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Sample records for adverse life experiences

  1. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention: Role of Adverse Life Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Jefferis, Eric; Kavadas, Angela; Alemagno, Sonia A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family) on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. Materials and Methods The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. Results Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation) and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval  = 2.08–3.63) and homelessness (1.51; 1.17–1.94) were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22–4.08), homelessness (1.49; 1.12–1.98), and running away from home (1.38; 1.06–1.81) were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41–25.37) to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. Conclusions Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention. PMID:24586756

  2. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  3. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  4. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  5. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  6. Adverse early life experience and social stress during adulthood interact to increase serotonin transporter mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Katherine L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Plotsky, Paul M.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of serotonergic systems in the brain. To evaluate the effects of early life experience, adverse experiences during adulthood, and potential interactions between these factors on serotonin transporter (slc6a4) mRNA expression, we investigated in rats the effects of maternal separation (180 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS180), neonatal handing (15 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS15), or normal animal facility rearing control conditions (AFR) with or without subsequent exposure to adult social defeat on slc6a4 mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and caudal linear nucleus. At the level of specific subdivisions of the DR, there were no differences in slc6a4 mRNA expression between MS15 and AFR rats. Among rats exposed to a novel cage control condition, increased slc6a4 mRNA expression was observed in the dorsal part of the DR in MS180 rats, relative to AFR control rats. In contrast, MS180 rats exposed to social defeat as adults had increased slc6a4 mRNA expression throughout the DR compared to both MS15 and AFR controls. Social defeat increased slc6a4 mRNA expression, but only in MS180 rats and only in the “lateral wings” of the DR. Overall these data demonstrate that early life experience and stressful experience during adulthood interact to determine slc6a4 mRNA expression. These data support the hypothesis that early life experience and major stressful life events contribute to dysregulation of serotonergic systems in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19781533

  7. Life Course Pathways of Adverse Childhood Experiences Toward Adult Psychological Well-Being: A Stress Process Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N = 13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. PMID:25846195

  8. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  9. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies. PMID:25915644

  10. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma. PMID:26103604

  11. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma. PMID:26103604

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  13. The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. Methods: All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Results: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. Conclusion: EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations. PMID:24626074

  14. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  15. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  16. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features. PMID:27086083

  17. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents (N=357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed. PMID:26998189

  18. Narrative Perspectives in Psychosocial Intervention Following Adverse Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, William

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates how narrative perspectives provide means of conceptualizing brief psychotherapy following negative life outcomes. Representative case studies illustrate three types of narrative construction following adverse experiences and show how narrative perspectives shift focus from disability and dysfunction to concern for client strengths,…

  19. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  20. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Exley, Daniel; Norman, Alyson; Hyland, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset. PMID:26028641

  1. A revised inventory of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    This study examines whether the items from the original Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale can be improved in their prediction of health outcomes by adding some additional widely recognized childhood adversities. The analyses come from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence 2014, a telephone survey conducted from August 2013 through April 2014 with a nationally representative sample of 1,949 children and adolescents aged 10-17 and their caregivers who were asked about adversities, physical health conditions and mental health symptoms. The addition of measures of peer victimization, peer isolation/rejection, and community violence exposure added significantly to the prediction of mental health symptoms, and the addition of a measure of low socioeconomic status (SES) added significantly to the prediction of physical health problems. A revised version of the ACES scale is proposed. PMID:26259971

  2. Childhood Adversity, Recent Life Stressors and Suicidal Behavior in Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    You, Zhiqi; Chen, Mingxi; Yang, Sen; Zhou, Zongkui; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. Method 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. Results Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. Conclusions Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population. PMID:24681891

  3. Paradoxical bronchospasm: a potentially life threatening adverse effect of albuterol.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Kalpana; Nagajothi, Nagapradeep

    2006-03-01

    We report a case of paradoxical bronchospasm to both levalbuterol and albuterol. While the exact mechanism for this known adverse effect of albuterol is not known, awareness of this adverse effect can be life saving to the patient. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of paradoxical bronchospasm to levalbuterol inhalation solution. PMID:16553105

  4. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26327809

  5. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26327809

  6. Life adversities and suicidal behavior in young individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide. PMID:26303813

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism. PMID:23887883

  8. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. 600.80 Section 600.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80 Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences....

  9. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. 600.80 Section 600.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80 Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences....

  10. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. 600.80 Section 600.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80 Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences....

  11. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. 600.80 Section 600.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80 Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences....

