Barbosa, Lilian Mazza; Santos, Renato Hideo Nakagawa; Laranjeira, Ligia Nasi; Egydio, Flávia de Mattos; Borges de Oliveira, Juliana Aparecida; Dall Orto, Frederico Toledo Campo; Beraldo de Andrade, Pedro; Bienert, Igor Ribeiro de Castro; Bosso, Carlos Eduardo; Mangione, José Armando; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego; Kalil, Renato Abdala Karam; Santos, Luciano de Moura; Sposito, Andrei Carvalho; Rech, Rafael Luiz; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Baldissera, Felipe; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Giraldez, Roberto Rocha Corrêa Veiga; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Pereira, Sabrina Bernardez; Mattos, Luiz Alberto; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal; Guimarães, Hélio Penna; Sousa, José Eduardo Moraes Rego; Alexander, John Hunter; Granger, Christopher Bull; Lopes, Renato Delascio

    2018-04-03

    The effects of loading doses of statins on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management remain uncertain. To determine if periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin decrease 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ACS and planned invasive management. Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 53 sites in Brazil among 4191 patients with ACS evaluated with coronary angiography to proceed with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if anatomically feasible. Enrollment occurred between April 18, 2012, and October 6, 2017. Final follow-up for 30-day outcomes was on November 6, 2017. Patients were randomized to receive 2 loading doses of 80 mg of atorvastatin (n = 2087) or matching placebo (n = 2104) before and 24 hours after a planned PCI. All patients received 40 mg of atorvastatin for 30 days starting 24 hours after the second dose of study medication. The primary outcome was MACE, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization through 30 days. Among the 4191 patients (mean age, 61.8 [SD, 11.5] years; 1085 women [25.9%]) enrolled, 4163 (99.3%) completed 30-day follow-up. A total of 2710 (64.7%) underwent PCI, 333 (8%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 1144 (27.3%) had exclusively medical management. At 30 days, 130 patients in the atorvastatin group (6.2%) and 149 in the placebo group (7.1%) had a MACE (absolute difference, 0.85% [95% CI, -0.70% to 2.41%]; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11; P = .27). No cases of hepatic failure were reported; 3 cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported in the placebo group (0.1%) and 0 in the atorvastatin group. Among patients with ACS and planned invasive management with PCI, periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin did not reduce the rate of MACE at 30 days. These findings do not support the routine use

  14. Differences in reporting serious adverse events in industry sponsored clinical trial registries and journal articles on antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David; Jaggi, Rachel

    2014-07-09

    To examine the degree of concordance in reporting serious adverse events (SAEs) from antidepressant and antipsychotic drug trials among journal articles and clinical trial summaries, and to categorise types of discrepancies. Cross-sectional study of summaries of all antidepressant and antipsychotic trials included in an online trial registry and their first associated stand-alone journal articles. Clinicalstudyresults.org, sponsored by Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America; clinicaltrials.gov, administered by the US National Institutes of Health. 3 coders extracted data on the numbers and types of SAEs. 244 trial summaries for six antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs were retrieved, 142 (58.2%) listing an associated article. Of 1608 SAEs in drug-treated participants according to trial summaries, 694 (43.2%) did not appear in associated articles. Nearly 60% of SAEs counted in articles and 41% in trial summaries had no description. Most cases of death (62.3%) and suicide (53.3%) were not reported in articles. Half or more of the 142 pairs were discordant in reporting the number (49.3%) or description (67.6%) of SAEs. These discrepancies resulted from journal articles' (1) omission of complete SAE data, (2) reporting acute phase study results only and (3) more restrictive reporting criteria. Trial summaries with zero SAE were 2.35 (95% CI, 1.58 to 3.49; p<0.001) times more likely to be published with no discrepancy in their associated journal article. Since clinicalstudyresults.org was removed from the Internet in 2011, only 7.8% of retrieved trial summaries appear with results on clinicaltrials.gov. Substantial discrepancies exist in SAE data found in journal articles and registered summaries of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug trials. Two main scientific sources accessible to clinicians and researchers are limited by incomplete, ambiguous and inconsistent reporting. Access to complete and accurate data from clinical trials of drugs currently in

  15. Tau elevations in the brain extracellular space correlate with reduced amyloid-β levels and predict adverse clinical outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Sandra; Esparza, Thomas J; Conte, Valeria; Carbonara, Marco; Carrabba, Giorgio; Holtzman, David M; Zipfel, Greg J; Stocchetti, Nino; Brody, David L

    2012-04-01

    Axonal injury is believed to be a major determinant of adverse outcomes following traumatic brain injury. However, it has been difficult to assess acutely the severity of axonal injury in human traumatic brain injury patients. We hypothesized that microdialysis-based measurements of the brain extracellular fluid levels of tau and neurofilament light chain, two low molecular weight axonal proteins, could be helpful in this regard. To test this hypothesis, 100 kDa cut-off microdialysis catheters were placed in 16 patients with severe traumatic brain injury at two neurological/neurosurgical intensive care units. Tau levels in the microdialysis samples were highest early and fell over time in all patients. Initial tau levels were >3-fold higher in patients with microdialysis catheters placed in pericontusional regions than in patients in whom catheters were placed in normal-appearing right frontal lobe tissue (P = 0.005). Tau levels and neurofilament light-chain levels were positively correlated (r = 0.6, P = 0.013). Neurofilament light-chain levels were also higher in patients with pericontusional catheters (P = 0.04). Interestingly, initial tau levels were inversely correlated with initial amyloid-β levels measured in the same samples (r = -0.87, P = 0.000023). This could be due to reduced synaptic activity in areas with substantial axonal injury, as amyloid-β release is closely coupled with synaptic activity. Importantly, high initial tau levels correlated with worse clinical outcomes, as assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 6 months after injury (r = -0.6, P = 0.018). Taken together, our data add support for the hypothesis that axonal injury may be related to long-term impairments following traumatic brain injury. Microdialysis-based measurement of tau levels in the brain extracellular space may be a useful way to assess the severity of axonal injury acutely in the intensive care unit. Further studies with larger numbers of

  16. Differences in reporting serious adverse events in industry sponsored clinical trial registries and journal articles on antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David; Jaggi, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the degree of concordance in reporting serious adverse events (SAEs) from antidepressant and antipsychotic drug trials among journal articles and clinical trial summaries, and to categorise types of discrepancies. Design Cross-sectional study of summaries of all antidepressant and antipsychotic trials included in an online trial registry and their first associated stand-alone journal articles. Setting Clinicalstudyresults.org, sponsored by Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America; clinicaltrials.gov, administered by the US National Institutes of Health. Main outcome measure 3 coders extracted data on the numbers and types of SAEs. Results 244 trial summaries for six antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs were retrieved, 142 (58.2%) listing an associated article. Of 1608 SAEs in drug-treated participants according to trial summaries, 694 (43.2%) did not appear in associated articles. Nearly 60% of SAEs counted in articles and 41% in trial summaries had no description. Most cases of death (62.3%) and suicide (53.3%) were not reported in articles. Half or more of the 142 pairs were discordant in reporting the number (49.3%) or description (67.6%) of SAEs. These discrepancies resulted from journal articles’ (1) omission of complete SAE data, (2) reporting acute phase study results only and (3) more restrictive reporting criteria. Trial summaries with zero SAE were 2.35 (95% CI, 1.58 to 3.49; p<0.001) times more likely to be published with no discrepancy in their associated journal article. Since clinicalstudyresults.org was removed from the Internet in 2011, only 7.8% of retrieved trial summaries appear with results on clinicaltrials.gov. Conclusions Substantial discrepancies exist in SAE data found in journal articles and registered summaries of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug trials. Two main scientific sources accessible to clinicians and researchers are limited by incomplete, ambiguous and inconsistent reporting. Access to

  17. Competition between low-dose aspirin and other NSAIDs for COX-1 binding and its clinical consequences for the drugs' antiplatelet effects.

    PubMed

    Stepensky, David; Rimon, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    NSAIDs are frequently used in modern medicine to inhibit the COX enzymes and induce analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet effects. Concomitant treatment with two or more NSAIDs can lead to their competition for binding and inhibition of the COX enzymes and altered time course of the pharmacological effects. The competition between the low-dose aspirin and other NSAIDs for binding to COX-1 is described, including the recent findings on the differences in the interaction of NSAIDs with the individual COX-1 subunits, and the clinical consequences of this drug-drug interaction. The major pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) factors that govern the interaction of low-dose aspirin with other NSAIDs are explained, along with the approaches for prediction of the magnitude of this interaction using mechanism-based PK-PD modeling. Concomitant administration of other NSAIDs can diminish the antiplatelet effects of low-dose aspirin, increase the risk of thromboembolic effects (heart attacks and strokes), and lead to patient morbidity and mortality. The healthcare providers and the patients are seldom aware to this clinical problem and its consequences. Despite this drug interaction, low-dose aspirin possesses high clinical safety and it is not expected to be replaced by the recently approved drugs.

  18. Using clinical trial data and linked administrative health data to reduce the risk of adverse events associated with the uptake of newly released drugs by older Australians: a model process.

    PubMed

    Whitstock, Margaret T; Pearce, Christopher M; Ridout, Stephen C; Eckermann, Elizabeth J

    2011-05-21

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of a process which uses clinical trial data plus linked de-identified administrative health data to forecast potential risk of adverse events associated with the use of newly released drugs by older Australian patients. The study uses publicly available data from the clinical trials of a newly released drug to ascertain which patient age groups, gender, comorbidities and co-medications were excluded in the trials. It then uses linked de-identified hospital morbidity and medications dispensing data to investigate the comorbidities and co-medications of patients who suffer from the target morbidity of the new drug and who are the likely target population for the drug. The clinical trial information and the linked morbidity and medication data are compared to assess which patient groups could potentially be at risk of an adverse event associated with use of the new drug. Applying the model in a retrospective real-world scenario identified that the majority of the sample group of Australian patients aged 65 years and over with the target morbidity of the newly released COX-2-selective NSAID rofecoxib also suffered from a major morbidity excluded in the trials of that drug, indicating a substantial potential risk of adverse events amongst those patients. This risk was borne out in post-release morbidity and mortality associated with use of that drug. Clinical trial data and linked administrative health data can together support a prospective assessment of patient groups who could be at risk of an adverse event if they are prescribed a newly released drug in the context of their age, gender, comorbidities and/or co-medications. Communication of this independent risk information to prescribers has the potential to reduce adverse events in the period after the release of the new drug, which is when the risk is greatest.Note: The terms 'adverse drug reaction' and 'adverse drug event' have come to be used interchangeably

  19. Fear-avoidance and endurance-related responses to pain: new models of behavior and their consequences for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hasenbring, Monika I; Verbunt, Jeanine A

    2010-01-01

    Patients' beliefs and expectations about their pain have been identified as important disabling factors in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Besides fear-avoidance beliefs and pain-related fear, cognitions such as thought suppression as well as pain/task persistence behavior have been shown to be associated with pain and disability. The aim of this report is to present a critical evaluation of research, based on the avoidance-endurance model of pain. A qualitative review of the literature concerning the occurrence of fear-avoidance- versus endurance-related pain responses as well as concerning the association of these pain responses and different self-reported and overtly measured outcomes. While consistent evidence has confirmed the role of fear-avoidance responses to pain and pain-related disability measured via self-report, the influence of fear-avoidance responses on objectively assessed physical activity is less clear. There is preliminary evidence that avoidance-endurance model based subgroups showing a pattern of cognitions of thought suppression, anxious/depressive mood and task/pain persistence behavior (distress endurance responses) or a pattern of cognitions of ignoring/minimizing pain, positive mood despite pain and task/pain persistence behavior (eustress endurance responses) will develop more pain prospectively and show higher levels of specific strain postures, measured by accelerometer, than patients showing adaptive pain responses. Although both, fear-avoidance and endurance responses have been identified in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, currently evidence to confirm their hypothesized consequences for daily functioning is incomplete. Finally, thoughts on the development of differentially targeted and individually scheduled behavioral interventions are reported, including suggestions for further research.

  20. Unintended Consequences in Cancer Care Delivery Created by the Medicare Part B Proposal: Is the Clinical Rationale for the Experiment Flawed?

    PubMed

    Gordan, Lucio; Grogg, Amy; Blazer, Marlo; Fortner, Barry

    2017-02-01

    Medicare currently enrolls ≥ 45 million adults, and by 2030 this is projected to increase to ≥ 80 million beneficiaries. With this growth, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) issued a proposal, the Medicare Part B Drug Payment Model, to shrink drug expenditures, a major contributor to overall health care costs. For this to not adversely affect patient outcomes, lower-cost alternative medications with equivalent efficacy and no increased toxicity must be available. This is often not true in the treatment of cancer. Herein, we examine the flaws in the rationale of the CMS and the potential unintended consequences of this experiment. We identified the top three oncology expenditures (rituximab, bevacizumab, and trastuzumab) and their vetted alternatives (per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines) to ascertain whether lower-cost equivalent alternatives are available. Drug cost was based on April 2016 average sale price. We explored both efficacy of the agents and, when applicable, toxicity to compare alternatives to these high-dollar medications. For the largest Medicare oncology drug expenditures, there is not a lower-cost option with equal efficacy for their primary indications. Without lower-cost alternatives, the unintended consequence of this CMS experiment may include curtailing access to care or an increase in patient/program costs. The CMS proposal, by simply lowering reimbursement for drugs, does not acknowledge the value of these agents and could unintentionally reduce quality of care. Alternative approaches to value-based care, such as the Oncology Care Model and similar frameworks, should be explored.

