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Sample records for adverse early experience

  1. Early Adverse Experiences and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to various forms of adversity early in life are at increased risk for a broad range of developmental difficulties, affecting both cognitive and emotional adjustment. We review a growing body of evidence suggesting that exposure to adverse circumstances affects the developing brain in ways that increase risk for a myriad of problems. We focus on two forms of adversity, one in which children are exposed to childhood maltreatment in family environments, and another in which children are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation in contexts of institutional rearing. We discuss ways in which each of these experiences represent violations of species-expected caregiving conditions, thereby imposing challenges to the developing brain. We also review emerging data pointing to the effectiveness of early intervention in remediating neurodevelopmental consequences associated with maltreatment or institutional rearing. We conclude by discussing implications of this work for public health efforts and highlight important directions for the field. PMID:26334107

  2. Early adverse experiences in schizophrenia and unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Rubino, I Alex; Nanni, Roberta C; Pozzi, Daniela M; Siracusano, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    To study the prevalence of early adversities in schizophrenia and unipolar depression, 2 groups of consecutive adult-onset inpatients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 173) and unipolar depression (n = 305) were compared with an unscreened control group of volunteers from the general population (n = 310), with respect to their association with 4 types of childhood abuse and with early parental adversities (discord, separation, death, psychiatric caseness). Compared with general population, most types of early adversities (except sexual abuse and parental death) were significantly associated with both clinical groups. Compared with depression, all early adversities with the same 2 exceptions were significantly associated with schizophrenia; both frequency of abuse and number of types of abuse increased the risk of schizophrenia in a dose-response pattern, suggesting causality. These findings stress the role of social developmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  3. Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Roy; Lin, Yong; Morrow, Lesley M.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in early childhood and teacher-reported academic and behavioral problems in kindergarten. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort. Subjects with primary caregiver-reported information on ACE exposures ascertained at 5 years and teacher-reported outcomes at the end of the child’s kindergarten year were included. Outcomes included teacher ratings of academic skills, emergent literacy skills, and behavior. We included 8 ACE exposures on the basis of the original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kaiser study and created an ACE score by summing individual adversities. We examined the associations between teacher-reported academic and behavioral outcomes and ACE scores by using logistic regression. RESULTS: In the study sample, 1007 children were included. Fifty-five percent had experienced 1 ACE and 12% had experienced ≥ 3. Adjusting for potential confounders, experiencing ≥ 3 ACEs was associated with below-average language and literacy skills (adjusted odds ratio [AORs]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–2.9) and math skills (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–2.9), poor emergent literacy skills, attention problems (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8–6.5), social problems (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.0), and aggression (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2–4.6). CONCLUSIONS: In this study of urban children, experiencing ACEs in early childhood was associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and behavior problems in kindergarten. These findings underscore the importance of integrated approaches that promote optimal development among vulnerable children. PMID:26768347

  4. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed.

  5. Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: Deprivation and Threat as Distinct Dimensions of Early Experience

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Lambert, Hilary K.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one’s physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

  6. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children.

  7. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience (EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience (EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate (NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors (including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments (including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed. PMID:28271667

  8. Early Adverse Experience Increases Emotional Reactivity in Juvenile Rhesus Macaques: Relation to Amygdala Volume

    PubMed Central

    Howell, B.R.; Grand, A. P.; McCormack, K. M.; Shi, Y.; LaPrarie, J.; Maestripieri, D.; Styner, M. A.; Sanchez, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of infant maltreatment on juvenile rhesus monkeys’ behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli and its associations with amygdala volume. Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli of varying threat intensity was measured using Approach/Avoidance (AA) and Human Intruder (HI) tasks. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure amygdala volume. Interestingly, group behavioral differences were context-dependent. When exposed to a human intruder, maltreated subjects displayed more anxious behaviors than controls; however, when presented with fear-evoking objects, maltreated animals exhibited increased aggression and a shorter latency to inspect the objects. Finally, under testing conditions with the lowest levels of threat (neutral novel objects) maltreated animals also showed shorter latencies to inspect objects, and reduced avoidance and increased exploration compared to controls. This suggests alterations in threat assessment and less behavioral inhibition in animals with early adverse experience compared to controls. Some of these behavioral responses were associated with amygdala volume, which was positively correlated with abuse rates received during infancy, particularly reflecting a relationship with exploration, consistent with previous studies. PMID:25196846

  9. Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: evidence from rodent and primate models.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M M; Ladd, C O; Plotsky, P M

    2001-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the view that the interaction of perinatal exposure to adversity with individual genetic liabilities may increase an individual's vulnerability to the expression of psycho- and physiopathology throughout life. The early environment appears to program some aspects of neurobiological development and, in turn, behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physiological development. Several rodent and primate models of early adverse experience have been analyzed in this review, including those that "model" maternal separation or loss, abuse or neglect, and social deprivation. Accumulating evidence shows that these early traumatic experiences are associated with long-term alterations in coping style, emotional and behavioral regulation. neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, social "fitness,' cognitive function, brain morphology, neurochemistry, and expression levels of central nervous system genes that have been related to anxiety and mood disorders. Studies are underway to identify important aspects of adverse early experience, such as (a) the existence of "sensitive periods" during development associated with alterations in particular output systems. (b) the presence of "windows of opportunity" during which targeted interventions (e.g., nurturant parenting or supportive-enriching environment) may prevent or reverse dysfunction, (c) the identity of gene polymorphisms contributing to the individual's variability in vulnerability, and (d) a means to translate the timing of these developmental "sensitive periods" across species.

  10. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  11. Equifinality, multifinality, and the rediscovery of the importance of early experiences: pathways from early adversity to psychiatric and (functional) somatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Patrick; Vliegen, Nicole; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn; Blatt, Sidney J

    2008-01-01

    Most current mainstream research, diagnostic assessment, and treatment strategies focus on specific psychiatric disorders--on diagnoses that are based on manifest symptoms within a categorical, atheoretical approach. This disorder-centered approach has been antithetical to psychoanalytic views, which are fundamentally person centered, focusing on the dynamics of individual lives. Growing realization of the high comorbidity among psychiatric disorders has led to the need to include developmental considerations and hierarchical models in the classification and treatment of psychopathology. In addition, this realization has led to a renewed interest in the principles of equifinality and multifinality--that a given end state can be the result of different developmental paths and that similar developmental factors may lead to dissimilar outcomes. In this chapter these developments are illustrated by research on the impact of early adversity, a central domain in psychoanalytic thought. Findings from various strands of research in the neurosciences and genetic research, in particular, suggest that early adversity leads to vulnerability for a wide variety of both psychiatric and (functional) somatic disorders. These findings have contributed to the rediscovery of the importance of early experiences more generally and to the need for a broad developmental perspective. In this context, we also discuss the danger of reductionism associated with the growing influence and popularity of affective neuroscience and genetics as well as the vital role a psychoanalytic perspective might play in countering this reductionism by reestablishing the importance of meaning and meaning making in understanding and treating patients with a history of early adversity. In particular, we focus on the importance of narrative and mental representations in the development of the capacity for mentalization in these patients.

  12. Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

  13. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  14. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  16. The Neurobiology of Intervention and Prevention in Early Adversity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C

    2016-01-01

    Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy.

  17. [Adverse Sensory Input of Childhood Maltreatment Modified by Early Experience Ascertaining the Neural Basis of Neurodevelopmental and Attachment Disorders].

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases the risk of psychopathology such as depression, PTSD, and reduced cognitive abilities, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects on the brain morphology of childhood maltreatment on the gray matter volume or cortical thickness. Further, our preliminary studies revealed a significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in the left primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) in the reactive attachment disorder (RAD) group compared to the typically developed group. These visual cortex GMV abnormalities may also be associated with such visual stimulus-induced emotion regulation impairments of RAD, leading to an increase in the risk of future psychopathology. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse might be modified specifically by such experiences, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Thus, exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions.

  18. The longitudinal study of rat hippocampus influenced by stress: early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengkui; Li, Lei; Shi, Mei; Li, Zhenzi; Zhou, Jinghua; Chen, Li

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that early adverse experience is related to learning disabilities in adults, but the neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. We used longitudinal animal experiments to test the hypothesis that early life stress enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats. The expression of Synaptophysin (SYN) and apoptosis (Apo) in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were examined to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on the hippocampus. The working memory errors via radial 8-arm maze were studied to evaluate the long-term effect of early stress on rats' spatial learning ability. Our results indicated that chronic restraint stress in early life and forced cold water swimming stress in adulthood reduced SYN expression and increased Apo levels in rat hippocampus, but the hippocampal damage tended to recover when rats returned to a non-stress environment. In addition, when the rats were exposed to forced cold water swimming stress during adulthood, SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and Apo levels (CA3 region) in rat hippocampus showed statistical difference between early restraint stress group and non-early restraint stress group (rats exposed to stress in adulthood only). One month after the two groups of rats returned to non-stress environment, this difference of SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and working memory deficit between the two groups was still statistically significant. Our study findings suggested that early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats, and reduces structural plasticity of hippocampus.

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Inpatient Youths with Severe and Early-Onset Psychiatric Disorders: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates.

    PubMed

    Benarous, Xavier; Raffin, Marie; Bodeau, Nicolas; Dhossche, Dirk; Cohen, David; Consoli, Angèle

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the clinical correlates of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) among 158 inpatient youths with two types of severe psychiatric disorders. ACEs were retrospectively collected with the ACEs scale and the List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire in 77 patients hospitalized for a catatonic syndrome (average age 15.2 years) and 81 for a manic or mixed episode (average age 15.7 years). ACEs were frequent in youths suffering from bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) (58 %) and from catatonia (57 %), with around one quarter exposed to severe abuse (i.e., physical/sexual/emotional abuse or physical/emotional neglect). Youths with BD-I were more likely to be exposed to family violence compared to those with catatonia. Youths who had been exposed to ACEs did not exhibit a more severe presentation or a poorer response to treatment compared to others, either in the bipolar group or in the catatonic group.

  20. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  1. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morphological characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat liver subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that early rupture of the maternal bond and social isolation are variables involved in social and emotional behaviors and in increase in anxiety, particularly in stressful situations. The liver plays a role in the adaptation to stress, yet the possible morphologic changes that its structure can suffer have been studied very little. Therefore, the aim here was to ascertain, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the stereologic characteristics of the liver in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, distributed into 5 groups, under standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The experimental groups were exposed to early (E1), late (E2), and early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. The liver of each animal was isolated, and the stereologic characteristics of Nv, Vv, and Sv of the hepatocytes were determined. The results from the experimental groups were significantly higher than those obtained in the control groups. The highest values were found in group E3 (Nv = 4.43 ± 0.89 x 105/mm3, Vv = 68.74 ± 2.01%, Sv = 68.78 ± 3.77 mm2/mm3). Considering these results, the hepatic morphology can be affected by exposure to chronic stress; however, when the individuals have been subjected to previous adverse experiences, the changes are more evident. PMID:25197335

  2. Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: a cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mersky, J P; Topitzes, J; Reynolds, A J

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range=2.75-10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range=3.93-15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted.

  3. Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: A cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Topitzes, J.; Reynolds, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range = 2.75–10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range = 3.93–15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted. PMID:23978575

  4. Transgenerational aspects of former Swiss child laborers: do second generations suffer from their parents’ adverse early-life experiences?

    PubMed Central

    Küffer, Andreas L.; Thoma, Myriam V.; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that childhood adversity exerts a lasting impact not only on the affected individuals but also on their offspring. Little is known about the role of parental rearing behavior in the transgenerational conveyance of parental childhood adversity and filial psychological health. Objective Hence, it was the aim of the current study to investigate the relationship between parental rearing behavior of former Swiss indentured child laborers (“Verdingkinder”) and psychological health of their adult offspring. Methods We applied a two-generation control-group design with two parental samples (n=16, former “Verdingkinder,” Mage=76.13, SD=6.81 and n=19, parental controls, Mage=72.63, SD=5.96) and their offspring (n=21, former “Verdingkinder” offspring, Mage=52.91, SD=5.90, and n=29 offspring controls, Mage=44.55, SD=7.71). Parental rearing behavior, childhood trauma, and psychological health were assessed with questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Bayesian analyses, where Bayes factors (BF) of 3 or higher were considered as substantial evidence for the tested hypotheses. Results We found that “Verdingkinder” offspring reported more physical abuse (BF10=5.197) and higher total childhood trauma exposure (BF10=2.476). They described both their fathers (BF10=14.246) and mothers (BF10=24.153) as less emotional and their mothers as more punitive (BF10=18.725). An increased sense of reflection, for instance, one's ability to take different perspectives, was found in the offspring controls (BF10=5.245). Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that lower perceived familial emotionality was associated with higher psychopathology (all BF10=10.471) and higher pessimism (all BF10=5.396). Discussion Our data provide cross-sectional evidence of a meaningful transgenerational relationship between parental childhood adversity, dysfunctional rearing behavior, and psychological health of offspring. Prospective studies are needed to

  5. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  6. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs.

  7. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  8. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Krugers, Harm J; Arp, J Marit; Xiong, Hui; Kanatsou, Sofia; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Korosi, Aniko; Joels, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life -at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence Data LGB Suicidal Thoughts & Experiences Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ...

  10. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morpho-quantitative characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat spleen subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Morpho-quantitative studies of the spleen indicate that the proportions of the compartments and sub-compartments are stable in normal conditions. However, disorders due to stress can influence the number and function of the immune cells in this organ. The aim of this study was to determine, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and altering the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the morpho-quantitative characteristics of the spleen in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, kept under the standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The rats were assigned randomly to 2 control groups (C1 and C2) and 3 experimental groups, exposed to early (E1), late (E2) or early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood (C2, E1, E2 and E3). The spleen of each animal was isolated and its morphometric characteristics were determined: volume density (Vv) of the red pulp, white pulp, marginal zone, splenic lymph nodule, periarterial lymphatic sheath and germinal center; areal number density (Na), surface density (Sv), number density (Nv), diameter (D) and total number of splenic lymph nodules. The mass of each compartment was also determined. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffé’s post hoc test were used for the statistical analysis. The p values were considered significant when they were less than 0.05 (*) and very significant at less than 0.025 (**). There were significant differences in the Vv of the red pulp, white pulp and their sub-compartments between the control and experimental groups. The white pulp increased significantly (P = 0.000) in E1, E2 and E3 compared to C1 and C2. The average Na and D values of the splenic lymph nodules were also higher in the experimental groups. The ANOVA for the mass of the spleen and the red pulp revealed no differences between the groups. The mass of the

  11. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Exley, Daniel; Norman, Alyson; Hyland, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset.

  12. Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of preventive intervention services, elucidating the mechanisms of change in effective interventions, and providing insight into the differential responses of children to effective interventions. However, integrating stress neurobiology and prevention research is challenging. In this paper, the results of studies examining HPA system activity in children who have experienced early adverse care are reviewed, the implications of these results for prevention research are discussed, and critical steps for successfully incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research are identified. PMID:23420476

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26327809

  15. 'She was a foster mother who said she didn't give cuddles': The adverse early foster care experiences of children who later struggle with adoptive family life.

    PubMed

    Meakings, Sarah; Selwyn, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Foster care remains a valuable and safe intervention for many children unable to live with their birth family. When birth family reunification is not considered possible, a small proportion of children in foster care will go on to achieve permanency by way of adoption. This article reports on some unexpected findings to emerge from two national adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. Focussing on a subset of families who had experienced or were at risk of an adoption disruption, the findings revealed that not only did children carry elevated risks for disruption due to their older age at entry to care, multiple foster care placements and traumatic early histories, but once in care, many of the children whose placements had disrupted were considered by their adoptive parents to have had very poor, even harmful fostering experiences before being placed for adoption. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, together with the implications for social work practice.

  16. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients.

  17. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  18. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2016-11-21

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities.

  19. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety.

  1. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  2. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  3. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... only referred to elevated hepatic enzymes or hepatitis. Similarly, cerebral thromboembolism and.... (b) Review of adverse experiences. Any person having a biologics license under § 601.20 of this... Evaluation and Research (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). Submit all vaccine adverse experience reports...

  4. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... only referred to elevated hepatic enzymes or hepatitis. Similarly, cerebral thromboembolism and.... (b) Review of adverse experiences. Any person having a biologics license under § 601.20 of this... Evaluation and Research (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). Submit all vaccine adverse experience reports...

  5. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... only referred to elevated hepatic enzymes or hepatitis. Similarly, cerebral thromboembolism and.... (b) Review of adverse experiences. Any person having a biologics license under § 601.20 of this... Evaluation and Research (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). Submit all vaccine adverse experience reports...

  6. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... only referred to elevated hepatic enzymes or hepatitis. Similarly, cerebral thromboembolism and.... (b) Review of adverse experiences. Any person having a biologics license under § 601.20 of this... Evaluation and Research (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). Submit all vaccine adverse experience reports...

  7. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... only referred to elevated hepatic enzymes or hepatitis. Similarly, cerebral thromboembolism and.... (b) Review of adverse experiences. Any person having a biologics license under § 601.20 of this... Evaluation and Research (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). Submit all vaccine adverse experience reports...

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacky T.

    2016-01-01

    Alarming rates of burnout, compassion fatigue, and turnover in the social work profession have focused attention on factors influencing risk and resilience among professional social workers and, more recently, social work students. This article explores the prevalence and relevance of early trauma among social work students and describes a…

  9. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  10. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A rapidly expanding body of research indicates that early social environments characterized by adversity, subordination and stress, along with individual differences in susceptibility to such environments, create risks for lifelong chronic diseases, including declines in oral health. Emerging findings suggest that gene-environment interplay, resulting in epigenetically regulated differences in gene expression, underlie many such declines in health. The origins of these processes in early life reveal how many of the chronic morbidities of adulthood should be viewed as developmental disorders, with etiologic roots in childhood.

  11. Early neurological stability predicts adverse outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Hannah J; Battey, Thomas Wk; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Campbell, Bruce Cv; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Sheth, Kevin N; Kimberly, W Taylor

    2016-10-01

    Background Deterioration in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in the early days after stroke is associated with progressive infarction, brain edema, and/or hemorrhage, leading to worse outcome. Aims We sought to determine whether a stable NIHSS score represents an adverse or favorable course. Methods Brain magnetic resonance images from a research cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. Using NIHSS scores at baseline and follow-up (day 3-5), patients were categorized into early neurological deterioration (ΔNIHSS ≥ 4), early neurological recovery (ΔNIHSS ≤ -4) or early neurological stability (ΔNIHSS between -3 and 3). The association between these categories and volume of infarct growth, volume of swelling, parenchymal hemorrhage, and 3-month modified Rankin Scale score were evaluated. Results Patients with early neurological deterioration or early neurological stability were less likely to be independent (modified Rankin Scale = 0-2) at 3 months compared to those with early neurological recovery ( P < 0.001). Patients with early neurological deterioration or early neurological stability were observed to have significantly greater infarct growth and swelling volumes than those with early neurological recovery ( P = 0.03; P < 0.001, respectively). Brain edema was more common than the other imaging markers investigated and was independently associated with a stable or worsening NIHSS score after adjustment for age, baseline stroke volume, infarct growth volume, presence of parenchymal hemorrhage, and reperfusion ( P < 0.0001). Conclusions Stable NIHSS score in the subacute period after ischemic stroke may not be benign and is associated with tissue injury, including infarct growth and brain edema. Early improvement is considerably more likely to occur in the absence of these factors.

  12. Depression among Black bisexual men with early and later life adversities.

    PubMed

    Allen, Vincent C; Myers, Hector F; Williams, John K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a 6-session health intervention, and, at baseline, reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination, R² = .25, F(3, 112) = 12.67, p < .001, and chronic stress, R² = .17, F(3, 112) = 7.41, p < .001. Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination, b = -.154, t(111) = -2.82, p < .01, and chronic stress, b = -.019, t(111) = -3.759, p < .01. Men's early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW's early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults.

  13. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  14. Early-life Social Adversity and Developmental Processes in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A; Carp, Sarah B

    2015-01-01

    Most primate species produce offspring that are altricial and highly dependent upon caregivers. As a consequence, a host of developmental trajectories can be dramatically altered by variation in early experiences. We review the impact of early social experiences (in both experimental models and natural contexts) on developmental profiles in three species of nonhuman primates: marmosets, squirrel monkeys, and macaques. Graded exposure to early-life social adversity (ELSA) produces short- to long-term effects on multiple developmental outcomes, including affect, social behavior, cognitive and attentional processes, and in the neural substrates that underlie these sociobehavioral traits. PMID:26858971

  15. Explaining the Association between Early Adversity and Young Adults' Diabetes Outcomes: Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2017-01-31

    Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults' risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults' diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults' diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults' diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.

  16. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention.

  17. Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

    2015-05-01

    Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.

  18. An interaction between a neuropeptide Y gene polymorphism and early adversity modulates endocrine stress responses.

    PubMed

    Witt, Stephanie H; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Nieratschker, Vanessa; Treutlein, Jens; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin H; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Wiedemann, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Laucht, Manfred; Wüst, Stefan; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2011-08-01

    Interindividual variability in the regulation of the human stress system accounts for a part of the individual's liability to stress-related diseases. These differences are influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Early childhood adversity is a well-studied environmental factor affecting an individual's stress response which has been shown to be modulated by gene-environment interaction (GxE). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a role in stress regulation and genetic variation in NPY may influence stress responses. In this study, we analyzed the association of a common variant in the NPY gene promoter, rs16147, with cortisol and ACTH responses to acute psychosocial stress in young adults from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk (MARS), an ongoing epidemiological cohort study following the outcome of early adversity from birth into adulthood. We found evidence of a GxE interaction between rs16147 and early adversity significantly affecting HPA axis responses to acute psychosocial stress. These findings suggest that the neurobiological mechanisms linking early adverse experience and later neuroendocrine stress regulation are modulated by a gene variant whose functional relevance is documented by increasing convergent evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies.

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  20. Capitalizing on Advances in Science to Reduce the Health Consequences of Early Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P

    2016-10-01

    Advances in biology are providing deeper insights into how early experiences are built into the body with lasting effects on learning, behavior, and health. Numerous evaluations of interventions for young children facing adversity have demonstrated multiple, positive effects but they have been highly variable and difficult to sustain or scale. New research on plasticity and critical periods in development, increasing understanding of how gene-environment interaction affects variation in stress susceptibility and resilience, and the emerging availability of measures of toxic stress effects that are sensitive to intervention provide much-needed fuel for science-informed innovation in the early childhood arena. This growing knowledge base suggests 4 shifts in thinking about policy and practice: (1) early experiences affect lifelong health, not just learning; (2) healthy brain development requires protection from toxic stress, not just enrichment; (3) achieving breakthrough outcomes for young children facing adversity requires supporting the adults who care for them to transform their own lives; and (4) more effective interventions are needed in the prenatal period and first 3 years after birth for the most disadvantaged children and families. The time has come to leverage 21st-century science to catalyze the design, testing, and scaling of more powerful approaches for reducing lifelong disease by mitigating the effects of early adversity.

  1. Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247

  2. The Early Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  3. Duration of Early Adversity and Structural Brain Development in Post-Institutionalized Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Hunt, Ruskin H.; Cowell, Raquel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12–14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  4. Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Amanda S; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cowell, Raquel A; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E; Gunnar, Megan R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2015-01-15

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12-14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence.

  5. Early identification of adverse drug reactions from search log data.

    PubMed

    White, Ryen W; Wang, Sheng; Pant, Apurv; Harpaz, Rave; Shukla, Pushpraj; Sun, Walter; DuMouchel, William; Horvitz, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The timely and accurate identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following drug approval is a persistent and serious public health challenge. Aggregated data drawn from anonymized logs of Web searchers has been shown to be a useful source of evidence for detecting ADRs. However, prior studies have been based on the analysis of established ADRs, the existence of which may already be known publically. Awareness of these ADRs can inject existing knowledge about the known ADRs into online content and online behavior, and thus raise questions about the ability of the behavioral log-based methods to detect new ADRs. In contrast to previous studies, we investigate the use of search logs for the early detection of known ADRs. We use a large set of recently labeled ADRs and negative controls to evaluate the ability of search logs to accurately detect ADRs in advance of their publication. We leverage the Internet Archive to estimate when evidence of an ADR first appeared in the public domain and adjust the index date in a backdated analysis. Our results demonstrate how search logs can be used to detect new ADRs, the central challenge in pharmacovigilance.

  6. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  7. Adverse Family Experiences during Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, William J.; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Barkin, Shari L.; McPheeters, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between adverse family experiences (AFEs) during childhood and adolescent obesity and to determine populations at highest risk for adverse family experiences. Methods Cross sectional analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health, including children ages 10-17. Weighted estimates of 31,258,575 children were based on interviews with 42,239 caregivers. Caregiver-report of 9 psychosocial risk factors measured AFEs during childhood. Adolescent overweight and obesity were derived by caregiver-report of child height and weight. Results Nearly one-third (30.5%) of children had experienced ≥2 AFEs, with geographic variation by state. The prevalence of obesity among children experiencing ≥2 AFEs was 20.4%, compared with 12.5% among children with 0 AFEs. Adjusted survey regression models controlled for child, parent, household, and neighborhood characteristics. Children with ≥ 2 AFEs in childhood were more likely to be obese (AOR 1.8; 95% CI 1.47, 2.17; p<0.001) than those with no AFEs, with Non-Hispanic, White children most affected. Conclusions Adolescents in this national sample who were exposed to greater numbers of adverse family experiences in childhood also had higher rates of overweight and obesity. Geographic variation and differential associations based on race/ethnicity identify children at greatest risk. PMID:26853526

  8. Parenting begets parenting: A neurobiological perspective on early adversity and the transmission of parenting styles across generations.

    PubMed

    Lomanowska, A M; Boivin, M; Hertzman, C; Fleming, A S

    2017-02-07

    The developing brains of young children are highly sensitive to input from their social environment. Nurturing social experience during this time promotes the acquisition of social and cognitive skills and emotional competencies. However, many young children are confronted with obstacles to healthy development, including poverty, inappropriate care, and violence, and their enhanced sensitivity to the social environment means that they are highly susceptible to these adverse childhood experiences. One source of social adversity in early life can stem from parenting that is harsh, inconsistent, non-sensitive or hostile. Parenting is considered to be the cornerstone of early socio-emotional development and an adverse parenting style is associated with adjustment problems and a higher risk of developing mood and behavioral disorders. Importantly, there is a growing literature showing that an important predictor of parenting behavior is how parents, especially mothers, were parented themselves. In this review, we examine how adversity in early-life affects mothering behavior in later-life and how these effects may be perpetuated inter-generationally. Relying on studies in humans and animal models, we consider evidence for the intergenerational transmission of mothering styles. We then describe the psychological underpinnings of mothering, including responsiveness to young, executive function and affect, as well as the physiological mediators of mothering behavior, including hormones, brain regions and neurotransmitters, and we consider how development in these relevant domains may be affected by adversity experienced in early life. Finally, we explore how genes and early experience interact to predict mothering behavior, including the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding how adverse parenting begets adverse parenting in the next generation is critical for designing interventions aimed at preventing this intergenerational cycle of early adversity.

  9. Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

  10. The consequences of early-life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Krugers, H J; Morley-Fletcher, S; Szyf, M; Brunton, P J

    2014-10-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early-life experiences, such as stress exposure or suboptimal maternal care, can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as 'early-life programming' and is associated with an increased risk of disease. Typically, rodents exposed to prenatal stress or postnatal maternal deprivation display enhanced neuroendocrine responses to stress, increased levels of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours, and cognitive impairments. Some of the phenotypes observed in these models of early-life adversity are likely to share common neurobiological mechanisms. For example, there is evidence for impaired glucocorticoid negative-feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, altered glutamate neurotransmission and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in both prenatally stressed rats and rats that experienced deficient maternal care. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy may be transmitted to the offspring are reviewed, with special consideration given to altered maternal behaviour postpartum. We also discuss what is known about the neurobiological and epigenetic mechanisms that underpin early-life programming of the neonatal brain in the first generation and subsequent generations, with a view to abrogating programming effects and potentially identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders and cognitive impairment.

  11. Invisalign: early experiences.

    PubMed

    Joffe, L

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the Invisalign technique. It is based on the author's personal experience of over 60 cases started in the private practice setting. The technology behind Invisalign and its development is reviewed. The Invisalign clinical technique is described, and the advantages and disadvantages of using Invisalign are highlighted.

  12. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  13. Early Adverse Environments and Genetic Influences on Age at First Sex: Evidence for Gene × Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marie D.; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Youth who experience adverse environments in early life initiate sexual activity at a younger age, on average, than those from more advantaged circumstances. Evolutionary theorists have posited that ecological stress precipitates earlier reproductive and sexual onset, but it is unclear how stressful environments interact with genetic influences on…

  14. Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Recent Adverse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard; Narasimhan, Subasri; Everson, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a well-known link between adverse experiences and suicidal ideation, there has been little study of the effects of recent adverse experiences on suicidal ideation in teenagers. This study examined the association between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation in a sample of 740 at-risk 16-year-old youth in the LONGSCAN…

  15. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients.

  17. Impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity of the trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Luijcks, Rosan; Vossen, Catherine J.; Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Hermens, Hermie J.; Lousberg, Richel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0–11 years) and adolescence (12–17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting. In a general population sample (n = 115), an anticipatory stress effect was generated by presenting a single unpredictable and uncontrollable electrical painful stimulus at t = 3 minutes. Subjects were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. Linear and nonlinear time courses in EMG activity were modeled using multilevel analysis. The study protocol included 2 experimental sessions (t = 0 and t = 6 months) allowing for examination of reliability. Results show that EMG stress reactivity during the stress paradigm was consistently stronger in people with higher levels of early life adverse events; early childhood adversity had a stronger moderating effect than adolescent adversity. The impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity may represent a reliable facet that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical studies. PMID:27684800

  18. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: implications for health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lovallo, William R

    2013-10-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes.

  19. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  20. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  1. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert

    2016-07-01

    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified.

  2. Cumulative adversity in early childhood is associated with increased BMI and behavioural problems.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Judith A

    2015-04-01

    Implications for practice and research: Mental health problems and obesity are significant outcomes for children experiencing adversity in early life. Behavioural outcomes and body mass index (BMI) are more consistently reported for children experiencing adversity in early life compared with blood pressure (BP). Incomplete data due to drop out over time and a reliance on parental reporting are challenges for large longitudinal studies; future research directions include balancing and testing such investigations with smaller in-depth studies.

  3. Early Experience & Multisensory Perceptual Narrowing

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing is a reflection of early experience and contributes in key ways to perceptual and cognitive development. In general, findings have shown that unisensory perceptual sensitivity in early infancy is broadly tuned such that young infants respond to, and discriminate, native as well as non-native sensory inputs, whereas older infants only respond to native inputs. Recently, my colleagues and I discovered that perceptual narrowing occurs at the multisensory processing level as well. The present article reviews this new evidence and puts it in the larger context of multisensory perceptual development and the role that perceptual experience plays in it. Together, the evidence on unisensory and multisensory narrowing shows that early experience shapes the emergence of perceptual specialization and expertise. PMID:24435505

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and trauma informed care: the future of health care.

    PubMed

    Oral, Resmiye; Ramirez, Marizen; Coohey, Carol; Nakada, Stephanie; Walz, Amy; Kuntz, Angela; Benoit, Jenna; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are related to short- and long-term negative physical and mental health consequences among children and adults. Studies of the last three decades on ACEs and traumatic stress have emphasized their impact and the importance of preventing and addressing trauma across all service systems utilizing universal systemic approaches. Current developments on the implementation of trauma informed care (TIC) in a variety of service systems call for the surveillance of trauma, resiliency, functional capacity, and health impact of ACEs. Despite such efforts in adult medical care, early identification of childhood trauma in children still remains a significant public health need. This article reviews childhood adversity and traumatic toxic stress, presents epidemiologic data on the prevalence of ACEs and their physical and mental health impacts, and discusses intervention modalities for prevention.

  5. Early Adversity, Hypocortisolism, and Behavior Problems at School Entry: A Study of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Mliner, Shanna B.; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children’s cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  6. ABCs of Early Mathematics Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensen, Laurie E.

    2005-01-01

    Children begin to develop mathematical thinking before they enter school. Art, baking, playing with blocks, counting numbers, games, puzzles, singing, playing with pretend money, water play all these early mathematical experiences help the children to learn in the elementary school years.