  12. Life Experience Deserves Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, John C.; McGee, Leo

    1981-01-01

    Institutions granting credit for life experience are faced with obstacles related to the complex, sensitive, threatening, and ambitious nature of the procedure. A three-step process for implementation of a plan for developing credit for life experiences is provided, along with a dissenting opinion. (MLW)

  13. Adverse Life Events and Mental Health in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    This study's aim was to search for the appropriate functional form of the effect of proximal cumulative contextual risk (PCCR), measured with number of adverse life events experienced in the last 6 months, on adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The study sample was 171 year…

  14. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  15. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  16. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  17. Severe Life Events and Chronic Adversities as Antecedents to Anxiety in Children: A Matched Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Sandberg, Seija

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the number of severe life events and chronic adversities as reported retrospectively by mothers of children with an anxiety disorder (n = 39) prior to the onset of their most recent episode, with controls (n = 39) matched for age and sex. The parent version of the Psychosocial Assessment of Childhood Experiences (PACE)…

  18. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  19. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  20. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  1. The long-term impact of early adversity on late-life psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anda; Sudheimer, Keith; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Williams, Leanne M; O'Hara, Ruth

    2013-04-01

    Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research. PMID:23443532

  2. Gambling and Adverse Life Events Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace P.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the cross sectional association between adverse life events and gambling in a sample of 515 urban adolescents (average age 17, 55% male, 88% African American). Approximately half of the sample had gambled in the past year (51%); 78% of the gamblers gambled monthly and 39% had a gambling-related problem. On the other hand, 88% of the sample had experienced at least one life event in the past year, and those experiencing events tended to live in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. The mere acknowledgement of experiencing a stressful life event in the past year (yes/no) was not associated with an increase in odds of being a gambler, with gambling more frequently, or with having a gambling problem. However, when the context of the event was considered, an association was found between directly experiencing threatening and deviant/violent types of events and frequent gambling (OR > 2). Additionally, the probability of being a gambler increased as the number of events experienced increased (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.13, P = 0.013), but problems among gamblers were not associated with the number of events experienced (aOR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.92, 1.11, P = 0.876). During adolescence, life events appear to be connected more with the frequency of gambling rather than with problems related to gambling. PMID:21614529

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Smoking, Nebraska, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Mannino, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among Nebraskans. Methods We analyzed 2011 Nebraska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Adverse Childhood Experience module) data, defining adverse childhood experience exposures as physical, sexual, and verbal abuse (ie, direct exposures), and household dysfunction associated with mental illness, substance abuse, divorce, domestic violence, and living with persons with incarceration histories (ie, environmental exposures). We estimated prevalence of exposures, taking into account the complex survey design. We used logistic regression with predicted margins to estimate adjusted relative risk for smoking by direct or environmental exposure. Results Approximately 51% of Nebraskans experienced 1 or more adverse childhood events; 7% experienced 5 or more. Prevalence of environmental exposures (42%) was significantly higher than that of direct exposures (31%). Prevalence of individual exposures ranged from 6% (incarceration of a household member) to 25% (verbal abuse). Adjusted relative risks of smoking for direct and environmental exposures were 1.5 and 1.8, respectively. Conclusion We present a new method of evaluating adverse childhood experience data. Prevalence of adverse childhood experiences is high among Nebraskans, and these exposures are associated with smoking. State-specific strategies to monitor adverse events among children and provide interventions might help to decrease the smoking rate in this population. PMID:24050529

  4. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. PMID:24011494

  5. Life-threatening Dermatologic Adverse Events in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Alyx C.; Balagula, Yevgeniy; Raisch, Dennis.W.; Garg, Vishvas; Nardone, Beatrice; Larsen, Nicole; Sorrell, Jennifer; West, Dennis P.; Anadkat, Milan J.; Lacouture, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of life-threatening toxicities such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are inconsistently reported. The potential association of anticancer agents with SJS or TEN has not been systematically investigated. Methods: We searched the literature (Ovid:1950-June 2013 and PubMed:1948-June 2013) using terms for SJS/TEN and anticancer therapy. Primary case reports, case series, and clinical trials were included. Additionally, MedWatch, Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), was searched (1968-August 2012) for SJS/TEN reports associated with anticancer therapies. Proportional reporting ratios (PRR>2, N>3) and empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM>2, N>3, lower 95% confidence interval (EBGM0.05 >2) were used as thresholds to constitute a signal of association between SJS/TEN and anticancer drugs. Results: There were 45 SJS and 37 TEN cases associated with 17 and 22 anticancer drugs in the literature, respectively. Among cases in FAERS, significant signals were associated with SJS for bendamustine and with TEN for bendamustine, busulfan, chlorambucil, fludarabine, lomustine, and procarbazine . Conclusion: Several drugs reported in published literature to be associated with SJS/TEN were not found to have significant signals in FAERS. Proactive pharmacovigilance to detect and define safety signals serves to assist oncology practitioners in the recognition of possible, yet uncommon, serious and/or life-threatening skin reactions. PMID:24108082