  1. When Clinicians Drop Out and Start Over after Adverse Events.

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Jason; Scott, Susan D

    2018-03-01

    The impact of adverse clinical events on health care workers has become a growing topic of research. Previous research has confirmed that after adverse clinical events, clinical staff often feel as though they failed not only their patient but also themselves, resulting in second-guessing of their clinical skills, competencies, and even career choices. This exploratory study reports on the experiences of health care providers who changed career paths as a consequence of an adverse clinical event. The authors designed a 39-question survey capturing personal and professional demographics, participant recall of the clinical event, insights into their lived experiences, health care institutions' response(s) to the event, decision-making influences relating to future employment, and insights into interventional strategies. Consistent with prior research, clinicians reported a pattern of inadequate social support after the event. Results further show the salience of emotional labor as a driving force among those who changed roles. In clinicians' own assessments about the lasting impact of the event, many felt less joy and meaning in their new clinical roles, but others thrived by rededicating their careers toward implementing patient safety initiatives and enhancing peer-support networks. Clinicians reported a desire for more transparency and support to help them recover. Clinicians aligned their emotional displays to be consistent with organizational expectations, resulting in suppressed feelings of guilt and shame that may have contributed to burnout, changed roles, or even premature retirement. Study findings highlight the need to develop better support systems for clinicians who are party to an adverse clinical event. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consequences of defensive medicine, second victims, and clinical-judicial syndrome on surgeons' medical practice and on health service.

    PubMed

    Pellino, Italia Maria; Pellino, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    Increased knowledge in disease causes and progression, along with technological and technical advancements in their diagnosis and treatment, have led to increased expectations from physicians by patients and their relatives. The condition of "second victim" is known to affect caregivers that commit an error, and seriously impairs private life and subsequent practice. Besides, a condition has been described, the clinical-judicial syndrome, affecting caregivers at any moment during a medical litigation. In this scenario, physicians have started to practice "defensive medicine", aimed at protect themselves from liability rather than actually advancing care of patients. This paper represents the first review on defensive medicine with specific focus on surgery in an Italian setting. We reviewed the literature on the topic, with particular focus on surgeons and Italian current status, and provide the readers with a snapshot on these relevant issues, proposing strategies to prevent and reduce the practice of defensive medicine, and to support patients and physicians suffering from medical errors.

  3. [Feasibility and limits of clinical neurophysiology with regard to the objective evaluation of neurological consequences following accidents].

    PubMed

    Zipper, Stephan G

    2014-09-01

    It is not unusual for a neurological expert to have problems defining the precise anatomical location and the required objective proof of damage, especially if the medical history and the neurological report released by the clinic prove inadequate in terms of providing a reliable assessment. This may well result from somatoform disorders, dissociation, aggravation and simulation, as well as dissimulation and complex organic diagnostic findings. A range of standardised neurophysiologic procedures is available for the objective measuring of motor, vegetative and sensory systems; a brief summary of the most frequent occurrences is given here, along with their significance for appraising damage resulting from an accident. Target groups primarily include surgeons, orthopaedists, lawyers and insurance specialists. Structural improvements and measures to integrate immigrant doctors is essential.

  4. Failure of cefoxitin and doxycycline to eradicate endometrial Mycoplasma genitalium and the consequence for clinical cure of pelvic inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, C L; Totten, P A; Astete, S G; Lee, S; Hoferka, S L; Kelsey, S F; Ness, R B

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: As Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), we examined the efficacy of a commonly used PID antimicrobial in treating M genitalium upper genital tract infection. Methods: In the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health study of inpatient versus outpatient treatment, 682 women treated with cefoxitin and doxycycline for clinically suspected PID had stored cervical and endometrial specimens available for analysis. In the current sub study, we compared baseline endometritis, short term treatment failure (continued endometritis and pelvic pain 30 days following treatment) and sequelae among women with and without M genitalium, identified using PCR. Results: Endometrial M genitalium was associated with baseline endometritis (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.1). Among women with a positive baseline M genitalium test, 41% tested positive again 30 days following treatment. Women testing positive compared to those testing negative for M genitalium at baseline had an increased risk of short-term treatment failure (RR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 20.1). Rates of sequelae, including infertility (22%), recurrent PID (31%) and chronic pelvic pain (42%), were high among women testing positive for endometrial M genitalium at baseline. There was a non-significant trend towards increased infertility, chronic pelvic pain and recurrent PID, and decreased pregnancy and live birth following M genitalium infection. Conclusions: M genitalium is associated with endometritis and short-term PID treatment failure. Cefoxitin and doxycycline, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended PID treatment regimen, is ineffective for the treatment of M genitalium upper genital tract infection. PMID:18445635

  5. Health and Ethical Consequences of Outsourcing Pivotal Clinical Trials to Latin America: A Cross-Sectional, Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The implications of conducting clinical trials in low and middle income countries on the financial accessibility and safety of the pharmaceutical products available in those markets have not been studied. Regulatory practices and ethical declarations lead to the commercialization of the new products, referred to as New Molecular Entities (NMEs), in the countries where tested as soon as they are approved in high surveillance countries. Patients and patients' associations use the Latin American courts to access new and expensive treatments, regardless of their safety profile and therapeutic value. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. To determine the therapeutic value and safety profile of the NMEs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 that had been tested in Latin America, and the implications of their market approval for the pharmaceutical budgets in the countries where tested. Latin America. To assess the therapeutic value and safety of the NMEs commercialized in the different countries we used f independent drug bulletins. The prices of the NMEs for the consumers were obtained from the pharmaceutical price observatories of the countries were the medicines had been tested. If the price was not available in the observatories, it was obtained from pharmaceutical distributors. We used the countries' minimum wage and per capita income to calculate the financial accessibility of a course of treatment with the NMEs. We found that 33 NMEs approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012 have been tested in Latin America. Of these, 26 had been evaluated by independent drug bulletins and only five were found to add some value to a subset of patients and had significant side-effects. The pharmaceutical prices were very high, varied widely across countries and were unrelated to the countries' income per capita or minimum wage. The implementation of clinical trials in Latin America results in the commercialization of medicines with questionable safety

  6. Association between P2RY12 gene polymorphisms and adverse clinical events in coronary artery disease patients treated with clopidogrel: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Lei; Fu, Yu; Qin, Si-Bei; Liang, Guang-Kai; Liu, Jian; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Jing; Shi, Lu-Wen; Shao, Hong; Lu, Yun

    2018-05-30

    Investigate the association between P2Y12 Purinoceptor (P2RY12) polymorphisms and adverse clinical events in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients treated with clopidogrel. We performed a comprehensive database search, with a particular focus on P2RY12 polymorphisms and their effects on clopidogrel-treated CAD patients, in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, Web of Science, and Chinese databases from their inceptions to April 8, 2017. The primary endpoints were composite ischemic events (including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic events), the secondary endpoints were independent cardiovascular events (mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, unstable angina, and target vessel revascularization) and the safety endpoints were bleeding events. Overall 10 studies and 10,810 clopidogrel-treated CAD patients were studied in the present work. Subjects of the common alleles of P2RY12 polymorphisms showed higher risk for composite ischemic events compared to non-carriers (n = 434 of 3268[13.3%] vs. n = 646 of 6133[10.5%]; RR: 1.39, 95%CI: 1.14-1.69; p = 0.001). These allele carriers also showed increased risk for stent thrombosis (RR: 2.67, 95%CI: 1.03-6.91; p = 0.04), myocardial infarction (RR: 1.60, 95%CI: 1.06-2.42; p = 0.03), and unstable angina (RR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.37-2.16; p < 0.00001) (vs. non-carriers). There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of mortality risk, target vessel revascularization or bleeding (p = 0.29; p = 0.48, respectively). P2RY12 gene polymorphisms might associate with higher risk of composite ischemic events, stent thrombosis, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina. While we found no significant effect on mortality, target vessel revascularization or bleeding. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme in patients treated with venlafaxine for major depressive disorder: clinical and economic consequences.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Guijarro, Pablo; Armada, Beatriz; Blanca-Tamayo, Milagrosa; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Antidepressant drugs are the mainstay of drug therapy for sustained remission of symptoms. However, the clinical results are not encouraging. This lack of response could be due, among other causes, to factors that alter the metabolism of the antidepressant drug. to evaluate the impact of concomitant administration of CYP2D6 inhibitors or substrates on the efficacy, tolerability and costs of patients treated with venlafaxine for major depressive disorder in clinical practice. We designed an observational study using the medical records of outpatients. Subjects aged ≥ 18 years who started taking venlafaxine during 2008-2010 were included. Three study groups were considered: no combinations (reference), venlafaxine-substrate, and venlafaxine-inhibitor. The follow-up period was 12 months. The main variables were: demographic data, comorbidity, remission (Hamilton <7), response to treatment, adverse events and costs. The statistical analysis included logistic regression models and ANCOVA, with p values <0.05 considered significant. A total of 1,115 subjects were recruited. The mean age was 61.7 years and 75.1% were female. Approximately 33.3% (95% CI: 30.5 to 36.1) were receiving some kind of drug combination (venlafaxine-substrate: 23.0%, and venlafaxine-inhibitor: 10.3%). Compared with the venlafaxine-substrate and venlafaxine-inhibitor groups, patients not taking concomitant drugs had a better response to therapy (49.1% vs. 39.9% and 34.3%, p<0.01), greater remission of symptoms (59.9% vs. 50.2% and 43.8%, p<0.001), fewer adverse events (1.9% vs. 7.0% and 6.1%, p<0.05) and a lower mean adjusted cost (€2,881.7 vs. €4,963.3 and €7,389.1, p<0.001), respectively. All cost components showed these differences. The patients treated with venlafaxine alone showed a better response to anti-depressant treatment, greater remission of symptoms, a lower incidence of adverse events and lower healthcare costs.

  8. Health and Ethical Consequences of Outsourcing Pivotal Clinical Trials to Latin America: A Cross-Sectional, Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The implications of conducting clinical trials in low and middle income countries on the financial accessibility and safety of the pharmaceutical products available in those markets have not been studied. Regulatory practices and ethical declarations lead to the commercialization of the new products, referred to as New Molecular Entities (NMEs), in the countries where tested as soon as they are approved in high surveillance countries. Patients and patients’ associations use the Latin American courts to access new and expensive treatments, regardless of their safety profile and therapeutic value. Design and Objectives Cross-sectional, descriptive study. To determine the therapeutic value and safety profile of the NMEs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 that had been tested in Latin America, and the implications of their market approval for the pharmaceutical budgets in the countries where tested. Setting Latin America. Measures To assess the therapeutic value and safety of the NMEs commercialized in the different countries we used f independent drug bulletins. The prices of the NMEs for the consumers were obtained from the pharmaceutical price observatories of the countries were the medicines had been tested. If the price was not available in the observatories, it was obtained from pharmaceutical distributors. We used the countries’ minimum wage and per capita income to calculate the financial accessibility of a course of treatment with the NMEs. Results We found that 33 NMEs approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012 have been tested in Latin America. Of these, 26 had been evaluated by independent drug bulletins and only five were found to add some value to a subset of patients and had significant side-effects. The pharmaceutical prices were very high, varied widely across countries and were unrelated to the countries’ income per capita or minimum wage. Conclusion The implementation of clinical trials in Latin America

  9. Insulin resistance, its consequences for the clinical course of the disease, and possibilities of correction in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Berstein, L M; Kvatchevskaya, J O; Poroshina, T E; Kovalenko, I G; Tsyrlina, E V; Zimarina, T S; Ourmantcheeva, A F; Ashrafian, L; Thijssen, J H H

    2004-11-01

    To study the frequency of insulin resistance (IR) in endometrial cancer patients, its relation to the clinical course of the disease and DNA damage, and to evaluate possible approaches to the pharmacological correction of IR in the patients studied. The signs of insulin resistance syndrome and its association with the clinical and pathological features of the disease and DNA damage in somatic cells (micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes) and endometrial normal and tumor tissue (alkaline unwinding) were determined in 99 endometrial cancer patients. The frequency of insulin resistance syndrome counted on the basis of fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations according to Duncan et al. is equal to 0.35 (95% CI 0.24-0.46), or 35%, in endometrial cancer patients who do not have a history of diabetes mellitus. Patients with well- or moderately differentiated endometrial adenocarcinomas (mostly type I) had statistically significantly higher basal and stimulated plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations than patients with poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinomas or rarely encountered tumors of the endometrium (primarily type II). Interestingly, the level of fasting insulinemia positively correlates with disease stage and with local and regional tumor dissemination only in the group of patients with well- or moderately differentiated endometrial adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, hyperinsulinemia and other hormonal-metabolic disturbances typical of insulin resistance syndrome do not increase the probability of DNA damage of somatic cells (according to the data of micronucleus test). In addition, no association between hormonal-metabolic disturbances and the degree of DNA unwinding in tumor and visually unchanged endometrium was found. Thus, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia is associated with a more aggressive course of the disease in certain groups of the patients but--in contrast to excessive estrogenic stimulation--does not result

  10. Prognostic value of perfusion defect volume at dual energy CTA in patients with pulmonary embolism: correlation with CTA obstruction scores, CT parameters of right ventricular dysfunction and adverse clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Apfaltrer, Paul; Bachmann, Valentin; Meyer, Mathias; Henzler, Thomas; Barraza, John M; Gruettner, Joachim; Walter, Thomas; Schoepf, U Joseph; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Fink, Christian