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Arrest Patterns in a Sample of Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-06-01

    Developmental psychopathology theories suggest that childhood adversity can contribute to antisocial conduct and delinquent activities. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on arrest patterns in a sample of sexual offenders (N = 740). Higher ACE scores were associated with a variety of arrest outcomes, indicating that the accumulation of early trauma increased the likelihood of versatility and persistence of criminal behavior. Rapists of adults had higher ACE scores, lower levels of specialization, and higher levels of persistence than sex offenders with minor victims only. Child sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and domestic violence in the childhood home were significant predictors of a higher number of sex crime arrests. For measures of nonsexual arrests and criminal versatility, it was the household dysfunction factors-substance abuse, unmarried parents, and incarceration of a family member-that were predictive, suggesting that family dysfunction and a chaotic home environment contributed significantly to increased risk of general criminal behavior. Sex offenders inspire little sympathy in our society but may be among those most in need of trauma-informed models of treatment that recognize the influence of early adversity on maladaptive schema and self-regulation deficits related to criminal behavior.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), genetic polymorphisms and neurochemical correlates in experimentation with psychotropic drugs among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Somaini, L; Donnini, C; Manfredini, M; Raggi, M A; Saracino, M A; Gerra, M L; Amore, M; Leonardi, C; Serpelloni, G; Gerra, G

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological and clinical data show frequent associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance abuse susceptibility particularly in adolescents. A large body of evidences suggests that the possible dysregulation of neuroendocrine responses as well as neurotransmitters function induced by childhood traumatic experiences and emotional neglect could constitute one of the essential biological changes implementing substance abuse vulnerability. Moreover, genotype variables and its environment interactions have been associated with an increased risk for early onset substance abuse. In this paper we present several data that support the hypothesis of the involvement of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mediating the combined effect of early adverse experiences and gene variants affecting neurotransmission. The presented data also confirm the relationship between basal plasma levels of cortisol and ACTH, on the one hand, and retrospective measures of neglect during childhood on the other hand: the higher the mother and father neglect (CECA-Q) scores are, the higher the plasma levels of the two HPA hormones are. Furthermore, such positive relationship has been proved to be particularly effective and important when associated with the "S" promoter polymorphism of the gene encoding the 5-HTT transporter, both in homozygote and heterozygote individuals.

  9. Maternal Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J.; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A.; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. Methods A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Results Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52–2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01–4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27–3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13–7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12–8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46–22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25–3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03–2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05–1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14–1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53–2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28–2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35–2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56–2.56) and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12–3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01–1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62–8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50–8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41–8.54). Conclusion Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote

  10. Early Childhood Adversities and Trajectories of Psychiatric Problems in Adoptees: Evidence for Long Lasting Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 international adoptees was followed (955 males and 1029 females;…

  11. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  12. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  13. Early Soil Moisture Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, T.

    2008-12-01

    Before the large scale field experiments described in the call for papers, there were a number of experiments devoted to a single parameter, e.g. soil moisture. In the early 1970's, before the launch of the first microwave radiometer by NASA, there were a number of aircraft experiments to determine utility of these sensors for land observations. For soil moisture, these experiments were conducted in southwestern United States over irrigated agricultural areas which could provide a wide range of moisture conditions on a given day. The radiometers covered the wavelength range from 0.8 to 21 cm. These experiments demonstrated that it is possible to observe soil moisture variations remotely using a microwave radiometer with a sensitivity of about 3 K / unit of soil moisture. The results also showed that the longer wavelengths were better, with a radiometer at the 21 cm wavelength giving the best results. These positive results led to the development of Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instruments at the 21-cm wavelength. They have been used extensively in the large-scale experiments such as HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, Monsoon90, SMEX, etc. The multi-beam nature of these instruments makes it possible to obtain more extensive coverage and thus to map spatial variations of surface soil moisture. Examples of the early results along with the more recent soil moisture maps will be presented.

  14. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Health of University Students in Eight Provinces of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Quynh Anh; Dunne, Michael P; Vo, Thang Van; Luu, Ngoc Hoat

    2015-11-01

    Recent systematic reviews have emphasized the need for more research into the health and social impacts of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the Asia-Pacific region. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2099 young adult students in 8 medical universities throughout Vietnam. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire included the World Health Organization ACE-International Questionnaire and standardized measures of mental and physical health. Three quarters (76%) of the students reported at least one exposure to ACEs; 21% had 4 or more ACEs. The most commonly reported adversities were emotional abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing a household member being treated violently (42.3%, 39.9%, and 34.6%, respectively). Co-occurrence of ACEs had dose-response relationships with poor mental health, suicidal ideation, and low physical health-related quality of life. This first multisite study of ACEs among Vietnamese university students provided evidence that childhood adversity is common and is significantly linked with impaired health and well-being into the early adult years.

  16. High STOP-BANG questionnaire scores predict intraoperative and early postoperative adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Seet, Edwin; Chua, Maureen; Liaw, Chen Mei

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder associated with multisystemic organ involvement. The STOP-BANG questionnaire is a concise, validated questionnaire that is used to screen for OSA. This study aimed to establish the use of the STOP-BANG questionnaire for perioperative patient risk stratification. METHODS In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted the demographic, medical and perioperative outcome data of all patients who underwent elective surgery, excluding ophthalmic surgeries, from January to December 2011. Multivariate regression analysis was used to predict independent risk factors for intraoperative and early postoperative adverse events. RESULTS Of the 5,432 patients analysed, 7.4% had unexpected intraoperative and early postoperative adverse events. We found that the risk of unexpected intraoperative and early postoperative adverse events was greater in patients with STOP-BANG scores ≥ 3 compared to those with a STOP-BANG score of 0 (score 3: odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1–6.3, p < 0.001; score 4: OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8–6.5, p < 0.001; score 5: OR 6.4, 95% CI 2.7–15.0, p < 0.001; score ≥ 6: OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.1–15.4, p < 0.001). Patients with STOP-BANG scores ≥ 5 had a fivefold increased risk of unexpected intraoperative and early postoperative adverse events, while patients with STOP-BANG scores ≥ 3 had a ‘one in four’ chance of having an adverse event. Other independent predictors included older age (p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥ 2 (p < 0.003) and uncontrolled hypertension (p = 0.028). CONCLUSION STOP-BANG score may be used as a preoperative risk stratification tool to predict the risk of intraoperative and early postoperative adverse events. PMID:25917473

  17. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  18. Early sexual experience and prostitution.

    PubMed

    James, J; Meyerding, J

    1977-12-01

    The authors compared several aspects of early sexual experience found in two earlier studies of prostitutes with results of research on "normal" women. The prostitutes had in common many negative experiences not found or found less often in other populations of young women. These include incestuous and/or coerced sex, lack parental guidance, intercouse at a young age, and few or no meaningful relationships with males. These women had discovered that sex could lead to a kind of status, even though that status is negatively labeled by the wider culture. In a society that values women on the basis of their sexuality, a woman who views herself as "debased" may see prostitution as a viable alternative--perhaps the only alternative.

  19. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

  20. Building an Evidence-Based Mental Health Program for Children with History of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupina, Maria; Vermeulen, Marlous; Moberg, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is a major intervention in a child's life, however internationally adopted (IA) children remain at risk for long-term neurodevelopmental and mental health issues due to the fact that most of them have a history of early adversity prior to their adoption. In the last 20 years, extensive research with this population has increased the…

  1. Childhood Adversities and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: Analyses of Samples from the Former Germanies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

    Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emerging adults who experienced stressful childhoods may engage in substance use as a maladaptive coping strategy. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, adverse childhood experiences may play a prominent role in substance use decisions as these events violate the assumptions of group oriented cultural paradigms. Alternatively, adverse childhood events might not increase the risk of substance use because strong family ties could mitigate the potential maladaptive behaviors associated with these adverse experiences. This study examined whether adverse childhood experiences were associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Method Participants (n=1420, mean age=22, 41% male) completed surveys indicating whether they experienced any of 8 specific adverse experiences within their first 18 years of life, and past-month cigarette use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and binge drinking. Logistic regression models examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences and each category of substance use, controlling for age, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results The number of adverse childhood experiences was significantly associated with each category of substance use. A difference in the number of adverse childhood experiences, from 0 to 8, was associated with a 22% higher probability of cigarette smoking, a 24% higher probability of binge drinking, a 31% higher probability of marijuana use, and a 12% higher probability of hard drug use respectively. Conclusions These findings should be integrated into prevention/intervention programs in hopes of quelling the duration and severity of substance use behaviors among Hispanic emerging adults. PMID:26160522

  3. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  4. Life adverse experiences in relation with obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Giovanni Luca; Innamorati, Marco; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims Several studies report a positive association between adverse life experiences and adult obesity. Despite the high comorbidity between binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity, few authors have studied the link between trauma and BED. In this review the association between exposure to adverse life experiences and a risk for the development of obesity and BED in adulthood is explored. Methods Based on a scientific literature review in Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo databases, the results of 70 studies (N = 306,583 participants) were evaluated including 53 studies on relationship between adverse life experiences and obesity, 7 studies on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to obesity, and 10 studies on the association between adverse life experiences and BED. In addition, mediating factors between the association of adverse life experiences, obesity and BED were examined. Results The majority of studies (87%) report that adverse life experiences are a risk factor for developing obesity and BED. More precisely a positive association between traumatic experiences and obesity and PTSD and obesity were found, respectively, in 85% and 86% of studies. Finally, the great majority of studies (90%) between trauma and the development of BED in adulthood strongly support this association. Meanwhile, different factors mediating between the trauma and obesity link were identified. Discussion and conclusions Although research data show a strong association between life adverse experiences and the development of obesity and BED, more research is needed to explain this association.

  5. Life adverse experiences in relation with obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Palmisano, Giovanni Luca; Innamorati, Marco; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Several studies report a positive association between adverse life experiences and adult obesity. Despite the high comorbidity between binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity, few authors have studied the link between trauma and BED. In this review the association between exposure to adverse life experiences and a risk for the development of obesity and BED in adulthood is explored. Methods Based on a scientific literature review in Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo databases, the results of 70 studies (N = 306,583 participants) were evaluated including 53 studies on relationship between adverse life experiences and obesity, 7 studies on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to obesity, and 10 studies on the association between adverse life experiences and BED. In addition, mediating factors between the association of adverse life experiences, obesity and BED were examined. Results The majority of studies (87%) report that adverse life experiences are a risk factor for developing obesity and BED. More precisely a positive association between traumatic experiences and obesity and PTSD and obesity were found, respectively, in 85% and 86% of studies. Finally, the great majority of studies (90%) between trauma and the development of BED in adulthood strongly support this association. Meanwhile, different factors mediating between the trauma and obesity link were identified. Discussion and conclusions Although research data show a strong association between life adverse experiences and the development of obesity and BED, more research is needed to explain this association. PMID:28092189

  6. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African-Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  7. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  8. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments.

  9. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed.

  10. Trajectories of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Self-Reported Health at Age 18

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard; Flaherty, Emalee G.; English, Diana J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Dubowitz, Howard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite growing evidence of links between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and long-term health outcomes, there has been limited longitudinal investigation of such links in youth. The purpose of these analyses was to describe the patterns of exposure to ACEs over time and their links to youth health. Methods The current analyses used data from LONGSCAN, a prospective study of children at risk for or exposed to child maltreatment, who were followed from age 4 to age 18. The analyses focused on 802 youth with complete data. Cumulative exposure to ACEs between 4 and 16 was used to place participants in 3 trajectory-defined groups: chronic ACEs, early ACEs only, and limited ACEs. Links to self-reported age 18 health were examined using linear mixed models after controlling for earlier health status and demographics. Results The chronic ACEs group had increased self-reported health concerns and use of medical care at 18, but not poorer self-rated health status. The early ACEs only group did not significantly differ from limited ACEs on outcomes. Conclusions In addition to other negative outcomes, chronic ACEs appear to affect physical health in emerging adulthood. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to ACEs and early mitigation of their effects may have lasting and widespread health benefits. PMID:25441654

  11. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: toward understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Bagot, Rosemary C; Parker, Karen J; Vinkers, Christiaan H; de Kloet, E R

    2013-09-01

    Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual's predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances.

  12. Early flavor experiences: research update.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1998-07-01

    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  13. Investigating epigenetic consequences of early-life adversity: some methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Laura M.; Turecki, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stressful and traumatic events occurring during early childhood have been consistently associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. This relationship may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, which are influenced by the early-life environment. Epigenetic patterns can have lifelong effects on gene expression and on the functioning of biological processes relevant to stress reactivity and psychopathology. Optimization of epigenetic research activity necessitates a discussion surrounding the methodologies used for DNA methylation analysis, selection of tissue sources, and timing of psychological and biological assessments. Recent studies related to early-life adversity and methylation, including both candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies, have drawn from the variety of available techniques to generate interesting data in the field. Further discussion is warranted to address the limitations inherent to this field of research, along with future directions for epigenetic studies of adversity-related psychopathology. Highlights of the article We identified issues regarding sample characteristics in epigenetic studies of early life adversity. We compared methods and technologies used for candidate gene analysis and whole epigenome studies. We discussed future perspectives, including combining multiple forms of large-scale data and newer technologies. PMID:27837582

  14. Dying to be famous: retrospective cohort study of rock and pop star mortality and its association with adverse childhood experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Sharples, Olivia; Hennell, Tom; Hardcastle, Katherine A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Rock and pop fame is associated with risk taking, substance use and premature mortality. We examine relationships between fame and premature mortality and test how such relationships vary with type of performer (eg, solo or band member) and nationality and whether cause of death is linked with prefame (adverse childhood) experiences. Design A retrospective cohort analysis based on biographical data. An actuarial methodology compares postfame mortality to matched general populations. Cox survival and logistic regression techniques examine risk and protective factors for survival and links between adverse childhood experiences and cause of death, respectively. Setting North America and Europe. Participants 1489 rock and pop stars reaching fame between 1956 and 2006. Outcomes Stars’ postfame mortality relative to age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched populations (USA and UK); variations in survival with performer type, and in cause of mortality with exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Results Rock/pop star mortality increases relative to the general population with time since fame. Increases are greater in North American stars and those with solo careers. Relative mortality begins to recover 25 years after fame in European but not North American stars. Those reaching fame from 1980 onwards have better survival rates. For deceased stars, cause of death was more likely to be substance use or risk-related in those with more adverse childhood experiences. Conclusions Relationships between fame and mortality vary with performers’ characteristics. Adverse experiences in early life may leave some predisposed to health-damaging behaviours, with fame and extreme wealth providing greater opportunities to engage in risk-taking. Millions of youths wish to emulate their icons. It is important they recognise that substance use and risk-taking may be rooted in childhood adversity rather than seeing them as symbols of success. PMID:23253869

  15. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A

    2016-09-29

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p < 0.001) and parental violence (β = -0.0002; p = 0.012). Among men, IPV perpetration fully mediated sexual abuse (β = -0.0005; p = 0.012) and HIV/STIs while among women, IPV perpetration was not a statistically significant mediator. HIV/STI prevention and intervention programs should use a life course approach by addressing adverse childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.

  16. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume☆

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Nicholas D.; Dalgleish, Tim; Lombardo, Michael V.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Ban, Maria; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to childhood adversities (CA) is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV). Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4) with (n = 27) or without (n = 31) CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE) recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life. PMID:25061568

  17. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  18. Early Adverse Events as Predictors of One-Year Mortality during Mechanical Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Elizabeth A.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J.; Simon, Marc A.; Bhama, Jay K.; Bermudez, Christian A.; Lockard, Kathleen L; Winowich, Steve; Kormos, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ventricular assist devices (VADs) provide effective treatment for end-stage heart failure, however most patients experience ≥1 major adverse event (AE) while on VAD support. Although early, non-fatal AEs may increase the risk of later mortality during VAD support, this relationship has not been established. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of AEs occurring during the first 60 days of VAD support on one-year mortality. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using prospectively collected data from a single-site database for patients aged ≥18 years receiving left- or biventricular support during 1996-2008, who survived >60 days on VAD support. Fourteen major classes of AEs occurring during this 60-day period were examined. One-year survival rates of patients with and without each major AE were compared. Results There were 163 patients included; the mean age was 49.5 years, 80% were male, 87% were European American, 72% had left ventricular support, and 83% were bridge to transplant. The occurrence of renal failure, respiratory failure, bleeding events, and reoperations during the first 60 days after implantation significantly increased the risk of one-year mortality. Controlling for gender, age, VAD type, and intention to treat, renal failure was the only major AE significantly associated with later mortality (hazard ratio=2.96, p=0.023). Conclusions Specific AEs (renal, respiratory and bleeding events, and reoperations) significantly decrease longer-term survival, with renal failure conferring a 3-fold increased risk of one-year mortality. Peri-operative management should focus on strategies to mitigate risk for renal failure in order to maximize later outcomes. PMID:20580265

  19. A serial mediation model testing early adversity, self-concept clarity, and thin-ideal internalization as predictors of body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Froreich, Franzisca V; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the associations among early family adversity (e.g., family violence, neglect), self-concept clarity (i.e., having a clear and coherent sense of one's own personal identity), thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction. Female university students in Australia (n=323) and adult female community members in the United States (n=371) completed self-report measures of the relevant constructs. In both samples, serial mediation analysis revealed that early family adversity was negatively associated with self-concept clarity, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with thin-ideal internalization, and thin-ideal internalization was positively associated with body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that early adverse experiences might impair individuals' self-concept clarity, and that low self-concept clarity might increase the risk of internalization of the thin ideal (as a means of defining the self) and consequently body dissatisfaction. These findings also suggest possible avenues for prevention and intervention efforts.

  20. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting.

  2. Rational therapy for diabetes: early recognition of adverse effects and avoidance of disruptive false alarms.

    PubMed

    Raz, Itamar; Eldor, Roy

    2012-05-01

    Corresponding to the uncontrolled diabetes pandemic, significant effort has been invested in developing new therapeutic options. Nevertheless, all medicines have possible adverse effects. Recently, a trend of 'scrutinizing' novel hypoglycaemic drug side effects based on scant scientific data has emerged. With recent publications highlighting possible dangers of rosiglitazone, insulin glargine, sitagliptin, exenatide and, most recently, pioglitazone, it seems that all means are valid and that every database is suitable, even if specifically defined as inadequate for the purpose of data analysis. The use of such data may lead authors to draw erroneous conclusions that may be granted unwarranted impact upon publication in leading scientific journals and eventually lead patients and misinformed physicians to wrongly change beneficial medication regimes. Adherence to strict scientific methodology, ongoing large clinical trials and creating adjudicated patient databases may facilitate early recognition of adverse effects while avoiding disruptive false alarms.

  3. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Well-Being in a Low-Income, Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Giovanelli, Alison; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mondi, Christina F.; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the association between ACEs during childhood and multi-dimensional well-being in early adulthood for a low-income urban cohort, and whether a preschool preventive intervention moderates this association. Methods Follow-up data were analyzed for 1,202 low-income, minority participants in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of the impact of early experiences on life-course well-being. Born in 1979-1980 in high-poverty neighborhoods, individuals retrospectively reported ACEs from birth to adolescence, except in cases of child abuse and neglect. . Results Nearly two-thirds of the study sample experienced one or more ACEs by age 18. After controlling for demographic factors and early intervention status, individuals reporting ACEs were significantly more likely to exhibit poor outcomes than those with no ACEs. Those with four or more ACEs had significantly reduced likelihood of high school graduation (OR = .37; p < .001), increased risk for depression (OR = 3.9; p < .001), health compromising behaviors (OR = 4.5; p < .001), juvenile arrest (OR = 3.1; p < .001) and felony charges (OR = 2.8; p < .001). They were also less likely to hold skilled jobs (OR = .50; p = .001) and to go further in school even for adversity measured by age 5. Conclusions ACEs consistently predicted a diverse set of adult outcomes in a high-risk economically disadvantaged sample. Effective and widely available preventive interventions are needed to counteract the long-term consequences of ACEs. PMID:26966132

  5. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  6. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B.; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  7. Adult Memories of Early Reading Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Shirley A.; Bruder, Mary N.

    1987-01-01

    Structured interviews with 128 poor readers and nonreaders probed subjects' early reading experiences and attitudes about those experiences. Topics covered include subjects' perception of personal reading ability, family environment, and school experience. Findings indicate poor self-images result from bad reading experiences, including reading…

  8. Mother-offspring dialogue in early pregnancy: impact of adverse environment on pregnancy maintenance and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2011-07-01

    The mother-offspring dialogue begins even before implantation and is essential to signal pregnancy, establish robust contact, and maintain embryo growth and development. Any circumstance that disrupts the dialogue risks pregnancy problems. A new look at how stress impacts on pregnancy involves its adverse effects on the key pregnancy hormones of progesterone and prolactin. These effects have far-reaching consequences on pregnancy maintenance, maternal anxiety and embryo programming. This review focuses on early pregnancy and how stress might compromise the multi-layer, two-way communication between mother and embryo.

  9. Epigenetic effects of early developmental experiences.

    PubMed

    Gudsnuk, Kathryn M A; Champagne, Frances A

    2011-12-01

    Early-life adversity can affect brain development and behavior. Emerging evidence from studies on both humans and rodents suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may play a critical role in shaping our biology in response to the quality of the environment. This article highlights the research findings suggesting that prenatal maternal stress, postnatal maternal care, and infant neglect/abuse can lead to epigenetic variation, which may have long-term effects on stress responsivity, neuronal plasticity, and behavior.

  10. The effect of childhood adversity on 4-year outcome in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis in the Dutch Early Detection Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) Trial.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Tamar C; Ising, Helga K; Fokkema, Marjolein; Velthorst, Eva; van den Berg, David P G; Kerkhoven, Margot; Veling, Wim; Smit, Filip; Linszen, Don H; Nieman, Dorien H; Wunderink, Lex; Boonstra, Nynke; Klaassen, Rianne M C; Dragt, Sara; Rietdijk, Judith; de Haan, Lieuwe; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with a range of mental disorders, functional impairment and higher health care costs in adulthood. In this study we evaluated if childhood adversity was predictive of adverse clinical and functional outcomes and health care costs in a sample of patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing a psychosis. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the effect of childhood adversity on depression, anxiety, transition to psychosis and overall functioning at 4-year follow-up. In addition, we evaluated economic costs of childhood adversity in terms of health care use and productivity loss. Data pertain to 105 UHR participants of the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL). Physical abuse was associated with higher depression rates (b=0.381, p=0.012) and lower social functional outcome (b=-0.219, p=0.017) at 4-year follow-up. In addition, emotional neglect was negatively associated with social functioning (b=-0.313, p=0.018). We did not find evidence that childhood adversity was associated with transition to psychosis, but the experience of childhood adversity was associated with excess health care costs at follow-up. The data indicate long-term negative effects of childhood adversity on depression, social functioning and health care costs at follow-up in a sample of UHR patients.

  11. Histone Modifications in a Mouse Model of Early Adversities and Panic Disorder: Role for Asic1 and Neurodevelopmental Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cittaro, Davide; Lampis, Valentina; Luchetti, Alessandra; Coccurello, Roberto; Guffanti, Alessandro; Felsani, Armando; Moles, Anna; Stupka, Elia; D’ Amato, Francesca R.; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Hyperventilation following transient, CO2-induced acidosis is ubiquitous in mammals and heritable. In humans, respiratory and emotional hypersensitivity to CO2 marks separation anxiety and panic disorders, and is enhanced by early-life adversities. Mice exposed to the repeated cross-fostering paradigm (RCF) of interference with maternal environment show heightened separation anxiety and hyperventilation to 6% CO2-enriched air. Gene-environment interactions affect CO2 hypersensitivity in both humans and mice. We therefore hypothesised that epigenetic modifications and increased expression of genes involved in pH-detection could explain these relationships. Medullae oblongata of RCF- and normally-reared female outbred mice were assessed by ChIP-seq for H3Ac, H3K4me3, H3K27me3 histone modifications, and by SAGE for differential gene expression. Integration of multiple experiments by network analysis revealed an active component of 148 genes pointing to the mTOR signalling pathway and nociception. Among these genes, Asic1 showed heightened mRNA expression, coherent with RCF-mice’s respiratory hypersensitivity to CO2 and altered nociception. Functional enrichment and mRNA transcript analyses yielded a consistent picture of enhancement for several genes affecting chemoception, neurodevelopment, and emotionality. Particularly, results with Asic1 support recent human findings with panic and CO2 responses, and provide new perspectives on how early adversities and genes interplay to affect key components of panic and related disorders. PMID:27121911

  12. Histone Modifications in a Mouse Model of Early Adversities and Panic Disorder: Role for Asic1 and Neurodevelopmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Cittaro, Davide; Lampis, Valentina; Luchetti, Alessandra; Coccurello, Roberto; Guffanti, Alessandro; Felsani, Armando; Moles, Anna; Stupka, Elia; D' Amato, Francesca R; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-04-28

    Hyperventilation following transient, CO2-induced acidosis is ubiquitous in mammals and heritable. In humans, respiratory and emotional hypersensitivity to CO2 marks separation anxiety and panic disorders, and is enhanced by early-life adversities. Mice exposed to the repeated cross-fostering paradigm (RCF) of interference with maternal environment show heightened separation anxiety and hyperventilation to 6% CO2-enriched air. Gene-environment interactions affect CO2 hypersensitivity in both humans and mice. We therefore hypothesised that epigenetic modifications and increased expression of genes involved in pH-detection could explain these relationships. Medullae oblongata of RCF- and normally-reared female outbred mice were assessed by ChIP-seq for H3Ac, H3K4me3, H3K27me3 histone modifications, and by SAGE for differential gene expression. Integration of multiple experiments by network analysis revealed an active component of 148 genes pointing to the mTOR signalling pathway and nociception. Among these genes, Asic1 showed heightened mRNA expression, coherent with RCF-mice's respiratory hypersensitivity to CO2 and altered nociception. Functional enrichment and mRNA transcript analyses yielded a consistent picture of enhancement for several genes affecting chemoception, neurodevelopment, and emotionality. Particularly, results with Asic1 support recent human findings with panic and CO2 responses, and provide new perspectives on how early adversities and genes interplay to affect key components of panic and related disorders.

  13. Environmental adversity and children's early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children's trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F.; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the HPA or stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5–18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA. PMID:27286932

  15. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  16. Alterations of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Telomere Length with Early Adversity and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Price, Lawrence H.; Kao, Hung-Teh; Porton, Barbara; Philip, Noah S.; Welch, Emma S.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Telomere shortening and alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in cellular aging. Childhood adversity is associated with telomere shortening, and several investigations have shown short telomeres in psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have examined whether mitochondria might be involved in neuropsychiatric conditions; findings are limited and no prior work has examined this in relation to stress exposure. Methods Two-hundred and ninety healthy adults provided information on childhood parental loss and maltreatment and completed diagnostic interviews. Participants were categorized into four groups based upon the presence or absence of childhood adversity and the presence or absence of lifetime psychopathology (depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders). Telomere length and mtDNA copy number were measured from leukocyte DNA by qPCR. Results Childhood adversity and lifetime psychopathology were each associated with shorter telomeres (p < .01) and higher mtDNA copy numbers (p < .001). Significantly higher mtDNA copy numbers and shorter telomeres were seen in individuals with major depression, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders, as well as those with parental loss and childhood maltreatment. A history of substance disorders was also associated with significantly higher mtDNA copy numbers. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence of an alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis with early life stress and with anxiety and substance use disorders. We replicate prior work on telomere length and psychopathology, and show that this effect is not secondary to medication use or comorbid medical illness. Finally, we show that early life stress and psychopathology are each associated with these markers of cellular aging. PMID:25749099

  17. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health, chronic medical conditions, and development in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zhang, Jinjin; Nadeem, Erum; Stein, Ruth E. K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health, chronic medical conditions and social development among young children in the child welfare system. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, using a nationally representative sample of children investigated by child welfare (National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II) from 2008–2009. Our analysis included caregiver interviews and caseworker reports about children age 18–71 months who were not in out-of-home care (N=912). We examined the associations between ACEs and mental health (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)), reported chronic medical conditions, and social development (measured by the Vineland Socialization Scale), in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Nearly all children (98.1%) were reported to have had an ACE in their lifetime; the average number of ACEs was 3.6. For every additional reported ACE there was a 32% increased odds of having a problem score on the CBCL (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53), and a 21% increased odds of having a chronic medical condition (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40). Among children 36–71 months, for every additional reported ACE there was a 77% increased odds of a low Vineland Socialization score (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78). Conclusion and Relevance ACEs were associated with poor early childhood mental health and chronic medical conditions, and, among children age 3–5, social development. Efforts are needed to examine whether providing early intervention to families with multiple stressors mitigates the impact of ACEs on children’s outcomes. PMID:26183001

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Resilience and Mindfulness-Based Approaches: Common Denominator Issues for Children with Emotional, Mental, or Behavioral Problems.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Christina; Gombojav, Narangerel; Solloway, Michele; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    US children with emotional, mental, or behavioral conditions (EMB) have disproportionate exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). There are theoretic and empirical explanations for early and lifelong physical, mental, emotional, educational, and social impacts of the resultant trauma and chronic stress. Using mindfulness-based, mind-body approaches (MBMB) may strengthen families and promote child resilience and success. This paper examines associations between EMB, ACEs, and protective factors, such as child resilience, parental coping/stress, and parent-child engagement. Findings encourage family-centered and mindfulness-based approaches to address social and emotional trauma and potentially interrupt cycles of ACEs and prevalence of EMB.

  19. Enduring Influences of Early Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    Implications of three basic facts about very young infants are delineated in this summary. Normally, human infants are capable of a wide range of functions, such as "appetitive responses" (e.g., the rooting reflex) and defensive maneuvers. They experience pleasure and feel pain. Additionally, they undergo a transition from subcortical to…

  20. Early Experiences and Educational Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Russell C.

    1973-01-01

    Identifies stages in a child's life (particularly low-income children) at which he might be "disadvantaged" or "advantaged" in relation to certain influences in his life at that time, and argues that the child experiences the most critical influences before the school receives him.

  1. The stability of self-reported adverse experiences in childhood: a longitudinal study on obesity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Susana Sofia Pereira; da Costa Maia, Angela

    2013-07-01

    The literature on the effect of maltreatment has revealed several methodological problems of retrospective studies, such as the validity and stability of retrospective reports, which may be influenced by factors such as one's mental health at the time of the report. This study aims to assess the temporal stability of self-reported adverse childhood experiences at three different time points, separated by 6 months each, and to analyze the relationship between general psychopathology and the number of reported experiences. Thirty obese participants responded to the Portuguese version of the Childhood History Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses adverse childhood experiences, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. The results suggest that adverse childhood experiences are common in these participants (time 1: X = 1.87, SD = 1.3; time 2: X = 1.98, SD = 1.6; time 3: X = 1.98, SD = 1.6). The agreement levels, as measured by kappa values, were satisfactory for the dimensions of maltreatment focused on the individual, with kappas ranging between .34 and .44. Our participants did not exhibit psychopathology at any of the time points, and the psychopathological symptoms were not related to total adversity reported. The major contribution of this study is the comparison of self-reports at three time points, separated by significant time intervals, and the inclusion of 10 different dimensions of childhood adversity. The data show an adequate stability in the report of maltreatment toward the individual (abuse and physical neglect) and in specific aspects of adversity in the family.

  2. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  3. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  6. Validity of Adult Retrospective Reports of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Rutter, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influential studies have cast doubt on the validity of retrospective reports by adults of their own adverse experiences in childhood. Accordingly, many researchers view retrospective reports with scepticism. Method: A computer-based search, supplemented by hand searches, was used to identify studies reported between 1980 and 2001 in…

  7. Designing Interventions Informed by Scientific Knowledge About Effects of Early Adversity: A Translational Neuroscience Agenda for Next Generation Addictions Research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of extensive scientific knowledge about the neurobiological systems and neural pathways underlying addictions, only limited progress has been made to reduce the population-level incidence of addictions by using prevention and treatment programs. In this area of research the translation of basic neuroscience of causal mechanisms to effective interventions has not been fully realized. In this article we describe how an understanding of the effects of early adverse experiences on brain and biological development may provide new opportunities to achieve impact at scale with respect to reduction of addictions. We propose four categories of new knowledge that translational neuroscience investigations of addictions should incorporate to be successful. We then describe a translational neuroscience-informed smoking cessation intervention based on this model. PMID:26985399

  8. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Criminality: How Long Must We Live before We Possess Our Own Lives?

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, James A; Looman, Jan; Franco, Kristina A; Rojas, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research associated with the Kaiser Permanente and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study has demonstrated that ACE are associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including physical and mental health disorders and aggressive behavior. Methods: Subjects from 4 different offender groups (N = 151) who were referred for treatment at an outpatient clinic in San Diego, CA, subsequent to conviction in criminal court, completed the ACE Questionnaire. Groups (nonsexual child abusers, domestic violence offenders, sexual offenders, and stalkers) were compared on the incidence of ACE, and comparisons were made between the group offenders and a normative sample. Results: Results indicated that the offender group reported nearly four times as many adverse events in childhood than an adult male normative sample. Eight of ten events were found at significantly higher levels among the criminal population. In addition, convicted sexual offenders and child abusers were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse in childhood than other offender types. Conclusions: On the basis of a review of the literature and current findings, criminal behavior can be added to the host of negative outcomes associated with scores on the ACE Questionnaire. Childhood adversity is associated with adult criminality. We suggest that to decrease criminal recidivism, treatment interventions must focus on the effects of early life experiences. PMID:23704843

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences, The Medical Home, and Child Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE), access to a medical home and a global measure of well-being among children ages 6 to 17 using the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Methods Multivariate linear regressions assessed the associations between each adverse experience and an index of child well-being with and without the impact of other events. The number of ACE was summed for each respondent and the analyses were repeated with the cumulative score as a continuous variable. The cumulative model was repeated with the addition of an interaction term between ACE score and medical home access. All analyses were conducted separately for children ages 6 to 11 and adolescents 12 to 17. Results Over half (53%) of US children ages 6 to 17 have experienced some adverse experience during childhood. Over a quarter (28%) has experienced at least two adverse experiences, while 15% have experienced three or more hardships. Results suggest that the accumulation of ACE reduces well-being in children. The associations remained significant after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, age, parental education, special health condition, and medical home access. Medical home access was consistently associated with higher levels of child well-being and was a significant moderator of the relationship between the total ACE and child well-being among children ages 6 to 11. Children with ACE exposure and access to a medical home have higher levels of well-being than comparable children without access to a medical home. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse experiences have measurably lower levels of well-being, although younger children with access to a medical home are protected at increasing exposure. PMID:26140833

  11. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Cattrell, Anna; Schumann, Gunter; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-10-02

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth. CFA during childhood was determined using a standardized parent interview. Disruptive behaviors and CD diagnoses during childhood and adolescence were obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years), temperamental reward dependence was assessed by questionnaire (15 and 19 years).CFA predicted increased CD and amygdala volume. Both exposure to CFA and CD were associated with a decreased VS response during reward anticipation and blunted amygdala activity during face-matching. CD mediated the effect of CFA on brain activity. Temperamental reward dependence was negatively correlated with CFA and CD and positively with VS activity. These findings underline the detrimental effects of CFA on the offspring's affective processing and support the importance of early postnatal intervention programs aiming to reduce childhood adversity factors.