  6. Life-threatening dermatologic adverse events in oncology.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Alyx C; Balagula, Yevgeniy; Raisch, Dennis W; Garg, Vishvas; Nardone, Beatrice; Larsen, Nicole; Sorrell, Jennifer; West, Dennis P; Anadkat, Milan J; Lacouture, Mario E

    2014-02-01

    The incidences of life-threatening toxicities such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are inconsistently reported. The potential association of anticancer agents with SJS or TEN has not been systematically investigated. We searched the literature (Ovid: 1950 to June 2013 and PubMed: 1948 to June 2013) using terms for SJS/TEN and anticancer therapies. Primary case reports, case series, and clinical trials were included. In addition, MedWatch, the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), was searched (1968 to August 2012) for SJS/TEN reports associated with anticancer therapies. Proportional reporting ratios (PRR>2, N>3), empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM>2, N>3), and lower 95% confidence interval (EBGM0.05>2) were used as thresholds to constitute a signal of association between SJS/TEN and anticancer drugs. There were 46 SJS and 37 TEN cases associated with 18 and 22 anticancer drugs in the literature, respectively. Among cases in the FAERS, significant signals were associated with SJS for bendamustine and with TEN for bendamustine, busulfan, chlorambucil, fludarabine, lomustine, and procarbazine. Several drugs reported in the published literature to be associated with SJS/TEN were not found to have significant signals in FAERS. Proactive pharmacovigilance to detect and define safety signals serves to aid oncology practitioners in the recognition of possible, yet uncommon, serious, and/or life-threatening skin reactions. PMID:24108082

  7. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reports or as the result of a formal clinical trial. (2) As with all reports submitted under paragraph (c... derived from commercial marketing experience, postmarketing clinical investigations, postmarketing... adverse experience obtained from a postmarketing clinical study (whether or not conducted under...

  8. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  9. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  11. Adversity, cannabis use and psychotic experiences: evidence of cumulative and synergistic effects

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frissa, Souci; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is robust evidence that childhood adversity is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. There is, however, little research on intervening factors that might increase or decrease risk following childhood adversity. Aims To investigate main effects of, and synergy between, childhood abuse and life events and cannabis use on odds of psychotic experiences. Method Data on psychotic experiences and childhood abuse, life events and cannabis use were collected from 1680 individuals as part of the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH), a population-based household survey. Results There was strong evidence that childhood abuse and number of life events combined synergistically to increase odds of psychotic experiences beyond the effects of each individually. There was similar, but weaker, evidence for cannabis use (past year). Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that childhood abuse creates an enduring vulnerability to psychosis that is realised in the event of exposure to further stressors and risk factors. PMID:24627297

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  13. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Mental Health of Veterans.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Waldrop, Jessica R

    2015-06-01

    Many U.S. Veterans have experienced the burdens of mental illness and suicide. The current article focuses on Veterans who served from 2001-2015. Although combat exposure and suicidal ideation are linked, approximately one half of all suicides among Active Duty service members (who have served since 2001) occurred among those who never deployed. Researchers who sought additional risks for suicide found that Veterans have greater odds of adversities in childhood than the general population. Adverse childhood experiences are stressful and traumatic experiences, including abuse and neglect, as well as witnessing household dysfunction, or growing up with individuals with mental illness or substance abuse. Further, childhood physical abuse has been shown to be a significant predictor for posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide. Adverse childhood experiences confer additional risk for the mental health of service members. Psychiatric nursing implications include the importance of assessing early childhood adversity during psychosocial assessments. Providing trauma-informed strategies for treatment is an essential element of psychiatric nursing care. PMID:26091547

  15. Early Life Adversity Contributes to Impaired Cognition and Impulsive Behavior: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stressful early life experience may have adverse consequences in adulthood and may contribute to behavioral characteristics that increase vulnerability to alcoholism. We examined early life adverse experience in relation to cognitive deficits and impulsive behaviors with a reference to risk factors for alcoholism. Methods We tested 386 healthy young adults (18 – 30 years of age; 224 women; 171 family history positive for alcoholism) using a composite measure of adverse life experience (low socioeconomic status plus personally experienced adverse events including physical and sexual abuse and separation from parents) as a predictor of performance on the Shipley Institute of Living scale, the Stroop color-word task, and a delay-discounting task assessing preference for smaller immediate rewards in favor of larger delayed rewards. Body mass index was examined as an early indicator of altered health behavior. Results Greater levels of adversity predicted higher Stroop interference scores (F = 3.07, p = .048), faster discounting of delayed rewards (F = 3.79, p = .024), lower Shipley mental age scores (F = 4.01, p = .019), and higher body mass indexes in those with a family history of alcoholism (F = 3.40, p = .035). These effects were not explained by age, sex, race, education, or depression. Conclusion The results indicate a long-term impact of stressful life experience on cognitive function, impulsive behaviors, and early health indicators that may contribute to risk in persons with a family history of alcoholism. PMID:23126641