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of perfusion defect volume (PDvol) at dual-energy-CT-angiography (DE-CTA) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) by correlating PDvol with CTA-obstruction-scores (OS), CT parameters of right-ventricular-dysfunction (RVD), and adverse-clinical-outcome. DE-CTA of 60 patients (mean age: 65±14.4 years) with PE were analyzed. Iodine maps were generated, and normalized PDvol--defined as volume of perfusion defects/total lung volume--was quantified. Furthermore, established prognostic parameters (Qanadli and Mastora-OS, and CT parameters of RVD) were obtained. CT parameters of RVD--namely the right ventricle/left ventricle (RV/LV) diameter ratio measured on transverse sections (RV/LVtrans), four-chamber views (RV/LV4ch), and RV/LV volume ratios (RV/LVvol)--were assessed. PDvol was correlated with OS, CT parameters of RVD and adverse clinical outcome (defined as the need for intensive care treatment or death). 10 of 60 patients with PE experienced adverse clinical outcome. Patients with adverse clinical outcome showed significantly higher PDvol (35±11% vs. 23±10%, p=0.002), RV/LV ratios (RV/LV4ch 1.46±0.32 vs. 1.18±0.26, p=0.005; RV/LVvol 2.25±1.33 vs. 1.19±0.56, p=0.002) and higher Mastora global scores (52 vs. 13, p=0.02) compared to those without adverse clinical outcome. A weak correlation was observed between PDvol and the Mastora global score (r=0.5; p=0.0003), as well as between PDvol and RV/LV4Ch (r=0.432, p=0.0006). No correlation was found between PDvol and the Qanadli score or the remainder of the RVD-CT parameters. The extent of perfusion defects as assessed by DE-CTA correlates with adverse clinical outcome in patients with PE. Therefore, volumetric quantification of perfusion defects at DE-CTA allows the identification of low-risk patients who do not require intensified monitoring and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-BRCA1/2 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes: A New Frontier with Clinical Consequences for Plastic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jordan D; Salibian, Ara A; Schnabel, Freya R; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2017-11-01

    Twenty percent of breast cancer cases may be related to a genetic mutation conferring an increased risk of malignancy. The most common and prominent breast cancer susceptibility genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2, found in nearly 40% of such cases. However, continued interest and investigation of cancer genetics has led to the identification of a myriad of different breast cancer susceptibility genes. Additional genes, each with unique significance and associated characteristics, continue to be recognized. Concurrently, advanced genetic testing, while still controversial, has become more accessible and cost-effective. As oncologic and reconstructive advances continue to be made in prophylactic breast reconstructive surgery, patients may present to plastic surgeons with an increasingly more diverse array of genetic diagnoses to discuss breast reconstruction. It is therefore imperative that plastic surgeons be familiar with these breast cancer susceptibility genes and their clinical implications. We, therefore, aim to review the most common non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer susceptibility genetic mutations in an effort to assist plastic surgeons in counseling and managing this unique patient population. Included in this review are syndromic breast cancer susceptibility genes such as TP53, PTEN, CDH1, and STK11, among others. Nonsyndromic breast cancer susceptibility genes herein reviewed include PALB2, CHEK2, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene. With this knowledge, plastic surgeons can play a central role in the diagnosis and comprehensive treatment, including successful breast reconstruction, of all patients carrying genetic mutations conferring increased risk for breast malignancies.

  12. Brief motivational interviewing for teens at risk of substance use consequences: a randomized pilot study in a primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Stern, Stefanie A; Meredith, Lisa S

    2008-07-01

    The current study examined the impact of a brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (Project CHAT) on alcohol consumption and drug use for high-risk teens in a primary care clinic that provides health care for underserved populations. Youth (N=42, 48% male) were screened, and those eligible completed a baseline survey. Baseline survey completers were randomly assigned to usual care or to an MI intervention and completed a 3-month follow-up survey. The sample (age 12 to 18 years) was 85.7% Hispanic or Latino, 9.5% African American, and 4.8% White. At the 3-month follow-up, Project CHAT teens reported less marijuana use, lower perceived prevalence of marijuana use, fewer friends who used marijuana, and lower intentions to use marijuana in the next 6 months, as compared to teens assigned to usual care. Providing this type of brief intervention is a viable approach to working with high-risk teens to decrease substance use.

  13. "Aspirin - resistance"? A few critical considerations on definition, terminology, diagnosis, clinical value, natural course of atherosclerotic disease, and therapeutic consequences.

    PubMed

    Berent, R; Sinzinger, H

    2011-11-01

    Based upon various platelet function tests and the fact that patients experience vascular events despite taking acetylsalicylic acid (ASA or aspirin), it has been suggested that patients may become resistant to the action of this pharmacological compound. However, the term "aspirin resistance" was created almost two decades ago but is still not defined. Platelet function tests are not standardized, providing conflicting information and cut-off values are arbitrarily set. Interest comparison reveals low agreement. Even point of care tests have been introduced before appropriate validation. Inflammation may activate platelets, co-medication(s) may interfere significantly with aspirin action on platelets. Platelet function and Cox-inhibition are only some of the effects of aspirin on haemostatic regulation. One single test is not reliable to identify an altered response. Therefore, it may be more appropriate to speak about "treatment failure" to aspirin therapy than using the term "aspirin resistance". There is no evidence based justification from either the laboratory or the clinical point of view for platelet function testing in patients taking aspirin as well as from an economic standpoint. Until evidence based data from controlled studies will be available the term "aspirin resistance" should not be further used. A more robust monitoring of factors resulting in cardiovascular events such as inflammation is recommended.

  14. Clinical and immunologic consequences of a somatic reversion in a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Speckmann, Carsten; Pannicke, Ulrich; Wiech, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Klaus; Fisch, Paul; Friedrich, Wilhelm; Niehues, Tim; Gilmour, Kimberly; Buiting, Karin; Schlesier, Michael; Eibel, Hermann; Rohr, Jan; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Gross-Wieltsch, Ute; Ehl, Stephan

    2008-11-15

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is a life-threatening disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain (IL2RG). Hypomorphic mutations and reversion of mutations in subpopulations of cells can result in variant clinical phenotypes, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. We describe a 5-year-old boy with mild susceptibility to infection who was investigated for a mutation in IL2RG due to persistent natural killer (NK)- and T-cell lymphopenia. A functionally relevant novel T466C point mutation was found in B, NK, and epithelial cells, whereas alpha/beta and gamma/delta T cells showed the normal gene sequence, suggesting reversion of the mutation in a common T-cell precursor. This genetic correction in T cells resulted in a diverse T-cell repertoire and significant immunity despite failure to produce specific antibodies linked to an intrinsic defect of mutant B cells. These observations confirm the potential of revertant T-cell precursors to reconstitute immune function, but questions remain on the longevity of revertant cells implicating the need for careful follow up and early consideration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

  15. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia--the remarkable impact of inclusion definitions in clinical trials and their consequences.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Werbeloff, Nomi; Caers, Ivo; Mandel, Francine S; Stauffer, Virginia; Menard, François; Kinon, Bruce J; Kapur, Shitij

    2013-11-01

    Negative symptoms are an important target for intervention in schizophrenia. There is lack of clarity in defining appropriate patients for negative symptom trials. While regulators, drug developers and academics have expressed positions in this regard, the implications of these definitions are not yet tested in large-scale trials and there is no consensus. We examined the extent to which various operational criteria for inclusion in negative symptoms in schizophrenia clinical trials can impact patient selection and examined the effectiveness of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in patients with various degrees of negative symptoms. Using anonymized patient data from AstraZeneca, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly, Lundbeck, and Pfizer from 20 placebo-controlled trials of SGAs in schizophrenia from the NewMeds repository, we applied different criteria for negative symptoms: prominent, predominant, and EMA criteria, which require predominant and core negative symptoms to be present and examined the impact of these on inclusion and outcome. Operational criteria for negative symptoms in trials vary greatly in their inclusion of patients from "typical" trial samples. Of the patients in our studies, 8.1% and 62.3% met criteria for prominent negative symptoms, 10.2% to 50.2% met criteria for predominant negative symptoms and 7.6% to 40.0% met EMA criteria at baseline. After 6weeks of active treatment, 8% and 33.1% of patients met criteria for prominent residual negative symptoms and 14.9% to 65% met criteria for prominent and 12.2% to 45.5% met EMA criteria. Patients with predominant or prominent negative symptoms showed marked improvement on second generation antipsychotics. Applying various operational criteria for selecting patients for negative symptoms trials provides a great variability in percentage of suitable patients calling into question the extent to which some definitions may be overly narrow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The eye amputated - consequences of eye amputation with emphasis on clinical aspects, phantom eye syndrome and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Marie Louise Roed

    2010-12-01

    In this thesis the term eye amputation (EA) covers the removing of an eye by: evisceration, enucleation and exenteration. Amputation of an eye is most frequently the end-stage in a complicated disease, or the primary treatment in trauma and neoplasm. In 2010 the literature is extensive due to knowledge about types of surgery, implants and surgical technique. However, not much is known about the time past surgery. To identify the number of EA, the causative diagnosis and the indication for surgical removal of the eye, the chosen surgical technique and to evaluate a possible change in surgical technique in Denmark from 1996 until 2003 (paper I); To describe the phantom eye syndrome and its prevalence of visual hallucinations, phantom pain and phantom sensations (paper II); To characterise the quality of phantom eye pain, including its intensity and frequency among EA patients. We attempted to identify patients with increased risk of developing pain after EA and investigated if preoperative pain is a risk factor for a later development of phantom pain (paper III); In addition we wanted to investigate the health related quality of life, perceived stress, self rated health, job separation due to illness or disability and socio-economic position of the EA in comparison with the general Danish population (paper IV). Records on 431 EA patients, clinical ophthalmological examination and an interview study of 173 EA patients and a questionnaire answered by 120 EA patients. The most frequent indications for EA in Denmark were painful blind eye (37%) and neoplasm (34%). During the study period 1996-2003, the annual number of eye amputations was stable, but an increase in bulbar eviscerations was noticed. Orbital implants were used with an increasing tendency until 2003. The Phantom eye syndrome is frequent among EA patients. Visual hallucinations were described by 42% of the patients. The content were mainly elementary visual hallucinations, with white or colored light as a

  17. Persistent Microvascular Obstruction After Myocardial Infarction Culminates in the Confluence of Ferric Iron Oxide Crystals, Proinflammatory Burden, and Adverse RemodelingCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Kali, Avinash; Cokic, Ivan; Tang, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Emerging evidence now supports the notion that persistent microvascular obstruction (PMO) may be more predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events than MI size itself. But, how PMO, a phenomenon limited to the acute/sub-acute period of MI, imparts adverse remodeling throughout the post MI period, particularly after its resolution, is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that PMOs resolve into chronic iron crystals within MI territories and actively impart a proinflammatory burden and adverse remodeling of infarction and LV in the chronic phase of MI. Canine models reperfused (n=20) and non-reperfused (n=20) with and without PMO were studied with serial cardiac MRI tomore » characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between PMO, iron deposition, and infarct and LV remodeling indices between acute (day 7, post MI) and chronic (week 8, post MI). Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were used to validate the iron deposition, microscopically map and quantify the relationship between iron-rich chronic MI regions against pro-inflammatory macrophages, proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase. Atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the crystallinity of iron and assess the physical effects of iron on lysosomes within macrophages, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to identify the chemical composition of the iron composite. Results showed that PMOs lead to iron deposition within chronic MI and that the extent of chronic iron deposition is strongly related to PMO Volume (r>0.6, p<0.001). TEM and EDS analysis showed that iron within chronic MI is found within macrophages as aggregates of nanocrystals of ~2.5 nm diameter in ferric state. Correlative histological studies showed that iron content, proinflammatory burden and collagen degrading enzyme were highly correlated (r >0.7, p<0.001). Iron within chronic MI was significantly associated with infarct resorption (r>0.5, p<0.001) and adverse

  18. Age But Not Sex Is Associated With Efficacy and Adverse Events Following Administration of Intravenous Migraine Medication: An Analysis of a Clinical Trial Database.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Benjamin W; Cisewski, David H; Holden, Lynne; Bijur, Polly E; Gallagher, E John

    2015-01-01

    Migraine prevalence is associated with both sex and age. Differences in efficacy of parenteral migraine medication administration based on the sex and age of the patient have not been explored in the published literature. The objective was to determine whether sex and age are associated with short-term headache relief, sustained headache freedom, or adverse medication effects in data collected during 3 emergency department (ED)-based acute migraine comparative efficacy trials. Data were combined from 3 studies in which patients who presented to an ED with acute migraine were randomized to one of the following intravenous medication regimens: (1) metoclopramide combined with diphenhydramine; (2) metoclopramide combined with diphenhydramine and dexamethasone; (3) metoclopramide alone; (4) ketorolac; or (5) valproate. In each of these studies, (1) short-term efficacy (patient description of the headache as "mild" or "none" 1 hour after medication administration); (2) sustained efficacy (patient description of the headache as "none" within 2 hours of medication administration and no headache recurrence for 24 hours post ED discharge); and (3) the frequency of any adverse medication effects within 24 hours of medication administration was determined. For each of the medication regimens studied, efficacy and adverse event rates were compared between men vs women and the older vs the younger half of patients. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed in which sex and age were maintained in the model as well as variables representing each of the medication regimens patients received. A total of 884 patients were included in this analysis (140 men and 744 women). The median age was 35 years. After controlling for age and medication received, female sex was not associated with short-term efficacy (OR 0.98 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 1.46]), sustained efficacy (OR 0.72 [95%CI: 0.45, 1.15]), or adverse events (OR 1.14 [95%CI: 0.77, 1.71]). Age >36 years

  19. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    establish a causal relationship in either direction, because of these methodological limitations. In Australia, the marked increase in cannabis use has not been accompanied by an increased incidence of schizophrenia. On the basis of the available data, we cannot reach firm conclusions on whether or not cannabis use causes psychosis. It seems prudent to inform apparently vulnerable individuals that cannabis may cause acute psychotic decompensation, especially at high doses. Users can feel dependent on cannabis, but this dependence is usually psychological. Withdrawal symptoms tend to occur within 48 hours following cessation of regular cannabis use, and include increased irritability, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep difficulties and aggression. Symptoms subside within 2 to 12 weeks. Driving under the influence of cannabis doubles the risk of causing a fatal road accident. Alcohol consumption plays an even greater role. A few studies and a number of isolated reports suggest that cannabis has a role in the occurrence of cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. Numerous case-control studies have investigated the role of cannabis in the incidence of some types of cancer. Its role has not been ruled out, but it is not possible to determine whether the risk is distinct from that of the tobacco with which it is often smoked. Studies that have examined the influence of cannabis use on the clinical course of hepatitis C are inconclusive. Alcohol remains the main toxic agent that hepatitis C patients should avoid. In practice, the adverse effects of low-level, recreational cannabis use are generally minor, although they can apparently be serious in vulnerable individuals. The adverse effects of cannabis appear overall to be less serious than those of alcohol, in terms of neuropsychological and somatic effects, accidents and violence.