  12. Transcriptional modulation of the developing immune system by early life social adversity

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Conti, Gabriella; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Heckman, James J.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    To identify molecular mechanisms by which early life social conditions might influence adult risk of disease in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), we analyze changes in basal leukocyte gene expression profiles in 4-mo-old animals reared under adverse social conditions. Compared with the basal condition of maternal rearing (MR), leukocytes from peer-reared (PR) animals and PR animals provided with an inanimate surrogate mother (surrogate/peer reared, SPR) show enhanced expression of genes involved in inflammation, cytokine signaling, and T-lymphocyte activation, and suppression of genes involved in several innate antimicrobial defenses including type I interferon (IFN) antiviral responses. Promoter-based bioinformatic analyses implicate increased activity of CREB and NF-κB transcription factors and decreased activity of IFN response factors (IRFs) in structuring the observed differences in gene expression. Transcript origin analyses identify monocytes and CD4+ T lymphocytes as primary cellular mediators of transcriptional up-regulation and B lymphocytes as major sources of down-regulated genes. These findings show that adverse social conditions can become embedded within the basal transcriptome of primate immune cells within the first 4 mo of life, and they implicate sympathetic nervous system-linked transcription control pathways as candidate mediators of those effects and potential targets for health-protective intervention. PMID:23184974

  13. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Oka, Hiroyuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Background Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1) chronic pain prevalence, 2) multisite pain (≥3 sites) prevalence, and 3) multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms) among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01) in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01) in women. Among women with chronic pain, early-life adversity was associated with multisite pain and multiple somatic symptoms; multivariable ORs were 1.78 (1.22–2.60, p<0.01) for multisite pain and 1.89 (1.27–2.83, p<0.01) for ≥3 somatic symptoms. No associations were observed between early-life adversity and chronic multisite pain or multiple somatic symptoms among men with chronic pain. Conclusion Early-life adversity may be linked to a higher prevalence of chronic pain among both sexes and to multisite pain and somatizing tendency among women with chronic pain. PMID:28243147

  14. Transgenerational transmission of pregestational and prenatal experience: maternal adversity, enrichment, and underlying epigenetic and environmental mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Taouk, L; Schulkin, J

    2016-12-01

    Transgenerational transmission refers to positive and negative adaptations in brain function and behavior that affect following generations. In this paper, empirical findings regarding the transgenerational transmission of maternal adversity during three critical periods - childhood, pregestational adulthood and pregnancy - will be reviewed in terms of pregnancy outcomes, maternal care, offspring behavior and development, and physiological functioning. Research on the transgenerational transmission of enrichment and the implications for interventions to ameliorate the consequences of adversity will also be presented. In the final section, underlying epigenetic and environmental mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how experience is transferred across generations through transgenerational transmission will be reviewed. Directions for future research are suggested throughout.

  15. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2015-01-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  16. Life Course Pathways of Adverse Childhood Experiences Toward Adult Psychological Well-Being: A Stress Process Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N = 13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. PMID:25846195

  17. Kendall Square multiprocessor: Early experiences and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1992-04-01

    Initial performance results and early experiences are reported for the Kendall Square Research multiprocessor. The basic architecture of the shared-memory multiprocessor is described, and computational and I/O performance is measured for both serial and parallel programs. Experiences in porting various applications are described.

  18. Adverse effects of psychological therapy: An exploratory study of practitioners' experiences from child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Johanson, Josefin; Nilsson, Elin; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The scientific knowledge about adverse effects of psychological therapies and how such effects should be detected is limited. It is possible that children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable and need specific support in order to express adverse effects. In this exploratory study, we used a qualitative approach to explore practitioners' experiences of this phenomenon. Fourteen practitioners providing psychological therapy within the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was applied to the data. Four overarching categories brought up by the practitioners were identified: vagueness of the concept (reflecting that the concept was novel and hard to define), psychotherapist-client interaction (encompassing aspects of the interaction possibly related to adverse effects), consequences for the young person (including a range of emotional, behavioural and social consequences) and family effects (e.g. professional complications and decreased autonomy for the parent). Professional discussions on these issues could improve psychological therapy for children and adolescents. Based on our findings and previous research, we propose three basic aspects to consider when adverse effects are detected and managed in this context: typology (form, severity and duration), aetiology (hypothesis about the causes) and perspective (adverse effects seen from the points of view of different interested parties).

  19. Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, High-Risk Behaviors, and Morbidity in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with early mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the association among ACEs, high-risk health behaviors, and comorbid conditions, as well as the independent effect of ACE components. Methods Data were analyzed on 48,526 U.S. adults from five states in the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Exposures included psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse as well as household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, violence, and incarceration. Main outcome measures included risky behaviors and morbidity measures, including binge drinking, heavy drinking, current smoking, high-risk HIV behavior, obesity, diabetes, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, disability due to poor health, and use of special equipment due to disability. Multiple logistic regression assessed the independent relationship between ACE score categories and risky behaviors/comorbidities in adulthood, and assessed the independent relationship between individual ACE components and risky behaviors/comorbid conditions in adulthood controlling for covariates. Results A total of 55.4% of respondents reported at least one ACE and 13.7% reported four or more ACEs. ACE score of ≥ 4 was associated with increased odds for binge drinking, heavy drinking, smoking, risky HIV behavior, diabetes, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, disability due to health, and use of special equipment due to disability. In addition, the individual components had different effects on risky behavior and comorbidities. Conclusions In addition to having a cumulative effect, individual ACE components have differential relationships with risky behaviors, morbidity, and disability in adulthood after controlling for important confounders. PMID:26474668

  20. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-03

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders.

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Commitment Offense, and Race/Ethnicity: Are the Effects Crime-, Race-, and Ethnicity-Specific?

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Matt; Alcala, Justin; Kusow, Abdi; Hochstetler, Andy; Heirigs, Mark H.; Caudill, Jonathan W.; Trulson, Chad R.; Baglivio, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity. Using a sample of 2520 male confined juvenile delinquents, the current study used epidemiological tables of odds (both unadjusted and adjusted for onset, total adjudications, and total out of home placements) to evaluate the significance of the number of adverse childhood experiences on commitment for homicide, sexual assault, and serious persons/property offending. The effects of adverse childhood experiences vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups and across offense types. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly and positively associated with sexual offending, but negatively associated with homicide and serious person/property offending. Differential effects of adverse childhood experiences were also seen among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Suggestions for future research to clarify the mechanisms by which adverse childhood experiences manifest in specific forms of criminal behavior are offered. PMID:28327508

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Commitment Offense, and Race/Ethnicity: Are the Effects Crime-, Race-, and Ethnicity-Specific?

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt; Alcala, Justin; Kusow, Abdi; Hochstetler, Andy; Heirigs, Mark H; Caudill, Jonathan W; Trulson, Chad R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2017-03-22

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity. Using a sample of 2520 male confined juvenile delinquents, the current study used epidemiological tables of odds (both unadjusted and adjusted for onset, total adjudications, and total out of home placements) to evaluate the significance of the number of adverse childhood experiences on commitment for homicide, sexual assault, and serious persons/property offending. The effects of adverse childhood experiences vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups and across offense types. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly and positively associated with sexual offending, but negatively associated with homicide and serious person/property offending. Differential effects of adverse childhood experiences were also seen among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Suggestions for future research to clarify the mechanisms by which adverse childhood experiences manifest in specific forms of criminal behavior are offered.

  3. A systematic review of early life factors which adversely affect subsequent lung function.

    PubMed

    Kouzouna, A; Gilchrist, F J; Ball, V; Kyriacou, T; Henderson, J; Pandyan, A D; Lenney, W

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for many years that multiple early life factors can adversely affect lung function and future respiratory health. This is the first systematic review to attempt to analyse all these factors simultaneously. We adhered to strict a priori criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies. The initial search yielded 29,351 citations of which 208 articles were reviewed in full and 25 were included in the review. This included 6 birth cohorts and 19 longitudinal population studies. The 25 studies reported the effect of 74 childhood factors (on their own or in combinations with other factors) on subsequent lung function reported as percent predicted forced expiration in one second (FEV1). The childhood factors that were associated with a significant reduction in future FEV1 could be grouped as: early infection, bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) / airway lability, a diagnosis of asthma, wheeze, family history of atopy or asthma, respiratory symptoms and prematurity / low birth weight. A complete mathematical model will only be possible if the raw data from all previous studies is made available. This highlights the need for increased cooperation between researchers and the need for international consensus about the outcome measures for future longitudinal studies.

  4. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  5. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Function predict Major Adverse Cardiac Events and Early Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Magdy, Abdel Hamid; Bakhoum, Sameh; Sharaf, Yasser; Sabry, Dina; El-Gengehe, Ahmed T; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are mobilized from the bone marrow and increase in the early phase after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of CECs and indices of endothelial dysfunction in patients with STEMI. In 78 patients with acute STEMI, characterization of CD34+/VEGFR2+ CECs, and indices of endothelial damage/dysfunction such as brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD) were determined. Blood samples for CECs assessment and quantification were obtained within 24 hours of admission and FMD was assessed during the index hospitalization. At 30 days follow up, the primary composite end point of major cardiac adverse events (MACE) consisting of all-cause mortality, recurrent non-fatal MI, or heart failure and the secondary endpoint of early adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling were analyzed. The 17 patients (22%) who developed MACE had significantly higher CEC level (P = 0.004), vWF level (P =0.028), and significantly lower FMD (P = 0.006) compared to the remaining patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that CECs level and LV ejection fraction were independent predictors of MACE. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) for CEC level, FMD, and the logistic model with both markers were 0.73, 0.75, and 0.82 respectively for prediction of the MACE. The 16 patients who developed the secondary endpoint had significantly higher CEC level compared to remaining patients (p =0.038). In conclusion, increased circulating endothelial cells and endothelial dysfunction predicted the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events and adverse cardiac remodeling in patients with STEMI. PMID:26864952

  6. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lucie A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM), which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses. PMID:22110940

  7. When the safe place does not protect: reports of victimisation and adverse experiences in psychiatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Mesquita, Cristina; da Costa Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatric patients report higher levels of victimisation and are at risk for further victimisation in different contexts, such as psychiatric institutions. Studies in this field tend to focus on hospital staff as victims, experiencing classic forms of victimisation (e.g. physical assault, threats, verbal abuse), through qualitative studies. This is a quantitative retrospective study that aims to know the occurrence of psychiatric victimisation and other adverse experiences in Portuguese psychiatric patients. Ninety-five psychiatric patients, between 20 and 79 years old (M - 45.18, SD - 13.06), with a history of psychiatric hospitalisation answered the Experiences in Psychiatric Institution Inventory. Participants were recruited in four psychiatric hospitals. Inpatients were approached during their hospitalisation; outpatients were approached in scheduled appointment days. Only 23 (24.2%) participants reported no victimisation. Total Experiences of Self varied from 0 to 7 (M - 1.75, SD - 1.72), Total Witnessed Experiences varied from 0 to 7 (M - 1.17, SD - 1.64), and Total Global Experiences varied from 0 to 14 (M - 2.92, SD - 3.01). These results show that victimisation and adverse experiences in psychiatric contexts are frequent and go beyond classic forms of victimisation. A deeper knowledge of these experiences and their impact in the mental health of psychiatric patients may promote quality of care provided and lead to more effective treatments, thus reducing the number and length of hospitalisations, and the financial burden for public health services.

  8. Footprints of "experiment" in early Arabic optics.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Elaheh

    2009-01-01

    This study traces the early developments of the concept of experiment with a view of extending the subject in both content and approach. It extends the content of the subject slightly backward, prior to the methodological breakthroughs of the Optics of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen or Alhacen, d. ca. 1040), which are credited as a "significant landmark in the history of experimental science." And it extends the approach to the subject slightly forward, from the premise that early science was "largely carried out in books," to a close examination of the books through which the footprints of'experiment' may be traced. The point of departure is the Optics of Ahmad ibn 'Isă, a revealing text for the early developments of concepts such as 'demonstration' and 'experiment', and one through which some modern discussions are examined and extended with reference to this and other historical sources.

  9. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states.

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Disordered Gambling: Assessing the Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Poole, Julia C; Kim, Hyoun S; Dobson, Keith S; Hodgins, David C

    2017-03-03

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual and physical abuse, have been established as risk factors for the development of disordered gambling. The underlying mechanism by which ACEs influence disordered gambling, however, remains unknown. The aims of the present research were to comprehensively investigate ten types of childhood adversity and their relationships to disordered gambling in adulthood, and to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. A sample of community gamblers (N = 414) completed self-report measures of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and gambling severity. Results revealed a significant association between all but one type (physical abuse) of ACEs and disordered gambling. Further, the results highlighted the cumulative impact of ACEs on gambling. Specifically, individuals who experienced three or more types of ACEs were more than three times as likely to report disordered gambling as compared to individuals with no history of childhood adversity. Importantly, as hypothesized, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. Findings from this research describe the association between ACEs and gambling and indicate a causal link between childhood adversity and disordered gambling. Results suggest that treatment initiatives may do well to address both ACEs and emotion dysregulation in the treatment of problem gambling.

  11. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood.

  12. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  13. Early origins of inflammation: an examination of prenatal and childhood social adversity in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Loucks, Eric B.; Appleton, Allison A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Non, Amy L.; Buka, Stephen; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children exposed to social adversity carry a greater risk of poor physical and mental health into adulthood. This increased risk is thought to be due, in part, to inflammatory processes associated with early adversity that contribute to the etiology of many adult illnesses. The current study asks whether aspects of the prenatal social environment are associated with levels of inflammation in adulthood, and whether prenatal and childhood adversity both contribute to adult inflammation. Methods We examined associations of prenatal and childhood adversity assessed through direct interviews of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959–1974 with blood levels of C-reactive protein in 355 offspring interviewed in adulthood (mean age=42.2 years). Linear and quantile regression models were used to estimate the effects of prenatal adversity and childhood adversity on adult inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, and race and other potential confounders. Results In separate linear regression models, high levels of prenatal and childhood adversity were associated with higher CRP in adulthood. When prenatal and childhood adversity were analyzed together, our results support the presence of an effect of prenatal adversity on (log) CRP level in adulthood (β=0.73, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.20) that is independent of childhood adversity and potential confounding factors including maternal health conditions reported during pregnancy. Supplemental analyses revealed similar findings using quantile regression models and logistic regression models that used a clinically-relevant CRP threshold (>3 mg/L). In a fully-adjusted model that included childhood adversity, high prenatal adversity was associated with a 3-fold elevated odds (95% CI: 1.15, 8.02) of having a CRP level in adulthood that indicates high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Social adversity during the prenatal period is a risk factor for elevated inflammation in adulthood independent of

  14. Early Adverse Events and Attrition in SSRI Treatment: A Suicide Assessment Methodology Study (SAMS) Report

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Diane; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Kurian, Benji; Zisook, Sidney; Kornstein, Susan G.; Friedman, Edward S.; Miyahara, Sachiko; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, John

    2011-01-01

    Adverse events during selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment are frequent and may lead to premature treatment discontinuation. If attrition is associated with early worsening of side effects or the frequency, intensity, or burden of side effects, interventions to maximize retention could be focused on patients with these events. Outpatient participants (n=265) with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder entered an 8-week trial with an SSRI. At baseline and week 2, specific side effects were evaluated with the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Events – Systematic Inquiry, and at week 2 the Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Rating globally assessed side effects. Attrition was defined by those participants who left treatment after week 2 but before week 8. No specific week 2 side effect, either treatment emergent or with worsening intensity, was independently associated with attrition. Global ratings of side effect frequency, intensity, or burden at week 2 were also not associated with subsequent attrition. Neither global ratings nor specific side effects at week 2 were related to patient attrition during SSRI treatment. Other factors appear to contribute to patient decisions about continuing with treatment. PMID:20473060

  15. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  16. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  17. Self-Focused and Other-Focused Resiliency: Plausible Mechanisms Linking Early Family Adversity to Health Problems in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Sulamunn R. M.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Heron, Kristin E.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women. Participants: Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010. Methods: Participants completed self-report measures…

  18. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  19. The long-term impact of early adversities on psychiatric disorders: focus on neuronal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Luoni, Alessia; Richetto, Juliet; Racagni, Giorgio; Molteni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long pathological phenotypes is well known and there is now compelling evidence that stressful experiences during gestation or early in life can lead to enhanced susceptibility to mental illness. Here, we discuss the data from preclinical studies aimed at investigating the molecular consequences of the exposure to stressful events during prenatal or early postnatal life that might contribute to later psychopathology. Particularly, we will discuss the existence of age windows of vulnerability to environmental conditions during brain maturation using as examples several studies performed with different animal models. Specifically, major deviations from normative neurobehavioural trajectories have been reported in animal models obtained following exposure to severe stress (maternal separation) ea rly in infancy or with rodent models of difficult and/or stressful pregnancies, including obstetric complications (e.g. prenatal restrain stress) and gestational exposure to infection (e.g prenatal immune challenge). These models have been associated with profound long-lasting deficits in the offspring's emotional and social behaviour, and with molecular changes associated with neuroplasticity.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences: Prevalence and related factors in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Howe, Laura D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect people's health and wellbeing not only at the time the ACE is experienced, but also later in life. The majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in high-income countries and little is known about its prevalence in low and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACEs, associations between ACEs and sociodemographic factors, and the interrelationship between types of ACEs in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort. Data from 3,951 adolescents (78.4% of the original cohort) from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort were analyzed. Seven types of ACEs were assessed in those up to 18 years old: physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, domestic violence, parental separation and parental death. The most common ACE was parental separation (42%), followed by emotional neglect (19.7%) and domestic violence (10.3%). Approximately 85% of the adolescents experienced at least one ACE, and females reported a higher number of adversities. Several socioeconomic, demographic and family-related characteristics were associated with the occurrence of ACEs, e.g. non-white skin color, low family income, low maternal schooling, absence of mother's partner, maternal smoking, and poor maternal mental health. A strong interrelationship was observed among the ACEs, indicating clustering of risk. These aspects should be considered by health and social care professionals in the prevention and identification of childhood adversities.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences: Prevalence and related factors in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort☆

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Howe, Laura D.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect people's health and wellbeing not only at the time the ACE is experienced, but also later in life. The majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in high-income countries and little is known about its prevalence in low and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACEs, associations between ACEs and sociodemographic factors, and the interrelationship between types of ACEs in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort. Data from 3,951 adolescents (78.4% of the original cohort) from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort were analyzed. Seven types of ACEs were assessed in those up to 18 years old: physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, domestic violence, parental separation and parental death. The most common ACE was parental separation (42%), followed by emotional neglect (19.7%) and domestic violence (10.3%). Approximately 85% of the adolescents experienced at least one ACE, and females reported a higher number of adversities. Several socioeconomic, demographic and family-related characteristics were associated with the occurrence of ACEs, e.g. non-white skin color, low family income, low maternal schooling, absence of mother's partner, maternal smoking, and poor maternal mental health. A strong interrelationship was observed among the ACEs, indicating clustering of risk. These aspects should be considered by health and social care professionals in the prevention and identification of childhood adversities. PMID:26707919

  2. Early Childhood Adversity and Its Associations with Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888

  3. Distinct contributions of adverse childhood experiences and resilience resources: a cohort analysis of adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18-79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed.

  4. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2–12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood. PMID:26566292

  5. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2-12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood.

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Health Outcomes Among Veteran and Non-Veteran Women

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Dichter, Melissa E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women veterans represent a vulnerable population with unique health needs and disparities in access to care. One constellation of exposures related to subsequent poor health includes adverse childhood experiences (ACEs; e.g., physical and sexual child abuse), though research on impacts of ACEs among women veterans is limited. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the 11 states that included the ACE module (n=36,485). Weighted chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence of ACEs among women veterans compared with women non-veterans and differences in the following outcomes, controlling for ACEs: social support, inadequate sleep, life satisfaction, mental distress, smoking, heavy alcohol use, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease symptoms, asthma, and disability. Results: Women veterans (1.6% of the total sample) reported a higher prevalence of 7 out of 11 childhood adversities and higher mean ACE score than women non-veterans. Women veterans were more likely to be current smokers and report a disability, associations which were attenuated when controlling for ACE. Conclusions: Despite women veterans' higher prevalence of ACE, their health outcomes did not differ substantially from non-veterans. Further research is needed to understand the intersections of traumatic experiences and sources of resilience over the lifecourse among women veterans. PMID:26390379

  7. Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, William

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Gelaye, Bizu; Jackson, Chandra L; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represent substantial threats to public health and affect about 58% of youth in the US. In addition to their acute effects such as injury and physical trauma, ACEs are associated with an increased risk of several negative health outcomes throughout the life course. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep disorders may be one such outcome, but existing studies have not been systematically reviewed and summarized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between ACEs and sleep disorders and disturbances, with a focus on adult women. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science using the keywords "childhood," "adversity," "abuse," and "sleep" as well as searches of the reference lists of eligible studies. Studies evaluating ACEs that occurred before 18 years of age and sleep outcomes that were assessed at 18 years or older were adjudicated and included. A total of 30 publications were identified. Of the 30 studies, 28 were retrospective analyses and there was vast heterogeneity in the types of ACEs and sleep outcomes measured. The majority of retrospective studies (N = 25 of 28) documented statistically significant associations between sleep disorders including sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmare distress, sleep paralysis, and psychiatric sleep disorders with a history of childhood adversity. In many studies, the strengths of associations increased with the number and severity of adverse experiences. These associations were corroborated by the two prospective studies published to date. Notably, investigators have documented statistically significant associations between family conflict at 7-15 years of age and insomnia at 18 years of age (odds ratio, OR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.2-1.7) and between childhood sexual abuse and sleep disturbances 10 years later in adult women (β = 0.24, p

  9. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Gelaye, Bizu; Jackson, Chandra L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represent substantial threats to public health and affect about 58% of youth in the US. In addition to their acute effects such as injury and physical trauma, ACEs are associated with an increased risk of several negative health outcomes throughout the life course. Emerging evidence suggests sleep disorders may be one such outcome, but existing studies have not been systematically reviewed and summarized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between ACEs and sleep disorders and disturbances, with a focus on adult women. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science using key words “childhood,” “adversity,” “abuse,” and “sleep” as well as searches of the reference lists of eligible studies. Studies evaluating ACEs that occurred before 18 years of age and sleep outcomes that were assessed at 18 years or older were adjudicated and included. A total of 30 publications were identified. Of the 30 studies, 28 were retrospective analyses and there was vast heterogeneity in types of ACEs and sleep outcomes measured. The majority of retrospective studies (N=25 of 28) documented statistically significant associations between sleep disorders including sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmare distress, sleep paralysis, and psychiatric sleep disorders with a history of childhood adversity. In many studies, the strengths of associations increased with the number and severity of adverse experiences. These associations were corroborated by the two prospective studies published to date. Notably, investigators have documented statistically significant associations between family conflict at 7-15 years of age and insomnia at 18 years of age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7) and between childhood sexual abuse and sleep disturbances 10 years later in adult women (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). There is a growing scientific body of

  10. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met polymorphism interacts with early experience to predict executive functions in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N = 1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood.

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met Polymorphism Interacts With Early Experience to Predict Executive Functions in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. PMID:26251232

  13. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    PubMed Central

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment. PMID:28165384

  14. Adverse family experiences and obesity in children and adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Brian A; Agunwamba, Amenah; Wilson, Patrick M; Kumar, Seema; Jacobson, Robert M; Phelan, Sean; Cristiani, Valeria; Fan, Chun; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-09-01

    While exposure to adverse family experiences (AFEs), subset of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), has been associated with childhood obesity, less is known about the impact of exposures to each type of AFE. Using 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data, we evaluated associations between exposure to individual AFEs and overweight/obesity status in children 10years or older, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Caregivers reported their child's height, weight, and exposure to nine AFEs; body mass index (BMI) was classified by Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) guidelines. At Mayo Clinic, we calculated frequencies and weighted estimates of socio-demographic factors and AFEs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted multinomial logistic regression models were employed to assess the independent associations of each AFE and the different AFE composite scores with BMI category. Exposure to two or more AFEs was independently associated with increased odds of overweight (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13, 1.56) and obese (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21, 1.73) status after adjustment for age, household income, parents' education-level, race and sex. Death of parent (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.15) and hardship due to family income (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were independently associated with obesity status with adjustment for other AFEs and socio-demographic factors. Our results suggest that, in addition to cumulative exposure to AFEs, exposure to certain childhood experiences are more strongly associated with childhood obesity than others. Death of parent and hardship due to family income are individual AFEs, which are strongly predictive of obesity.

  15. Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Homelessness and the Impact of Axis I and II Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Leslie E.; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O.; Katz, Laurence Y.; Distasio, Jino

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. Methods. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001–2002 and 2004–2005, and included 34 653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Results. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%–60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Conclusions. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways. PMID:24148049

  16. Adverse childhood experiences, health, and employment: A study of men seeking job services.

    PubMed

    Topitzes, James; Pate, David J; Berman, Nathan D; Medina-Kirchner, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The present study explored factors associated with barriers to current employment among 199 low-income, primarily Black American men seeking job services. The study took place in an urban setting located within the upper Midwest region of the U.S., where the problem of Black male joblessness is both longstanding and widespread. Recent research suggests that Black male joblessness regionally and nationally is attributable to myriad macro- and micro-level forces. While structural-level factors such as migration of available jobs, incarceration patterns, and racism have been relatively well-studied, less is known about individual-level predictors of Black male joblessness, which are inextricably linked to macro-level or structural barriers. This study therefore examined relations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), health-related factors, and employment-related problems. Participants faced both specific and cumulative childhood adversities at much higher rates than men from more economically advantaged contexts. In addition, the physical, behavioral, and mental health of the study participants were, according to self-report survey results, notably worse than that of the general population or alternative samples. Finally, results indicated that exposure to ACEs may have helped to undermine the men's ability to attain current employment and that drug problems along with depression symptoms helped explain the link between ACEs and employment barriers. Theoretical and practical implications of results are explored.

  17. [Our experiences with early vacuum aspiration (miniinterruption)].

    PubMed

    Poradovský, K; Ondás, P; Posluch, J

    1982-07-01

    The authors report their experiences with 80 early vacuum aspirations (mini-interruptions) performed at the 1st Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital in Kosice during 1980-81. The procedure was performed between days 36-42 in 15% of the women, between days 43-49 in 52.7% of the women, between days 50-56 in 27.5%, and between days 57-60 in 5% of the women. Interruption of pregnancy did not require general anesthesia or hospitalization of the patients. Complications occurred in 10% of the women, 6.25% due to residua and 2.5% to inflammation. Further experience should reduce the occurrence of complications. The authors consider the method to be advantageous and prospective. (author's modified)

  18. Translating the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study into public policy: progress and possibility in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Kagi, Ruth; Regala, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    On June 15, 2011, Washington became the first state in the United States to enact legislation aimed at preventing adverse childhood experiences (ACE), reducing their prevalence, and mitigating their effects. House Bill 1965 (HB 1965) was established on the understanding among legislators and Washington communities of the need for policies aimed at preventing child abuse, promoting healthy development of children, and building community capacity to improve public health. Empirical examples of integrating ACE-related research with public policy and programmatic design are chronicled. The legislators who developed HB 1965 lay out questions that, if answered, would further improve policymakers' ability to craft public policy and programs that prevent ACE, reduce their effects, and promote a healthier, safer future.

  19. Revealing moments: formulating understandings of adverse experiences in a health appraisal interview.

    PubMed

    Beach, W A; Dixson, C N

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of a health appraisal interview reveals how an interviewer employs formulations to organize talk about a patient's medical history. When selected reportings by patient are paraphrased, a three-part formulations cycle is initiated: (1) interviewer's formulated understandings, (2) patient's confirmation, and (3) topic shift by interviewer. The reenactment of this interactional pattern promotes increasing attention to patient's adverse experiences as "root problems" underlying adult health status (e.g. molestation, obesity, depression). Creating an environment for patient's emergent disclosures is facilitated by displaying non-judgmental sensitivity to patient's stated concerns, soliciting alignment to particular reconstructions and avoidance of moving the interview forward prematurely and to issues not grounded in patient's illness circumstances. The identification and utilization of communication techniques for attending to patient's bio-psycho-social history is critical for refining understandings of empathic interviewing, enhancing diagnosis and treatment (e.g. referrals), decreasing patients' utilization of health care systems, and ultimately reducing costs for quality medical care.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and leukocyte telomere maintenance in depressed and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen H.; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I.; Rosser, Rebecca; Kupferman, Eve; Burke, Heather; Mahan, Laura; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Adverse childhood experiences are also associated with shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in adults, suggesting accelerated cell aging. No studies have yet assessed the relationship of ACEs to LTL in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), despite the high incidence of antecedent ACEs in individuals with MDD. Further, no studies in any population have assessed the relationship of ACEs to the activity of telomerase, the major enzyme responsible for maintaining LTL, or the relationship between telomerase and LTL in individuals with ACEs. METHODS Twenty healthy, unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched controls had ACEs assessed and had blood drawn for LTL and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) resting telomerase activity. RESULTS In healthy controls, greater ACE exposure was associated with shorter LTL (p< 0.05) but was unassociated with telomerase activity. In MDD, however, the opposite pattern was seen: Greater ACE exposure was unrelated to LTL but was associated with increased telomerase activity (p< 0.05) and with a higher telomerase: LTL ratio (p= 0.022). LIMITATIONS Study limitations include the small sample size, a single timepoint assessment of telomerase activity, and the use of retrospective self-report to assess ACEs. CONCLUSIONS These results replicate prior findings of shortened LTL in healthy adults with histories of multiple ACEs. However, in MDD, this relationship was substantially altered, raising the possibility that activation of telomerase in ACE-exposed individuals with MDD could represent a compensatory response to endangered telomeres. PMID:25173430

  1. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

  2. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shawi, Ameel F.; Lafta, Riyadh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile) is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57) and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile) is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life. PMID:25983602

  3. Hippocampal Contribution to Context Encoding across Development Is Disrupted following Early-Life Adversity.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Hilary K; Sheridan, Margaret A; Sambrook, Kelly A; Rosen, Maya L; Askren, Mary K; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2017-02-15

    Context can drastically influence responses to environmental stimuli. For example, a gunshot should provoke a different response at a public park than a shooting range. Little is known about how contextual processing and neural correlates change across human development or about individual differences related to early environmental experiences. Children (N = 60; 8-19 years, 24 exposed to interpersonal violence) completed a context encoding task during fMRI scanning using a delayed match-to-sample design with neutral, happy, and angry facial cues embedded in realistic background scenes. Outside the scanner, participants completed a memory test for context-face pairings. Context memory and neural correlates of context encoding did not vary with age. Larger hippocampal volume was associated with better context memory. Posterior hippocampus was recruited during context encoding, and greater activation in this region predicted better memory for contexts paired with angry faces. Children exposed to violence had poor memory of contexts paired with angry faces, reduced hippocampal volume, and atypical neural recruitment on encoding trials with angry faces, including reduced hippocampal activation and greater functional connectivity between hippocampus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Greater hippocampus-vlPFC connectivity was associated with worse memory for contexts paired with angry faces. Posterior hippocampus appears to support context encoding, a process that does not exhibit age-related variation from middle childhood to late adolescence. Exposure to dangerous environments in childhood is associated with poor context encoding in the presence of threat, likely due to greater vlPFC-dependent attentional narrowing on threat cues at the expense of hippocampus-dependent processing of the broader context.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ability to use context to guide reactions to environmental stimuli promotes flexible behavior. Remarkably little research has

  4. Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, A R; Parade, S H; Welch, E S; Ridout, K K; Price, L H; Marsit, C; Philip, N S; Carpenter, L L

    2016-01-01

    Early adversity increases risk for developing psychopathology. Epigenetic modification of stress reactivity genes is a likely mechanism contributing to this risk. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene is of particular interest because of the regulatory role of the GR in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. Mounting evidence suggests that early adversity is associated with GR promoter methylation and gene expression. Few studies have examined links between GR promoter methylation and psychopathology, and findings to date have been mixed. Healthy adult participants (N=340) who were free of psychotropic medications reported on their childhood experiences of maltreatment and parental death and desertion. Lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders and past substance-use disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Methylation of exon 1F of the GR gene (NR3C1) was examined in leukocyte DNA via pyrosequencing. On a separate day, a subset of the participants (n=231) completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Childhood adversity and a history of past substance-use disorder and current or past depressive or anxiety disorders were associated with lower levels of NR3C1 promoter methylation across the region as a whole and at individual CpG sites (P<0.05). The number of adversities was negatively associated with NR3C1 methylation in participants with no lifetime disorder (P=0.018), but not in those with a lifetime disorder. GR promoter methylation was linked to altered cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test (P<0.05). This study presents evidence of reduced methylation of NR3C1 in association with childhood maltreatment and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders in adults. This finding stands in contrast to our prior work, but is consistent with emerging findings, suggesting complexity in the regulation of this gene. PMID

  5. Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, A R; Parade, S H; Welch, E S; Ridout, K K; Price, L H; Marsit, C; Philip, N S; Carpenter, L L

    2016-07-05

    Early adversity increases risk for developing psychopathology. Epigenetic modification of stress reactivity genes is a likely mechanism contributing to this risk. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene is of particular interest because of the regulatory role of the GR in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Mounting evidence suggests that early adversity is associated with GR promoter methylation and gene expression. Few studies have examined links between GR promoter methylation and psychopathology, and findings to date have been mixed. Healthy adult participants (N=340) who were free of psychotropic medications reported on their childhood experiences of maltreatment and parental death and desertion. Lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders and past substance-use disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Methylation of exon 1F of the GR gene (NR3C1) was examined in leukocyte DNA via pyrosequencing. On a separate day, a subset of the participants (n=231) completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Childhood adversity and a history of past substance-use disorder and current or past depressive or anxiety disorders were associated with lower levels of NR3C1 promoter methylation across the region as a whole and at individual CpG sites (P<0.05). The number of adversities was negatively associated with NR3C1 methylation in participants with no lifetime disorder (P=0.018), but not in those with a lifetime disorder. GR promoter methylation was linked to altered cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test (P<0.05). This study presents evidence of reduced methylation of NR3C1 in association with childhood maltreatment and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders in adults. This finding stands in contrast to our prior work, but is consistent with emerging findings, suggesting complexity in the regulation of this gene.