  20. Statistical examination to determine whether only 48-h value for serum concentration during high-dose methotrexate therapy is a predictor for clinical adverse events using ordered logistic regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Kanbayashi, Yuko; Nomura, Kenichi; Okamoto, Kousuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Horiike, Shigeo; Takagi, Tatsuya; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    Sustained elevation of serum methotrexate (MTX) concentrations (>1.0 microM) for 48 h (48-h value) has been found to have predictive significance for the development of toxicity. However, we sometimes experience severe adverse events during high-dose (HD) MTX therapy even if serum MTX concentrations comply with recommended values. We performed a retrospective study to identify predictors for occurrence of adverse events and examined whether only the 48-h value is a statistically significant predictor for clinical adverse events during HD MTX therapy. The subjects were 32 hematological patients (n = 58 episodes) treated with MTX at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine between February 2003 and July 2007. Ordered logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for occurrence of adverse events. The predictive factors identified were: 24-h continuous infusion therapy (24-h C-IV) (long infusion time) [odds ratio (OR) = 2.890, confidence interval (CI) =1.493-5.594; P = 0.0016] for fatigue, higher dose [OR = 2.282, CI = 1.287-4.046; P = 0.0048] and combination chemotherapy [OR = 2.177, CI = 1.059-4.477; P = 0.0344] for stomatitis, and 24-h C-IV [OR = 2.573, CI = 1.101-6.016; P = 0.0291] for neutropenia. We found that only the 48-h value was not a predictor for clinical adverse events for HD MTX therapy. A major limitation of the present study was the small number of participants. However, our findings suggest that there is evidence that a long infusion time is a significant predictor for general fatigue and neutropenia, while a higher dose and combination chemotherapy are predictors for stomatitis.

  1. What would you ideally do if there were no targets? An ethnographic study of the unintended consequences of top-down governance in two clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Allard, Jon; Bleakley, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Top-down policy directives, such as targets and their associated protocols, may be driven politically rather than clinically and can be described as macro-political texts. While targets supposedly provide incentives for healthcare services, they may unintentionally shape practices of accommodation rather than implementation, deflecting practitioners from providing optimal care. Live work activities were observed for two six months periods in a UK NHS Emergency Department and a Mental Health Ward using video and field notes ethnography, with post hoc unstructured interviews for clarification and verification. Sixty-four practitioners were consented. Data were treated as narratives, analysed thematically and theorised using cultural-historical activity theory. The ideal text of patient-centred team working shaped by top-down, politically inspired targets was disrupted, where targets produced unintended consequences. Bottom-up strategies of making meaning of targets in a local context generated sub-texts of resistance, rationalization, and even duplicity that had paradoxical positive effects in generating collaboration and democratic habits. Throughput pressures generated both cross-team conflicts and intra-team identification. What practitioners actually do to make sense of top-down directives is not the same as the ideal expectation framed by targets. Team members pulled together not because of targets but in spite of them, and as a form of resistance to governance. Targets produce unnecessary stress as team members focus on throughput rather than quality of care. Those governing healthcare must look at the unintended consequences of targets.

  2. Systematic review of the clinical efficacy of sibutramine and orlistat in weigth loss, quality of life and its adverse effects in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    García Díaz, E; Martín Folgueras, T

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, a serious public health problem, is increasing among teenagers and thus also increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. To provide a systematic review of the best evidence about the effect of sibutramine and orlistat in weight loss, quality of life and its adverse effects in adolescents diagnosed with obesity. We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of selected articles were inspected for any further reference. We included only randomized controlled trials that met a set of predefined criteria. The studies were reviewed by a narrative synthesis. We included 6 randomized controlled trials of sibutramine and 3 of orlistat. The majority reached a moderate to high methodological quality. Sibutramine and orlistat showed a reduction in body mass index (BMI) that was significantly higher compared with the placebo group. We also found a variation of weight with these drugs significantly better than placebo. Only one trial evaluated the quality of life. The incidence of adverse effects was similar for sibutramine and placebo, except for tachycardia. The most common adverse reactions associated with orlistat were gastrointestinal, mild to moderate. Sibutramine and orlistat in combination with a hypocaloric diet and changes in lifestyle in obese adolescents achieve a short-term loss of weight greater than that achieved through the dietary-behavioral therapy alone.

  3. Estimating the comparative clinical and economic consequences of tulathromycin for treatment of present or anticipated outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nautrup, B Poulsen; Van Vlaenderen, I; Gasper, S M; Holland, R E

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the clinical and economic impact of using tulathromycin as first line treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) compared with other commonly used antimicrobials. Two decision trees were developed simulating the consequences of treating cattle at high risk of developing BRD [control model (CM)] or cattle with first clinical BRD episode [treatment model (TM)]. As comparators florfenicol and tilmicosin were considered in both models whereas enrofloxacin was included in the TM because it was only labeled for treatment of BRD at the time of development of the calculators. A total of 5 (CM) and 10 (TM) comparative clinical studies that reported efficacy data for the selected drugs and indications were identified as suitable for model population. The following outcomes were considered: first treatment success, number of subsequent BRD treatments, chronics, and mortalities. Cost parameters were considered from the perspective of the producer and included treatment costs (first treatment and retreatments) and costs of chronics and deaths derived from published sources for 2010 (default). The models allowed the estimation of clinical and economic consequences according to each individual trial outcomes. Treatment with tulathromycin resulted in more first treatment successes and fewer removals (chronics and deaths) in all comparisons. The average total number of antimicrobial treatments required for the management of BRD was also least with tulathromycin as first treatment option. Because of better efficacy, total costs over the entire study periods were always lowest with tulathromycin. Depending on the study selected as the basis for the efficacy evaluation, cost savings with tulathromycin were calculated in the CM between US$21.00 and $47.86 (vs. florfenicol) and $11.37 and $72.64 (vs. tilmicosin); cost savings in the TM ranged between $28.47 and $143.87 (vs. florfenicol) and $7.75 and $84.91 (vs. tilmicosin) as well as between

  4. Diverse cutaneous adverse eruptions caused by anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immunotherapies: clinical features and management.

    PubMed

    Shen, John; Chang, Jason; Mendenhall, Melody; Cherry, Grace; Goldman, Jonathan W; Kulkarni, Rajan P

    2018-01-01

    The anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immunotherapies have shown exceptional activity in many cancers. However, these immunotherapies can also result in diverse adverse cutaneous eruptions that need to be better characterized for ongoing management. The objective was to provide clinical and histopathologic descriptions of the variety of cutaneous adverse events seen in patients who received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment and discuss their management. Patients with advanced cancers in clinical trials at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), receiving anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment between 2012 and 2016 who developed cutaneous eruptions and were evaluated in the dermatology clinic were included in this retrospective case series study. A total of 16 patients were included in this study; of these, five were treated with pembrolizumab alone, two with avelumab alone, eight with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and one with nivolumab plus T-Vec. Of these 16 patients, eight had received systemic chemotherapy, six had received radiotherapy, and one had received trememlimumab prior to the immunotherapies described in this study. Cutaneous eruptions occurred at variable times, from week 1 to 88, with a median of 11.5 weeks; the morphologies included lichenoid, bullous, psoriasiform, macular, morbiliform appearances, and alopecia which were confirmed histopathologically in several of the cases. All cutaneous immune-related adverse events were either grade 1 or 2. Ten patients were treated with topical corticosteroids, and one also received NBUVB. Four patients eventually required systemic steroids. Three required discontinuation of their anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy secondary to the cutaneous eruptions. There are several different types of adverse cutaneous morphologies that may be seen with administration of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors. Identifying the patterns of eruption may assist in prompt treatment. Most eruptions could be managed with

  5. Prevalence and clinical consequences of fracture and fragment migration of the Bard G2 filter: imaging and clinical follow-up in 684 implantations.

    PubMed

    An, Tianzhi; Moon, Eunice; Bullen, Jennifer; Kapoor, Baljendra; Wu, Alex; Sands, Mark; Wang, Weiping

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and clinical sequelae of G2 filter (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, Arizona) fractures and fragment migration. Patients who underwent G2 filter placement between October 2005 and February 2010 were assessed for filter fractures and complications. Fracture prevalence was estimated at various time points based on data from patients with known fracture status. Among 829 patients who underwent G2 filter placement, 684 had follow-up imaging and qualified for the study (381 men and 303 women; average age, 60.3 y; range, 15.8-95.2 y). For 541 (79%) patients, at least one image was available that contained the filter (imaging follow-up interval, 14.9 mo ± 20.0; range, 0-78.6 mo); images that did not include the filter but may have shown the migrated fracture fragment were available for 143 (21%) patients (follow-up interval, 11.2 mo ± 19.3; range, 0-83.4 mo). There were 16 fractured limbs identified in 13 patients (incidence, 1.9%; follow-up interval, 30.4 mo ± 18.7; range, 5.5-76.5 mo). Fracture fragments were identified in the pulmonary arteries (n = 4), right ventricle (n = 2), pericardium (n = 1), iliac vein (n = 1), and kidney (n = 1). Four fracture limbs remained near the filter; the remaining three could not be located. All patients with filter fracture were asymptomatic. The estimated 5-year fracture prevalence was 38% (95% confidence interval, 22.9%, 54.8%). The early occurrence of G2 filter fractures was low, but the incidence increased over time. No life-threatening events occurred in patients with filter fracture during the study time frame. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomic duplication resulting in increased copy number of genes encoding the sister chromatid cohesion complex conveys clinical consequences distinct from Cornelia de Lange

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jiong; Zhang, Feng; Brundage, Ellen; Scheuerle, Angela; Lanpher, Brendan; Erickson, Robert P.; Powis, Zoe; Robinson, Haynes B.; Trapane, Pamela L.; Stachiw-Hietpas, Danuta; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Lalani, Seema R.; Sahoo, Trilochan; Chinault, A. Craig; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lupski, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem congenital anomaly disorder. Heterozygous point mutations in three genes (NIPBL, SMC3 and SMC1A), encoding components of the sister chromatid cohesion apparatus, are responsible for ∼ 50-60% of CdLS cases. Recent studies have revealed a high degree of genomic rearrangements (e.g. deletions and duplications) in the human genome, which result in gene copy number variations (CNV). CNVs have been associated with a wide range of both Mendelian and complex traits including disease phenotypes such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher, Parkinson, Alzheimer, autism and schizophrenia. Increased versus decreased copy number of the same gene can potentially cause either similar or different clinical features. We identified duplications on chromosomes 5 or X using genome wide array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH). The duplicated regions contain either the NIPBL or the SMC1A genes. Junction sequences analyses revealed the involvement of three genomic rearrangement mechanisms. The patients share some common features including mental retardation, developmental delay, sleep abnormalities, and crainofacial and limb defects. The systems affected are the same as in CdLS, but clinical manifestations are distinct from CdLS; particularly the absence of the CdLS facial gestalt. Our results confirm the notion that duplication CNV of genes can be a common mechanism for human genetic diseases. Defining the clinical consequences for a specific gene dosage alteration represents a new “reverse genomics” trend in medical genetics that is reciprocal to the traditional approach of delineation of the common clinical phenotype preceding the discovery of the genetic etiology. PMID:19052029

  7. Infliximab treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathies in clinical practice: adverse events and other reasons for discontinuation of treatment.

    PubMed

    Levälampi, T; Korpela, M; Vuolteenaho, K; Moilanen, E

    2008-01-01

    To determine from single-centre data the treatment continuation, discontinuation, and reasons for discontinuation among the patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthropathies (SpA) who were treated with infliximab as their first biological anti-rheumatic drug. All (n = 104) RA and SpA patients who were treated with infliximab as their first biological treatment according to the national guidelines in the Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, Tampere University Hospital during 1999-2005 were analysed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. The treatment was regarded as ineffective if the response was lower than American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response criteria ACR50 in RA or the reduction of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was lower than 50% or 2 cm in SpA. After 6 months, 71% of the patients continued infliximab treatment and the prednisolone dose was diminished by 40%. Infliximab was discontinued in 30 patients and seven of them discontinued due to remission. Eight patients were regarded as poor responders. Thirteen patients discontinued because of adverse events, mainly infections and hypersensitivity reactions. One patient discontinued the treatment because of drug-related leucopaenia and one because of elevated aminotransferases. In this study, infliximab treatment was started in patients who had active disease despite ongoing treatment with combinations of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Seventy-eight per cent achieved at least 50% response when infliximab was added to their DMARD treatment. Adverse events, mainly infections and hypersensitivity reactions, were in line with previous reports. Two rare adverse events were reported, one patient with leucopaenia and one with elevated aminotransferases.

  8. Analysis and study on 47 cases of adverse reactions of Chinese medicine injection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Sang, Dechun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Kong, Shuangyan

    2014-01-01

    Along with efficacy, Chinese medicine is increasingly being known to people, Chinese medicine and its preparations are increasingly widespread in clinical use. People generally believe that Chinese medicine has few side effects and is safe, especially Chinese medicine injections. Due to the direct injection in blood, rapid onset and good efficacy, they are welcomed by people. However, with increased use, adverse reactions are increasing, even causing serious consequences. The objective is to learn about the characteristics and laws of the adverse effects of Chinese medicine injections, provide references for the clinical safe drug use, and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions. The method was established to analyze the data of 47 cases of adverse reactions caused by Chinese medicine injections in our hospital from the year, 2009 to 2010. The organs / systems involved in the 47 cases of adverse reactions are primarily skin and its accessories and secondly systemic damage, involving a total of eight varieties of drugs. The adverse reactions of Chinese medicine injections are mostly in Chinese patent drugs, which should be paid attention to, to find out the problems and laws, use the drugs rationally, and reduce the incidence of the adverse reactions.

  9. Plasma Levels of Aminothiols, Nitrite, Nitrate, and Malondialdehyde in Myelodysplastic Syndromes in the Context of Clinical Outcomes and as a Consequence of Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Pimková, Kristýna; Chrastinová, Leona; Suttnar, Jiří; Štikarová, Jana; Kotlín, Roman; Čermák, Jaroslav; Dyr, Jan Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress in the initiation and progression of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as a consequence of iron overload remains unclear. In this study we have simultaneously quantified plasma low-molecular-weight aminothiols, malondialdehyde, nitrite, and nitrate and have studied their correlation with serum iron/ferritin levels, patient treatment (chelation therapy), and clinical outcomes. We found significantly elevated plasma levels of total, oxidized, and reduced forms of cysteine (P < 0.001) , homocysteine (P < 0.001), and cysteinylglycine (P < 0.006) and significantly depressed levels of total and oxidized forms of glutathione (P < 0.03) and nitrite (P < 0.001) in MDS patients compared to healthy donors. Moreover, total (P < 0.032) and oxidized cysteinylglycine (P = 0.029) and nitrite (P = 0.021) differed significantly between the analyzed MDS subgroups with different clinical classifications. Malondialdehyde levels in plasma correlated moderately with both serum ferritin levels (r = 0.78, P = 0.001) and serum free iron levels (r = 0.60, P = 0.001) and were significantly higher in patients with iron overload. The other analyzed compounds lacked correlation with iron overload (represented by serum iron/ferritin levels). For the first time our results have revealed significant differences in the concentrations of plasma aminothiols in MDS patients, when compared to healthy donors. We found no correlation of these parameters with iron overload and suggest the role of oxidative stress in the development of MDS disease. PMID:24669287

  10. Plasma levels of aminothiols, nitrite, nitrate, and malondialdehyde in myelodysplastic syndromes in the context of clinical outcomes and as a consequence of iron overload.

    PubMed

    Pimková, Kristýna; Chrastinová, Leona; Suttnar, Jiří; Štikarová, Jana; Kotlín, Roman; Čermák, Jaroslav; Dyr, Jan Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress in the initiation and progression of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as a consequence of iron overload remains unclear. In this study we have simultaneously quantified plasma low-molecular-weight aminothiols, malondialdehyde, nitrite, and nitrate and have studied their correlation with serum iron/ferritin levels, patient treatment (chelation therapy), and clinical outcomes. We found significantly elevated plasma levels of total, oxidized, and reduced forms of cysteine (P < 0.001), homocysteine (P < 0.001), and cysteinylglycine (P < 0.006) and significantly depressed levels of total and oxidized forms of glutathione (P < 0.03) and nitrite (P < 0.001) in MDS patients compared to healthy donors. Moreover, total (P < 0.032) and oxidized cysteinylglycine (P = 0.029) and nitrite (P = 0.021) differed significantly between the analyzed MDS subgroups with different clinical classifications. Malondialdehyde levels in plasma correlated moderately with both serum ferritin levels (r = 0.78, P = 0.001) and serum free iron levels (r = 0.60, P = 0.001) and were significantly higher in patients with iron overload. The other analyzed compounds lacked correlation with iron overload (represented by serum iron/ferritin levels). For the first time our results have revealed significant differences in the concentrations of plasma aminothiols in MDS patients, when compared to healthy donors. We found no correlation of these parameters with iron overload and suggest the role of oxidative stress in the development of MDS disease.

  11. Adverse event reporting in patients treated with levothyroxine: results of the pharmacovigilance task force survey of the american thyroid association, american association of clinical endocrinologists, and the endocrine society.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, James V; Malabanan, Alan O; Haugen, Bryan R; Levy, Elliot G

    2010-01-01

    To survey physicians to determine whether potency and consistency issues with levothyroxine sodium (LT4) have been resolved and to assess current experience regarding safety of substituting LT4 products. Members of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Thyroid Association, and The Endocrine Society collaborated to create a survey instrument that would effectively sample the clinical experience of their society members and frequent prescribers of LT4. More than 18,000 e-mailed requests for information were generated, and the Web sites of each society provided links to the data collection form. The survey provided an opportunity to collect clinical observations of adverse events or product availability problems from physicians caring for patients with thyroid disease who required use of contemporary LT4 preparations. After adjustment for known reasons for unstable results from thyroid function tests, 199 reports of adverse events associated with changes in thyrotropin values were further analyzed. One hundred seventy-seven reports (88.9%) were associated with a change in the source of LT4; no change was noted in 21 (10.6%). Details regarding the circumstances of the change were provided in 167 of the 177 reports (94.4%), The reporting physicians themselves or their office staff had changed the LT4 preparation in only 1 of the 167 cases (0.6%). The remainder of changes had been made by the patient's pharmacy, either with the physician's knowledge (in 13 of 167 cases [7.8%]) or without his/her knowledge (in 153 of 167 cases [91.6%]). Fifty-four of 199 cases (27.1%) described serious adverse events; 52 of these (96.3%) were associated with a substitution of one LT4 preparation for another. The clinical use of contemporary LT4 products continues to be associated with some adverse outcomes. A small number of reports were associated with continued use of the same LT4 products. The most frequently reported adverse outcomes were associated with the

  12. The risk and consequences of clinical miscoding due to inadequate medical documentation: a case study of the impact on health services funding.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ping; Gilchrist, Annette; Robinson, Kerin M; Paul, Lindsay

    As coded clinical data are used in a variety of areas (e.g. health services funding, epidemiology, health sciences research), coding errors have the potential to produce far-reaching consequences. In this study the causes and consequences of miscoding were reviewed. In particular, the impact of miscoding due to inadequate medical documentation on hospital funding was examined. Appropriate reimbursement of hospital revenue in the casemix-based (output-based) funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia relies upon accurate, comprehensive, and timely clinical coding. In order to assess the reliability of these data in a Melbourne tertiary hospital, this study aimed to: (a) measure discrepancies in clinical code assignment; (b) identify resultant Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) changes; (c) identify revenue shifts associated with the DRG changes; (d) identify the underlying causes of coding error and DRG change; and (e) recommend strategies to address the aforementioned. An internal audit was conducted on 752 surgical inpatient discharges from the hospital within a six-month period. In a blind audit, each episode was re-coded. Comparisons were made between the original codes and the auditor-assigned codes, and coding errors were grouped and statistically analysed by categories. Changes in DRGs and weighted inlier-equivalent separations (WIES) were compared and analysed, and underlying factors were identified. Approximately 16% of the 752 cases audited reflected a DRG change, equating to a significant revenue increase of nearly AU$575,300. Fifty-six percent of DRG change cases were due to documentation issues. Incorrect selection or coding of the principal diagnosis accounted for a further 13% of the DRG changes, and missing additional diagnosis codes for 29%. The most significant of the factors underlying coding error and DRG change was poor quality of documentation. It was concluded that the auditing process plays a critical role in the identification of causes

  13. Human-Computer Interactions: Are There Adverse Health Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emurian, Henry H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the hypothesis that similarities may exist between laboratory research paradigms evoking elevated blood pressure during task performance by normal subjects and video display terminal (VDT) work done by data clerks and college students. Type A behavior and the development of coronary heart disease are discussed, and further research needs…

  14. Open label clinical trial to study adverse effects and tolerance to dry powder of the aerial part of andrographis paniculata in patients type 2 with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Mohamed, Mafauzy

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects and tolerance to dry powder of aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees were studied in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were given powdered A. paniculata starting with 600 mg daily, gradually increasing to a maximum of 1.8 gm daily. Parameters monitored included body weight, blood pressure, liver function tests, renal function tests, cardiac enzymes, haemogram, serum electrolytes, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, blood cholesterol, serum triglycerides and blood hormone levels (triiodotyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin, insulin, fasting cortisol). None of the above mentioned parameters showed significant change during the study period except for a fall in HbA1c by 5.46% (p<0.01) and fasting S. insulin by 20.93% (p<0.003). In conclusion, A. paniculata powder did not induced significant adverse events based on parameters observed in our study but significantly lowered HbA1c and fasting serum insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Adverse Events in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Alshawa, Anas; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has resulted in durable responses in patients with metastatic disease, unseen with traditional chemotherapy. Several therapies have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of various cancers, including: immune checkpoint inhibitors, cytokines - interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon alpha (IFN), and the cancer vaccine sipuleucel-T. These therapies upregulate the immune system to enhance antitumor responses. As a consequence, they can cause inflammatory and immune-related adverse events that can affect one or more organs, can be serious, and on occasion lifethreatening. The management of these adverse events is complex, and requires a multidisciplinary approach involving not only oncologists, but also other internal medicine specialists, to ensure prompt diagnosis and optimal management of these complications.

  16. Biomarkers of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Carr, Daniel F; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2018-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions can be caused by a wide range of therapeutics. Adverse drug reactions affect many bodily organ systems and vary widely in severity. Milder adverse drug reactions often resolve quickly following withdrawal of the casual drug or sometimes after dose reduction. Some adverse drug reactions are severe and lead to significant organ/tissue injury which can be fatal. Adverse drug reactions also represent a financial burden to both healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, a number of stakeholders would benefit from development of new, robust biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognostication of adverse drug reactions. There has been significant recent progress in identifying predictive genomic biomarkers with the potential to be used in clinical settings to reduce the burden of adverse drug reactions. These have included biomarkers that can be used to alter drug dose (for example, Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and azathioprine dose) and drug choice. The latter have in particular included human leukocyte antigen (HLA) biomarkers which identify susceptibility to immune-mediated injuries to major organs such as skin, liver, and bone marrow from a variety of drugs. This review covers both the current state of the art with regard to genomic adverse drug reaction biomarkers. We also review circulating biomarkers that have the potential to be used for both diagnosis and prognosis, and have the added advantage of providing mechanistic information. In the future, we will not be relying on single biomarkers (genomic/non-genomic), but on multiple biomarker panels, integrated through the application of different omics technologies, which will provide information on predisposition, early diagnosis, prognosis, and mechanisms. Impact statement • Genetic and circulating biomarkers present significant opportunities to personalize patient therapy to minimize the risk of adverse drug reactions. ADRs are a significant heath issue

  17. Bereavement: course, consequences, and care.

    PubMed

    Zisook, Sidney; Iglewicz, Alana; Avanzino, Julie; Maglione, Jeanne; Glorioso, Danielle; Zetumer, Samuel; Seay, Kathryn; Vahia, Ipsit; Young, Ilanit; Lebowitz, Barry; Pies, Ronald; Reynolds, Charles; Simon, Naomi; Shear, M Katherine

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses each of several potential consequences of bereavement. First, we describe ordinary grief, followed by a discussion of grief gone awry, or complicated grief (CG). Then, we cover other potential adverse outcomes of bereavement, each of which may contribute to, but are not identical with, CG: general medical comorbidity, mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and substance use.