  6. COMT Val158Met modulates the effect of childhood adverse experiences on the risk of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Arnt F A; Franke, Barbara; Ellenbroek, Bart; Cools, Alexander; de Jong, Cor A J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2013-03-01

    Genetic factors and childhood adverse experiences contribute to the vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, empirical data on the interplay between specific genes and adverse experiences are few. The COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes have been suggested to affect both stress sensitivity and the risk for alcohol dependence. This study tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A interacts with childhood adverse experiences to predict alcohol dependence. Male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (n = 110) and age-matched healthy male controls (n = 99) were genotyped for the COMT Val158Met and the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes. Childhood adverse events were measured using three self-report questionnaires. Alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis involved logistic regression analysis and analysis of variance. Alcohol-dependent patients reported increased childhood adversity. The interaction between childhood adversity and the COMT Val158Met genotype added significantly to the prediction model. This gene-environment interaction was confirmed in the analysis of the secondary outcome measures, i.e. alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence. The DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype was not related to alcohol dependence, nor did it interact with childhood adversity in predicting alcohol dependence. This study provides evidence for a gene-environment interaction in alcohol dependence, in which an individual's sensitivity to childhood adverse experience is moderated by the COMT genotype. Exposed carriers of a low-activity Met allele have a higher risk to develop severe alcohol dependence than individuals homozygous for the Val allele.

  7. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  8. Childhood Exposure to Adversity and Risk of Substance-Use Disorder in Two American Indian Populations: The Meditational Role of Early Substance-Use Initiation*

    PubMed Central

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M.; Manson, Spero M.; Turner, R. Jay

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We examined the relationship of childhood exposure to adversity and risk of substance-use disorder in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, exploring both the role of early initiation of substance use in mediating this relationship and variation in risk across types of adversity exposure. Method: The American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project provided data from 2,927 American Indians on the occurrence and age at onset of adversities, substance use, and substance-use-disorder symptoms. Results: The risk of substance-use disorder associated with early adversity was explained partially by early initiation of substance use. Three types of adversity (major childhood events, traumas, and witnessed violence) were associated with early onset of substance use and increased risk of substance-use disorder. Gender and tribe were also related to variation in both early substance use and substance-use disorder. Conclusions: Early exposure to adverse events was associated with early substance use and the subsequent development of substance-use disorders among American Indians. Public health initiatives targeting substance use and substance-use disorders in American Indian communities should include efforts to help children in these communities cope with adversities they encounter. PMID:19895776

  9. Radiosurgery for acoustic neurinomas: Early experience

    SciTech Connect

    Linskey, M.E.; Lunsford, L.D.; Flickinger, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    We reviewed our early experience with the first 26 patients with acoustic neurinomas (21 unilateral, 5 bilateral) treated by stereotactic radiosurgery using the first North American 201-source cobalt-60 gamma knife. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 19 months (median, 13 months). Serial postoperative imaging showed either a decrease in tumor size (11 patients) or growth arrest (15 patients). Loss of central contrast enhancement was a characteristic change (18 patients). Seven patients had good or serviceable hearing preoperatively. In all 7 the preoperative hearing status was retained immediately after radiosurgery. At follow-up, 3 had preserved hearing, 1 had reduced hearing, and 3 had lost all hearing in the treated ear. Hearing in 1 patient that was nonserviceable preoperatively later improved to a serviceable hearing level. Delayed facial paresis developed in 6 patients, and delayed trigeminal sensory loss developed in 7 patients, none of whom had significant deficits before radiosurgery. Both facial and trigeminal deficits tended to improve within 3 to 6 months of onset with excellent recovery anticipated. Lower cranial nerve dysfunction was not observed. All 26 patients remain at their preoperative employment or functional status. At present, stereotactic radiosurgery is an alternative treatment for acoustic neurinomas in patients who are elderly, have significant concomitant medical problems, have a tumor in their only hearing ear, have bilateral acoustic neurinomas, refuse microsurgical excision, or have recurrent tumor despite surgical resection. Although longer and more extensive follow-up is required, the control of tumor growth and the acceptable rate of complications in this early experience testifies to the future expanding role of this technique in the management of selected acoustic neurinomas.

  10. Early psychotic experiences: Interventions, problems and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakopoulos, S; Kollias, C; Stefanis, N C; Kontaxakis, V

    2015-01-01

    Psychotic or psychotic-like experiences and symptoms may precede and be indicative of later psychosis emergence. DSM-5 has introduced Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) as a condition for further study, arguing for its clinical validity and the need for identifying sub- threshold psychotic states. Early psychosis intervention has an already established role in reducing the Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP), delaying psychosis onset and relieving Ultra High Risk (UHR) individuals from their presenting symptoms. Pharmacological and mainly psycho-therapeutical approaches are suggested for this purpose. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) seems to have clear evidence of favorable outcome concerning transition to psychosis rates, omega-3 fatty acids lower but promising evidence, while low-dose antipsychotic medication or antidepressant treatment may seem beneficial, but it remains unclear if the reported favorable effects persist in the long term and how long intervention in UHR subjects should be given for. Case management and close monitoring based on principles of social psychiatry are considered key elements for the management of UHR individuals. However, the blazing case about early psychosis concerns the accurate specification of the prodromal stage of psychosis, which may set the basis for meaningful and effective early intervention. Although psychometric tools have been developed and provide a common criteria-based recognition method, debate is alive and well regarding "false positive" cases, since most UHR subjects will not finally develop psychosis. Moreover, transition rates to psychosis have been declining over the years, leading to fierce criticism over the validity of the UHR/ APS state and legitimacy of its treatment. On this framework, ethical issues of stigmatizing through unnecessary diagnosing and antipsychotics' prescribing are matters of serious questioning. Clinical heterogeneity and high comorbidity are further implications of the UHR state

  11. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds.

  12. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  13. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences among Veterinary Medical Students: A Multi-Site Study.

    PubMed

    Strand, Elizabeth B; Brandt, Jennifer; Rogers, Kenita; Fonken, Laurie; Chun, Ruthanne; Conlon, Peter; Lord, Linda

    2017-03-27

    This research explores Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) among veterinary medical students across six academic institutions of veterinary medicine, and their relationship with depression, stress, and desire to become a veterinarian. Between April 1, 2016 and May 23, 2016, 1,118 veterinary medical students in all 4 years of the curriculum (39% response rate) completed an anonymous web-based questionnaire about ACEs, depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD), stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the age at which they wanted to become a veterinarian. Sixty-one percent (677) of respondents reported having at least one ACE. The most prevalent ACE reported was living with a household member with a mental illness (31%). Students who had experienced four or more ACEs had an approximately threefold increase in signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress when compared to students who had experienced no ACEs. The number of ACEs showed an overall graded relationship to signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress. There was no statistically significant relationship between age at which a student wanted to become a veterinarian and exposure to ACEs. Veterinary students report being exposed to ACEs before age 18 at a rate similar to that of other population-based studies. These findings do not suggest that veterinary students enter the veterinary medical education system more at risk for poor mental health due to ACEs than the general population.

  15. ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES, FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENT HEALTH AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Alvira-Hammond, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been consistently linked in a strong and graded fashion to a host of health problems in later adulthood but few studies have examined the more proximate effect of ACE on health and emotional well-being in adolescence. Study Design Nationally representative cross-sectional study. Methods Using logistic regression on the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health, we examined the cumulative effect of total ACE score on the health and emotional well-being of US adolescents ages 12 through 17. We investigated the moderating effect of family functioning on the impact of ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Results Adolescents with higher ACE scores had worse reported physical and emotional well-being than adolescents with fewer ACEs net of key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Family functioning moderated the negative impact of cumulative ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Conclusions Adolescent well-being has enduring consequences; identifying children with ACE exposure who also have lower-functioning family could also help identify those families at particular risk. PMID:26718424

  16. A lifetime experience of violence and adverse reproductive outcomes: findings from population surveys in India.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, K; Agrawal, N R; Poudel, K C; Jimba, M

    2012-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health issue that threatens the reproductive health of women. Despite a growing demand for research on the potential threat of IPV in relation to adverse reproductive outcomes, there have been no population-based studies of India. The current study analyzed the National Family Health Survey 3, which contained detailed information on types of violence in relation to the single question of pregnancy outcomes. The dataset was used to assess the association between a lifetime experience of IPV and terminated pregnancies among married Indian women. Multiple logistic regression analysis was then used to assess the association between these variables, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Results showed that 39.6% of Indian women have experienced violence by their husbands, while 18.3% of women have terminated a pregnancy during their lifetimes. The odds ratio of a terminated pregnancy among women who had experienced any type of partner violence was 1.62 (95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.51-1.73). All combinations of violence except a combination of emotional and sexual violence were associated with an increased risk of a terminated pregnancy. These results suggest that prevention of IPV would reduce the high incidence of terminated pregnancies, thus improving maternal health in India.

  17. Personal strengths and traumatic experiences among institutionalized children given up at birth (Les Enfants de Duplessis--Duplessis' children): I: Early experiences.

    PubMed

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas; Ouimet, Marie Claude

    2005-12-01

    We examined childhood and early adult strengths and adverse experiences of a group of orphans given up at or near birth and raised in Quebec institutions into early adulthood. A follow-up interview of 81 adults (41 women, 40 men) at a mean age of 59.2 years included retrospective assessments of childhood experiences. Most participants reported multiple early adverse experiences, including, in descending order, unfair rules and excessive punishment, physical abuse, emotional neglect, witnessing violence, verbal abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and serious illness. Adverse experiences were mainly due to lay caretakers, not peers or nuns. Twelve childhood strengths, such as self-protectiveness and athletic talent, were scored at each of four age periods, yielding a median score equivalent to one strength at each period. Over half had significant childhood attachments, but of limited intimacy. Childhood variables correlated with their respective variables in later adulthood. Overall, these older adults reported a high prevalence of adverse or traumatic childhood experiences, counterbalanced by modest levels of individual strengths and attachment relationships. Institutionalization of children--if unavoidable--must build in effective safeguards against adverse experiences.

  18. Suffering and compassion: The links among adverse life experiences, empathy, compassion, and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Lim, Daniel; DeSteno, David

    2016-03-01

    Experiencing past adversity traditionally has been linked to negative life outcomes. However, emerging evidence suggests that heterogeneity exists with respect to links between adversity and resilience, with adversity often enhancing cooperation in the face of joint suffering. Here, the authors present 2 studies designed to examine if the severity of past adversity is associated with an enduring propensity for empathy-mediated compassion, and, if so, whether the resulting compassion directly is, in turn, linked to behavior meant to relieve the suffering of others. Using both MTurk and laboratory-based paradigms, the authors find that increasing severity of past adversity predicts increased empathy, which in turn, is linked to a stable tendency to feel compassion for others in need. In addition, they demonstrate that the resulting individual differences in compassion appear to engender behavioral responses meant to assist others (i.e., charitable giving, helping a stranger).

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health in Adulthood in a Rural Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Iniguez, Kristen C.; Stankowski, Rachel V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including emotional abuse, substance abuse in the household, separation or divorce, physical abuse, violence between adults, mental illness in the household, sexual abuse, or incarceration of a household member, have the potential to profoundly impact health and well-being in adulthood. To assess whether previously reported relationships between ACEs and health outcomes withstand validation, we conducted a community-based ACE study with the unique capacity to link self-reported ACEs and other survey results to validated health data in an electronic medical record (EMR). Methods Information regarding ACEs and health outcomes was captured from 2013–2014 via a telephone survey of residents of the predominantly rural northern and central regions of Wisconsin and electronic abstraction of EMR data. ACE score was calculated by counting each exposure as one point. We examined the relationship between ACE score, type, and self-reported and validated health outcomes. Results A total of 800 participants completed the telephone survey. Overall, 62% reported at least one ACE and 15% reported experiencing four or more. All self-reported measures of poor health were associated with increased ACE score. EMR data were positively correlated with ACE score for increased body mass index and diagnoses of depression, anxiety, and asthma. In contrast, diagnoses of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, and skin and other cancers were inversely related to ACE score. Emotional abuse was the most common ACE reported followed by substance abuse in the household. ACEs tended to cluster so that people who reported at least one ACE were likely to have experienced multiple ACEs. There was no clear correlation between abuse type (e.g., direct abuse vs. household dysfunction) and health outcomes. Conclusions In the first community-based study to link self-reported ACEs to comprehensive health measures documented in the medical

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Héctor E; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to increased use of tobacco products later in life. However, studies to date have ignored smokeless tobacco products. To address this, data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which interviewed adults 18 years and over (N = 102,716) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios of ever smoking, current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use in relation to ACEs. Results showed that less than 4 % of respondents currently used smokeless tobacco products, while 44.95 and 18.57 % reported ever and current smoking, respectively. Physical abuse (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14, 1.72), emotional abuse (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.67), sexual abuse (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.95), living with a drug user (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.93), living with someone who was jailed (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.11, 2.02) and having parents who were separated or divorced (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.57) were associated with smokeless tobacco use in unadjusted models. After accounting for confounders, physical abuse (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.16, 1.78), emotional abuse (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.10, 1.57), living with a problem drinker (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.58), living with a drug user (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.72) and living with adults who treated each other violently (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62) were associated with smokeless tobacco use. Living with someone who was mentally ill (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.53, 0.92) was associated with smokeless tobacco use after accounting for confounders and all ACEs. Results indicated that some childhood adversities are associated with use of smokeless tobacco products. Special attention is needed to prevent tobacco use of different types among those experiencing ACEs.

  1. Coupling of the HPA and HPG axes in the context of early life adversity in incarcerated male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dismukes, Andrew R; Johnson, Megan M; Vitacco, Michael J; Iturri, Florencia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2015-09-01

    The effects of early life adversity can be observed across the lifespan, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes could be mechanistic intermediaries underlying this phenomenon. The current study examined 50 adolescent males aged 12-18 in a maximum-security correctional and treatment setting. Saliva samples were collected five times a day for 2 days and assayed for cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA. Youth completed semi-structured life stress interviews and self-reports of child maltreatment to index adversity. When youth had higher testosterone levels, they had higher cortisol and DHEA levels, indicating positive "coupling" of the HPA-HPG axes. In addition, children experiencing greater life adversity had tighter coupling of the HPA-HPG axes. Additional analyses hint that coupling may be driven largely by HPG axis functioning. Results indicate that positive coupling of the HPA-HPG axis is observed within incarcerated adolescents, especially for those with the greatest life stress.

  2. Mechanisms Underlying the Association Between Early-Life Adversity and Physical Health: Charting a Course for the Future.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nicole R; Lane, Richard D; McLaughlin, Katie A

    Early-life adversities (ELA) are associated with subsequent pervasive alterations across a wide range of neurobiological systems and psychosocial factors that contribute to accelerated onset of health problems and diseases. In this article, we provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in research on ELA, based on the articles published in this Special Issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. We focus on the following: 1) the distinction between specific versus general aspects of ELA with regard to the nature of exposure (e.g., physical and sexual abuse, emotional abuse or neglect, relative socioeconomic deprivation), biological and behavioral correlates of ELA, and differences across diseases; 2) the importance of timing in the critical phases of exposure to ELA; and 3) adaptive versus dysfunctional responses to ELA and their consequences for biological and behavioral risk factors for adverse health outcomes. This article concludes with outlining important new targets for research in this area, including the neurobiology of affect as a mechanism linking ELA to adverse health outcomes, and the need for large-scale longitudinal investigations of multisystem processes relevant to ELA in diverse samples, starting prenatally, continuing to late adolescence, and with long-term follow-up assessments that enable evaluation of incident disease outcomes.

  3. Prior chronic clopidogrel therapy is associated with increased adverse events and early stent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Asher, Elad; Fefer, Paul; Sabbag, Avi; Herscovici, Romana; Regev, Ehud; Mazin, Israel; Shlomo, Nir; Zahger, Doron; Atar, Shaul; Hammerman, Haim; Polak, Arthur; Beigel, Roy; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing use of clopidogrel, limited data exist regarding the prognostic significance of chronic clopidogrel therapy in patients sustaining acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our aim was to determine whether patients sustaining ACS while on chronic clopidogrel therapy have a worse prognosis than clopidogrel-naïve patients. A total of 5,386 consecutive ACS patients were prospectively characterised and followed-up for 30 days. Of them, 680 (13%) were treated with clopidogrel prior to the index ACS. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were defined as death, recurrent ACS, stroke and/or stent thrombosis. Compared with clopidogrel-naïve, chronic clopidogrel-treated patients were older (66 ± 12 vs 63 ± 13, respectively; p<0.01), suffered more from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, prior cardiovascular history, including prior myocardial infarction, revascularisation, coronary artery bypass graft and stroke (p<0.01 for all), and were less likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (21% vs 45%; respectively; p < 0.001). Prior clopidogrel therapy was associated with a two-fold increase in in-hospital (1.6% vs 0.6%, respectively; p =0.006) as well as 30-day stent thrombosis (2.2% vs 1.0%, respectively; p=0.007). MACE at 30 days was also higher among chronic clopidogrel-treated compared with clopidogrel-naïve patients [12.3% vs 9.4%, respectively; p<0.01]. In multivariate log regression analysis chronic clopidogrel treatment was an independent predictor of stent thrombosis [OR=2.6 (95%CI 1.2-5.6), p=0.001]. Patients sustaining ACS while on chronic clopidogrel treatment are at higher risk for in-hospital and 30-day adverse outcomes, including stent thrombosis.

  4. Radiation Therapy Overcomes Adverse Prognostic Role of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression on Reed-Sternberg Cells in Early Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mestre, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Rodriguez, Jose; Ramos, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Fernando; Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Casasus, Marta; Nicolau, Cristina; Bento, Leyre; Herraez, Ines; Lopez-Perezagua, Paloma; Daumal, Jaime; Besalduch, Joan

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To analyze the role of radiation therapy (RT) on the adverse prognostic influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells, in the setting of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with ABVD (adriamycin, vinblastine, bleomycin, dacarbazine). Methods and Materials: In the present study we retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of COX-2 expression in a large (n=143), uniformly treated early HL population from the Spanish Network of HL using tissue microarrays. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done, including the most recognized clinical variables and the potential role of administration of adjuvant RT. Results: Median age was 31 years; the expression of COX-2 defined a subgroup with significantly worse prognosis. Considering COX-2{sup +} patients, those who received RT had significantly better 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (80% vs 54% if no RT; P=.008). In contrast, COX-2{sup −} patients only had a modest, nonsignificant benefit from RT in terms of 5-year PFS (90% vs 79%; P=.13). When we compared the outcome of patients receiving RT considering the expression of COX-2 on RS cells, we found a nonsignificant 10% difference in terms of PFS between COX-2{sup +} and COX-2{sup −} patients (P=.09), whereas the difference between the 2 groups was important (25%) in patients not receiving RT (P=.04). Conclusions: Cyclooxygenase-2 RS cell expression is an adverse independent prognostic factor in early HL. Radiation therapy overcomes the worse prognosis associated with COX-2 expression on RS cells, acting in a chemotherapy-independent way. Cyclooxygenase-2 RS cell expression may be useful for determining patient candidates with early HL to receive consolidation with RT.

  5. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.   Results Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than < 30 years and weighing < 70 kg were significantly associated with VVR, hyperventilation, and nausea (p < 0.005). Undergraduates and Urdu speaking donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p < 0.05).   Conclusion The prevalence of adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions. PMID:27168923

  6. Environmental Adversity and Children’s Early Trajectories of Problem Behavior: The Role of Harsh Parental Discipline

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.’s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and “telling off” the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children’s trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. PMID:27977229

  7. Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Kolenda, Claire; Parker, Craig; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period. For telomere attrition, amount of food and begging effort exerted additive effects. Only the combination of low food amount and high begging effort increased DNA damage. We then measured two markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, when the birds were adults. The experimental treatments affected both inflammatory markers, though the patterns were complex and different for each marker. The effect of the experimental treatments on adult interleukin-6 was partially mediated by increased juvenile DNA damage. Our results show that both nutritional input and begging effort in the nestling period affect cellular ageing and adult inflammation in the starling. However, the pattern of effects is different for different biomarkers measured at different time points. PMID:28094324

  8. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2012-01-01

    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span.

  9. The association of adverse childhood experiences and appetitive aggression with suicide attempts and violent crimes in male forensic psychiatry inpatients.

    PubMed

    Dudeck, Manuela; Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Otte, Stefanie; Rasche, Katharina; Leichauer, Katharina; Tippelt, Susanne; Shenar, Riad; Klingner, Solveig; Vasic, Nenad; Streb, Judith

    2016-06-30

    Although previous studies in inmates, forensic and psychiatric samples suggest the relation between childhood trauma and suicide behavior as well as between childhood trauma and violent delinquency, the understanding of possible underlying mechanisms is still fragmentary. In a naturalistic study design, we tested if suicidal attempts and violent crimes are differently associated with adverse childhood experiences and levels of appetitive aggression in male forensic psychiatry inpatients. Adverse childhood experiences and appetitive aggression styles were collected by means of self-report measures, suicide attempts were taken from the medical history and violent crimes were appraised by official court records. The data were analyzed by the means of generalized linear models. Results revealed that appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences were significant predictors of suicide attempts, whereas violent crimes were associated solely with appetitive aggression. Suicide attempts and violent delinquency in forensic patients seem to be both positively associated with high levels of appetitive aggression, whereas their etiological pathways might differ with regard to adverse childhood experiences. Considering these interrelations to a greater extent might improve both diagnostics and treatment of forensic patients.

  10. 21 CFR 310.305 - Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and reporting of postmarketing adverse drug experiences to FDA. (b) Definitions. The following... severity) if the labeling only referred to elevated hepatic enzymes or hepatitis. Similarly, cerebral... and Drug Administration, 5901-B Ammendale Rd., Beltsville, MD 20705-1266. (1) Postmarketing...

  11. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  12. Mothers' Adverse Childhood Experiences and Negative Parenting Behaviors: Connecting Mothers' Difficult Pasts to Present Parenting Behavior via Reflective Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolomeyer, Ellen; Renk, Kimberly; Cunningham, Annelise; Lowell, Amanda; Khan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have supported a connection between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative outcomes in adulthood. Fewer studies have examined the connection between ACEs and parenting behaviors, however. The study described in this article examined the relationships among ACEs, reflective functioning, and negative parenting behaviors…

  13. Suicidal Ideation, Parent-Child Relationships, and Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Cross-Validation Study Using a Graphical Markov Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Herke, Max; Schier, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in many Western countries. An exploration of factors associated with suicidality may help to understand the mechanisms that lead to suicide. Two samples in Germany (n = 500 and n = 477) were examined via Internet regarding suicidality, depression, alcohol abuse, adverse childhood experiences, and…

  14. Resilience in the Face of Cyberbullying: An Ecological Perspective on Young People's Experiences of Online Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatraianou, Lisa H.; Levine, Diane; West, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents experience a variety of biological, psychological and social changes. While some adolescents face significant risk, the majority of young people are able to successfully navigate their way through to maintaining resilience, that is, the ability to cope and overcome adversity despite facing challenges. However, exposure to acts of…

  15. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  16. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Ruvani W; Minnis, Alexandra M; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions that

  17. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    PubMed Central

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  18. Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans☆

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis. Results As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes. Conclusions In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma. PMID:24179818

  19. Music and the Baby's Brain: Early Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donna Brink

    2000-01-01

    States that brain research may be too immature to use it as the only rationale for early music education. Proposes integrated instruction for music education and addresses the need for teacher preparation in early childhood music education. Discusses future collaborations providing three examples of models of childhood music collaborations and…

  20. The epigenetics of suicide: explaining the biological effects of early life environmental adversity.

    PubMed

    Labonte, Benoit; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown epigenetic alterations associated with suicidal behavior. These epigenetic mechanisms, which alter gene expression via alternative mechanisms to the coding DNA sequence, result from environmental effects acting on the genome. Studies in rodents indicate that variation in the early environment will trigger these epigenetic modifications and recent human data suggest the same may be true in humans.The expression of a number of genes, which are involved in normal brain functions and that have been shown to be under epigenetic control, seem to be dysregulated in suicide. The present review briefly describes the main epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression and discusses recent findings of epigenetic alterations in suicidal behavior.

  1. Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B; Merrick, Melissa T; Rolle, Italia V; Giles, Wayne H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population. Materials and methods Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ≥18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Results Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ≥1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61), sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10), living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81), witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72), and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80) during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs. Reporting ≥5 ACEs (PR =2.08, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.80) compared to none was associated with a higher likelihood of COPD among women only. Conclusion ACEs are related to COPD, especially among women. These findings underscore the need for further research that examines sex-specific differences and the possible mechanisms linking ACEs and COPD. This work adds to a growing body of research suggesting that ACEs may contribute to health problems later in life and suggesting a need for program and policy solutions. PMID:25298732

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Eslinger, Jessica G.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S.; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. Participants Adults (ages 18–64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). Design and Main Outcome Measures The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce). Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support) and structural (living with another adult) support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race) and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health) to the model. Results ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories). ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5–2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs). Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42–0.63]) and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41–0.56]) were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health. Conclusions ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen

  3. Early Life Adverse Environmental Exposures Increase the Risk of Uterine Fibroid Development: Role of Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Fibroids [UF(s), AKA: leiomyoma] are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women’s health. They are the most common cause of hysterectomy imposing untold personal consequences and 100s of billions of healthcare dollars, worldwide. Currently, there is no long term effective FDA-approved medical treatment available, and surgery is the mainstay. The etiology of UFs is not fully understood. In this regard, we and others have recently reported that somatic mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional mediator subunit Med12 are found to occur at a high frequency (∼85%) in UFs. UFs likely originate when a Med12 mutation occurs in a myometrial stem cell converting it into a tumor-forming stem cell leading to a clonal fibroid lesion. Although the molecular attributes underlying the mechanistic formation of UFs is largely unknown, a growing body of literature implicates unfavorable early life environmental exposures as potentially important contributors. Early life exposure to EDCs during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life. Neonatal exposure to the EDCs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and genistein during reproductive tract development has been shown to increase the incidence, multiplicity and overall size of UFs in the Eker rat model, concomitantly reprogramming estrogen-responsive gene expression. Importantly, EDC exposure represses enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and reduces levels of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark through Estrogen receptor/Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Protein kinase B non-genomic signaling in the developing uterus. Considering the fact that distinct Mediator Complex Subunit 12 (Med12) mutations are detected in different fibroid lesions in the same uterus, the emergence of each Med12 mutation is likely an independent event in an altered myometrial stem cell. It is therefore possible that a chronic reduction in

  4. Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Kooy-Hofland, Verna A. C.; Van der Kooy, Jacoba; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized…

  5. Periconceptional nutrition and the early programming of a life of obesity or adversity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Rattanatray, L; McMillen, I C; Suter, C M; Morrison, J L

    2011-07-01

    Women entering pregnancy with a high body weight and fat mass have babies at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese in childhood and later life. It is not known, whether exposure to a high level of maternal nutrition before pregnancy and exposure to a high transplacental nutrient supply in later pregnancy act through similar mechanisms to program later obesity. Using the pregnant sheep we have shown that maternal overnutrition in late pregnancy results in an upregulation of PPARγ activated genes in fetal visceral fat and a subsequent increase in the mass of subcutaneous fat in the postnatal lamb. Exposure to maternal overnutrition during the periconceptional period alone, however, results in an increase in total body fat mass in female lambs only with a dominant effect on visceral fat depots. Thus the early programming of later obesity may result from 'two hits', the first occurring as a result of maternal overnutrition during the periconceptional period and the second occurring as a result of increased fetal nutrition in late pregnancy. Whilst a short period of dietary restriction during the periconceptional period reverses the impact of periconceptional overnutrition on the programming of obesity, it also results in an increased lamb adrenal weight and cortisol stress response, together with changes in the epigenetic state of the insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene in the adrenal. Thus, not all of the effects of dietary restriction in overweight or obese mother in the periconceptional period may be beneficial in the longer term.

  6. Adverse effects of ocean acidification on early development of squid (Doryteuthis pealeii).

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Maxwell B; Mooney, T Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C; Cohen, Anne L

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries.

  7. Adverse Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Development of Squid (Doryteuthis pealeii)

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Mooney, T. Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Cohen, Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries. PMID:23741298

  8. Assessing the interrelatedness of multiple types of adverse childhood experiences and odds for poor health in South Carolina adults.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Elizabeth; Strompolis, Melissa; Bennett, Kevin J; Morse, Melanie; Radcliff, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to negative health outcomes in adulthood, but little research has been done on the effect of ACEs on the health and well-being of adults in South Carolina (SC). This study analyzed a sample of 9744 respondents who participated in the 2014 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine the relationship among childhood experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as witnessing household violence, on mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood among SC residents. Twenty-two percent of survey respondents reported poor general health (22.1%), and a smaller proportion reported high frequent mental distress in the past month (13.1%). Each category of childhood experiences was associated with an increase in the risk of poor general health. Individuals reporting three or more types of experiences were more likely to report poor health (aOR 2.89; 95% CI 2.86-2.92) than adults without such experiences. Respondents reporting three or more types of childhood adverse experiences were more likely to report frequent mental distress (aOR 3.29; 95% CI 3.26-3.33) compared to adults who did not report three or more types of adversity. Findings from the SC BRFSS highlight a connection between ACEs and negative health outcomes later in life. Given that results of this study also demonstrated that increased exposure to ACEs was associated with greater odds of negative health in adulthood, preventing adverse events such as experiencing abuse or witnessing domestic violence in childhood will have significant effects on later adult health.

  9. Effects of early life adversity on cortisol/salivary alpha-amylase symmetry in free-ranging juvenile rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Petrullo, Lauren A; Mandalaywala, Tara M; Parker, Karen J; Maestripieri, Dario; Higham, James P

    2016-11-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) affects physiological and behavioral development. One key component is the relationship between the developing Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS). Recent studies suggest a relationship between early life adversity and asymmetry in cortisol (a measure of HPA activation) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA: a correlate of SNS activation) responses to stress among human children, but to our knowledge there have been no comparable studies in nonhumans. Here, we investigate the responses of these two analytes in "low stress" and "high stress" situations in free-ranging juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Behavioral data on maternal maltreatment were collected during the first 3months of life to determine individual rates of ELA, and saliva samples were collected from subjects noninvasively during juvenility. Irrespective of ELA, salivary alpha-amylase levels were lower in low stress situations and higher in high stress situations. For cortisol however, high ELA subjects exhibited higher low stress concentrations and blunted acute responses during high stress situations compared to moderate and low ELA subjects. Cortisol and sAA values were positively correlated among low ELA subjects, suggesting symmetry, but were uncorrelated or negatively correlated among moderate and high ELA subjects, suggesting asymmetry in these individuals. These findings indicate dysregulation of the stress response among juveniles maltreated during infancy: specifically, attenuated cortisol reactivity coupled with typical sAA reactivity characterize the stress response profiles of juveniles exposed to higher rates of ELA during the first 3months of life.

  10. Adverse events of gastric electrical stimulators recorded in the Manufacturer and User Device Experience (MAUDE) Registry.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The role of gastric electrical stimulation for patients with refractory symptoms of gastroparesis remains controversial. Open label studies suggest benefit while randomized controlled trials did not demonstrate differences between active and sham intervention. Using a voluntary reporting system of the Federal Drug Administration, we examined the type and frequency of adverse events.

  11. Concerns of Teacher Candidates in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the concerns of teacher candidates in an early field experience. Thirty-five teacher candidates completed the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC, Fuller & Borich, 2000) at the beginning, middle and end of their early field experiences. Results showed that teacher candidates ranked impact as the highest concern, self as…

  12. Rural Ojibwe Mothers' Experiences with Early Childhood Special Education Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aakhus, Belle P.; Hoover, John H.

    Two rural Ojibwe mothers whose young children received early childhood at-risk services were interviewed about their life circumstances and experiences with service delivery. Major interview themes that emerged included positive experiences and successes with early childhood special education services, and rural and cultural obstacles to the…

  13. The effect of sire selection on cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse and favorable cow survival environments.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Goodling, R C; Rhode, S P

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent that genetic selection can help reduce dairy cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse cow survival environments. Two datasets were constructed. The first contained 100,911 mortality records and 171,178 sixty-day culling records from 1467 herds. Cows that left the herd (culled or died) from 21 days prior to a due date through 60 days in milk were considered a 60-day cull. Cows were classified as belonging to herds with adverse cow survival environments (≥ 4.4% mortality rate and ≥ 7.1% 60-day cull rate) or favorable cow survival environments (<4.4% mortality rate and <7.1% 60-day cull rate). The second dataset included 20,438 mortality records and 34,942 sixty-day culling records from 314 herds with a known herd management system. Cows from both datasets were stratified into quartiles based on their sire's predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for productive life and other traits. Cows in the first dataset were also stratified into high (>50th percentile) and low (≤ 50th percentile) groups based on their sire's PTA for daughter calving ease and daughter stillbirth rates. Mortality and 60-day culling in the first dataset were evaluated with logistic regression models with the independent effects of sire PTA quartile, cow survival environment (adverse or favorable), the interaction of sire PTA quartile with cow survival environment, lactation number, age within lactation number, and herd-calving-cluster. The second dataset was analyzed in the same manner, but with cow survival environment replaced by herd management system. The estimated proportion of lactations that ended in death declined from 9.0% to 6.8% and 60-day culling incidence from 7.6% to 4.9% as sire productive life PTA went from the lowest to highest quartile in adverse cow survival environments. The corresponding reduction in mortality (0.7%) and 60-day culling (0.9%) were also significant in favorable cow survival environments

  14. Technology-Focused Early Field Experiences in Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Although a broad body of research exists on field experiences in teacher education, one specific area of inquiry lacking substantial current research is that of technology-focused early field experiences, or field experiences that occur prior to student teaching and more formal clinical experiences. To address this gap, I conducted this…

  15. Exposure to socioeconomic adversity in early life and risk of depression at 18 years: The mediating role of locus of control

    PubMed Central

    Culpin, Iryna; Stapinski, Lexine; Miles, Ömür Budanur; Araya, Ricardo; Joinson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have linked exposure to early socioeconomic adversity to depression, but the mechanisms of this association are not well understood. Locus of control (LoC), an individual's control-related beliefs, has been implicated as a possible mechanism, however, longitudinal evidence to support this is lacking. Methods The study sample comprised 8803 participants from a UK cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Indicators of early socioeconomic adversity were collected from the antenatal period to 5 years and modelled as a latent factor. Depression was assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) at 18 years. LoC was assessed with the Nowicki–Strickland Internal–External (CNSIE) scale at 16 years. Results Using structural equation modelling, we found that 34% of the total estimated association between early socioeconomic adversity and depression at 18 years was explained by external LoC at 16 years. There was weak evidence of a direct pathway from early socioeconomic adversity to depression after accounting for the indirect effect via external locus of control. Socioeconomic adversity was associated with more external LoC, which, in turn, was associated with depression. Limitations Attrition may have led to an underestimation of the direct and indirect effect sizes in the complete case analysis. Conclusions Results suggest that external LoC in adolescence is one of the factors mediating the link between early adversity and depression at 18 years. Cognitive interventions that seek to modify maladaptive control beliefs in adolescence may be effective in reducing risk of depression following early life adversity. PMID:26047304

  16. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  17. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Sackler Symposium: Early adversity and the maturation of emotion circuits - a cross-species analysis

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Bridget L.; Sullivan, Regina M; Howell, Brittany; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Early-life caregiving shapes the architecture and function of the developing brain. The fact that the infant-caregiver relationship is critically important for infant functioning across all altricial species, and that the anatomical circuits supporting emotional functioning are highly preserved across different species, suggests that the results of studies examining the role of early adversity and emotional functioning should be translatable across species. Here we present findings from 4 different research laboratories, using 3 different species, which have converged on a similar finding: adversity accelerates the developmental trajectory of amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and modifies emotional behaviors. First, a rodent model of attachment learning associated with adversity is presented showing precocial disruption of attachment learning and emergence of heightened fear learning and emotionality. Second, a model of infant-mother separation is presented in which early adversity is shown to accelerate the developmental emergence of adult-like fear retention and extinction. Third, a model of early life adversity in Rhesus monkeys is presented in which a naturally occurring variation in maternal-care (abuse) is shown to alter the functioning of emotion circuits. Finally, a human model of maternal deprivation is presented in which children born into orphanages and then adopted abroad exhibit aberrant development of emotion circuits. The convergence of these cross-species studies on early life adversity suggests that adversity targets the amygdala and PFC and has immediate impact on infant behaviour with the caregiver, and emotional reactions to the world. These results provide insight into mechanisms responsible for caregiver induced mental health trajectory alterations. PMID:25290865

  18. Color Sextet Scalars in Early LHC Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao Qinghong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Zhang Hao

    2010-10-29

    We explore the potential for discovery of an exotic color sextet scalar in same-sign top quark pair production in early running at the LHC. We present the first phenomenological analysis at colliders of color sextet scalars with full top quark spin correlations included. We demonstrate that one can measure the scalar mass, the top quark polarization, and confirm the scalar resonance with 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The top quark polarization can distinguish gauge triplet and singlet scalars.

  19. Adverse outcome pathways during early fish development: a conceptual framework for identification of chemical screening and prioritization strategies.

    PubMed

    Volz, David C; Belanger, Scott; Embry, Michelle; Padilla, Stephanie; Sanderson, Hans; Schirmer, Kristin; Scholz, Stefan; Villeneuve, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test guideline (OECD 210 or OCSPP 850.1400) is the most frequently used bioassay for predicting chronic fish toxicity and supporting aquatic ecological risk assessments around the world. For each chemical, the FELS test requires a minimum of 360 fish and 1 to 3 months from test initiation to termination. Although valuable for predicting fish full life-cycle toxicity, FELS tests are labor and resource intensive and, due to an emphasis on apical endpoints, provide little to no information about chemical mode of action. Therefore, the development and implementation of alternative testing strategies for screening and prioritizing chemicals has the potential to reduce the cost and number of animals required for estimating FELS toxicity and, at the same time, provides insights into mechanisms of toxicity. Using three reference chemicals with well-established yet distinct adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) in early life stages of fish, we proposed FELS-specific AOPs as conceptual frameworks for identifying useful chemical screening and prioritization strategies. The reference chemicals selected as case studies were a cardiotoxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), neurotoxic acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (chlorpyrifos), and narcotic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate). Using qualitative descriptions for each chemical during early fish development, we developed generalized AOPs and, based on these examples, proposed a three-tiered testing strategy for screening and prioritizing chemicals for FELS testing. Linked with biologically based concentration-response models, a tiered testing strategy may help reduce the reliance on long-term and costly FELS tests required for assessing the hazard of thousands of chemicals currently in commerce.

  20. Structural Brain Network Reorganization and Social Cognition Related to Adverse Perinatal Condition from Infancy to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Batalle, Dafnis; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Eixarch, Elisenda; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Gratacós, Eduard; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse conditions during fetal life have been associated to both structural and functional changes in neurodevelopment from the neonatal period to adolescence. In this study, connectomics was used to assess the evolution of brain networks from infancy to early adolescence. Brain network reorganization over time in subjects who had suffered adverse perinatal conditions is characterized and related to neurodevelopment and cognition. Three cohorts of prematurely born infants and children (between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age), including individuals with a birth weight appropriated for gestational age and with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), were evaluated at 1, 6, and 10 years of age, respectively. A common developmental trajectory of brain networks was identified in both control and IUGR groups: network efficiencies of the fractional anisotropy (FA)-weighted and normalized connectomes increase with age, which can be related to maturation and myelination of fiber connections while the number of connections decreases, which can be associated to an axonal pruning process and reorganization. Comparing subjects with or without IUGR, a similar pattern of network differences between groups was observed in the three developmental stages, mainly characterized by IUGR group having reduced brain network efficiencies in binary and FA-weighted connectomes and increased efficiencies in the connectome normalized by its total connection strength (FA). Associations between brain networks and neurobehavioral impairments were also evaluated showing a relationship between different network metrics and specific social cognition-related scores, as well as a higher risk of inattention/hyperactivity and/or executive functional disorders in IUGR children. PMID:28008304

  1. Providing Optimal Opportunities: Structuring Practicum Experiences in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Preservice Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Squires, Jane K.; Barton, Erin E.

    2009-01-01

    An approach to designing field-based practicum opportunities for preservice students is described. First, the importance of quality field experiences is presented, together with a conceptual framework. Second, foundational and philosophical perspectives in early childhood and early intervention (EI) and early childhood special education (ECSE)…

  2. 'Skating on thin ice?' Consultant surgeon's contemporary experience of adverse surgical events.

    PubMed

    Skevington, Suzanne M; Langdon, Joanne E; Giddins, Grey

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about patient safety have prompted studies of adverse surgical events (ASEs), but descriptive classification of errors and malpractice claims have overshadowed qualitative investigations into the processes that lead to expert errors and their solutions. We studied consultant surgeon's perspectives on how and why events occurred through semi-structured interviews about general and specific events. The sample contained heterogeneous cross-section of ages, gender and specialists, with >2 years consultant status and working within a 25-mile radius. Overarching findings included (1) pressures to work harder, faster and beyond capability within a blaming culture; (2) optimism bias from over-confidence and complacency; and (3) multiple pressures to 'finish' an operation or list, resulting in completion bias. Seven high order themes were identified on the healthcare system, adverse event types, contributing factors, emotions, cognitive processes, error detection, and strategies, solutions and barriers. The process of classifying event types guided solution selection, and the decision about whether to formally report it. How serious consequences were for patients and their temporal effects, defined an adversity continuum. Minor events arose routinely i.e. technical discrepancies, side-effects. More problematic were sub-optimal outcomes and avoidable events. Despite their expertise, consultants were vulnerable to unavoidable, uncontrollable events which were major concerns. Most serious were near-misses, errors and mistakes. However, major errors did not inevitably lead to a catastrophe and minor errors could be extremely serious. A 'cascade' of minor events exacerbated by negative emotions can precipitate major events, and interception methods need investigation. Consultants felt powerless and helpless to change environmental, organisational and systemic problems; new communication and action channels are desirable. Confidence building in team leadership would

  3. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finn, J. M.; Forest, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hoskins, J. R.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.; McHugh, M. J.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Myers, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roche, J.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Young, R. D.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e{{p}} scattering to provide the first determination of the proton's weak charge Q_w^p. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e{{p}} to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(θw) at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world's highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment's data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  4. Early Practicum Experiences: Preservice Early Childhood Students' Perceptions and Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schagen Johnson, Amy; La Paro, Karen M.; Crosby, Danielle A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored early practicum experiences (those occurring before student teaching) in an early childhood birth to kindergarten teacher education program. Undergraduates enrolled in practicum courses completed questionnaires about their overall practicum experience including: socio-emotional components (their perceived fit with their…

  5. Early space experiments in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the flight experiments conducted in conjunction with the United States Materials Processing in Space Program is presented. Also included are a brief description of the conditions prevailing in an orbiting spacecraft and the research implications provided by this unique environment. What was done and what was learned are summarized in order to serve as a background for future experiments. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the physical sciences but no background in spaceflight experimentation or in the materials science per se.

  6. Early Adolescence: Experiment with Poster Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael J.; Shaw, Edward

    1983-01-01

    In a poster session, students explain an experiment with the help of a poster that outlines the experimental procedures followed. Suggestions for preparing posters and conducting poster sessions are provided. A sample poster on the strength of electromagnets is also provided. (JN)

  7. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  8. Portfolio assessment: practice teachers' early experience.

    PubMed

    Spence, William; El-Ansari, Walid

    2004-07-01

    Experience was recognised to be a vital source of learning as long ago as 1762 [Emile, Everyman, London, 1993] and reflection on practice experience may be one way forward in addressing nursing's anxieties concerning the practice theory gap. However, despite the acceptance that subjectivity in the process seems inevitable and potentially important, little is understood of the practitioner's experience of practice assessment. Two questionnaires sought the views of specialist community nursing practitioner (SCNP) programme (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (UKCC) 2001) practice teachers (PTs) on the introduction of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. These were distributed to 62 and 76 PTs and the response rates were 32% and 50%, respectively. Responses of those PTs from the three specialisms participating in the piloting of the portfolio approach were compared with those using an existing approach. An action research method was adopted which attempted to use established theory to explain the challenges presented by the introduction of this approach and ultimately to raise the PT group's awareness of assessment issues. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and the findings support the use of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. The PT experience of portfolio use was found to be a largely positive one. PTs reported the utility of the portfolio in prompting student self-evaluation of learning. Concerns were expressed by PTs around the quality of portfolio evidence although many felt that it had promoted students' reflection on practice. Inter-PT reliability in practice assessment was identified as a topic for PT continuing professional development. Many sources of evidence, including patient feedback, were used by PTs in their assessment of students although PTs using the portfolio approach used less first-hand experience of students' practice in their assessments of competence, relying more

  9. The Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk: a Review with Emphasis on Plausible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaoyong; Jimenez, Marcia P.; Roberts, Cole T. F.; Loucks, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity, characterized by abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, is a problem that exerts a significant impact on individuals, families, and society. Growing evidence suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with health decline in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the current review, we first provide an overview of the association between ACEs and CVD risk, with updates on the latest epidemiological evidence. Second, we briefly review plausible pathways by which ACEs could influence CVD risk, including traditional risk factors and novel mechanisms. Finally, we highlight the potential implications of ACEs in clinical and public health. Information gleaned from this review should help physicians and researchers in better understanding potential long-term consequences of ACEs and considering adapting current strategies in treatment or intervention for patients with ACEs. PMID:26289252

  10. Gender differences in adverse childhood experiences, collective violence, and the risk for addictive behaviors among university students in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Lemieux, Andrine; Bouanene, Ines; Ben Salah, Arwa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Ben Salem, Kamel; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-02-16

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been linked to a variety of addictive behaviors. The recent adaptation of the ACE measure by the World Health Organization (WHO) allows for the assessment of the negative role of additional adverse experiences, such as extra-familial violence. To date, the relationship between extra-familial violence and addictive behaviors has not been assessed. We report the contribution of ACEs, including the new scales for extra-familial violence, on the risk for mental health problems and addictive behaviors by gender in a sample of young adults in Tunisia. We conducted a cross sectional study in Tunisia during 2014, where we recruited 1200 young university adults who completed the validated Arabic version of the WHO ACE questionnaire in a university setting. Results indicated that intra-familial adversities were associated with increased risk for addictive behaviors, particularly in males. ACEs were also associated with increased risk for mental health problems with women showing more difficulties than men. Exposure to peer, community and collective violence was higher in males than in females and logistic regression confirms that exposure to extra-familial violence increased the risk for addictive behaviors both in male and females by two to three-fold. Mental health problems were associated with peer violence and substance abuse in males, but not in females. Results demonstrate for the first time the contribution of exposure to extra-familial violence on risk for addictive behaviors. Results highlight the need for addressing mental health and addiction in a community with high burden of adversity and violence.

  11. Visualizing Changes in Cdkn1c Expression Links Early-Life Adversity to Imprint Mis-regulation in Adults.

    PubMed

    Van de Pette, Mathew; Abbas, Allifia; Feytout, Amelie; McNamara, Gráinne; Bruno, Ludovica; To, Wilson K; Dimond, Andrew; Sardini, Alessandro; Webster, Zoe; McGinty, James; Paul, Eleanor J; Ungless, Mark A; French, Paul M W; Withers, Dominic J; Uren, Anthony; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Merkenschlager, Matthias; John, Rosalind M; Fisher, Amanda G

    2017-01-31

    Imprinted genes are regulated according to parental origin and can influence embryonic growth and metabolism and confer disease susceptibility. Here, we designed sensitive allele-specific reporters to non-invasively monitor imprinted Cdkn1c expression in mice and showed that expression was modulated by environmental factors encountered in utero. Acute exposure to chromatin-modifying drugs resulted in de-repression of paternally inherited (silent) Cdkn1c alleles in embryos that was temporary and resolved after birth. In contrast, deprivation of maternal dietary protein in utero provoked permanent de-repression of imprinted Cdkn1c expression that was sustained into adulthood and occurred through a folate-dependent mechanism of DNA methylation loss. Given the function of imprinted genes in regulating behavior and metabolic processes in adults, these results establish imprinting deregulation as a credible mechanism linking early-life adversity to later-life outcomes. Furthermore, Cdkn1c-luciferase mice offer non-invasive tools to identify factors that disrupt epigenetic processes and strategies to limit their long-term impact.

  12. Early Career Experiences of Physical Education Teachers in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the early career experiences of three physical education (PE) teachers who taught in urban charter schools. Using cultural relevance theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for approximately six weeks each. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Two major themes emerged…

  13. Associations between early life experience, chronic HPA axis activity, and adult social rank in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Wooddell, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank. We found that mother-peer-reared (MPR) monkeys acquired higher social ranks than either of the two nursery-reared (NR) groups (peer-reared, PR, or surrogate-peer-reared, SPR monkeys) (β = -0.07, t(89) = -2.16, p = 0.034). We also found that MPR HCCs were lower during the juvenile period at 18 months (F(2,25) = 3.49, p = 0.047). Furthermore, for MPR but not NR monkeys, changes in HCCs from 18 to 24 months (r(s) = -0.627, p = 0.039) and adult HCCs (r(s) = -0.321, p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with adult social rank. These findings suggest that chronic HPA axis regulation in juvenility, and perhaps in adulthood, may influence adult social status for primates that experience typical early rearing. However, early life adversity may result in dissociation between neuroendocrine stress regulation and adult social competence, which may be risk factors for adverse health outcomes.

  14. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway.

  15. Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (5α3α-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5α3α-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR δ subunit (δ0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, δ0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of δ0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress

  16. Trauma changes everything: examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Perez, Nicholas; Cass, Elizabeth; Baglivio, Michael T; Epps, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Among juvenile offenders, those who commit the greatest number and the most violent offenses are referred to as serious, violent, and chronic (SVC) offenders. However, current practices typically identify SVC offenders only after they have committed their prolific and costly offenses. While several studies have examined risk factors of SVCs, no screening tool has been developed to identify children at risk of SVC offending. This study aims to examine how effective the adverse childhood experiences index, a childhood trauma-based screening tool developed in the medical field, is at identifying children at higher risk of SVC offending. Data on the history of childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, criminal behavior, and other criminological risk factors for offending among 22,575 delinquent youth referred to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice are analyzed, with results suggesting that each additional adverse experience a child experiences increases the risk of becoming a serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offender by 35, when controlling for other risk factors for criminal behavior. These findings suggest that the ACE score could be used by practitioners as a first-line screening tool to identify children at risk of SVC offending before significant downstream wreckage occurs.

  17. The Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention: Mothers Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhue, Rebecca; Onslow, Mark; Quine, Susan; O'Brian, Sue; Hearne, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The Lidcombe Program is a behavioral treatment for early stuttering which is implemented by parents, typically the mother. Despite this, there is limited detailed knowledge about mothers' experiences of administering the treatment. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of 16 mothers during their…

  18. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  19. Identity-Trajectory: Reframing Early Career Academic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl; Turner, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Our longitudinal qualitative research program examining doctoral student, post-PhD researcher and new lecturer experience is situated in an international literature documenting how early career academics learn through experience. In common with others, our work is framed within an identity perspective. What makes our view of identity distinct is a…

  20. Early Achievement in Rural China: The Role of Preschool Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between preschool experiences and the early academic achievement of rural Chinese children. In both Study 1 (n = 165) and Study 2 (n = 205), the school preparedness, and the literacy and mathematics attainment of first graders with different preschool experiences (kindergarten, separate pre-primary class,…

  1. Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jin; Chen, Peng-Fei; Tian, Li-Xia; Liu, Yong-Jian; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Yang, Hui-Jun; Liang, Gui-Ying

    2012-06-25

    One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8 mg) for 27 days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in other diet treatments. Dietary analysis indicated that the D1 diet contained 0.92% cholesterol prior to supplementation, which may have satisfied the dietary cholesterol requirement of post-larval L. vannamei; excess dietary cholesterol may thus lead to adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp.

  2. "They're Battle Scars, I Wear Them Well": A Phenomenological Exploration of Young Women's Experiences of Building Resilience Following Adversity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Claire; Reynolds, Frances Ann; Moran, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored young women's accounts of building resilience following chains of adverse life experiences in adolescence. Six participants were interviewed, aged 20-25 years. Most had, or were receiving, a university education. They described their recovery from adversity as starting with certain pivotal moments, followed by…

  3. Changes in plasma levels of BDNF and NGF reveal a gender-selective vulnerability to early adversity in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cirulli, Francesca; Francia, Nadia; Branchi, Igor; Antonucci, Maria Teresa; Aloe, Luigi; Suomi, Stephen J.; Alleva, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Summary Early stressful events can increase vulnerability for psychopathology, although knowledge on the effectors is still limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that peripheral levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), which are involved in the response to stress and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression, might be affected in a non-human primate model of adverse rearing. Males and females rhesus macaques reared with their mothers (MR) or in peer-only groups (PR) were used as experimental subjects. BDNF, NGF, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) were determined at baseline on postnatal days (PND) 14, 30 and 60 by means of specific ELISA and RIA procedures. In addition, behavior was assessed on PND 7, 14, 21, 30 (Brazelton test) and 60 (home cage observation). Data indicate gender differences in basal levels of BDNF throughout development. Peer-rearing increased significantly BDNF levels only in females. In addition, while all peer-reared subjects showed high levels of stereotypies and self-directed behaviors, behavioral passivity was selectively increased in females. By contrast, NGF levels were increased in response to peer rearing only in males, and correlated positively with other “classic” endocrine responses to stress, such as cortisol and growth hormone. Our data identify BDNF and NGF as neuroendocrine markers underlying differential responses to maternal deprivation in males and females rhesus macaques. The selective changes in BDNF levels in females could help explain the greater vulnerability to mood disorders of this gender reported in humans. PMID:18849121

  4. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  5. The ability of pretransplant test-dose pharmacokinetic profiles to reduce early adverse events after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kahan, B D; Welsh, M; Rutzky, L; Lewis, R; Knight, R; Katz, S; Napoli, K; Grevel, J; Van Buren, C T

    1992-02-01

    Pretransplant test-dose pharmacokinetic profiles were used to determine individual cyclosporine drug bioavailability and clearance rates in renal transplant patients. Assuming a linear relation between dose and area under the concentration curve (AUC), starting i.v. and p.o. CsA doses were computed from the test-dose results. Target values were 400 ng/ml steady-state concentration (Css) during continuous intravenous infusion, and 500 ng/ml average drug concentration (Cavss = AUC/dosing interval) after oral administration, based upon measurements with the specific monoclonal antibody 3H-tracer radioimmunoassay. The outcomes after dose individualization with a 1-(n = 32), 2-(n = 38), or 3-(n = 41) hr i.v. infusion test dose and a p.o. test dose (n = 111) were compared with 228 historical control patients who received a uniform protocol of CsA i.v. at 2.5 mg/kg/day and p.o. at 14 mg/kg/day. The observed Css after i.v. CsA was within 10% of the target concentration in 73% of recipients tested with the 3-hr protocol, a significantly greater fraction than achieved with either the uniform dose (14%), or the 1-(34%) and 2-(25%) hr protocols. Patients in the 3-hr protocol group showed reduced incidences of delayed graft function, early graft loss, and rejection episodes, and a lower mean serum creatinine value, particularly at 7 but also at 30 days posttransplantation. Administration of the predicted oral dose produced a peak concentration of greater than or equal to 700 ng/ml drug absorption in 60% of recipients at 3 days, 90% at 5 days, and 98% at 7 days. The test-dose method less effectively predicted the appropriate oral CsA dose to produce target Cssav and failed to reduce the 90-day rejection incidence. Despite its limitations with the more-complicated p.o. route, the test-dose method successfully predicts i.v. CsA doses, thereby reducing the incidence of early adverse events.

  6. A review of primary care interventions to improve health outcomes in adult survivors of adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Korotana, Laurel M; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis; Josephson, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between the experience of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health conditions, including mental and physical health problems. While a focus on the prevention or mitigation of adversity in childhood is an important direction of many programs, many individuals do not access support services until adulthood, when health problems may be fairly engrained. It is not clear which interventions have the strongest evidence base to support the many adults who present to services with a history of ACEs. The current review examines the evidence base for psychosocial interventions for adults with a history of ACEs. The review focuses on interventions that may be provided in primary care, as that is the setting where most patients will first present and are most likely to receive treatment. A systematic review of the literature was completed using PsycInfo and PubMed databases, with 99 studies identified that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies evaluated a range of interventions with varying levels of supportive evidence. Overall, cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have the most evidence for improving health problems - in particular, improving mental health and reducing health-risk behaviors - in adults with a history of ACEs. Expressive writing and mindfulness-based therapies also show promise, whereas other treatments have less supportive evidence. Limitations of the current literature base are discussed and research directions for the field are provided.

  7. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity.

  8. The Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Recidivism in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders in Community-Based Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Kevin T; Baglivio, Michael T; Piquero, Alex R

    2015-11-12

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been identified as a key risk factor for a range of negative life outcomes, including delinquency. Much less is known about how exposure to negative experiences relates to continued offending among juvenile offenders. In this study, we examine the effect of ACEs on recidivism in a large sample of previously referred youth from the State of Florida who were followed for 1 year after participation in community-based treatment. Results from a series of Cox hazard models suggest that ACEs increase the risk of subsequent arrest, with a higher prevalence of ACEs leading to a shorter time to recidivism. The relationship between ACEs and recidivism held quite well in demographic-specific analyses. Implications for empirical research on the long-term effects of traumatic childhood events and juvenile justice policy are discussed.

  9. Unexpected adverse childhood experiences and subsequent drug use disorder: a Swedish population study (1995–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Giuseppe N.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Aims Exposure to extraordinary traumatic experience is one acknowledged risk factor for drug use. We aim to analyse the influence of potentially life-changing childhood stressors, experienced second-hand, on later drug use disorder in a national population of Swedish adolescent and young adults (aged 15–26 years). Design We performed Cox Proportional Hazard regression analyses, complemented with co-relative pair comparisons. Setting Sweden Participants All individuals in the Swedish population born 1984 to 1995, who were registered in Sweden at the end of the calendar year they turned 14 years of age. Our follow-up time (Mean: 6.2 years; Range 11 years) started at the year they turned 15 and continued to December 2011 (N=1,409,218). Measurements Our outcome variable was drug use disorder, identified from medical, legal and pharmacy registry records. Childhood stressors, as per DSM-IV stressor criteria, include death of an immediate family member and second-hand experience of diagnoses of malignant cancer, serious accidental injury, and victim of assault. Other covariates include parental divorce, familial psychological well-being, and familial drug and alcohol use disorders. Findings After adjustment for all considered confounders, individuals exposed to childhood stressors ‘parental death’ or ‘parental assault’ had over twice the risk of drug use disorder than those who were not (HR = 2.63 (2.23–3.09) and 2.39 (2.06–2.79), respectively). Conclusions Children under 15 who experience second-hand an extraordinary traumatic event (such as a parent or sibling being assaulted, diagnosed with cancer, or dying) appear to have approximately twice the risk of developing a drug use disorder than those who do not. PMID:24612271

  10. Early sexual experience as a factor in prostitution.

    PubMed

    James, J; Meyerding, J

    1978-01-01

    Using the literature of the early sexual histories of "normal" women and two recent studies on the sexual histories of prostitutes, this article examines the pattern of early sexual experience among prostitutes and how it differs from that common to nonprostitute women. Some significant differences found between the samples of prostitutes and the samples of "normal" women were that the prostitute samples, on the whole, learned less about sex from parents and more from personal experiences, as children experienced more sexual advances by elders, were more victimized by incest, generally initiated sexual activity at a younger age, more often had no further relationship with their first coital partner, and experienced a higher incidence of rape. The analysis of these data on early sexual history concentrates on abusive sexual experiences such as incest and rape. The authors believe that an abusive sexual self-identity relates to the development of an adult female pattern of occupational deviance such as prostitution.

  11. Early life adversity during the infant sensitive period for attachment: Programming of behavioral neurobiology of threat processing and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Regina

    2017-02-16

    Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver's presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

  12. The effects of early-life adversity on fear memories in adolescent rats and their persistence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Makuch, Wioletta; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Dudys, Dorota; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by extensive morphological and functional remodeling of the brain. The processes of brain maturation during this period may unmask malfunctions that originate earlier in life as a consequence of early-life stress (ELS). This is associated with the emergence of many psychopathologies during adolescence, particularly affective spectrum disorders. In the present study, we applied a maternal separation (MS) procedure (3h/day, on postnatal days 1-14) as a model of ELS to examine its effects on the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear memories in adolescent rats. Additionally, we studied the persistence of these memories into adulthood. We found that MS decreased the expression of both contextual (CFC) and auditory (AFC) fear conditioning in adolescent rats. Besides, MS had no impact on the acquisition of extinction learning. During the recall of extinction MS animals both, those previously subjected and not subjected to the extinction session, exhibited equally low levels of freezing. In adulthood, the MS animals (conditioned during adolescence) still displayed impairments in the expression of AFC (only in males) and CFC. Furthermore, the MS procedure had also an impact on the expression of CFC (but not AFC) after retraining in adulthood. Our findings imply that ELS may permanently affect fear learning and memory. The results also support the hypothesis that, depending on individual predispositions and further experiences, ELS may either lead to a resilience or a vulnerability to early- and late-onsets psychopathologies.

  13. Dimensions of early experience and neural development: deprivation and threat.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, a growing area of research has focused on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impacts on neural and developmental outcomes. Work in the field to-date has generally conceptualized ACEs in terms of exposure to stress while overlooking the underlying dimensions of environmental experience that may distinctly impact neural development. Here, we propose a novel framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected cognitive and social input) and threat (presence of a threat to one's physical integrity). We draw support for the neural basis of this distinction from studies on fear learning and sensory deprivation in animals to highlight potential mechanisms through which experiences of threat and deprivation could affect neural structure and function in humans.

  14. Nonhuman Primate Models of Depression: Effects of Early Experience and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Worlein, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Depression causes significant morbidity in the human population. The Diathesis-Stress/Two-Hit model of depression hypothesizes that stress interacts with underlying (probably genetic) predispositions to produce a central nervous system that is primed to express psychopathology when confronted with stressful experiences later in life. Nonhuman primate (NHP) studies have been extensively utilized to test this model. NHPs are especially useful for studying effects of early experience, because many aspects of NHP infancy are similar to humans, whereas development occurs at an accelerated rate and therefore allows for more rapid assessment of experimental variables. In addition, the ability to manipulate putative risk factors, including introducing experimental stress during development, allows inference of causality not possible with human studies. This manuscript reviews experimental paradigms that have been utilized to model early adverse experience in NHPs, including peer-rearing, maternal separation, and variable foraging. It also provides examples of how this model has been used to investigate the effects of early experience on later neurobiology, physiology, and behavior associated with depression. We conclude that the NHP offers an excellent model to research mechanisms contributing to the Diathesis-Stress/Two-Hit model of depression. PMID:25225305

  15. Review of Immune-Related Adverse Events in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Ipilimumab: MD Anderson Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianjun; He, Qiuming; Subudhi, Sumit; Aparicio, Ana; Zurita-Saavedra, Amado; Lee, Da Hyun; Jimenez, Camilo; Suarez-Almazor, Maria; Sharma, Padmanee

    2014-01-01

    Targeting a T cell inhibitory checkpoint with the anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, represents a scientific breakthrough in immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. However, ipilimumab therapy is also associated with unique side effects, known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which need to be recognized and managed with immunosuppressive agents. To date, the majority of our knowledge regarding ipilimumab-associated side effects is based upon clinical studies in melanoma. Here, we provide a review of ipilimumab-induced irAEs and our experience in a cohort of 44 patients with prostate cancer who were treated at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center on two different clinical trial protocols. PMID:25659583

  16. Reducing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) by Building Community Capacity: A Summary of Washington Family Policy Council Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Judy; Porter, Laura; Longhi, Dario; Becker-Green, Jody; Dreyfus, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Community capacity for organization and collaboration has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the health and well-being of communities. Since 1994 the Washington State Family Policy Council has supported the development of community capacity in 42 community public health and safety networks. Community networks bring local communities together to restructure natural supports and local resources to meet the needs of families and children, and increase cross-system coordination and flexible funding streams to improve local services and policy. In this study, researchers sought to demonstrate the strong impact of the community networks’ capacity to interrupt health and social problems. Findings suggest that community networks reduce health and safety problems for the entire community population. Further, community networks with high community capacity reduced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in young adults ages 18–34. PMID:22970785

  17. Quality and Early Field Experiences: Partnering with Junior Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Jody S.; Anderson, Gina; Fredrickson, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of preservice teacher candidates who participated in a pilot partnership between a public teacher education preparation program and Junior Achievement (JA). The partnership was grounded in the premise that providing early field experiences to preservice teacher candidates was a necessary requirement of quality…

  18. Early Academic Experiences of Recently Incarcerated African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…

  19. Early results from the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1995-01-01

    Data extraction and analysis of the LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment is continuing. Almost twice the pre LDEF world sample has been investigated and some details of the charge spectrum in the region from Z approximately 70 up to and including the actinides are presented. The early results indicate r process enhancement over solar system source abundances.