  18. High birth weight in a suburban hospital in Cameroon: an analysis of the clinical cut-off, prevalence, predictors and adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Choukem, Simeon-Pierre; Njim, Tsi; Atashili, Julius; Hamilton-Shield, Julian P; Mbu, Robinson

    2016-06-29

    High birth weight (HBW) increases the risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence and adverse outcomes may be reduced if risk factors are identified and managed during pregnancy. The cut-off value for HBW remains debatable. The objectives of this study were to identify the optimal cut-off value and determine the prevalence, predictors and adverse outcomes of HBW in a suburban area of Cameroon. A 6-year retrospective register analysis and a 3-month prospective phase. A secondary care level (regional) hospital in the city of Buea (southwest region of Cameroon). Women who delivered in this hospital over a 6-year period (retrospective phase) and consenting pregnant mothers and their infants (singletons, born at >28 weeks gestation) (prospective phase). 90th centile of birth weights; prevalence of HBW defined as birth weight above the 90th centile; sociodemographic, maternal and obstetrical factors associated with HBW; maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes of HBW. Of the 4941 newborns reviewed in registers, the 90th centile of birth weights was 3850 g. Using this new cut-off, we obtained a prevalence of 14.0% for HBW in the 200 newborns included in the prospective phase. This was significantly higher than the prevalence (9.5%) yielded when the traditional cut-off of 4000 g was used (p=0.003). None of the factors assessed was independently associated with HBW. Newborns with HBW were more likely to have shoulder dystocia (p<0.01), and their mothers more likely to suffer from prolonged labour (p=0.01) and postpartum haemorrhage (p<0.01). The results of this study suggest that the cut-off for HBW in this population should be 3850 g. Thus, 3 of every 10 babies born with HBW in this hospital are likely not receiving optimal postnatal care because 4000 g is currently used to qualify for additional support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. High birth weight in a suburban hospital in Cameroon: an analysis of the clinical cut-off, prevalence, predictors and adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Choukem, Simeon-Pierre; Njim, Tsi; Atashili, Julius; Hamilton-Shield, Julian P; Mbu, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims High birth weight (HBW) increases the risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence and adverse outcomes may be reduced if risk factors are identified and managed during pregnancy. The cut-off value for HBW remains debatable. The objectives of this study were to identify the optimal cut-off value and determine the prevalence, predictors and adverse outcomes of HBW in a suburban area of Cameroon. Design A 6-year retrospective register analysis and a 3-month prospective phase. Setting A secondary care level (regional) hospital in the city of Buea (southwest region of Cameroon). Participants Women who delivered in this hospital over a 6-year period (retrospective phase) and consenting pregnant mothers and their infants (singletons, born at >28 weeks gestation) (prospective phase). Outcome measures 90th centile of birth weights; prevalence of HBW defined as birth weight above the 90th centile; sociodemographic, maternal and obstetrical factors associated with HBW; maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes of HBW. Results Of the 4941 newborns reviewed in registers, the 90th centile of birth weights was 3850 g. Using this new cut-off, we obtained a prevalence of 14.0% for HBW in the 200 newborns included in the prospective phase. This was significantly higher than the prevalence (9.5%) yielded when the traditional cut-off of 4000 g was used (p=0.003). None of the factors assessed was independently associated with HBW. Newborns with HBW were more likely to have shoulder dystocia (p<0.01), and their mothers more likely to suffer from prolonged labour (p=0.01) and postpartum haemorrhage (p<0.01). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the cut-off for HBW in this population should be 3850 g. Thus, 3 of every 10 babies born with HBW in this hospital are likely not receiving optimal postnatal care because 4000 g is currently used to qualify for additional support. PMID:27357199

  20. Peripheral Artery Disease and Its Clinical Relevance in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the COPD and Systemic Consequences-Comorbidities Network Study.

    PubMed

    Houben-Wilke, Sarah; Jörres, Rudolf A; Bals, Robert; Franssen, Frits M E; Gläser, Sven; Holle, Rolf; Karch, Annika; Koch, Armin; Magnussen, Helgo; Obst, Anne; Schulz, Holger; Spruit, Martijn A; Wacker, Margarethe E; Welte, Tobias; Wouters, Emiel F M; Vogelmeier, Claus; Watz, Henrik

    2017-01-15

    Knowledge about the prevalence of objectively assessed peripheral artery disease (PAD) and its clinical relevance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce. We aimed to: (1) assess the prevalence of PAD in COPD compared with distinct control groups; and (2) study the association between PAD and functional capacity as well as health status. The ankle-brachial index was used to diagnose PAD (ankle-brachial index ≤ 0.9). The 6-minute-walk distance, health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire), COPD Assessment Test, and EuroQol-5-Dimensions were assessed in patients enrolled in the German COPD and Systemic Consequences-Comorbidities Network cohort study. Control groups were derived from the Study of Health in Pomerania. A total of 2,088 patients with COPD (61.1% male; mean [SD] age, 65.3 [8.2] years, GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stages I-IV: 9.4, 42.5, 37.5, and 10.5%, respectively) were included, of which 184 patients (8.8%; GOLD stage I-IV: 5.1, 7.4, 11.1, and 9.5%, respectively, vs. 5.9% in patients with GOLD stage 0 in the COPD and Systemic Consequences-Comorbidities Network) had PAD. In the Study of Health in Pomerania, PAD ranged from 1.8 to 4.2%. Patients with COPD with PAD had a significantly shorter 6-minute-walk distance (356 [108] vs. 422 [103] m, P < 0.001) and worse health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire: 49.7 [20.1] vs. 42.7 [20.0] points, P < 0.001; COPD Assessment Test: 19.6 [7.4] vs. 17.9 [7.4] points, P = 0.004; EuroQol-5-Dimensions visual analog scale: 51.2 [19.0] vs. 57.2 [19.6], P < 0.001). Differences remained significant after correction for several confounders. In a large cohort of patients with COPD, 8.8% were diagnosed with PAD, which is higher than the prevalence in control subjects without COPD. PAD was associated with a clinically relevant reduction in functional capacity and health status.

  1. Pain Flare Is a Common Adverse Event in Steroid-Naïve Patients After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Andrew; Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; Zeng, Liang

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of pain flare after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in steroid-naïve patients and identify predictive factors. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients were treated with spine SBRT between February 2010 and April 2012. All patients had their pain assessed at baseline, during, and for 10 days after SBRT using the Brief Pain Inventory. All pain medications were recorded daily and narcotics converted to an oral morphine equivalent dose. Pain flare was defined as a 2-point increase in worst pain score as compared with baseline with no decrease in analgesic intake, a 25% increase in analgesicmore » intake as compared with baseline with no decrease in worst pain score, or if corticosteroids were initiated at any point during or after SBRT because of pain. Results: The median age and Karnofsky performance status were 57.5 years (range, 27-80 years) and 80 (range, 50-100), respectively. Eighteen patients were treated with 20-24 Gy in a single fraction, whereas 23 patients were treated with 24-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions. Pain flare was observed in 68.3% of patients (28 of 41), most commonly on day 1 after SBRT (29%, 8 of 28). Multivariate analysis identified a higher Karnofsky performance status (P=.02) and cervical (P=.049) or lumbar (P=.02) locations as significant predictors of pain flare. In those rescued with dexamethasone, a significant decrease in pain scores over time was subsequently observed (P<.0001). Conclusions: Pain flare is a common adverse event after spine SBRT and occurs most commonly the day after treatment completion. Patients should be appropriately consented for this adverse event.« less

  2. Positive effects, side effects, and adverse events of clinical holistic medicine. A review of Gerda Boyesen's nonpharmaceutical mind-body medicine (biodynamic body-psychotherapy) at two centers in the United Kingdom and Germany.

    PubMed

    Allmer, Charlotte; Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    To review adverse events of intensive, clinical holistic medicine (CHM) as it is practiced in holistic body-psychotherapy in England and Germany. Gerda Boyesen's "biodynamic body-psychotherapy" (BBP) is an intensive type of holistic mind-body medicine used by Boyesen at two centers. About 13,500 patients were treated during 1985-2005 period and studied for side effects and adverse events. The first author worked closely with Boyesen 1995-2005 with full insight in all aspects of the therapy and provided the data on side-effects. Therapy helped chronic patients with physical, psychological, sexual, psychiatric and existential problems to improve health, ability, and quality of life (NNT (number needed to treat) = 1-3). Effective in the treatment of mentally ill patients (schizophrenia, anxiety, poor mental health, low general ability). For retraumatization, brief reactive psychosis, depression, depersonalization and derealization, implanted memories, side effects from manipulations of the body, suicide/suicide attempts, hospitalization for physical and mental health problem during or 90 days after treatment, NNH (number needed to harm) > 13,500. Intensive, holistic non-drug medicine is helpful for physical, sexual, psychological, psychiatric and existential problems and is completely safe for the patient. The therapeutic value TV = NNH/NNT > 5,000. Altogether about 18,000 patients treated with different subtypes of CHM in four different countries have now been evaluated for effects, side effects and adverse events, with similar results.

  3. Adverse Effects of Plasma Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma utilization has increased over the last two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions following infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: (1) transfusion related acute lung injury; (2) transfusion associated circulatory overload, and (3) allergic/anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include (1) transmission of infections, (2) febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, (3) RBC allo-immunization, and (4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The affect of pathogen inactivation/reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

  4. Gastrointestinal adverse events during methylphenidate treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Holmskov, Mathilde; Storebø, Ole Jakob; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R.; Ramstad, Erica; Magnusson, Frederik Løgstrup; Krogh, Helle B.; Groth, Camilla; Gillies, Donna; Zwi, Morris; Skoog, Maria; Gluud, Christian; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To study in more depth the relationship between type, dose, or duration of methylphenidate offered to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their risks of gastrointestinal adverse events based on our Cochrane systematic review. Methods and findings We use data from our review including 185 randomised clinical trials. Randomised parallel-group trials and cross-over trials reporting gastrointestinal adverse events associated with methylphenidate were included. Data were extracted and quality assessed according to Cochrane guidelines. Data were summarised as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the inverse variance method. Bias risks were assessed according to domains. Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) was used to control random errors. Eighteen parallel group trials and 43 cross-over trials reported gastrointestinal adverse events. All trials were at high risk of bias. In parallel group trials, methylphenidate decreased appetite (RR 3.66, 95% CI 2.56 to 5.23) and weight (RR 3.89, 95% CI 1.43 to 10.59). In cross-over trials, methylphenidate increased abdominal pain (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.04). We found no significant differences in the risk according to type, dose, or duration of administration. The required information size was achieved in three out of four outcomes. Conclusion Methylphenidate increases the risks of decreased appetite, weight loss, and abdominal pain in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No differences in the risks of gastrointestinal adverse events according to type, dose, or duration of administration were found. PMID:28617801

  5. Gastrointestinal adverse events during methylphenidate treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Holmskov, Mathilde; Storebø, Ole Jakob; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Ramstad, Erica; Magnusson, Frederik Løgstrup; Krogh, Helle B; Groth, Camilla; Gillies, Donna; Zwi, Morris; Skoog, Maria; Gluud, Christian; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To study in more depth the relationship between type, dose, or duration of methylphenidate offered to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their risks of gastrointestinal adverse events based on our Cochrane systematic review. We use data from our review including 185 randomised clinical trials. Randomised parallel-group trials and cross-over trials reporting gastrointestinal adverse events associated with methylphenidate were included. Data were extracted and quality assessed according to Cochrane guidelines. Data were summarised as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the inverse variance method. Bias risks were assessed according to domains. Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) was used to control random errors. Eighteen parallel group trials and 43 cross-over trials reported gastrointestinal adverse events. All trials were at high risk of bias. In parallel group trials, methylphenidate decreased appetite (RR 3.66, 95% CI 2.56 to 5.23) and weight (RR 3.89, 95% CI 1.43 to 10.59). In cross-over trials, methylphenidate increased abdominal pain (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.04). We found no significant differences in the risk according to type, dose, or duration of administration. The required information size was achieved in three out of four outcomes. Methylphenidate increases the risks of decreased appetite, weight loss, and abdominal pain in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No differences in the risks of gastrointestinal adverse events according to type, dose, or duration of administration were found.

  6. Comparison of Nutrition-Related Adverse Events and Clinical Outcomes Between ICE (Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide) and MCEC (Ranimustine, Carboplatin, Etoposide, and Cyclophosphamide) Therapies as Pretreatment for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Malignant Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Imataki, Osamu; Arai, Hidekazu; Kume, Tetsuo; Shiozaki, Hitomi; Katsumata, Naomi; Mori, Mariko; Ishide, Keiko; Ikeda, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare nutrition-related adverse events and clinical outcomes of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide regimen (ICE therapy) and ranimustine, carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide regimen (MCEC therapy) instituted as pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Material/Methods We enrolled patients who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation between 2007 and 2012. Outcomes were compared between ICE therapy (n=14) and MCEC therapy (n=14) in relation to nutrient balance, engraftment day, and length of hospital stay. In both groups, we compared the timing of nutrition-related adverse events with oral caloric intake, analyzed the correlation between length of hospital stay and duration of parenteral nutrition, and investigated the association between oral caloric intake and the proportion of parenteral nutrition energy in total calorie supply. Five-year survival was compared between the groups. Results Compared with the MCEC group, the ICE group showed significant improvement in oral caloric intake, length of hospital stay, and timing of nutrition-related adverse events and oral calorie intake, but a delay in engraftment. Both groups showed a correlation between duration of parenteral nutrition and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001) and between oral caloric intake (P=0.0017) and parenteral nutrition energy sufficiency rate (r=−0.73, P=0.003; r=−0.76, P=0.002). Five-year survival was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.1355). Conclusions Our findings suggest that compared with MCEC therapy, ICE therapy improves nutrition-related adverse events and reduces hospital stay, conserving medical resources, with no significant improvement in long-term survival. The nutritional pathway may serve as a tool for objective evaluation of pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PMID:29398693

  7. Clinical significance of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as an early predictive marker for adverse outcomes in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Ji Young

    2017-06-07

    To investigated the prognostic value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with acute pancreatitis and determined an optimal cut-off value for the prediction of adverse outcomes in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed 490 patients with acute pancreatitis diagnosed between March 2007 and December 2012. NLRs were calculated at admission and 24, 48, and 72 h after admission. Patients were grouped according to acute pancreatitis severity and organ failure occurrence, and a comparative analysis was performed to compare the NLR between groups. Among the 490 patients, 70 had severe acute pancreatitis with 31 experiencing organ failure. The severe acute pancreatitis group had a significantly higher NLR than the mild acute pancreatitis group on all 4 d (median, 6.14, 6.71, 5.70, and 4.00 vs 4.74, 4.47, 3.20, and 3.30, respectively, P < 0.05). The organ failure group had a significantly higher NLR than the group without organ failure on all 4 d (median, 7.09, 6.72, 6.27, and 6.24 vs 4.85, 4.49, 3.35, and 2.34, respectively, P < 0.05). The optimal cut-off value for baseline NLR was 4.76 in predicting severity and 4.88 in predicting organ failure in acute pancreatitis. Elevated baseline NLR correlates with severe acute pancreatitis and organ failure.

  8. Clinical significance of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as an early predictive marker for adverse outcomes in patients with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Ji Young

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the prognostic value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with acute pancreatitis and determined an optimal cut-off value for the prediction of adverse outcomes in these patients. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 490 patients with acute pancreatitis diagnosed between March 2007 and December 2012. NLRs were calculated at admission and 24, 48, and 72 h after admission. Patients were grouped according to acute pancreatitis severity and organ failure occurrence, and a comparative analysis was performed to compare the NLR between groups. RESULTS Among the 490 patients, 70 had severe acute pancreatitis with 31 experiencing organ failure. The severe acute pancreatitis group had a significantly higher NLR than the mild acute pancreatitis group on all 4 d (median, 6.14, 6.71, 5.70, and 4.00 vs 4.74, 4.47, 3.20, and 3.30, respectively, P < 0.05). The organ failure group had a significantly higher NLR than the group without organ failure on all 4 d (median, 7.09, 6.72, 6.27, and 6.24 vs 4.85, 4.49, 3.35, and 2.34, respectively, P < 0.05). The optimal cut-off value for baseline NLR was 4.76 in predicting severity and 4.88 in predicting organ failure in acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION Elevated baseline NLR correlates with severe acute pancreatitis and organ failure. PMID:28638228

  9. Adverse Effects of Amoxicillin for Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Primary Care: Secondary and Subgroup Analysis of a Randomised Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tandan, Meera; Vellinga, Akke; Bruyndonckx, Robin; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Chris C; Goossens, Herman; Coenen, Samuel

    2017-12-13

    A European placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) conducted in 16 primary care practices networks recruited participants between November 2007 and April 2010, and found adverse events (AEs) occurred more often in patients prescribed amoxicillin compared to placebo. This secondary analysis explores the causal relationship and estimates specific AEs (diarrhoea, nausea, rash) due to amoxicillin treatment for LRTI, and if any subgroup is at increased risk of any or a specific AE. A total of 2061 patients were randomly assigned to amoxicillin (1038) and placebo (1023); 595 (28%) were 60 and older. A significantly higher proportion of any AEs (diarrhoea or nausea or rash) (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.05-1.64, number needed to harm (NNH) = 24) and of diarrhoea (OR 1.43 95% CI 1.08-1.90, NNH = 29) was reported in the amoxicillin group during the first week after randomisation. Subgroup analysis showed rash was significantly more often reported in males prescribed amoxicillin (interaction term 3.72 95% CI 1.22-11.36; OR of amoxicillin in males 2.79 (95% CI 1.08-7.22). No other subgroup at higher risk was identified. Although the study was not powered for subgroup analysis, this analysis suggests that most patients are likely to be equally harmed when prescribed antibiotics.

  10. Diverse cutaneous adverse eruptions caused by anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immunotherapies: clinical features and management

    PubMed Central

    Shen, John; Chang, Jason; Mendenhall, Melody; Cherry, Grace; Goldman, Jonathan W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immunotherapies have shown exceptional activity in many cancers. However, these immunotherapies can also result in diverse adverse cutaneous eruptions that need to be better characterized for ongoing management. The objective was to provide clinical and histopathologic descriptions of the variety of cutaneous adverse events seen in patients who received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment and discuss their management. Methods: Patients with advanced cancers in clinical trials at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), receiving anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment between 2012 and 2016 who developed cutaneous eruptions and were evaluated in the dermatology clinic were included in this retrospective case series study. A total of 16 patients were included in this study; of these, five were treated with pembrolizumab alone, two with avelumab alone, eight with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and one with nivolumab plus T-Vec. Of these 16 patients, eight had received systemic chemotherapy, six had received radiotherapy, and one had received trememlimumab prior to the immunotherapies described in this study. Results: Cutaneous eruptions occurred at variable times, from week 1 to 88, with a median of 11.5 weeks; the morphologies included lichenoid, bullous, psoriasiform, macular, morbiliform appearances, and alopecia which were confirmed histopathologically in several of the cases. All cutaneous immune-related adverse events were either grade 1 or 2. Ten patients were treated with topical corticosteroids, and one also received NBUVB. Four patients eventually required systemic steroids. Three required discontinuation of their anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy secondary to the cutaneous eruptions. Conclusions: There are several different types of adverse cutaneous morphologies that may be seen with administration of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors. Identifying the patterns of eruption may assist in prompt

  11. Effect of Naltrexone-Bupropion on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Overweight and Obese Patients With Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Steven E; Wolski, Kathy E; Prcela, Lisa; Wadden, Thomas; Buse, John B; Bakris, George; Perez, Alfonso; Smith, Steven R

    2016-03-08

    Few cardiovascular outcomes trials have been conducted for obesity treatments. Withdrawal of 2 marketed drugs has resulted in controversy about the cardiovascular safety of obesity agents. To determine whether the combination of naltrexone and bupropion increases major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, or nonfatal myocardial infarction) compared with placebo in overweight and obese patients. Randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind noninferiority trial enrolling 8910 overweight or obese patients at increased cardiovascular risk from June 13, 2012, to January 21, 2013, at 266 US centers. After public release of confidential interim data by the sponsor, the academic leadership of the study recommended termination of the trial and the sponsor agreed. An Internet-based weight management program was provided to all participants. Participants were randomized to receive placebo (n=4454) or naltrexone, 32 mg/d, and bupropion, 360 mg/d (n=4456). Time from randomization to first confirmed occurrence of a MACE. The primary analysis planned to assess a noninferiority hazard ratio (HR) of 1.4 after 378 expected events, with a confidential interim analysis after approximately 87 events (25% interim analysis) to assess a noninferiority HR of 2.0 for consideration of regulatory approval. Among the 8910 participants randomized, mean age was 61.0 years (SD, 7.3 years), 54.5% were female, 32.1% had a history of cardiovascular disease, and 85.2% had diabetes, with a median body mass index of 36.6 (interquartile range, 33.1-40.9). For the 25% interim analysis, MACE occurred in 59 placebo-treated patients (1.3%) and 35 naltrexone-bupropion-treated patients (0.8%; HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39-0.90). After 50% of planned events, MACE occurred in 102 patients (2.3%) in the placebo group and 90 patients (2.0%) in the naltrexone-bupropion group (HR, 0.88; adjusted 99.7% CI, 0.57-1.34). Adverse effects were more common in the

  12. Identification of adverse events that have a negative impact on quality of life in a clinical trial comparing docetaxel versus S-1 with cisplatin in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Aotani, Eriko; Hamano, Tetsutaro; Gemma, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kobayashi, Kunihiko

    2016-10-01

    In the CATS (Cisplatin And TS-1) randomized trial comparing cisplatin plus either docetaxel (DP arm) or TS-1 (SP arm) in lung cancer, efficacy was found to be equivalent but the global quality of life (QOL) score was higher in the SP arm. The purpose of the current study was to identify which of the adverse events (AEs) contributed to the deterioration of QOL. QOL and AE data from the CATS trial were used to quantitatively analyze the relationship between deterioration of QOL score and occurrence of AEs. Subtracted values of the QOL score from post-chemotherapy to pre-chemotherapy were fully compared between patients with or without each AE (Student's t test, significance level = 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis was also performed. Analysis of variance was performed to identify whether grade of AE(s) might be significantly correlated with the deterioration of the QOL score (significance level of 0.05). As expected, gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were associated with worsening of a variety of QOL items in both trial arms, detected by both univariate and multivariate analysis (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis unpredictably indicated that an increase in serum bilirubin level was the only AE that was uniquely associated with worsening of physical functioning (p = 0.0002), cognitive functioning (p < 0.0001), and financial problems (p = 0.0005) in the DP arm, although not in the SP arm. GI toxicities tended to be prolonged in the SP arm. An increase in serum bilirubin level may contribute to the worse global QOL of subjects in the DP arm in the CATS trial. The method we used here may be a unique approach to identify unpredictable AE(s) that worsen the QOL of patients treated by chemotherapy.

  13. Clinical picture, epidemiology and outcome of Loa-associated serious adverse events related to mass ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Boussinesq, Michel; Gardon, Jacques; Gardon-Wendel, Nathalie; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In August 2002, 65 cases of Loa-associated neurological Serious Adverse Events were reported after ivermectin treatment. The first signs, occurring within the 12–24 hours following treatment, included fatigue, generalized arthralgia, and sometimes agitation, mutism, and incontinence. Disorders of consciousness, including coma, generally appeared between 24 and 72 hours, and showed a rapid variation with time. The most frequent objective neurological signs were extrapyramidal. The patients presented with haemorrhages of the conjunctiva and of the retina. Biological examinations showed a massive Loa microfilaruria, the passage of Loa microfilariae into the cerebrospinal fluid, haematuria, and an increase in the C-reactive protein, all of which have been correlated with the high intensity of the initial Loa microfilaraemia. Eosinophil counts decreased dramatically within the first 24 hours, and then rose again rapidly. Electroencephalograms suggested the existence of a diffuse pathological process within the first weeks; the abnormalities disappearing after 3–6 months. Death may occur when patients are not properly managed, i.e. in the absence of good nursing. However, some patients who recovered showed sequelae such as aphasia, episodic amnesia, or extrapyramidal signs. The main risk factor for these encephalopathies is the intensity of the initial Loa microfilaraemia. The disorders of consciousness may occur when there are >50,000 Loa microfilariae per ml. The possible roles of co-factors, such as Loa strains, genetic predisposition of individuals, co-infestations with other parasites, or alcohol consumption, seem to be minor but they should be considered. The mechanisms of the post-ivermectin Loa-related encephalopathies should be investigated to improve the management of patients developing the condition. PMID:14975061

  14. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  15. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    PubMed

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  16. The causes and consequences of overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jane; Hoffman, Eileen

    2006-04-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome characterized by symptoms of urinary urgency with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), usually with frequency and nocturia. OAB affects approximately 17% of women in the United States and Europe. The causes of OAB, as with many bladder disorders, are multifactorial and are not completely understood. The primary functions of the lower urinary tract (bladder and bladder outlet mechanism) are storage and evacuation of urine. The bladder and the micturition cycle are under complex neural control involving both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Micturition may occur in response to the activation of receptors in the bladder muscle and detection of chemical stimuli by receptors within the bladder lining. Neurogenic or myogenic bladder dysfunction can lead to the symptoms of urgency, frequency, and UUI that characterize OAB. The consequences of this condition are far-reaching and include direct medical consequences and coping strategies that adversely affect quality of life. Although the prevalence of OAB increases with age, it is not a normal consequence of aging. Antimuscarinic agents (e.g., oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin, and darifenacin) have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of OAB symptoms in multiple clinical trials. This review explores the physiological basis for OAB, the effects of OAB on health-related quality of life, and the pharmacotherapies that may provide relief to patients with this distressing condition.

  17. Oral adverse effects of head and neck radiotherapy: literature review and suggestion of a clinical oral care guideline for irradiated patients

    PubMed Central

    TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; CENTURION, Bruna Stuchi; FERREIRA, Lúcia Helena Caetano; de SOUZA, Andréia Pereira; DAMANTE, José Humberto; RUBIRA-BULLEN, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy, alone or associated with surgery or chemotherapy, produces a significant increase in cure rates for many malignancies of the head and neck region. However, high doses of radiation in large areas, including the oral mucosa, may result in several undesired reactions that manifest during or after the completion of therapy. The multidisciplinary management is the best alternative to minimize or even prevent such reactions, and the dentist has a fundamental role in this context. This paper reviews the literature related to the main oral sequelae from head and neck radiotherapy and establishes clinical oral management protocol for these irradiated patients. PMID:21986648

  18. Continued high prevalence and adverse clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: the CHARTER Study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ronald J; Rosario, Debralee; Clifford, David B; McArthur, Justin C; Simpson, David; Alexander, Terry; Gelman, Benjamin B; Vaida, Florin; Collier, Ann; Marra, Christina M; Ances, Beau; Atkinson, J Hampton; Dworkin, Robert H; Morgello, Susan; Grant, Igor

    2010-05-01

    To provide updated estimates of the prevalence and clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) and neuropathic pain due to HIV-SN in the combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. Prospective, cross-sectional analysis. Clinical correlates for HIV-SN and neuropathic pain, including age, exposure to CART, CD4 levels, plasma viral load, hepatitis C virus infection, and alcohol use disorders, were evaluated in univariate and multivariate models. Six US academic medical centers. One thousand five hundred thirty-nine HIV-infected individuals enrolled in the CNS (Central Nervous System) HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research study. The presence of HIV-SN, defined by 1 or more clinical signs (diminished vibration or sharp sensation in the legs and feet; reduced ankle reflexes) in a distal, symmetrical pattern. Neuropathic pain was defined as aching, stabbing, or burning in a similar distribution. The effect on quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey. We found HIV-SN in 881 participants. Of these, 38.0% reported neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was significantly associated with disability in daily activities, unemployment, and reduced quality of life. Risk factors for HIV-SN after adjustment were advancing age (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.5] per 10 years), lower CD4 nadir (1.2 [1.1-1.2] per 100-cell decrease), current CART use (1.6 [1.3-2.8]), and past "D-drug" use (specific dideoxynucleoside analogue antiretrovirals) (2.0 [1.3-2.6]). Risk factors for neuropathic pain were past D-drug use and higher CD4 nadir. Neuropathic pain and HIV-SN remain prevalent, causing substantial disability and reduced quality of life even with successful CART. The clinical correlates of HIV-SN have changed with the evolution of treatment. These findings argue for redoubled efforts to determine HIV-SN pathogenesis and the development of symptomatic and neuroregenerative therapies.