  20. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  1. Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) RPC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.; Hall, Callie

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the background, objectives, methodology, validation, and present status of the Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) experiment. The potential NASA contribution to CREWS Decision Support Tool (DST) centers on remotely sensed imagery products.

  2. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course.

  3. Natural experiments to study the effects of early experience: progress and limitations.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    Questions concerning the long-term effects of early experience on psychological development in humans continue to stir up controversy. There are, at present, great diversity and contradictions among extant conceptual models and inadequate data to resolve these differences. Limited opportunities to use experimental approaches and the inherent restrictions of observational approaches in research on humans implies that alternative research designs are needed. This article examines the use of "natural experiments" as a method for testing hypotheses concerning the effects of early experience on psychological development. The benefits and limitations of using natural experiments are reviewed and several case illustrations are considered.

  4. Early visual mechanisms do not contribute to synesthetic color experience.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Wook; Blake, Randolph

    2008-03-01

    Color-graphemic synesthetes perceive colors when viewing alphanumeric characters. Theories of color-graphemic synesthesia posit that synesthetic color experience arises from activation of neural mechanisms also involved in ordinary color vision. To learn how early in visual processing those mechanisms exist, we performed several experiments. In one experiment, real colors were altered in appearance by the lightness of their backgrounds, but the appearance of synesthetic colors was immune to surrounding light levels. In the second experiment using a hue cancellation technique, adaptation to synesthetic color had no subsequent effect on the amount of cancelling light to achieve equilibrium yellow, whereas adaptation to real colors did. In the third experiment, vivid synesthetic color had no influence on equilibrium yellow settings of the actual color of the characters evoking synesthesia. Because brightness contrast and chromatic adaptation are putatively mediated by neural mechanisms early in visual processing including retina and primary visual cortex, our results imply that neural events responsible for synesthetic color emerge subsequent to these early visual stages.

  5. The association between adverse childhood experiences and alcohol use during pregnancy in a representative sample of adult women

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberger, David; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on adult alcohol consumption is well-established, but little is known about the association with alcohol use during pregnancy. Methods Using data from the 2010 Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we assessed the relationship between ACEs and alcohol use during pregnancy in a representative sample of 1,987 adult women. An established ACEs scale was used to assess a range of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and household dysfunction (range 0–8). Weighted logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between ACE scores and alcohol use during pregnancy after controlling for drinking before pregnancy and other covariates. Results Six percent of participants reported drinking alcohol during pregnancy. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, employment status, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy alcohol use, increasing ACEs were positively associated with higher odds of alcohol use during pregnancy (1 ACE: AOR= 2.92; 95% CI= 1.08, 7.87), (2–3 ACEs: AOR=3.52; 95% CI=1.46, 8.48), and (4 or more ACEs: AOR= 4.79; 95% CI=2.14, 10.72). Pre-pregnancy drinking was also strongly associated with alcohol use during pregnancy (AOR= 11.95; 95% CI=5.02, 28.43). Conclusions We found evidence of a dose-response relationship between ACEs and alcohol use during pregnancy that remained even after controlling for pre-pregnancy drinking and other covariates. Screening women of childbearing age as well as pregnant women for ACEs may be an effective way to identify and address many of the emotional, behavioral, and physical sequelae of childhood adversity. PMID:26227209

  6. Exposure to early adversity: Points of cross-species translation that can lead to improved understanding of depression

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, SUSAN L.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between developmental exposure to adversity and affective disorders is reviewed. Adversity discussed herein includes physical and sexual abuse, neglect, or loss of a caregiver in humans. While these stressors can occur at any point during development, the unique temporal relationship to specific depressive symptoms was the focus of discussion. Further influences of stress exposure during sensitive periods can vary by gender and duration of abuse as well. Data from animal studies are presented to provide greater translational and causal understanding of how sensitive periods, different types of psychosocial stressors, and sex interact to produce depressive-like behaviors. Findings from maternal separation, isolation rearing, chronic variable stress, and peer–peer rearing paradigms clarify interpretation about how various depressive behaviors are influenced by age of exposure. Depressive behaviors are broken down into the following categories: mood and affect, anhedonia, energy, working memory, sleep–wake, appetite changes, suicide, and general malaise. Cross-species evidence from humans, nonhuman primates, rats, and mice within each of these categories is discussed. In conclusion, sensitive periods for affective-related behaviors (anxiety, mood, and controllability) occur earlier in life, while other aspects of depression are associated with adversity later during adolescence. PMID:25997766

  7. Early Results of ICRH Experiments in VX-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.; Ilin, A. V.; Petro, A. J.; Jacobson, V.; McCaskill, G.; Tarditi, A. G.; Winter, D. S.; Bengtson, R. D.; Breizman, B. N.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Colestock, P.; Light, M.; Bering, E. A.; Glover, T. W.; Davis, C.; Chavers, D. G.

    2003-10-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is an open-ended RF-heated propulsion concept currently under development by NASA. Current experiments (VX-10) focus on the demonstration of significant ion acceleration by ion cyclotron resonance. Theoretical and plasma simulation predictions are used to define the parameter space of interest in these experiments. Early results show significant ion energy absorption with concomitant plasma acceleration and agree well with predicted values. Plasma diagnostics include Mach, triple, RF and emissive probes, a momentum sensor, retarding potential analyzers, a spectrometer and a 70GHz microwave interferometer. An array of thermocouples monitor heat deposition to the walls of the discharge tube. A baratron sensor and a fast ion gauge provide time-tagged background pressure. Early results from these diagnostics will be presented and discussed.

  8. Early experiences and performance of the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1994-08-01

    Experiences and performance figures are reported from early tests of the 512-node Intel Paragon XPS35 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Computation performance of the 50 MHz i860XP processor as well as communication performance of the 200 megabyte/second mesh are reported and compared with other multiprocessors. Single and multiple hop communication bandwidths and latencies are measured. Concurrent communication speeds and speed under network load are also measured. File I/O performance of the mesh-attached Parallel File System is measured. Early experiences with OSF/Mach and SUNMOS operating systems are reported, as well results from porting various distributed-memory applications. This report also summarizes the second phase of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Intel in evaluating a 66-node Intel Paragon XPS5.

  9. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Sarah M N

    2012-09-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production, and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception, and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals.

  10. Early sexual experience alters voluntary alcohol intake in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Morris, John S; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-03-20

    Steroid hormones signaling before and after birth sexually differentiates neuronal circuitry. Additionally, steroid hormones released during adolescence can also have long lasting effects on adult behavior and neuronal circuitry. As adolescence is a critical period for the organization of the nervous system by steroid hormones it may also be a sensitive period for the effects of social experience on adult phenotype. Our previous study indicated that early adolescent sexual activity altered mood and prefrontal cortical morphology but to a much smaller extent if the sexual experience happened in late adolescence. In humans, both substance abuse disorders and mood disorders greatly increase during adolescence. An association among both age of first sexual activity and age of puberty with both mood and substance disorders has been reported with alcohol being the most commonly abused drug in this population. The goal of this experiment was do determine whether sexual experience early in adolescent development would have enduring effects on adult affective and drug-seeking behavior. Compared to sexually inexperienced hamsters and those that experienced sex for the first time in adulthood, animals that mated at 40 days of age and were tested either 40 or 80 days later significantly increased depressive- but not anxiety-like behaviors and increased self-administration of saccharine-sweetened ethanol. The results of this study suggest that an isolated, though highly relevant, social experience during adolescence can significantly alter depressive-like behavior and alcohol self-administration in adulthood.

  11. Abnormal bodily experiences may be a marker of early schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Fusar Poli, Paolo; Cutting, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to answer the following question: What are the typical features of abnormal bodily experiences (ABEs) in persons affected by acute first-episode schizophrenia? Our overall objective is to contribute to enhance early diagnosis of schizophrenia, and providing supplementary diagnostic criteria especially for ultra-high risk patients. In a group of 39 patients with first-episode schizophrenia selected from a sample of 393 psychotic patients, 30 (76.9 %) reported ABEs. By means of a phenomenologically-based qualitative method of inquiry, we recognized four subtypes of ABEs whose main characteristics are dynamization of bodily boundaries and construction, morbid objectivization/devitalization, dysmorphic experiences and pain-like experiences. These four typologies of ABEs are documented through the patients' first-person self-descriptions, and then operationally defined. Two main properties emerge as tentative eidetic (defining) cores of ABEs in early schizophrenia: dynamization of bodily boundaries and construction, and morbid objectivization/devitalization. Sharpening the diagnostic sensibility for typically schizophrenic ABEs can help improve differential diagnosis between schizophrenia and other disorders entailing other types of anomalies of lived corporeality. Also, studying possible transitions from schizophrenic cenesthopathies to bodily delusions in persons with schizophrenia may refine the concept of bizarre delusions by improving its validity. Furthermore, our knowledge about the pathogenesis of schizophrenia may profit from an in-depth assessment of ABEs and their relationship with an abnormal sense of selfhood, especially in early schizophrenia.

  12. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages.

  13. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: Early life conditions and later-life mortality

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi A.; Norton, Maria C.; Hollingshaus, Michael S.; Mineau, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child’s, adolescent’s, or even young adult’s life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring’s marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent’s remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages. PMID:24530028

  14. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression.

  15. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies.

  16. Consideration of Personal Adverse Childhood Experiences during Implementation of Trauma-Informed Care Curriculum in Graduate Health Programs

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Joshua; Bolman, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Context: Scientific findings of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their lifelong graded relationship with leading causes of death are well established. Many health care practitioners, however, have yet to implement ACEs screening in clinical practice. Furthermore, ACEs screening and trauma-informed care (TIC) are not part of standard graduate-level training. Objective: To 1) implement trauma-informed curriculum for multiple graduate health programs, 2) determine student understanding of and willingness to address ACEs, and 3) assess the relationship between students voluntarily evaluating their individual ACE Score and their attitude toward ACEs and TIC. Design: Prospective study with pre- and postcurricular surveys (12-question digital survey administered before and after the curriculum) for 967 graduate students from 9 health professions programs at 2 campuses who received curriculum focused on ACEs and TIC. Main Outcome Measures: Students’ understanding of ACEs and TIC, their awareness of personal ACEs, and their willingness to incorporate TIC in practice. Results: Among students who voluntarily completed an ACE questionnaire, there was statistical significance in familiarity with clinical and scientific findings of the ACE Study (p < 0.001) and familiarity with TIC (p < 0.02). A significant intercampus difference in the students’ familiarity with the scientific and clinical findings of the ACE Study (p < 0.05) was found. Conclusion: Students and future health care practitioners who voluntarily assess their ACE Score are significantly more likely to understand scientific and clinical findings of the ACE Study as well as TIC. PMID:27673708

  17. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research.

  18. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  19. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days) in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD) (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good) were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1) times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly associated with

  20. Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia

  1. Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

  2. Early Social Experience Affects the Development of Eye Gaze Processing

    PubMed Central

    Senju, Atsushi; Vernetti, Angélina; Ganea, Natasa; Hudry, Kristelle; Tucker, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Eye gaze is a key channel of non-verbal communication in humans [1, 2, 3]. Eye contact with others is present from birth [4], and eye gaze processing is crucial for social learning and adult-infant communication [5, 6, 7]. However, little is known about the effect of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze communication on early social and communicative development. To directly address this question, we assessed 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBPs) longitudinally at 6–10 and 12–16 months. Face scanning [8] and gaze following [7, 9] were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, naturalistic observations were made when the infants were interacting with their blind parent and with an unfamiliar sighted adult. Established measures of emergent autistic-like behaviors [10] and standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and linguistic development [11] were also collected. These data were then compared with those obtained from a group of infants of sighted parents. Despite showing typical social skills development overall, infants of blind parents allocated less attention to adult eye movements and gaze direction, an effect that increased between 6–10 and 12–16 months of age. The results suggest that infants adjust their use of adults’ eye gaze depending on gaze communication experience from early in life. The results highlight that human functional brain development shows selective experience-dependent plasticity adaptive to the individual’s specific social environment. PMID:26752077

  3. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties

    PubMed Central

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555

  4. Development of Children at Risk for Adverse Outcomes Participating in Early Intervention in Developing Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L.; Bann, Carla M.; Biasini, Fred J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated positive effects of early developmental intervention (EDI) on the development of children in developing countries. Few studies, however, have examined longitudinally when differential treatment effects may be observed and whether differential outcomes are associated with exposure to different risk…

  5. Atrazine and malathion shorten the maturation process of Xenopus laevis oocytes and have an adverse effect on early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qichao; Lee, Jessica; Lin, Yu-Huey; Jing, Guihua; Tsai, L Jillianne; Chen, Andrew; Hetrick, Lindsay; Jocoy, Dylan; Liu, Junjun

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides has a negative impact on the environment. Amphibians have long been regarded as indicator species to pollutants due to their permeable skin and sensitivity to the environment. Studies have shown that population declines of some amphibians are directly linked with exposure to agricultural contaminants. In the past, much of the studies have focused on the toxic effect of contaminants on larvae (tadpoles), juvenile and adult frogs. However, due to the nature of their life cycle, amphibian eggs and early embryos are especially susceptible to the contaminants, and any alteration during the early reproductive stages may have a profound effect on the health and population of amphibians. In this study, we analyzed the effect of atrazine and malathion, two commonly used pesticides, on Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. We found that both atrazine and malathion shortened the frog oocyte maturation process and resulted in reduced Emi2 levels at cytostatic factor-mediated metaphase arrest, and a high level of Emi2 is critically important for oocyte maturation. Furthermore, frog embryos fertilized under the influence of atrazine and/or malathion displayed a higher rate of abnormal division that eventually led to embryo death during early embryogenesis.

  6. The science of early adversity: is there a role for large institutions in the care of vulnerable children?

    PubMed

    Berens, Anne E; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-07-25

    It has been more than 80 years since researchers in child psychiatry first documented developmental delays among children separated from family environments and placed in orphanages or other institutions. Informed by such findings, global conventions, including the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, assert a child's right to care within a family-like environment that offers individualised support. Nevertheless, an estimated 8 million children are presently growing up in congregate care institutions. Common reasons for institutionalisation include orphaning, abandonment due to poverty, abuse in families of origin, disability, and mental illness. Although the practice remains widespread, a robust body of scientific work suggests that institutionalisation in early childhood can incur developmental damage across diverse domains. Specific deficits have been documented in areas including physical growth, cognitive function, neurodevelopment, and social-psychological health. Effects seem most pronounced when children have least access to individualised caregiving, and when deprivation coincides with early developmental sensitive periods. Offering hope, early interventions that place institutionalised children into families have afforded substantial recovery. The strength of scientific evidence imparts urgency to efforts to achieve deinstitutionalisation in global child protection sectors, and to intervene early for individual children experiencing deprivation.

  7. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0–17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6–29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  9. Spanking and adult mental health impairment: The case for the designation of spanking as an adverse childhood experience.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; Ford, Derek; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Merrick, Melissa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ports, Katie A; MacMillan, Harriet L; Holden, George W; Taylor, Catherine A; Lee, Shawna J; Peters Bennett, Robbyn

    2017-01-23

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse are related to poor health outcomes. Spanking has indicated a similar association with health outcomes, but to date has not been considered an ACE. Physical and emotional abuse have been shown in previous research to correlate highly and may be similar in nature to spanking. To determine if spanking should be considered an ACE, this study aimed to examine 1): the grouping of spanking with physical and emotional abuse; and 2) if spanking has similar associations with poor adult health problems and accounts for additional model variance. Adult mental health problems included depressive affect, suicide attempts, moderate to heavy drinking, and street drug use. Data were from the CDC-Kaiser ACE study (N=8316, response rate=65%). Spanking loaded on the same factor as the physical and emotional abuse items. Additionally, spanking was associated with increased odds of suicide attempts (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=1.02 to1.86), moderate to heavy drinking (AOR)=1.23; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.41), and the use of street drugs (AOR)=1.32; 95% CI=1.4 to 1.52) in adulthood over and above experiencing physical and emotional abuse. This indicates spanking accounts for additional model variance and improves our understanding of these outcomes. Thus, spanking is empirically similar to physical and emotional abuse and including spanking with abuse adds to our understanding of these mental health problems. Spanking should also be considered an ACE and addressed in efforts to prevent violence.

  10. Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments: origins and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nestar John Charles

    2011-03-01

    Stanley Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments remain one of the most inspired contributions in the field of social psychology. Although Milgram undertook more than 20 experimental variations, his most (in)famous result was the first official trial run - the remote condition and its 65% completion rate. Drawing on many unpublished documents from Milgram's personal archive at Yale University, this article traces the historical origins and early evolution of the obedience experiments. Part 1 presents the previous experiences that led to Milgram's conception of his rudimentary research idea and then details the role of his intuition in its refinement. Part 2 traces the conversion of Milgram's evolving idea into a reality, paying particular attention to his application of the exploratory method of discovery during several pilot studies. Both parts illuminate Milgram's ad hoc introduction of various manipulative techniques and subtle tension-resolving refinements. The procedural adjustments continued until Milgram was confident that the first official experiment would produce a high completion rate, a result contrary to expectations of people's behaviour. Showing how Milgram conceived of, then arrived at, this first official result is important because the insights gained may help others to determine theoretically why so many participants completed this experiment.

  11. The health and social consequences of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) across the lifespan: an introduction to prevention and intervention in the community.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Shields, Joseph J; Anda, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the themed issue overviews of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study and discusses prevention and intervention with ACE and their consequences in communities. A commentary by Dr. Robert Anda, an ACE Study Co-Principal Investigator, is incorporated within this introduction. Implications of articles within the issue are addressed, and next steps are explored.

  12. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  13. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    PubMed

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations.

  14. Data mining in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): early detection of intussusception and other events after rotavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Niu, M T; Erwin, D E; Braun, M M

    2001-09-14

    The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is the US passive surveillance system monitoring vaccine safety. A major limitation of VAERS is the lack of denominator data (number of doses of administered vaccine), an element necessary for calculating reporting rates. Empirical Bayesian data mining, a data analysis method, utilizes the number of events reported for each vaccine and statistically screens the database for higher than expected vaccine-event combinations signaling a potential vaccine-associated event. This is the first study of data mining in VAERS designed to test the utility of this method to detect retrospectively a known side effect of vaccination-intussusception following rotavirus (RV) vaccine. From October 1998 to December 1999, 112 cases of intussusception were reported. The data mining method was able to detect a signal for RV-intussusception in February 1999 when only four cases were reported. These results demonstrate the utility of data mining to detect significant vaccine-associated events at early date. Data mining appears to be an efficient and effective computer-based program that may enhance early detection of adverse events in passive surveillance systems.

  15. A Protocolised Once a Day Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) Measurement Is an Appropriate Screening Tool for Major Adverse Events in a General Hospital Population

    PubMed Central

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Kramer, Mark H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) was developed to timely recognise clinically deteriorating hospitalised patients. However, the ability of the MEWS in predicting serious adverse events (SAEs) in a general hospital population has not been examined prospectively. The aims were to (1) analyse protocol adherence to a MEWS protocol in a real-life setting and (2) to determine the predictive value of protocolised daily MEWS measurement on SAEs: death, cardiac arrests, ICU-admissions and readmissions. Methods All adult patients admitted to 6 hospital wards in October and November 2015 were included. MEWS were checked each morning by the research team. For each critical score (MEWS ≥ 3), the clinical staff was inquired about the actions performed. 30-day follow-up for SAEs was performed to compare between patients with and without a critical score. Results 1053 patients with 3673 vital parameter measurements were included, 200 (19.0%) had a critical score. The protocol adherence was 89.0%. 18.2% of MEWS were calculated wrongly. Patients with critical scores had significant higher rates of unplanned ICU admissions [7.0% vs 1.3%, p < 0.001], in-hospital mortality [6.0% vs 0.8%, p < 0.001], 30-day readmission rates [18.6% vs 10.8%, p < 0.05], and a longer length of stay [15.65 (SD: 15.7 days) vs 6.09 (SD: 6.9), p < 0.001]. Specificity of MEWS related to composite adverse events was 83% with a negative predicting value of 98.1%. Conclusions Protocol adherence was high, even though one-third of the critical scores were calculated wrongly. Patients with a MEWS ≥ 3 experienced significantly more adverse events. The negative predictive value of early morning MEWS < 3 was 98.1%, indicating the reliability of this score as a screening tool. PMID:27494719

  16. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma. PMID:26103604

  17. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma.

  18. Early-Life Experience, Epigenetics, and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent–offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent–offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  19. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  20. Clinicopathologic and molecular features of sporadic early-onset colorectal adenocarcinoma: an adenocarcinoma with frequent signet ring cell differentiation, rectal and sigmoid involvement, and adverse morphologic features.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel T; Pai, Rish K; Rybicki, Lisa A; Dimaio, Michael A; Limaye, Maneesha; Jayachandran, Priya; Koong, Albert C; Kunz, Pamela A; Fisher, George A; Ford, James M; Welton, Mark; Shelton, Andrew; Ma, Lisa; Arber, Daniel A; Pai, Reetesh K

    2012-08-01

    Recent literature suggests an increasing incidence of colorectal carcinoma in young patients. We performed a histologic, molecular, and immunophenotypic analysis of patients with sporadic early-onset (≤40 years of age) colorectal carcinoma seen at our institution from the years 2000-2010 and compared these tumors to a cohort of consecutively resected colorectal carcinomas seen in patients >40 years of age. A total of 1160 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas were surgically resected for the years 2000 through 2010. Of these, 75 (6%) were diagnoses in patients ≤40 years of age of which 13 (17%) demonstrated abnormalities in DNA mismatch repair, 4 (5%) were in patients with known germline genetic disorders (two patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, one patient with juvenile polyposis, and one patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome), and three patients (4%) had long-standing chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The sporadic early-onset colorectal carcinoma group comprised a total of 55 patients (55/1160, 5%) and were compared with a control group comprising 73 consecutively resected colorectal carcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair in patients >40 years of age. For the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group, most cases (33/55, 60%) were diagnosed between the age of 35 and 40 years of age. Compared with the control group, the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group was significantly different with respect to tumor location (P<0.007) with 80% (44/55 cases) identified in either the sigmoid colon (24/55, 44%) or rectum (20/55, 36%). Morphologically, early-onset colorectal carcinomas more frequently displayed adverse histologic features compared with the control colorectal carcinoma group such as signet ring cell differentiation (7/55, 13% vs 1/73, 1%, P=0.021), perineural invasion (16/55, 29% vs 8/73, 11%, P=0.009) and venous invasion (12/55, 22% vs 4/73, 6%, P=0.006). A precursor adenomatous lesion was less frequently identified in the early-onset colorectal

  1. Ground experiments for finding principles and working out methods for preventing adverse effects of weightlessness on the human organism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakurin, L. I.; Gregoryev, A. I.; Mikhailov, V. M.; Tishler, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different prophylactic procedures to prevent the adverse effects of weightlessness is presented. It is concluded that: physical training is most effective but no single method by itself produces the full effect, and an adjustment of regimes to one another enhances the effect. The approved complex of prophylactic procedures affected basic changes occurring in hypokinesia: deficit of muscular activity, no or reduced BP hydrostatic component, reduced volume of blood circulation, reduced hydration level, and the application of various prophylactic complexes during 49 day antiorthostatic hypodynamia eliminated or reduced the adverse effects of weightlessness in simulation.

  2. Associations between School Connection and Depressive Symptoms from Adolescence through Adulthood: The Moderating Influence of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder worldwide. Conservative estimates Suggest that 20% of Americans will experience depression during their lifetime, inflicting high interpersonal, labor market, and health care costs. Although depression is highly heritable, environmental factors can powerfully influence its development both…

  3. Exquisite Moments: Achieving Optimal Flow in Three Activity-Based Groups Regardless of Early-Childhood Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S. Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Flow experiences (also known as optimal performance) occur when people engage in activities they enjoy. The authors discuss such events in their study that examined a number of healthy, active individuals (performing artists, athletes, and others engaged in a range of recreational activities) and divided these into three groups based on adverse…

  4. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  5. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  6. Early experience in microtia reconstruction: the first 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Walid

    2011-04-01

    Auricular reconstruction in Microtia is a challenging operation with a steep learning curve. In view its rarity attaining a high standard for new surgeons is extremely difficult. This study analyses the first 100 microtia cases looking at complications, technique, pattern of progress and aesthetic outcome. The author performed 100 autologous ear reconstructions for microtia over a period of 4 years utilizing the two stage technique popularised by Nagata and Firmin. In 11 cases a temroparietal fascial flap was utilised because of either a low hairline or scarring. Follow up ranged from 3 to 36 months. Data was collected prospectively. There were 7 cases of partial skin necrosis, 3 of which healed with conservative management. In early cases deficiencies were seen in the proportions of the reconstructed ear and the quality of definition. Better shape and definition were evident as more surgical experience was gained. This occurred as a result of increased appreciation of the ear proportions and improved framework carving. Although two stages were planned 21 cases required further procedures. The series demonstrates the early learning curve in microtia reconstruction and underlines the importance of appropriate training and case availability in achieving high quality results in autologous ear reconstruction.

  7. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and vitamin B12 status in a cohort of Chinese early pregnancy women with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Gu, Yan; Wei, Xiaoping; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Liu, Youxue; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tingyu

    2017-01-01

    Maternal folate and vitamin B12 deficiency predict poor pregnancy outcome. To improve pregnancy outcomes in rural area of China, we investigate rural women’s folic acid supplementation (FAS) status and the associations between maternal vitamin B status during the first trimester and subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. We collected the questionnaire information and drew 5 ml of blood from 309 early pregnant rural women. The birth outcomes were retrieved from medical records after delivery. Out of the total, 257 had taken FAS, including 50 before conception (group A) and 207 during the first trimester (group B). The concentration of plasma folate and the RBC folate supplementation groups were obviously higher than that of no-supplementation group (group N, p<0.01). The mean vitamin B12 levels in FAS group were significantly higher than those in groups N and B (p<0.05). Women who delivered SGA or premature infants had reduced plasma folate levels (p<0.05) compared with controls. The multiple linear regression models revealed that RBC folate levels affected the infant birth weight (p<0.01) and birth length (p<0.05). In conclusion, FAS can significantly improve plasma folate and RBC folate levels in childbearing-age women and reduce the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:28366994

  8. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  9. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children’s HPA Axis Reactivity During a Psychosocial Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without prenatal substance exposure (N = 53; ages 9–12 years) were examined using the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI) analyses revealed that prenatal substance exposure or physical abuse significantly increased the likelihood of a negative AUCI (i.e., little or no HPA reactivity). Among children with prenatal substance exposure and physical abuse, 85% exhibited a negative AUCI. The results underscore the importance of addressing this combined risk. PMID:22962506

  10. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles.

  11. Early-Life Adversity Interacts with FKBP5 Genotypes: Altered Working Memory and Cardiac Stress Reactivity in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project.

    PubMed

    Lovallo, William R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Vincent, Andrea S; Goldman, David

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods of development can have adverse effects on adult health behaviors, and genetic vulnerabilities may enhance these stress effects. We carried out an exploratory examination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of 252 healthy young adults for the impact of early-life adversity (ELA) in relation to the G-to-A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9296158, of the FKBP5 gene. FKBP5 is a molecular cochaperone that contributes to the functional status of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and to the quality of corticosteroid signaling. FKBP5 expression is upregulated by cortisol exposure during stressful episodes, with greater upregulation seen in A-allele carriers. As such, FKBP5 expression and GR function may be environmentally sensitive in A-allele carriers and therefore suitable for the study of gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Compared with FKBP5, GG homozygotes (N=118), A-allele carriers (N = 132) without psychiatric morbidity had progressively worse performance on the Stroop color-word task with increasing levels of ELA exposure (Genotype × ELA, F=5.14, P=0.007), indicating a G × E interaction on working memory in early adulthood. In addition, heart rate response to mental stress was diminished overall in AA/AG-allele carriers (F=5.15, P=0.024). Diminished working memory and attenuated autonomic responses to stress are both associated with risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. The present data suggest that FKBP5 in the GR pathway may be a point of vulnerability to ELA, as seen in this group of non-traumatized young adults. FKBP5 is accordingly a potential target for more extensive studies of the impact of ELA on health and health behaviors in adulthood.

  12. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Yoo, S B; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Kim, B T; Park, K; Jahng, J W

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS. Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levels of the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggest that neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increased expressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  13. Early Experiences with Microvascular Free Tissue Transfer in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mofikoya, Bolaji O; Ugburo, Andrew O

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Microvascular free tissue transfer within our subregion is fraught with considerable challenges. We aim to highlight our experiences gained with our first fifteen cases of microvascular free tissue transfer at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. We believe our report will be useful to colleagues embarking on such reconstructions in similar settings. Materials and Methods: The clinical records of the first 15 cases of free flaps done at our center were reviewed. The indications for surgery, choice of flap, recipient vessels, duration of surgery and complications were noted. Results: Fifteen cases were done, 10 flaps survived, ten defects occurred following trauma while remaining five followed cancer resections. Anterolateral thigh and radial forearm flaps were the most common flap used. The mean duration of surgeries was 7.1 hours SD ± 1.10 hours. Our take back rate was 13.3%, with a salvage rate of 50%. Three flaps failed on account venous congestion while remaining two failed due to arterial occlusion. Conclusion: 66.67% free flap success rate recorded reflect our early experiences in our institution. We believe meticulous planning, careful vessel selection, close flap monitoring as well as improved infrastructural support can lead to much better success rates in microvascular reconstruction in our country. PMID:24665201

  14. Human experiences related to adverse drug reactions to the fetus or neonate from some maternally administered drugs.

    PubMed

    Shirkey, H C

    1972-01-01

    This is a review of known periods in utero during which drugs alter the process of growth; effects may be shown on the fetus or the newborn and vary with the stage of development of the fetus when exposed. Other variables are the mother and the placenta. There is no safe animal screening mechanism, the human test is by ordeal, and more clinical monitoring and reporting are needed. Cancer chemotherapeutic agents exert their maximal effects on rapidly dividing cells and are therefore hazardous during pregnancy; the greatest risk is in the 1st trimester. In the thalidomide experience the critical days were the 22nd and 23rd days after conception. Masculinizing drugs such as testosterone and other androgenic steroids have been implicated as affecting the female fetus when given early in pregnancy. Oral contraceptives taken by an already pregnant woman are a hazard because of these progestational agents. Progesterone alone is unlikely to cause masculinization but other progestins may cause such changes. Carcinogenesis may develop later in females born of mothers who are treated with diethylstilbestrol to prevent miscarriage. Many antithyroid drugs have caused neonatal goiter. Maternal ingestion of iodides during pregnancy (preparations for treating asthma, cough syrups, radio-contrast media used in diagnoses) is the most frequent cause. Goiter is relatively common in infants whose mothers were treated with propylthiouracil and other antithyroid drugs, yet they usually show normal thyroid function. However, hypothyroidism with cretinism can occur. Lithium, used in psychiatry and as a salt substitute, may alter iodine metabolism and thyroid gland function. It also passes into the milk to continue the potential toxicity. Teratogenic effects in experimental animals suggest other possible effects on infants from lithium and similar drugs.

  15. Summaries of early materials processing in space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Mason, D.

    1979-01-01

    Objectives, methods, and results of low-gravity materials processing experiments are summarized, and a bibliography of published results for each experiment is provided. Included are drop tower experiments, the Apollo demonstration experiments, the skylab experiments and demonstration experiments, and the Apollo-Soyuz experiments and demonstrations. The findings of these experiments in the fields of crystal growth, metallurgy, and fluid behavior are summarized.

  16. Single center experience on dosing and adverse events of recombinant factor seven use for bleeding after congenital heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kurkluoglu, Mustafa; Engle, Alyson M.; Costello, John P.; Hibino, Narutoshi; Zurakowski, David; Jonas, Richard A.; Berger, John T.; Nath, Dilip S.