  19. Continued High Prevalence and Adverse Clinical Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated Sensory Neuropathy in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Ronald J.; Rosario, Debralee; Clifford, David B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David; Alexander, Terry; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Vaida, Florin; Collier, Ann; Marra, Christina M.; Ances, Beau; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Dworkin, Robert H.; Morgello, Susan; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide updated estimates of the prevalence and clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus−associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) and neuropathic pain due to HIV-SN in the combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. Design Prospective, cross-sectional analysis. Clinical correlates for HIV-SN and neuropathic pain, including age, exposure to CART, CD4 levels, plasma viral load, hepatitis C virus infection, and alcohol use disorders, were evaluated in univariate and multivariate models. Setting Six US academic medical centers. Patients One thousand five hundred thirty-nine HIV-infected individuals enrolled in the CNS (Central Nervous System) HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research study. Main Outcome Measures The presence of HIV-SN, defined by 1 or more clinical signs (diminished vibration or sharp sensation in the legs and feet; reduced ankle reflexes) in a distal, symmetrical pattern. Neuropathic pain was defined as aching, stabbing, or burning in a similar distribution. The effect on quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey. Results We found HIV-SN in 881 participants. Of these, 38.0% reported neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was significantly associated with disability in daily activities, unemployment, and reduced quality of life. Risk factors for HIV-SN after adjustment were advancing age (odds ratio, 2.1 [95%confidence interval, 1.8–2.5] per 10 years), lower CD4 nadir (1.2 [1.1–1.2] per 100-cell decrease), current CART use (1.6 [1.3–2.8]), and past “D-drug” use (specific dideoxynucleoside analogue antiretrovirals) (2.0 [1.3–2.6]). Risk factors for neuropathic pain were past D-drug use and higher CD4 nadir. Conclusions Neuropathic pain and HIV-SN remain prevalent, causing substantial disability and reduced quality of life even with successful CART. The clinical correlates of HIV-SN have changed with the evolution of treatment. These findings argue for redoubled efforts to determine

  20. Chlamydia antibodies, chlamydia heat shock protein, and adverse sequelae after pelvic inflammatory disease: the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) Study.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Soper, David E; Richter, Holly E; Randall, Hugh; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Nelson, Deborah B; Schubeck, Diane; McNeeley, S Gene; Trout, Wayne; Bass, Debra C; Hutchison, Katherine; Kip, Kevin; Brunham, Robert C

    2008-02-01

    Among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), we assessed the associations among antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies (EB), antibodies to chlamydia heat shock protein (Chsp60), rates of pregnancy, and PID recurrence. Four hundred forty-three women with clinical signs and symptoms of mild to moderate PID enrolled in the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health Study were followed for a mean of 84 months for outcomes of time-to-pregnancy and time-to-PID recurrence. Antibodies to EB and Chsp60 were assessed in relation to these long-term sequelae of PID. Rates of pregnancy were significantly lower (adj. hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.79) and PID recurrence higher (adj. hazard ratio 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.00-6.27) after adjusting for confounding factors among women whose antibody titers to chlamydia EB measured in the final year of follow-up were in the highest tertile. Among women with mild to moderate PID, antibodies to C. trachomatis were independently associated with reduced rates of pregnancy and elevated rates of recurrent PID.

  1. Childhood adversity and insomnia in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Raffeld, Miriam R; Slopen, Natalie; Hale, Lauren; Dunn, Erin C

    2016-05-01

    , timing, and accumulation of exposure and did not appear to be driven by psychiatric disorders. Given the well-documented physical and mental health consequences of insomnia, such findings further support the need for practitioners to screen children for exposure to childhood adversity and insomnia symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolomic analysis of 92 pulmonary embolism patients from a nested case-control study identifies metabolites associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zeleznik, O A; Poole, E M; Lindstrom, S; Kraft, P; Van Hylckama Vlieg, A; Lasky-Su, J A; Harrington, L B; Hagan, K; Kim, J; Parry, B A; Giordano, N; Kabrhel, C

    2018-03-01

    Essentials Risk-stratification often fails to predict clinical deterioration in pulmonary embolism (PE). First-ever high-throughput metabolomics analysis of risk-stratified PE patients. Changes in circulating metabolites reflect a compromised energy metabolism in PE. Metabolites play a key role in the pathophysiology and risk stratification of PE. Background Patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) exhibit wide variation in clinical presentation and outcomes. Our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms differentiating low-risk and high-risk PE is limited, so current risk-stratification efforts often fail to predict clinical deterioration and are insufficient to guide management. Objectives To improve our understanding of the physiology differentiating low-risk from high-risk PE, we conducted the first-ever high-throughput metabolomics analysis (843 named metabolites) comparing PE patients across risk strata within a nested case-control study. Patients/methods We enrolled 92 patients diagnosed with acute PE and collected plasma within 24 h of PE diagnosis. We used linear regression and pathway analysis to identify metabolites and pathways associated with PE risk-strata. Results When we compared 46 low-risk with 46 intermediate/high-risk PEs, 50 metabolites were significantly different after multiple testing correction. These metabolites were enriched in the following pathways: tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid metabolism (acyl carnitine) and purine metabolism, (hypo)xanthine/inosine containing. Additionally, energy, nucleotide and amino acid pathways were downregulated in intermediate/high-risk PE patients. When we compared 28 intermediate-risk with 18 high-risk PE patients, 41 metabolites differed at a nominal P-value level. These metabolites were enriched in fatty acid metabolism (acyl cholines), and hemoglobin and porphyrin metabolism. Conclusion Our results suggest that high-throughput metabolomics can provide insight into the

  3. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Patton, K; Borshoff, D C

    2018-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality to patients and a source of financial burden to the healthcare system. Of the wide spectrum of adverse drug reactions, the most concerning to the anaesthetist remain anaphylaxis and malignant hyperthermia. Although the incidence of anaphylaxis under anaesthesia is difficult to ascertain, it occurs commonly enough that most anaesthetists will manage at least one case in their career. The wide range of drugs given in the peri-operative period and the variable presentation in the anaesthetised patient can delay diagnosis and treatment, and adversely affect outcome. Furthermore, despite improvements in testing, causative drugs can still be difficult to identify, as adverse reactions may be mediated by mechanisms other than IgE activation. With an increase in the reporting of anaphylaxis to newer anaesthetic drugs such as sugammadex, combined with change over the recent decades in the most likely causative peri-operative agents, it is imperative anaesthetists remain up to date on recent developments. In addition, they should be vigilant to patient characteristics, including pharmacogenetic variations that may predispose to adverse drug reactions, in order to help minimise risks of a reaction. The severity of adverse drug reactions to peri-operative drugs means morbidity and mortality remain high. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Asking the right questions to get the right answers: using cognitive interviews to review the acceptability, comprehension and clinical meaningfulness of patient self-report adverse event items in oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Holch, Patricia; Warrington, Lorraine; Potrata, Barbara; Ziegler, Lucy; Hector, Ceri; Keding, Ada; Harley, Clare; Absolom, Kate; Morris, Carolyn; Bamforth, Leon; Velikova, Galina

    Standardized reporting of treatment-related adverse events (AE) is essential in clinical trials, usually achieved by using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) reported by clinicians. Patient-reported adverse events (PRAE) may add value to clinician assessments, providing patient perspective on subjective toxicity. We developed an online patient symptom report and self-management system for real-time reporting and managing AE during cancer treatment integrated with electronic patient records (eRAPID). As part of this program we developed a patient version of the CTCAE (version 4.0), rephrasing terminology into a self-report format. We explored patient understanding of these items via cognitive interviews. Sixty patients (33 female, 27 male) undergoing treatment were purposively sampled by age, gender and tumor group (median age 61.5, range 35-84, 12 breast, 12 gynecological, 13 colorectal, 12 lung and 11 renal). Twenty-one PRAE items were completed on a touch-screen computer. Subsequent audio-recorded cognitive interviews and thematic analysis explored patients' comprehension of items via verbal probing techniques during three interview rounds (n = 20 patients/round). In total 33 item amendments were made; 29% related to question comprehension, 68% response option and 3% order effects. These amendments to phrasing and language improved patient understanding but maintained CTCAE grading and key medical information. Changes were endorsed by members of a patient advisory group (N = 11). Item adaptations resulted in a bank of consistently interpreted self-report AE items for use in future research program. In-depth analysis of items through cognitive interviews is an important step towards developing an internationally valid system for PRAE, thus improving patient safety and experiences during cancer treatment.

  5. Unraveling the Link between Malnutrition and Adverse Clinical Outcomes: Association of Acute and Chronic Malnutrition Measures with Blood Biomarkers from Different Pathophysiological States.

    PubMed

    Felder, Susan; Braun, Nina; Stanga, Zeno; Kulkarni, Prasad; Faessler, Lukas; Kutz, Alexander; Steiner, Deborah; Laukemann, Svenja; Haubitz, Sebastian; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Whether there is a causal relationship or it merely mirrors a severe patient condition remains unclear. We examined the association of malnutrition with biomarkers characteristic of different pathophysiological states to better understand the underlying etiological mechanisms. We prospectively followed consecutive adult medical inpatients. Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the associations between malnutrition - as assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) - and biomarkers linked to inflammation, stress, renal dysfunction, nutritional status and hematologic function. A total of 529 patients were included. In a fully adjusted model, malnutrition was significantly associated with the inflammatory markers procalcitonin (0.20, 95% CI 0.03-0.37), proadrenomedullin (0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.43) and albumin (-0.39, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.21), the stress marker copeptin (0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.51), the renal function marker urea (0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.38), the nutritional markers vitamin D25 (-0.22, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.02) and corrected calcium (0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.49) and the hematological markers hemoglobin (-0.27, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.10) and red blood cell distribution width (0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.44). Subgroup analysis suggested that acute malnutrition rather than chronic malnutrition was associated with elevated biomarker levels. Acute malnutrition was associated with a pronounced inflammatory response and an alteration in biomarkers associated with different pathophysiological states. Interventional trials are needed to prove causality. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Clinical and immunological consequences of total glucosides of paeony treatment in Sjögren's syndrome: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingbo; Jin, Li; Kong, Feifei; Zhang, Hong; Fang, Xuan; Chen, Zhu; Wang, Guosheng; Li, Xiangpei; Li, Xiaomei

    2016-10-01

    The total glucosides of paeony (TGP) can inhibit inflammation and alleviate symptoms in autoimmune diseases. This study investigated the clinical and immunological consequences of TGP treatment in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 45 patients with primary SS. Patients were randomized at 2:1 ratio to either TGP group (n=29) or placebo group (n=16) and followed up for 24weeks. The primary outocme was the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI). The secondary outcomes were stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate, Schirmer's test and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), immuneglobulin (Ig), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-SSA, and anti-SSB. The proportions of B cells in peripheral blood and the levels of serum inerleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) were measured at baseline and at the end of follow up of 24weeks. The average score of ESSPRI in both groups had no statistical significance at 24th week. The mean of ESSPRI in the dry-mouth part of questionnaire in patients who scored 3 to 6 points was significantly reduced in the TGP group changed from (4.81±0.60) at baseline to (4.20±1.46) (P=0.027) at week 24. Stimulated salivary flow rate increased at week 24 from (1.80±0.39) to (2.01±0.51) (P=0.031) and unstimulated salivary flow rate increased from (0.65±0.46) to (0.78±0.45) (P=0.011) in the TGP group, but the placebo group showed no significant difference. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was decreased significantly compared to the placebo group at 12- and 24-week from (40.9±18.0) to (29.4±12.2) (P=0.003) and (30.4±17.3) (P=0.024). The percentage of naive B cells decreased at week 24 in the TGP group from (77.34±12.20) to (64.59±15.60) (P=0.005) while memory B cells increased from (21.79±11.97) to (34

  7. Pain and other non-neurological adverse events in children with sickle cell anemia and previous stroke who received hydroxyurea and phlebotomy or chronic transfusions and chelation: results from the SWiTCH clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ofelia; Yovetich, Nancy A; Scott, J Paul; Owen, William; Miller, Scott T; Schultz, William; Lockhart, Alexandre; Aygun, Banu; Flanagan, Jonathan; Bonner, Melanie; Mueller, Brigitta U; Ware, Russell E

    2013-11-01

    To compare the non-neurological events in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and previous stroke enrolled in SWiTCH. The NHLBI-sponsored Phase III multicenter randomized clinical trial stroke with transfusions changing to hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122980) compared continuation of chronic blood transfusion/iron chelation to switching to hydroxyurea/phlebotomy for secondary stroke prevention and management of iron overload. All randomized children were included in the analysis (intention to treat). The Fisher's Exact test was used to compare the frequency of subjects who experienced at least one SCA-related adverse event (AE) or serious adverse event (SAE) in each arm and to compare event rates. One hundred and thirty three subjects, mean age 13 ± 3.9 years (range 5.2-19.0 years) and mean time of 7 years on chronic transfusion at study entry, were randomized and treated. Numbers of subjects experiencing non-neurological AEs were similar in the two treatment arms, including SCA-related events, SCA pain events, and low rates of acute chest syndrome and infection. However, fewer children continuing transfusion/chelation experienced SAEs (P = 0.012), SCA-related SAEs (P = 0.003), and SCA pain SAEs (P = 0.016) as compared to children on the hydroxyurea/phlebotomy arm. The timing of phlebotomy did not influence SAEs. Older age at baseline predicted having at least 1 SCA pain event. Patients with recurrent neurological events during SWiTCH were not more likely to experience pain. In children with SCA and prior stroke, monthly transfusions and daily iron chelation provided superior protection against acute vaso-occlusive pain SAEs when compared to hydroxyurea and monthly phlebotomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pain and Other Non-Neurological Adverse Events in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia and Previous Stroke who Received Hydroxyurea and Phlebotomy or Chronic Transfusions and Chelation: Results from the SWiTCH Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ofelia; Yovetich, Nancy A.; Scott, J. Paul; Owen, William;