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data on the relationship between the administered dose of recombinant factor seven (rFVIIa) and the development of adverse clinical outcomes after congenital heart surgery. This single institution case series reports on dosing, adverse events, and blood product usage after the administration of rFVIIa in the congenital heart surgery patient population. A retrospective review identified 16 consecutive pediatric patients at an academic, free-standing, children’s hospital who received rFVIIa to curtail bleeding following congenital heart surgery between April 2004 and June 2012. Patients were assessed for survival to hospital discharge versus in-hospital mortality and the presence or absence of a major neurological event during inpatient hospitalization. The median age at surgery was 6.8 months (range: 3 days–42 years). Seven patients (44%) survived to hospital discharge and nine patients (56%) died. The cause of mortality included major neurological events (44%), uncontrolled bleeding (33%), and sepsis (23%). Eight patients (50%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support following congenital heart surgery. The median cumulative rFVIIa dose administered was 97 mcg/kg, and the median cumulative amount of blood products administered was 452 ml/kg. In conclusion, this case series underscores the need to prospectively evaluate the effect that rFVIIa has on patient survival and the incidence of adverse events, including thrombotic and major neurological events, in congenital heart surgery patients. Ideally, a randomized, multicenter study would provide the sufficient numbers of patients and events to test these relationships. PMID:25544818

  17. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  18. The EOLE experiment: Early results and current objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The EOLE experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon floating freely at approximately the 200 mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an RMS uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the EOLE wind data are given for describing the mean 200 mb zonal and meridional circulations. The effect of the small scale eddies of two-dimensional turbulence has been studied with respect to the relative eddy diffusion of pairs of balloons and the relative dispersion of triangular clusters. New estimates of the RMS divergence of the 200 mb flow are given, together with their scale dependence which was found to be a logarithmic law.

  19. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas. T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway. PMID:26523124

  20. Early experience with titanium elastic nails in a trauma unit.

    PubMed

    Shah, M H; Heffernan, G; McGuinness, A J

    2003-01-01

    The Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN) offers a number of potential advantages over traditional ways of treating long bone fractures particularly in the paediatric population. These advantages include earlier mobilisation and shorter hospital stay and less risk of loss of fracture position. These advantages are most apparent and significant when treating femoral fractures in children where the length of hospital stay is reduced from several weeks to a typical period of 5 to 8 days. We have reviewed our early experience of using these implants over the past 2 years. Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. 13 patients were treated using the TEN during this period. There were 2 femoral fractures, 4 humeral fractures, 1 tibial and 6 forearm fractures treated using the Titanium Elastic Nail. All fractures united during the study period. However 1 humeral fracture required a secondary bone grafting and plating for delayed union and 1 fracture lost position during follow-up. Insertion point pain was a problem in 4 patients but this resolved after nail removal in all. There was 1 superficial wound infection which resolved with antibiotics and 1 superficial wound infection of an open fracture wound which resolved following nail removal and antibiotics. There were no cases of deep infection. There were no limb length discrepancy or rotational or angular malalignment problems. Biomechanical principles and technical aspects of this type of fixation are discussed.

  1. Thursday’s child: The role of adverse childhood experiences in explaining mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Andersen, Judith P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) may explain disparities in poor mental health between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual adults. Data are from three U.S. states’ 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n=20,060) that included sexual orientation, ACE inventory, and mental distress. LGB status was significantly associated with mental distress (OR=1.85 [1.14–3.02]). Once incorporating ACE scores into the multiple regression analysis, LGB status was no longer associated with mental distress (OR=1.28 [0.76–2.16]). The results corroborate previous research that LGB individuals report greater prevalence of childhood adversity than their heterosexual peers, which may explain LGB adulthood health disparities. PMID:25367679

  2. Thursday's child: the role of adverse childhood experiences in explaining mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John R; Andersen, Judith P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined how adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may explain disparities in poor mental health between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB), and heterosexual adults. Data are from three US states' 2010 behavioral risk factor surveillance system surveys (n = 20,060) that included sexual orientation, ACE inventory, and mental distress. LGB status was significantly associated with mental distress (OR = 1.85 [1.14-3.02]). Once incorporating ACE scores into the multiple regression analysis, LGB status was no longer associated with mental distress (OR = 1.28 [0.76-2.16]). The results corroborate previous research that LGB individuals report greater prevalence of childhood adversity than their heterosexual peers, which may explain LGB adulthood health disparities.

  3. The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. Methods: All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Results: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. Conclusion: EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations. PMID:24626074

  4. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  5. Telithromycin: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Telithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has been marketed since the early 2000s. It has not been shown to be more effective against any bacteria than other macrolide antibiotics. Its antibacterial activity is in no way remarkable. In early 2014, we reviewed its adverse effect profile using data from periodic safety update reports, drug regulatory agencies, and detailed published case reports. In addition to the adverse effect profile telithromycin shares with the other macrolides, it provokes several specific adverse effects: visual disturbances due to impaired accommodation; taste and smell disorders; severe liver damage; worsening of myasthenia gravis; rhabdomyolysis; and loss of consciousness. Prolongation of the QT interval with standard oral doses is a worrisome adverse effect. In practice, it is better not to use telithromycin as it exposes patients to disproportionate, serious adverse effects. When treatment with a macrolide antibiotic appears necessary, it is prudent to choose a different macrolide, such as spiramycin or azithromycin, which have fewer adverse effects.

  6. Does adherence to epilepsy quality measures correlate with reduced epilepsy-related adverse hospitalizations? A retrospective experience.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Travis R; Morgan, Clinton D; Pomerantz, Daniel J; Kennedy, Vanessa E; Azar, Nabil; Haas, Kevin; Lagrange, Andre; Gallagher, Martin; Singh, Pradumna; Abou-Khalil, Bassel W; Arain, Amir M

    2015-05-01

    In 2011, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) established eight epilepsy quality measures (EQMs) for chronic epilepsy treatment to address deficits in quality of care. This study assesses the relationship between adherence to these EQMs and epilepsy-related adverse hospitalizations (ERAHs). A retrospective chart review of 475 new epilepsy clinic patients with an ICD-9 code 345.1-9 between 2010 and 2012 was conducted. Patient demographics, adherence to AAN guidelines, and annual number of ERAHs were assessed. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the relationship between adherence to guidelines (as well as socioeconomic variables) and the presence of one or more ERAH per year. Of the eight measures, only documentation of seizure frequency, but not seizure type, correlated with ERAH (relative risk [RR] 0.343, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.176-0.673, p = 0.010). Among patients in the intellectually disabled population (n = 70), only review/request of neuroimaging correlated with ERAH (RR 0.128, 95% CI 0.016-1.009, p = 0.004). ERAHs were more likely in African American patients (RR 2.451, 95% CI 1.377-4.348, p = 0.008), Hispanic/Latino patients (RR 4.016, 95% CI 1.721-9.346, p = 0.016), Medicaid patients (RR 2.217, 95% CI 1.258-3.712, p = 0.009), and uninsured patients (RR 2.667, 95% CI 1.332-5.348, p = 0.013). In this retrospective series, adherence to the eight AAN quality measures did not strongly correlate with annual ERAH.

  7. Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with deep brain stimulation: A meta-analysis of ten years' experience.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Brian S; Duggan, Patrick S; Regenberg, Alan; Rabins, Peter V

    2007-09-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been approved by the FDA for use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. Case reports and case series have reported significant psychiatric side effects in some individuals. The goal of this meta-analysis is to characterize the risks and benefits of DBS and to assess its possible use within the psychiatric setting. A search was conducted on PubMed, EBSCO, and PsycInfo in January 2006 that covered the time period 1 Jan 1996-30 Dec 2005. All identified articles were reviewed and those describing adverse events were further examined with a structured instrument. The initial searches yielded 2667 citations; 808 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis; 98.2% of studies that specifically assessed motor function reported some level of improvement. Most reported side effects were device or procedure related (e.g., infection and lead fracture). The prevalence of depression was 2-4%, mania 0.9-1.7%, emotional changes 0.1-0.2%, and the prevalence of suicidal ideation/suicide attempt was 0.3-0.7%. The completed suicide rate was 0.16-0.32%. In conclusion, DBS is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor, and case reports suggest that major depression and OCD may also respond to DBS. Reported rates of depression, cognitive impairment, mania, and behavior change are low, but there is a high rate of suicide in patients treated with DBS, particularly with thalamic and GPi stimulation. Because of the high suicide rate, patients should be prescreened for suicide risk prior to DBS surgery. Additionally, patients should be monitored closely for suicidal behavior post-operatively.

  8. Examining the Content of Preservice Teachers' Reflections of Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study that examined the content of preservice elementary teachers' reflections of their documented early field experiences of science teaching in authentic contexts. The study used an early field experience model that was focused on the objective of profiling an elementary science teacher as the practical…

  9. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  10. Coping, Confidence and Alienation: The Early Experience of Trainee Teachers in English Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article examines what both in-service and pre-service trainee teachers learn from their early experience of teaching in further education (FE) colleges in England. Despite differences between in-service and pre-service trainees, that early experience is often characterised by isolation and lack of control over practice for both groups.…

  11. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  12. Experiences from consumer reports on psychiatric adverse drug reactions with antidepressant medication: a qualitative study of reports to a consumer association

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The new European pharmacovigilance legislation has been suggested as marking the beginning of a new chapter in drug safety, making patients an important part of pharmacovigilance. In Sweden since 2008 it has been possible for consumers to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Medical Products Agency (MPA), and these reports are now understood as an increasingly valuable contribution in the monitoring of safety aspects in medicines. Already in 2002 it was possible to report experiences with medicines to the non-profit and independent organization Consumer Association for Medicines and Health (KILEN) through a web-based report form with an opportunity to describe ADR experiences in free text comments. The aim of this study was to qualitatively analyze the free text comments appended to consumer reports on antidepressant medication. Methods All reports of suspected adverse reactions regarding antidepressant medications submitted from January 2002 to April 2009 to KILEN’s Internet-based reporting system in Sweden were analyzed according to reported narrative experience(s). Content analysis was used to interpret the content of 181 reports with free text comments. Results Three main categories emerged from the analyzed data material: (1) Experiences of drug treatment with subcategories (a) Severe psychiatric adverse reactions, and (b) Discontinuation symptoms; (2) Lack of communication and (3) Trust and distrust. A majority of the reports to KILEN were from patients experiencing symptoms of mental disturbances (sometimes severe) affecting them in many different ways, especially during discontinuation. Several report included narratives of patients not receiving information of potential ADRs from their doctor, but also that there were no follow-ups of the treatment. Trust was highlighted as especially important and some patients reported losing confidence in their doctor when they were not believed about the suspected ADRs they experienced, making them

  13. Risky Alcohol Use, Age at Onset of Drinking, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in Young Men Entering the US Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-10

    Margaret A. K. Ryan, MD, MPH Objective: To examine how childhood experiences re- late to risky underage drinking . Design: A survey study of men... drink - ing in an underage military population, using self- reported RAP data. METHODS STUDY POPULATION AND DESIGN The RAP study was approved by... underage drinking behavior among those aged 18 to 20 years, we excluded 9669 recruits (14.8%) aged 21 years or older and 2913 recruits (4.5%) younger

  14. Potential utility of data-mining algorithms for early detection of potentially fatal/disabling adverse drug reactions: a retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hauben, Manfred; Reich, Lester

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply 2 data-mining algorithms to a drug safety database to determine if these methods would have flagged potentially fatal/disabling adverse drug reactions that triggered black box warnings/drug withdrawals in advance of initial identification via "traditional" methods. Relevant drug-event combinations were identified from a journal publication. Data-mining algorithms using commonly cited disproportionality thresholds were then applied to the US Food and Drug Administration database. Seventy drug-event combinations were considered sufficiently specific for retrospective data mining. In a minority of instances, potential signals of disproportionate reporting were provided clearly in advance of initial identification via traditional pharmacovigilance methods. Data-mining algorithms have the potential to improve pharmacovigilance screening; however, for the majority of drug-event combinations, there was no substantial benefit of either over traditional methods. They should be considered as potential supplements to, and not substitutes for, traditional pharmacovigilance strategies. More research and experience will be needed to optimize deployment of data-mining algorithms in pharmacovigilance.

  15. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of

  16. Adverse effects of falciparum and vivax malaria and the safety of antimalarial treatment in early pregnancy: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    McGready, R; Lee, SJ; Wiladphaingern, J; Ashley, EA; Rijken, MJ; Boel, M; Simpson, JA; Paw, MK; Pimanpanarak, M; Mu, Oh; Singhasivanon, P; White, NJ; Nosten, FH

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The effects of malaria and its treatment in the first trimester of pregnancy remain an area of concern. We aimed to assess the outcome of malaria-exposed and malaria-unexposed first-trimester pregnancies of women from the Thai–Burmese border and compare outcomes after chloroquine-based, quinine-based, or artemisinin-based treatments. Methods We analysed all antenatal records of women in the first trimester of pregnancy attending Shoklo Malaria Research Unit antenatal clinics from May 12, 1986, to Oct 31, 2010. Women without malaria in pregnancy were compared with those who had a single episode of malaria in the first trimester. The association between malaria and miscarriage was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Findings Of 48 426 pregnant women, 17 613 (36%) met the inclusion criteria: 16 668 (95%) had no malaria during the pregnancy and 945 (5%) had a single episode in the first trimester. The odds of miscarriage increased in women with asymptomatic malaria (adjusted odds ratio 2·70, 95% CI 2·04–3·59) and symptomatic malaria (3·99, 3·10–5·13), and were similar for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Other risk factors for miscarriage included smoking, maternal age, previous miscarriage, and non-malaria febrile illness. In women with malaria, additional risk factors for miscarriage included severe or hyperparasitaemic malaria (adjusted odds ratio 3·63, 95% CI 1·15–11·46) and parasitaemia (1·49, 1·25–1·78 for each ten-fold increase in parasitaemia). Higher gestational age at the time of infection was protective (adjusted odds ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·81–0·91). The risk of miscarriage was similar for women treated with chloroquine (92 [26%] of 354), quinine (95 [27%) of 355), or artesunate (20 [31%] of 64; p=0·71). Adverse effects related to antimalarial treatment were not observed. Interpretation A single episode of falciparum or vivax malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy can cause

  17. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  18. Job Values and Early Employment Experiences: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, David A.; Noeth, Richard J.

    A study was conducted to examine the predictive relationship between job values and early employment satisfaction and success as well as to provide information about the stability of job values over time. (Job values refer to generalized concepts of desirable future outcomes anticipated from jobs and describe qualities of satisfactions desired as…

  19. New Languages of Possibility: Early Experiments in Education as Dissent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Brendan; Lalor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of four early radical educators: the cultural nationalist Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Asia's first Nobel Laureate; Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Cambridge mathematician and philosopher; the Irish educationalist and insurgent Patrick Pearse (1879-1916) and Leonard Elmhirst (1893-1975), co-founder of Dartington Hall…

  20. Early Field Experience in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the three studies in this dissertation was to enhance career and technical education in the area of agriculture, business, and family and consumer sciences. This dissertation contains three papers: (1) a Delphi study identifying the purpose, expected outcomes, and methods of documenting preservice teacher early field experience…

  1. Early Childhood Educators' Experience of an Alternative Physical Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsangaridou, Niki; Genethliou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Alternative instructional and curricular models are regarded as more comprehensive and suitable approaches to providing quality physical education (Kulinna 2008; Lund and Tannehill 2010; McKenzie and Kahan 2008; Metzler 2011; Quay and Peters 2008). The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of the Early Steps Physical Education…

  2. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  3. EXCELL: Experiences in Context for Early Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raack, Catherine B.

    This program focuses on therapeutic principles and methods for prelinguistic and early language learning, with the goals of increased cognitive functions and sensory awareness/interaction, expanded communicative repertoires, and increased caregiver interaction with the child through appropriate stimuli and assignment of communicative intent. The…

  4. Directors of Early Childhood Services: Experience, Preparedness and Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline

    1997-01-01

    The role of the early childhood director has been a neglected area of research in Australia. This study set out to address the gap in understanding of directors and the administration/management function in child care and preschool settings. Through a survey of practicing directors and a series of follow-up interviews with selected respondents,…

  5. Predicted optical performance of the high-altitude balloon experiment (HABE) telescope in an adverse thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Akau, R.L.; Givler, R.C.; Eastman, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) telescope was designed to operate at an ambient temperature of {minus}55 C and an altitude of 26 km, using a precooled primary mirror. Although at this altitude the air density is only 1.4 percent of the value at sea level, the temperature gradients within the telescope are high enough to deform the optical wavefront. This problem is considerably lessened by precooling the primary mirror to {minus}35 C. This paper describes the application of several codes to determine the range of wavefront deformation during a mission.

  6. The Early Years of Indirect Drive Development for High Energy Density Physics Experiments at AWE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The importance of laser driven indirect drive for high energy density physics experiments was recognised at A WE in 1971. The two beam 1TW HELEN laser was procured to work in this area and experiments with this system began in 1980. Early experiments in hohlraum coupling and performance scaling with both l.06μm and 0.53μm will be described together with experiments specifically designed to confirm the understanding of radiation wave propagation, hohlraum heating and hohlraum plasma filling. The use of indirect drive for early experiments to study spherical and cylindrical implosions, opacity, EOS, mix and planar radiation hydrodynamics experiments will also be described.

  7. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  8. Japanese women's experiences from pregnancy through early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Rieko; McElmurry, Beverly J; Vonderheid, Susan; Altfeld, Susan; McFarlin, Barbara; Tashiro, Junko

    2011-01-01

    Declining availability and accessibility of perinatal health care are emergent social concerns. Based on the Listening to Mothers-II (LTM-II) surveys, we describe a total of 20 Japanese women's perinatal experiences. Data were qualitatively compared with those of U.S. women, using a theoretical framework for evaluation of primary health care. Japanese women overcame their worries by engaging in healthy behaviors, accepting hardships such as labor pain, and receiving assurance from health professionals and modern technology. We found that while U.S. and Japanese women's perinatal experiences reflected their unique cultural values and social context, a cross-cultural universality of birthing women's experiences exists.

  9. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features.

  10. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life.

  11. Adverse Social Experiences in Adolescent Rats Result in Enduring Effects on Social Competence, Pain Sensitivity and Endocannabinoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Peggy; Bindila, Laura; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Lutz, Beat; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual’s well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a lack of valid animal models. By using a novel animal model for social peer-rejection, which compromises adolescent rats in their ability to appropriately engage in playful activities, here we report on persistent impairments in social behavior and dysregulations in the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. From postnatal day (pd) 21 to pd 50 adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with same-strain partners (control) or within a group of Fischer 344 rats (inadequate social rearing, ISR), previously shown to serve as inadequate play partners for the Wistar strain. Adult ISR animals showed pronounced deficits in social interaction, social memory, processing of socially transmitted information, and decreased pain sensitivity. Molecular analysis revealed increased CB1 receptor (CB1R) protein levels and CP55, 940 stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding activity specifically in the amygdala and thalamus in previously peer-rejected rats. Along with these changes, increased levels of the eCB anandamide (AEA) and a corresponding decrease of its degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were seen in the amygdala. Our data indicate lasting consequences in social behavior and pain sensitivity following peer-rejection in adolescent female rats. These behavioral impairments are accompanied by persistent alterations in CB1R signaling. Finally, we provide a novel translational approach to characterize neurobiological processes underlying social peer-rejection in adolescence. PMID:27812328

  12. Early Results from the Q{sub weak} Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Birchall, J; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cornejo, J C; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Gaskel, D; Gericke, M T.W.; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hoskins, J R; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Leacock, J; Leckey, J; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J; McHugh, M J; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Myers, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; W T H, Nuruzzaman; Oers, van; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roche, J; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Young, R D; Zhamkochyan, S

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Q{sub weak} experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic {vector e}p scattering to provide the first determination of the protons weak charge Q{sub w}{sup p}. The experiment employed a 180 {micro}A longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons corresponding to Q{sup 2} of 0.025 GeV{sup 2} were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of Q{sub w}{sup p} to 4.2 percent (combined statistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(thetaw) at the level of 0.3 percent, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C{sub 1u} and C{sub 1d}. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the worlds highest power LH{sub 2} target. The new constraints on C{sub 1u} and C{sub 1d} provided by the subset of the experiments data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  13. Leading the Way: Characteristics and Early Experiences of Selected Early Head Start Programs. Volume II: Program Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Love, John M.; Raikes, Helen; Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Rosenberg, Linda; Coolahan, Kathleen; Berlin, Lisa J.

    Early Head Start (EHS) is a comprehensive, two-generation program providing intensive services from before birth to age 3 to promote improved outcomes in children's development, family development, staff development, and community development. The second of a 3-volume series designed to share the experiences of the 17 EHS programs participating in…

  14. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce). Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma. PMID:22788356

  15. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits. PMID:23986708

  16. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits.

  17. SENSORIMOTOR EXPERIENCE AND CONCEPT FORMATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MELCER, DONALD; PECK, ROBERT F.

    IN ORDER TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SENSORIMOTOR EXPERIENCE AND THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS IN CHILDHOOD, 2 GROUPS OF CHILDREN--1 MOTORICALLY NORMAL, THE OTHER COMPOSED OF CEREBRAL PALSIED CHILDREN--WERE COMPARED FOR ACQUISITION OF SIMPLE ACTION AND OBJECT CONCEPTS. THREE HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED. IT WAS PREDICTED (1) THAT CEREBRAL…

  18. Does Early Research Experience Affect Subsequent Career Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechmann, Connie A.; Pichert, James W.

    The Vanderbilt Summer Research Program in diabetes, which was designed to interest medical students in research careers and diabetes care, was evaluated. The program provides stipends to 20 sophomore and junior medical students for 12 weeks of preceptor-supervised laboratory research work, clinical experience, and classroom instruction. The…

  19. Medical students' emotional development in early clinical experience: a model.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development.

  20. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  1. First Year Teaching Experiences of Early Childhood Urban Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith

    The first-year teaching experiences of urban teachers were studied to conceptualize the reality faced by urban teachers and to determine the implications of the urban environment for teacher education. Subjects were four graduates of a teacher education program that gave no particular attention to the urban context beyond placement for student…

  2. Experiences of Early Transdisciplinary Teams in Pediatric Community Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubin, Tamie; Mortenson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although a transdisciplinary approach (TA) is considered best practice for children aged 0-3 years, there is limited information for professionals on how to successfully implement TA services. Using qualitative inquiry, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the experiences of 6 service providers and managers who took part in early…

  3. Effects of Early Head Start Prior to Kindergarten Entry: The Importance of Early Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Head Start evaluation included 17 sites drawn from the first two waves of programs started more than a decade ago. By design, the Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) selected programs that would reflect the range of service options and context of all extant program rather than choosing a representative sample. The sites…

  4. Early Clinical Experience With Argon Ion Laser Endarterectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugene, John; Baribeau, Yvon; Ott, Richard A.; McColgan, Stephen J.; Berns, Michael W.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes our progress in the development of argon ion laser endarterectomy for arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nine patients underwent 10 vascular reconstructions for claudication (6), rest pain (1), and gangrene (2). There was 1 aortoiliac endarterectomy, 6 superficial femoral artery endarterectomies, 1 profunda femoris endarterectomy and 2 popliteal endarterectomies. The reconstructions were 6 cm to 60 cm in length. The operations were performed using low power argon ion laser radiation, 1.0 W. All patients experienced symptomatic relief and had palpable pulses postoperatively. There were no perforations and there were no injuries to surrounding tissues from laser radiation. Surgical complications occurred and these were technical problems that should be eliminated from the operation with further developments. The early clinical results show that laser endarterectomy can be performed for peripheral vascular reconstruction using low power argon ion laser radiation.

  5. Early experience with a repository for patterned injury data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, David; Smith, John; Jeffay, Kevin; Dewan, Prasun; Smith, Dana; Oliver, William R.

    1995-09-01

    We have constructed a proof-of-principle system called the repository for patterned injury data (RPID) for supporting collaborative forensic medicine. The early RPID prototype is built on ABC/DGS, a graph-server and collaborative hypermedia system built in the UNC Collaboratory. ABC provides collaboration services for work groups via shared artifacts, giving common views of the information and allowing conferencing over the data. A second prototype is underway that has more flexible control of multiperson creation of, and access to, the shared patient data and pathology artifacts. We conclude by describing a planned third prototype, to be built not on ABC, but on a modification of the WWW httpd distribution data server.

  6. Early experiences with big data at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Halamka, John D

    2014-07-01

    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), an academic health care institution affiliated with Harvard University, has been an early adopter of electronic applications since the 1970s. Various departments of the medical center and the physician practice groups affiliated with it have implemented electronic health records, filmless imaging, and networked medical devices to such an extent that data storage at BIDMC now amounts to three petabytes and continues to grow at a rate of 25 percent a year. Initially, the greatest technical challenge was the cost and complexity of data storage. However, today the major focus is on transforming raw data into information, knowledge, and wisdom. This article discusses the data growth, increasing importance of analytics, and changing user requirements that have shaped the management of big data at BIDMC.

  7. What do medical students learn from early clinical experiences (ECE)?

    PubMed

    Lie, Désirée; Boker, John; Gutierrez, David; Prislin, Michael

    2006-08-01

    What are the common learning themes perceived by medical students during ECE with varying practice settings and patient profiles? Retrospective qualitative and quantitative analyses of structured descriptive reports completed by one class (n = 92) for 895 observed patient encounters identified common learning themes. Identified themes were examined by practice setting and patient characteristics. Student response rates were 85 to 94% across settings. Fifty-five percent of ECE were in outpatient settings. Chief complaints were predominantly medical (67%); only 20% represented psychosocial and 8% preventive care, respectively (5% were ambiguous). The five most common learning themes (out of 13 themes coded) were communication (>50%), procedures/time management, cross-cultural issues, feeling useful as a student, and presenting medical problems. Cross-cultural issues were addressed mainly in community settings. Negative learning occurred only rarely (<3%). Student observations from ECE can be used by course managers to design effective early clinical exposures to address specific course learning objectives.

  8. Far from Ideal: Everyday Experiences of Mothers and Early Childhood Professionals Negotiating an Inclusive Early Childhood Experience in the Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Wedgwood, Nikki; Fenech, Marianne; McConnell, David

    2008-01-01

    Using narrative interviews underpinned by an ecocultural framework, this Australian study investigated the experiences of 39 mothers of children with disabilities and 27 staff members from the early childhood services which these children attended. The data highlight serious limitations of current government policy and provisions in Australia to…

  9. Early experiments in charged particle beams from the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. J.; Banks, P. M.; Williamson, P. R.; Baker, K. D.; Obayashi, T.; Burch, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of studies on board the Shuttle involving the interaction of particle beams with the atmosphere and the ionosphere, and the effects of the beams on the electrical potential of the platform, are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle allows greater weight and power demands by scientific payloads than previous satellite launches, the OSS-1 Vehicle Charging and Potential experiment and the Spacelab 1 Particle Accelerator and Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams are described. Instrumentation details are provided, including charge and current probes, the Spherical Retarding Potential Analyzer, the Fast Pulse Electron Generator, and digital control and interface units. The SEPAC equipment, which comprises an electron beam accelerator, and MPD plasma jet, and diagnostic units are detailed, and operating procedures and experiment objectives are outlined.

  10. Early User Experience with BISON Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez

    2012-08-01

    Three Fuel Modeling Exercise II (FUMEX II) LWR fuel irradiation experiments were simulated and analyzed using the fuel performance code BISON to demonstrate code utility for modeling of the LWR fuel performance. Comparisons were made against the BISON results and the experimental data for the three assessment cases. The assessment cases reported within this report include IFA-597.3 Rod 8, Riso AN3 and Riso AN4.

  11. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2017-04-05

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article defined the different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and explored when they can occur. It emphasised the importance of being knowledgeable about medications, considering patient safety when patients are taking medications, being alert to the possibility of ADRs, and recognising and responding to suspected ADRs.

  12. The experiences of Canadian-educated early career nurses who practise in the US.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jessica; Hall, Linda McGillis; Price, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Nurses who are early in their careers make important decisions that begin them on unique career trajectories. One of these decisions may be migration. Little is known about the experiences and career decisions made by early career nurses who were educated in Canada and are working in the United States. Focus groups were conducted with nine nurses to explore and describe their experiences. Utilizing the Learning Theory of Career Counselling as a framework, the analysis highlighted the environmental conditions and learning experiences described by the participants. Two themes were identified: early decisions and ongoing decisions. The career trajectories of these nurses were characterized by decision-making. They made decisions about becoming a nurse, where to work and in what clinical specialty. The learning experiences and environments to which they were exposed influenced their early decisions and continued to influence their ongoing decisions about returning to Canada.

  13. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  14. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  15. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  16. More than "Just" Changing Diapers: The Experiences of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers in Infant Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Lisa Marie Powell

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that early childhood preservice teachers are typically being prepared to work with children from birth through age 8, preservice field experiences with infants continue to be largely missing in early childhood teacher preparation programs Since the education and care of infants often takes place in vastly different settings than…

  17. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  18. Synchronising Pedagogy and Musical Experiences in Early Childhood: Addressing Challenges in Preschool Music Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andang'o, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines pedagogy in early childhood music education and the resultant learning experiences in music for children in Kenyan preschools. Two important principles proposed for the synchronisation of teaching and learning in early childhood music education are cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. These terms are…

  19. How the Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Influence the Development of Brain Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sharon E.; Levitt, Pat; Nelson, Charles A., III.

    2010-01-01

    Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this study a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets "under the skin." The study begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain…

  20. Sofosbuvir-based therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C: Early experience of its efficacy and safety in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yuri; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The previous standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, comprising a combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin, was associated with suboptimal efficacy and severe adverse reactions. A new era of direct-acting antivirals is now dawning in Korea. Early experience of applying sofosbuvir-based therapy to CHC patients in Korea is reported herein. Methods Data on efficacy and safety were collected for CHC patients treated with a combination of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin or sofosbuvir/ledipasvir with or without ribavirin. Results This retrospective study included 25 consecutive patients who received sofosbuvir-based therapy (19 with genotype 1b and 6 with genotype 2) at Seoul National University Hospital from May 2014 to April 2015. A virologic response was achieved at week 4 by 85.7% and 80% of the patients with genotypes 1b and 2, respectively. The HCV-RNA level decreased more slowly in IFN-experienced than in treatment-naïve patients with genotype 1b. However, the sustained virologic response at week 12 (SVR12) rate did not differ among these patients, and was as high as 100%. The presence of cirrhosis significantly increased the risk of a virologic response failure at week 4 (OR, 11.0; P=0.011) among patients with HCV genotype 1b. Only five patients (20%) experienced minor adverse events, including grade 1 fatigue and headache. The hemoglobin level decreased slightly after sofosbuvir-based therapy, but there was no case of premature discontinuation of this therapy. Conclusions In a real clinical practice, sofosbuvir-based therapy for CHC patients in Korea achieved optimal antiviral efficacy with insignificant adverse events. Long-term follow-up data are warranted to ensure the sustained antiviral efficacy and long-term safety of sofosbuvir-based IFN-free therapy. PMID:26770924

  1. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    PubMed Central

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  2. Early flight test experience with Cockpit Displayed Traffic Information (CDTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Coded symbology, based on the results of early human factors studies, was displayed on the electronic horizontal situation indicator and flight tested on an advanced research aircraft in order to subject the coded traffic symbology to a realistic flight environment and to assess its value by means of a direct comparison with simple, uncoded traffic symbology. The tests consisted of 28 curved, decelerating approaches, flown by research-pilot flight crews. The traffic scenarios involved both conflict-free and blunder situations. Subjective pilot commentary was obtained through the use of a questionnaire and extensive pilot debriefing sessions. The results of these debriefing sessions group conveniently under either of two categories: display factors or task performance. A major item under the display factor category was the problem of display clutter. The primary contributors to clutter were the use of large map-scale factors, the use of traffic data blocks, and the presentation of more than a few aircraft. In terms of task performance, the cockpit displayed traffic information was found to provide excellent overall situation awareness.

  3. EARLY EXPERIENCE WITH A HYBRID PROCESSOR: K-MEANS CLUSTERING

    SciTech Connect

    M. GOKHALE; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    We discuss hardware/software coprocessing on a hybrid processor for a compute- and data-intensive hyper-spectral imaging algorithm, K-Means Clustering. The experiments are performed on the Altera Excalibur board using the soft IP core 32-bit NIOS RISC processor. In our experiments, we compare performance of the sequential algorithm with two different accelerated versions. We consider granularity and synchronization issues when mapping an algorithm to a hybrid processor. Our results show that on the Excalibur NIOS, a 15% speedup can be achieved over the sequential algorithm on images with 8 spectral bands where the pixels are divided into 8 categories. Speedup is limited by the communication cost of transferring data from external memory through the NIOS processor to the customized circuits. Our results indicate that future hybrid processors must either (1) have a clock rate 10X the speed of the configurable logic circuits or (2) include dual port memories that both the processor and configurable logic can access. If either of these conditions is met, the hybrid processor will show a factor of 10 speedup over the sequential algorithm. Such systems will combine the convenience of conventional processors with the speed of configurable logic.

  4. How experiences become data: the process of eliciting adverse event, medical history and concomitant medication reports in antimalarial and antiretroviral interaction trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurately characterizing a drug’s safety profile is essential. Trial harm and tolerability assessments rely, in part, on participants’ reports of medical histories, adverse events (AEs), and concomitant medications. Optimal methods for questioning participants are unclear, but different methods giving different results can undermine meta-analyses. This study compared methods for eliciting such data and explored reasons for dissimilar participant responses. Methods Participants from open-label antimalarial and antiretroviral interaction trials in two distinct sites (South Africa, n = 18 [all HIV positive]; Tanzania, n = 80 [86% HIV positive]) were asked about ill health and treatment use by sequential use of (1) general enquiries without reference to particular conditions, body systems or treatments, (2) checklists of potential health issues and treatments, (3) in-depth interviews. Participants’ experiences of illness and treatment and their reporting behaviour were explored qualitatively, as were trial clinicians’ experiences with obtaining participant reports. Outcomes were the number and nature of data by questioning method, themes from qualitative analyses and a theoretical interpretation of participants’ experiences. Results There was an overall cumulative increase in the number of reports from general enquiry through checklists to in-depth interview; in South Africa, an additional 12 medical histories, 21 AEs and 27 medications; in Tanzania an additional 260 medical histories, 1 AE and 11 medications. Checklists and interviews facilitated recognition of health issues and treatments, and consideration of what to report. Information was sometimes not reported because participants forgot, it was considered irrelevant or insignificant, or they feared reporting. Some medicine names were not known and answers to questions were considered inferior to blood tests for detecting ill health. South African inpatient volunteers exhibited a

  5. Enhancing fathers' educational experiences during the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Lois; Pincombe, Jan; Henderson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, men have been encouraged to actively participate in the childbirth process, resulting in a shared experience for couples. Nevertheless, after the baby is born, many fathers find themselves displaced, unsure of how to embrace the transition to parenthood. The shift in cultural practice and evolving needs of families calls for the recognition of fathers as well as mothers in the provision of midwifery services. Innovative strategies must be considered to enhance postnatal education that is father-inclusive and responsive to the needs of families in the 21st century. This article introduces one strategy created from an action research study conducted to develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve postnatal education for parents.

  6. Effects of early and delayed visual experience on intersensory development in bobwhite quail chicks.

    PubMed

    Banker, H; Lickliter, R

    1993-04-01

    The relative impact of early versus delayed visual experience on intersensory development was studied by manipulating the timing of visual experience of bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos and hatchlings. Previous studies with quail chicks have revealed that: (1) Socially reared chicks require only maternal auditory cues to direct their social preferences in the first 2 days following hatching; (2) by 3 days following hatching chicks require both auditory and visual maternal cues to direct their social preferences; (3) chicks which have received unusually early visual experience as embryos require both auditory and visual cues by 24 hr following hatching, indicating an accelerated pattern of the emergence of intersensory functioning; and (4) chicks reared under conditions of attenuated social and visual experience continue to rely on maternal auditory cues alone at 4 days following hatching, indicating a decelerated pattern of early intersensory functioning. In the present study, quail chicks that received both early visual experience as embryos and delayed visual experience as hatchlings exhibited a pattern of both auditory and visual responsiveness like that seen in normally reared chicks. These results indicate that, at least under the present experimental conditions, the influence of early and delayed visual experience on perinatal perceptual development appears to be relatively comparable in effect.

  7. Octogenarian Reports of Lifetime Spiritual Experiences: Types of Experience and Early Life Predictors

    PubMed Central

    PERGAKIS, MELISSA B.; HASAN, NADEEM S.; HELLER, NINA R.; WALDINGER, ROBERT J.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed lifetime histories of discrete spiritual experiences recalled by 144 octogenarian men studied since adolescence and 80 spouses. Women were more likely to report discrete spiritual experiences, as were those from higher socioeconomic backgrounds and those judged more open to experience as young adults. Factor analysis revealed four types of experiences related to beauty/nature, negative life events, protection by a sacred other, and traditional religious settings. Men from better childhood environments more commonly reported spiritual experiences concerning negative life events. Those with serious childhood illnesses were less likely to report experiences of feeling protected by a sacred other. PMID:21709773

  8. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  9. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  10. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  11. Early Experience with Stapled Gastrointestinal Anastomoses in a Nigerian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, AO; Olasehinde, O; Arowolo, OA; Alatise, OI; Agbakwuru, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand-sewn gastrointestinal anastomoses has been the traditional approach to gastrointestinal anastomosis in Nigeria while stapled anastomoses are infrequently performed in few centers. Objectives: To describe the outcome of our initial experience with stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses in a semi-urban patient population. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients who had stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses between January 2011 and June 2014 in a Nigerian tertiary hospital were prospectively evaluated. Indications for operation, procedures performed and anastomoses constructed and postoperative outcome of each patient were documented. Results: Nineteen patients including seven males and 12 females had stapled anastomoses within the period. Their ages ranged between 41 and 68 (mean 52.5) years. Six (31.6%) Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomies, 6 (31.6%) ileo-colic, 3 (15.8%) ileo-ileal, 2 (10.5%) colo-colic, and 2 (10.5%) colo-anal anastomoses were performed. Indications include antral gastric cancer in 4 (21.1%), right colon cancer 4 (21.1%), ileal perforations in 3 (15.8%) while 2 (10.5%) each had left colon cancer, common bile duct obstruction, rectal cancer and ruptured appendix. Mean duration of operation was 108 ± 46 min and mean duration of postoperative stay was 5 ± 2.6 days. No intraoperative complications were recorded and no anastomotic leakage occurred. At a median follow-up of 5 months no staple related stricture had occurred. Conclusions: Stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses are associated with a good outcome in our center. We propose a prospective, large-population randomized comparison of the technique with hand-sewn anastomoses. PMID:26425069

  12. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  13. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  14. Social and Academic Effects of Varying Types of Early Schooling Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ithel; Gullo, Dominic F.; Burton-Maxwell, Christine; Stoiber, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effects of early educational experiences on the academic achievement and social skills of 91 inner-city first graders. Found that, after controlling for first-grade teachers' instructional practices and beliefs, children with prekindergarten experience had higher scores in mathematics and language and higher social skills than…

  15. A Road Like No Other: Mothers' Experiences with Early Intervention Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Amy Wickizer

    2010-01-01

    This dual case study utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the experiences of two mothers of young children with special needs. Over the course of ten months, the researcher spent many hours interviewing both mothers about their experiences with Early Intervention (EI) professionals. Observations of medical appointments, team meetings,…

  16. The Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Combine to Shape Brain Architecture. Working Paper #5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The foundations of brain architecture are established early in life through a continuous series of dynamic interactions in which environmental conditions and personal experiences have a significant impact on how genetic predispositions are expressed. Because specific experiences affect specific brain circuits during specific developmental…

  17. Effects of Experience on the Brain: The Role of Neuroscience in Early Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twardosz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Research on the effect of experience on the structure and function of the brain across the lifespan pertains directly to the concerns of professionals involved with children's early development and education. This paper briefly reviews (a) the role of experience in shaping the developing brain, (b) individual adaptation to the…

  18. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  19. Perspectives on a Reconceptualized Early Field Experience in an Urban School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burant, Theresa J.

    Teacher education in the U.S. faces a critical dilemma: preparing white, middle-class preservice teachers to teach increasingly diverse student populations in public schools. Early field experiences (EFEs) show promise for addressing this mismatch, yet little is actually known about what happens to preservice teachers in practicum experiences.…

  20. The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to PTSD, Depression, Poly-Drug Use and Suicide Attempt in Reservation-Based Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brockie, Teresa N; Dana-Sacco, Gail; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Wilcox, Holly C; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with numerous risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among youth. This study examines the relationship between the number of types of exposures to ACEs and risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among reservation-based Native Americans. In 2011, data were collected from Native American (N = 288; 15-24 years of age) tribal members from a remote plains reservation using an anonymous web-based questionnaire. We analyzed the relationship between six ACEs, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect, witness to intimate partner violence, for those <18 years, and included historical loss associated symptoms, and perceived discrimination for those <19 years; and four risk behavior/mental health outcomes: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression symptoms, poly-drug use, and suicide attempt. Seventy-eight percent of the sample reported at least one ACE and 40 % reported at least two. The cumulative impact of the ACEs were significant (p < .001) for the four outcomes with each additional ACE increasing the odds of suicide attempt (37 %), poly-drug use (51 %), PTSD symptoms (55 %), and depression symptoms (57 %). To address these findings culturally appropriate childhood and adolescent interventions for reservation-based populations must be developed, tested and evaluated longitudinally.

  1. Paternal early experiences influence infant development through non-social mechanisms in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Early experiences influence the developing organism, with lifelong and potentially adaptive consequences. It has recently become clear that the effects of early experiences are not limited to the exposed generation, but can influence physiological and behavioral traits in the next generation. Mechanisms of transgenerational effects of parental early experiences on offspring development are often attributed to prenatal or postnatal parental influence, but recent data suggest that germ-line plasticity may also play a role in the transgenerational effects of early experiences. These non-genetic transgenerational effects are a potentially important developmental and evolutionary force, but the effects of parental experiences on behavior and physiology are not well understood in socially complex primates. In the non-human primate, the rhesus macaque, nursery rearing (NR) is an early life manipulation used for colony management purposes, and involves separating infants from parents early in life. We examined the effects of maternal and paternal early NR on infant rhesus macaque immunity, physiology, and behavior. Results We theorized that differences in behavior or physiology in the absence of parent-offspring social contact would point to biological and perhaps germ-line, rather than social, mechanisms of effect. Thus, all subjects were themselves NR. Male and female infant rhesus macaques (N= 206) were separated from parents and social groups in the first four days of life to undergo NR. These infants differed only in their degree of NR ancestry – whether their dams or sires were themselves NR. At 3-4 months of age, infants underwent a standardized biobehavioral assessment. Factors describing immunity, plasma cortisol, and emotion regulation were generated from these data using factor analysis. Paternal, but not maternal, NR was associated with greater emotionality and higher plasma cortisol, compared with infants born to CONTROL reared fathers

  2. The Scaffolded Mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Huang, Julie Y; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    It has long been a staple of psychological theory that early life experiences significantly shape the adult's understanding of and reactions to the social world. Here we consider how early concept development along with evolved motives operating early in life can come to exert a passive, unconscious influence on the human adult's higher-order goal pursuits, judgments, and actions. In particular, we focus on concepts and goal structures specialized for interacting with the physical environment (e.g., distance cues, temperature, cleanliness, and self-protection), which emerge early and automatically as a natural part of human development and evolution. It is proposed that via the process of scaffolding, these early sensorimotor experiences serve as the foundation for the later development of more abstract concepts and goals. Experiments using priming methodologies reveal the extent to which these early concepts serve as the analogical basis for more abstract psychological concepts, such that we come easily and naturally to speak of close relationships, warm personalities, moral purity, and psychological pain. Taken together, this research demonstrates the extent to which such foundational concepts are capable of influencing people's information processing, affective judgments, and goal pursuit, oftentimes outside of their intention or awareness.

  3. The Scaffolded Mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; Huang, Julie Y.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    It has long been a staple of psychological theory that early life experiences significantly shape the adult's understanding of and reactions to the social world. Here we consider how early concept development along with evolved motives operating early in life can come to exert a passive, unconscious influence on the human adult's higher-order goal pursuits, judgments, and actions. In particular, we focus on concepts and goal structures specialized for interacting with the physical environment (e.g., distance cues, temperature, cleanliness, and self-protection), which emerge early and automatically as a natural part of human development and evolution. It is proposed that via the process of scaffolding, these early sensorimotor experiences serve as the foundation for the later development of more abstract concepts and goals. Experiments using priming methodologies reveal the extent to which these early concepts serve as the analogical basis for more abstract psychological concepts, such that we come easily and naturally to speak of close relationships, warm personalities, moral purity, and psychological pain. Taken together, this research demonstrates the extent to which such foundational concepts are capable of influencing people's information processing, affective judgments, and goal pursuit, oftentimes outside of their intention or awareness. PMID:20046813

  4. Safety of varicella vaccine after licensure in the United States: experience from reports to the vaccine adverse event reporting system, 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sandra S; Haber, Penina; Walton, Kimp; Wise, Robert P; Izurieta, Hector S; Schmid, D Scott; Seward, Jane F

    2008-03-01

    Widespread use of varicella vaccine in the United States could enable detection of rare adverse events not identified previously. We reviewed data from 1995 to 2005 from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, including data from laboratory analyses, to distinguish adverse events associated with wild-type varicella-zoster virus (VZV) versus those associated with vaccine strain. Almost 48 million doses of varicella vaccine were distributed between 1995 and 2005. There were 25,306 adverse events reported (52.7/100,000 doses distributed); 5.0% were classified as serious (2.6/100,000 doses distributed). Adverse events associated with evidence of vaccine-strain VZV included meningitis in patients with concurrent herpes zoster. Patients with genetic predispositions may rarely have disease triggered by receipt of varicella vaccine. Overall, serious adverse events reported after varicella vaccination continue to be rare and must be considered relative to the substantial benefits of varicella vaccination. Ongoing safety surveillance and further studies may shed light on some of the hypothesized associations.

  5. Blood cell transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of adverse programming effects of gestational calorie restriction and their reversibility by leptin supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Jadwiga; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Mariona; Picó, Catalina; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of preventing major chronic diseases requires reliable, early biomarkers. Gestational mild undernutrition in rats is enough to program the offspring to develop later pathologies; the intake of leptin, a breastmilk component, during lactation may reverse these programming effects. We used these models to identify, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of programmed susceptibility to later disorders, and explored their response to neonatal leptin intake. Microarray analysis was performed in PBMCs from the offspring of control and 20% gestational calorie-restricted dams (CR), and CR-rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation. Notably, leptin supplementation normalised 218 of the 224 mRNA-levels identified in PBMCs associated to undernutrition during pregnancy. These markers may be useful for early identification and subsequent monitoring of individuals who are at risk of later diseases and would specifically benefit from the intake of appropriate amounts of leptin during lactation. PMID:25766068

  6. Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Öhlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy. PMID:19633051

  7. Girls’ Challenging Social Experiences in Early Adolescence Predict Neural Response to Rewards and Depressive Symptoms1

    PubMed Central

    Casement, Melynda D.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hipwell, Alison; McAloon, Rose L.; Hoffmann, Amy M.; Keenan, Kathryn; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. PMID:24397999

  8. The Discourse and Reflections of Teacher Candidates during an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, John E.; Dani, Danielle E.; Weade, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of teacher candidates to facilitate and reflect on classroom discourse in the context of an early field experience. The classroom discourse and reflections of 10 teacher candidates were examined through interviews, audio and video recordings, and written reflections. The findings indicated…

  9. Early Career Experiences of UW Doctorates as a Function of Degree Field and Gender. EAC Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    Early career experiences of a sample of 233 University of Washington doctorates were studied. Doctorates were initially grouped into seven degree areas (physical science, biological science, social science, humanities, education, engineering, and other). As hypothesized, significant differences were found between the genders in their distribution…

  10. Early Family Environments and Traumatic Experiences Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Terri L.; Clum, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Assessed childhood trauma experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, early separation) and family environment characteristics of 17 depressed female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 19 without BPD. Significantly, more BPD subjects reported histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessed violence.…

  11. Teacher Preparation in Career and Technical Education: A Model for Developing and Researching Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retallick, Michael S.; Miller, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Leading educational researchers have called for a framework for implementing and researching early field experiences (EFE). Yet, a review of literature revealed that a comprehensive model focusing on the structure and content of EFE was an important element missing from the literature. The primary purpose of this study was to synthesize the…

  12. Tailoring Case Studies to Fit Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Needs and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    Case-based methodology has been a staple of teacher education coursework for many years. However, commercial case studies do not always meet specific teacher candidates' needs or match their experiences in school settings. Teacher educators in an Early Childhood program in a midwestern university developed an innovative use of case-based…

  13. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  14. Policies That Part: Early Career Experiences of Co-Working Academic Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.

    This study examined the early career experiences of nine co-working academic couples who entered faculty careers in the mid 1970s and 1980s. Their retrospective accounts provide information about their initial attraction, the compacts they made during the decision to marry or enter into a long-term relationship, and how they negotiated the…

  15. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  16. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences.

    PubMed

    Julian, Megan M

    2013-06-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered.

  17. The Effects of Early Socialization Experiences on Content Mastery and Outcomes: A Mediational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Howard J.; Fan, Jinyan; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This field study examined how early socialization experiences affect new employee mastery of socialization content and socialization outcomes. New employees reported the realism of their preentry knowledge and the helpfulness of socialization agents. A follow-up survey assessed mastery of socialization content along with role clarity, job…

  18. Early Field Experience Innovations to Increase Positive Impact on K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Anny Fritzen; Traynor, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes several innovations to an early field experience emerging from a community, school, and university partnership focused on a middle school serving diverse students from low-income neighborhoods. With the primary goal of utilizing teaching candidates to provide direct academic, social, and instructional support to the middle…

  19. Development of Preservice Teachers' Value Orientations during a Secondary Methods Course and Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Seidu; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the value orientations of physical education preservice teachers (PTs). The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe the extent to which one cohort of PTs' value orientations changed and developed during a secondary methods course and early field experience (EFE); and (2) determine why PTs' value orientations changed…

  20. Perinatal Experiences: The Association of Stress, Childbearing, Breastfeeding, and Early Mothering

    PubMed Central

    Humenick, Sharron S.; Howell, Olivia S.

    2003-01-01

    The support of women and their families through childbirth, breastfeeding, and early parenting experiences are often treated as separate areas of maternity care. In fact, growing evidence, as cited in this article, links their intertwined impact on the health of mothers, infants, and their families. PMID:17273350

  1. Early steps towards quarks and their interactions using neutrino beams in CERN bubble chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Don H.

    2016-06-01

    Results from neutrino experiments at CERN in the1970's, using bubble chamber detectors filled with heavy liquids, gave early evidence for the existence of quarks and gluons as real dynamical objects. In detail, the measured moments of the non-singlet structure functions provided crucial support for the validity of the present theory of the strong inter-quark interactions, quantum chromodynamics.

  2. The Impact of Discrimination on the Early Schooling Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2015-01-01

    How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Children benefit from a positive, supportive learning environment where their contributions are valued; many from immigrant families, however, experience…

  3. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  4. Early Childhood Development and Social Integration: The Mediterranean Experience. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    This paper explores early childhood education (ECD) and social integration within a common framework and against the backdrop of experience gained in these fields in the following 12 Mediterranean nations: Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Turkey. The paper notes that…

  5. Socialization to Student Affairs: Early Career Experiences Associated with Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Boyle, Kathleen M.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose and test a model of professional identity development among early career student affairs professionals. Using survey data from 173 new professionals (0-5 years of experience), factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions of professional identity: commitment, values congruence, and intellectual investment. Multivariate…

  6. Children's Communication and Socialization Skills by Types of Early Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi; Fox, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of children's communication skills and socialization by the types of their early education experiences (e.g., child care centers, private schools, public schools, home, or other). A total of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents participated in this study. According to the results of this study,…

  7. Classroom Teachers' Feelings and Experiences in Teaching Early Reading and Writing: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to reveal classroom teachers' feelings and experiences in teaching early reading and writing. Phenomenological research design was applied in the qualitative research methodology of the study. The participants of the study were 15 classroom teachers working in different cities. The data were collected through…

  8. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  9. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  10. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  11. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  12. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered. PMID:23576122

  13. Onboarding Experiences: An Examination of Early Institutional Advancement Professionals' Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radosh, Meghan E.

    2013-01-01

    Onboarding is a new employee orientation process that is designed to formalize and socialize new hires to an organization, or in this case higher education institutions. The onboarding experience that many new employees have can shape employee views and first impressions of their new employer, and shape their early career path to stay or leave…

  14. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  15. Teacher Attunement: Supporting Students' Peer Experiences in the Early Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Abigail S.

    2012-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the role of teacher attunement (teacher accuracy in identifying the peer group memberships of individual students) in children's peer experiences in early elementary classrooms (1st-3rd grades). Social cognitive mapping (SCM) procedures assessed and compared students' and teachers'…

  16. Concerns of Preservice Physical Education Teachers Participating in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of concerns by type (self, task, and impact) of preservice physical education teachers participating in an early field experience. Participants (n = 52) taught three physical education lessons in a junior high school. Following each teaching episode, participants wrote concerns in their…

  17. The Beliefs and Perceived Experiences of Preservice and Early Service Teachers Who Use Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to identify commonly held beliefs and perceived experiences of preservice and early service teachers with regard to their use of the social networking site Facebook. This study included recorded and transcribed interviews of 14 participants as well as observations of their Facebook accounts. The…

  18. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE ON AFTER BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORGAYS, DONALD G.

    TWO SERIES OF STUDIES WHOSE SUBJECTS WERE EITHER HOODED AND ALBINO RATS OR YOUNG CHILDREN INVESTIGATED THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCES ON LATER BEHAVIOR. IN THE FIRST, BOTH SUBSPECIES OF RATS WERE EXPOSED TO EITHER ENRICHED OR RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS TO ASSESS THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITIES UNDER VARIOUS LEARNING CONDITIONS. THE RESULTS…

  19. Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

  20. Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Deficits Underlie the Adverse Outcomes Associated with Profound Early Deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation. In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of…

  1. Precedents of perceived social support: personality, early life experiences and gender.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Toshinori; Watanabe, Kyoko; Takara, Nobue; Hiyama, Kazutoshi; Yasumiya, Rie; Fujihara, Shigeki

    2002-04-01

    The perception of social support may be a trait-like construct stemming from the current personality and early environment as well as a summation of the actual support perceived. A total of 220 community individuals were examined for the effects of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) items and early life experience at home and outside on the number of sources of perceived social support and satisfaction with that support. High extraversion and low neuroticism scores of the EPQ were correlated with the availability of support only in women, while high maternal care and low maternal overprotection in childhood were correlated with the satisfaction with support only in men. Availability of support was also correlated with some types of early life events. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their links to personality and early environment, and may be, to some extent, explainable in terms of them.

  2. Oxytocin mediates early experience-dependent cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing-Jing; Li, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Miao, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan; Yu, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. Here we report a new form of plasticity in neonatal mice, where early sensory experience cross-modally regulates development of all sensory cortices via oxytocin signaling. Unimodal sensory deprivation from birth through whisker deprivation or dark rearing reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in the correspondent sensory cortex and cross-modally in other sensory cortices. Sensory experience regulated synthesis and secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as its level in the cortex. Both in vivo oxytocin injection and increased sensory experience elevated excitatory synaptic transmission in multiple sensory cortices and significantly rescued the effects of sensory deprivation. Together, these results identify a new function for oxytocin in promoting cross-modal, experience-dependent cortical development. This link between sensory experience and oxytocin is particularly relevant to autism, where hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to sensory inputs is prevalent and oxytocin is a hotly debated potential therapy.

  3. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  4. An early neutrino experiment: how we missed quark substructure in 1963

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    Some 50 years after the event seems to be an appropriate time at which to take a long look back at one of the early neutrino experiments at CERN. This report is principally about a failure in a 1963 bubble chamber experiment to detect substructure in the nucleon, a year before the quark concept was invented by Gell-Mann and Zweig, and some five years before the existence of quarks as real dynamical objects was definitely established in deep inelastic electron scattering experiments at Stanford.

  5. Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: A role for cognitive stimulation?

    PubMed

    Zidar, Josefina; Sorato, Enrico; Malmqvist, Ann-Marie; Jansson, Emelie; Rosher, Charlotte; Jensen, Per; Favati, Anna; Løvlie, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation were, as adults, more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms.

  6. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  7. PEACESAT (Pan Pacific Education and Communication Experiments by Satellite) Project Early Experience: The Design and Early Years of the First Educational Communication Satellite Experiment. Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu.

    The PEACESAT Project (Pan Pacific Education and Communication Experiments by Satellite) has been in daily operation for four years since April 1971. Initiated as an individual research project of a university faculty member, it has expanded to involve educational institutions in 12 countries or jurisdictions in the Pacific Basin. These…

  8. Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: focus on serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Gardner, K L; Thrivikraman, K V; Lightman, S L; Plotsky, P M; Lowry, C A

    2005-01-01

    Early life experience can have prolonged effects on neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of early life experience on behavior during social defeat, as well as on associated functional cellular responses in serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus, a structure which plays an important role in modulation of stress-related physiology and behavior. Male Long Evans rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing or 15 min or 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14. As adults, these rats were exposed to a social defeat protocol. Differences in behavior were seen among the early life treatment groups during social defeat; rats exposed to 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14 displayed more passive-submissive behaviors and less proactive coping behaviors. Analysis of the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in control rats exposed to a novel cage and rats exposed to social defeat revealed that, independent of the early life experience, rats exposed to social defeat showed an increase in the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in serotonergic neurons in the middle and caudal parts of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus and caudal part of the ventral dorsal raphe nucleus, regions known to contain serotonergic neurons projecting to central autonomic and emotional motor control systems. This is the first study to show that the dorsomedial part of the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus is engaged by a naturalistic stressor and supports the hypothesis that early life experience alters behavioral coping strategies during social conflict; furthermore, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons principally within the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal part of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus modulate stress

  9. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  10. Anaesthetists' experiences with the early labour epidural recommendation for obese parturients: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L K; van Zundert, A A J; Lipman, J; Gallois, C

    2016-09-01

    Caring for obese pregnant women presents challenges for all medical professionals. Despite a lack of supporting evidence, expert opinion and international guidelines suggest early labour epidural insertion for obese women. Anecdotally this is not supported by all anaesthetists. This qualitative study explored the experiences of anaesthetists regarding early epidural analgesia in obese parturients, to answer the research question: Are anaesthetists consistent in how they apply early epidural analgesia in obese parturients? Personal in-depth interviews with 42 specialist anaesthetists working in south-east Queensland, Australia, were completed between February and April, 2015. Leximancer™ text analysis software applied a validated algorithm to the data to identify themes and concepts. The major themes were explored by the first author to answer the research question. Three major themes were identified: the demands associated with caring for obese women; concern regarding the anaesthetic technique used in obese women; and the importance of communication with obstetric staff. Disagreement regarding interpretation and application of early epidural analgesia was identified within this group of anaesthetists. These anaesthetists were inconsistent in how they interpreted and applied early epidural analgesia for obese parturients, with some questioning the validity of the practice. The combination of uncertainty, urgency and technical difficulty presented by obese parturients provoked anxiety in these clinicians, particularly the anticipation of unplanned general anaesthesia. Consistent anaesthetic practice could improve the implementation of early epidural analgesia in obese parturients.

  11. Growing up with adversity: From juvenile justice involvement to criminal persistence and psychosocial problems in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided.

  12. Early and 1-year outcome and predictors of adverse outcome following monocusp pulmonary valve reconstruction for patients with tetralogy of Fallot: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sasikumar, Deepa; Sasidharan, Bijulal; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Dharan, Baiju S; Mathew, Thomas; Karunakaran, Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with monocusp pulmonary valve reconstruction prevents pulmonary regurgitation (PR) for a variable period. Since postoperative outcome is governed by PR and right ventricular function, we sought to assess the severity of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular outflow (RVOT) gradient in the immediate postoperative period and at 1 year and attempted to identify the anatomical substrates responsible for adverse outcomes. Methods: The study included 30 patients. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed before surgery, within 5 days of surgery, and 1 year later. Presence and severity of PR, RVOT gradient, and residual branch pulmonary stenosis were assessed. Right ventricular and monocusp valve functions were studied. Results: Median age was 36.5 months (3-444 months). There were no deaths. Pulmonary regurgitation was mild in 18, moderate in 10, and severe in 2 patients immediately following surgery. At 1 year, 10 patients had severe PR and one had significant RVOT gradient. None of the variables like age, presence of supravalvar pulmonary branch stenosis, main pulmonary artery diameter, or mobility of monocusp valve was found to have any significant association with the progression of PR. McGoon index <1.5 showed a trend toward more PR, while patients with more residual RVOT gradient had lesser regurgitation. Conclusions: Repair of TOF with monocusp pulmonary valve reduces immediate postoperative PR. At 1 year, the monocusp valve underwent loss of function in a significant proportion and PR also progressed. This study could not identify any predictors of progression of PR, though patients with McGoon index <1.5 tended to have more PR while those with more outflow gradient had lesser PR. PMID:24701078

  13. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    van der Doelen, Rick H A; Arnoldussen, Ilse A; Ghareh, Hussein; van Och, Liselot; Homberg, Judith R; Kozicz, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene × Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid release upon exposure to stress. Both endophenotypes are regulated by the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or hormone, which is expressed by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the central amygdala (CeA). Therefore, we hypothesized that altered regulation of the expression of CRF in these areas represents a major neurobiological mechanism underlying the interaction of early life stress and 5-HTT gene variation. The programming of gene transcription by Gene × Environment interactions has been proposed to involve epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. In this study, we report that early life stress and 5-HTT genotype interact to affect DNA methylation of the Crf gene promoter in the CeA of adult male rats. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation of a specific site in the Crf promoter significantly correlated with CRF mRNA levels in the CeA. Moreover, CeA CRF mRNA levels correlated with stress coping behavior in a learned helplessness paradigm. Together, our findings warrant further investigation of the link of Crf promoter methylation and CRF expression in the CeA with behavioral changes that are relevant for psychopathology.

  14. Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) methylation processes as mediators of early adversity in stress-related disorders causality: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Palma-Gudiel, Helena; Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Leza, Juan Carlos; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a known risk factor for suffering psychopathology in adulthood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been described to be deregulated in both individuals who experienced early psychosocial stress and in patients with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. The NR3C1 gene codes for the glucocorticoid receptor, a key element involved in several steps of HPA axis modulation. In this review, we gather existing evidence linking NR3C1 methylation pattern with either ELS or psychopathology. We summarize that several types of ELS have been frequently associated with NR3C1 hypermethylation whereas hypomethylation has been continuously found to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. In light of the reported findings, the main concerns of ongoing research in this field are the lack of methodological consensus and selection of CpG sites. Further studies should target individual CpG site methylation assessment focusing in biologically relevant areas such as transcription factor binding regions whereas widening the examined sequence in order to include all non-coding first exons of the NR3C1 gene in the analysis.

  15. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  16. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-11-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD.

  17. Early olfactory experience induces structural changes in the primary olfactory center of an insect brain.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Giurfa, M; Sandoz, J C; Hourcade, B; Devaud, J M; Farina, W M

    2012-03-01

    The antennal lobe (AL) is the first olfactory center of the insect brain and is constituted of different functional units, the glomeruli. In the AL, odors are coded as spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular activity. In honeybees, olfactory learning during early adulthood modifies neural activity in the AL on a long-term scale and also enhances later memory retention. By means of behavioral experiments, we first verified that olfactory learning between the fifth and eighth day of adulthood induces better retention performances at a late adult stage than the same experience acquired before or after this period. We checked that the specificity of memory for the odorants used was improved. We then studied whether such early olfactory learning also induces long-term structural changes in the AL consistent with the formation of long-term olfactory memories. We also measured the volume of 15 identified glomeruli in the ALs of 17-day-old honeybees that either experienced an odor associated with sucrose solution between the fifth and eighth day of adulthood or were left untreated. We found that early olfactory experience induces glomerulus-selective increases in volume that were specific to the learned odor. By comparing our volumetric measures with calcium-imaging recordings from a previous study, performed in 17-day-old bees subjected to the same treatment and experimental conditions, we found that glomeruli that showed structural changes after early learning were those that exhibited a significant increase in neural activity. Our results make evident a correlation between structural and functional changes in the AL following early olfactory learning.

  18. Bias to pollen odors is affected by early exposure and foraging experience.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Farina, W M

    2014-07-01

    In many pollinating insects, foraging preferences are adjusted on the basis of floral cues learned at the foraging site. In addition, olfactory experiences gained at early adult stages might also help them to initially choose food sources. To understand pollen search behavior of honeybees, we studied how responses elicited by pollen-based odors are biased in foraging-age workers according to (i) their genetic predisposition to collect pollen, (ii) pollen related information gained during foraging and (iii) different experiences with pollen gained at early adult ages. Bees returning to the hive carrying pollen loads, were strongly biased to unfamiliar pollen bouquets when tested in a food choice device against pure odors. Moreover, pollen foragers' orientation response was specific to the odors emitted by the pollen type they were carrying on their baskets, which suggests that foragers retrieve pollen odor information to recognize rewarding flowers outside the hive. We observed that attraction to pollen odor was mediated by the exposure to a pollen diet during the first week of life. We did not observe the same attraction in foraging-age bees early exposed to an artificial diet that did not contain pollen. Contrary to the specific response observed to cues acquired during foraging, early exposure to single-pollen diets did not bias orientation response towards a specific pollen odor in foraging-age bees (i.e. bees chose equally between the exposed and the novel monofloral pollen odors). Our results show that pollen exposure at early ages together with olfactory experiences gained in a foraging context are both relevant to bias honeybees' pollen search behavior.

  19. Does perception of the childbirth experience predict women's early parenting behaviors?

    PubMed

    Bryanton, Janet; Gagnon, Anita J; Hatem, Marie; Johnston, Celeste

    2009-04-01

    Evidence regarding the predictors of positive parenting behaviors in the early transition to parenting is inconsistent and limited. In this prospective, cohort study, we examined whether women's perceptions of their childbirth experience, as well as selected demographic, obstetrical, and psychosocial variables, predicted positive parenting behaviors at 1 month postpartum in 175 Canadian mothers. Women's birth experience did not predict early parenting behaviors, however being better educated and having a vaginal birth did. Excellent partner support and maternal mental health were also significantly associated with positive parenting at 1 month. Nurses have a responsibility to assess women for possible risks for sub-optimal parenting, based on the predictors found, and intervene to enhance parenting behaviors.

  20. On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development.