  16. Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247

  17. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  18. Adverse childhood event experiences, fertility difficulties, and menstrual cycle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renee D.; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased childhood adversity may be affect adult fertility, however, the mechanism through which this occurs is unclear. Menstrual cycle abnormalities are predictive of fertility difficulties, and stress influences menstrual cycle characteristics. Here, we assesses whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle dysregulation, offering a plausible mechanism for the link between lifetime stress and fertility. Methods From April 2012 – February 2014, 742 pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 18–45 years residing in southeastern Louisiana provided information on childhood adversity and reproductive history. Associations between ACEs and fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle patterns were evaluated. Results As the number of ACEs increased, risk of fertility difficulties and amenorrhea increased (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 – 1.13 and RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.10, respectively), while fecundability decreased (FR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 – 1.00). Compared to women with no adversity, women in the high adversity group were more likely to experience both infertility and amenorrhea (RR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.45 – 5.21 and RR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.52 – 4.25, respectively), and reduced fecundability (FR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56 – 1.00). Although similar patterns were seen for menstrual cycle irregularity, associations were diminished. Associations did not materially change following adjustment for age, BMI, race, education, smoking, and income. Results are constrained by the self-report nature of the study and the limited generalizability of the study population. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence of a link between childhood stressors, menstrual cycle disruption, and fertility difficulties. The effect of childhood stress on fertility may be mediated through altered functioning of the HPA axis, acting to suppress fertility in response to less than optimal reproductive

  19. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  20. Early life adversity alters the developmental profiles of addiction-related prefrontal cortex circuitry.

    PubMed

    Brenhouse, Heather C; Lukkes, Jodi L; Andersen, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC). While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2-20) alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC→nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer). Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence. PMID:24961311

  1. Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Danese, Andrea; McEwen, Bruce S

    2012-04-12

    How do adverse childhood experiences get 'under the skin' and influence health outcomes through the life-course? Research reviewed here suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with changes in biological systems responsible for maintaining physiological stability through environmental changes, or allostasis. Children exposed to maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated children. Adults with a history of childhood maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated individuals. Despite the clear limitations in making longitudinal claims from cross-sectional studies, work so far suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with enduring changes in the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes are already observable in childhood years and remain apparent in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences induce significant biological changes in children (biological embedding), modifying the maturation and the operating balance of allostatic systems. Their chronic activation can lead to progressive wear and tear, or allostatic load and overload, and, thus, can exert long-term effects on biological aging and health. PMID:21888923

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  3. The Link Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Huffhines, Lindsay; Noser, Amy; Patton, Susana R

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to adversity in childhood (adverse childhood experiences [ACEs]) is linked to a number of chronic diseases in adulthood, yet there is limited research examining the impact of ACEs on diabetes. The current review sought to examine the association between ACEs, other trauma exposure or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, and risk for diabetes. Thirty-eight studies are reviewed. Unlike in other diseases, several studies in diabetes show a threshold-response versus a dose-response relation, while other studies show a relation between greater abuse severity and diabetes risk. There were mixed results for studies examining abuse type and frequency. Chronic or comorbid PTSD was also related to increased diabetes risk among veterans, but in community samples, only trauma exposure predicted diabetes risk. While the research is still limited, diabetes researchers and clinicians should consider screening for ACEs and examine severity and frequency across abuse type as a predictor of both diabetes and poor diabetes outcomes. PMID:27112958

  4. Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

  5. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  6. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior. PMID:27289554

  8. Early-Life Adversity and Physical and Emotional Health Across the Lifespan: A Neuroimmune Network Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nusslock, Robin; Miller, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    Children who experience chronic stressors are vulnerable to emotional and physical health problems across the lifespan. This phenomenon raises questions for scientists and clinicians alike. How does adversity get under the skin of the developing child? Through what mechanisms does it confer vulnerability to a heterogeneous set of mental and physical illnesses? And how does it instantiate risk across different life stages, engendering vulnerability to conditions that develop shortly after stressor exposure-like depression-and conditions that manifest decades later, like heart disease? Although answers to these questions have started to emerge, research has typically focused on single diseases or organ systems. To understand the plethora of health problems associated with childhood adversity, we argue that the field needs a second generation of research that recognizes multidirectional transactions among biological systems. To help facilitate this process, we propose a neuroimmune network hypothesis as a heuristic framework for organizing knowledge from disparate literatures and as a springboard for generating integrative research. Drawing on existing data, we argue that early-life adversity amplifies crosstalk between peripheral inflammation and neural circuitries subserving threat-related, reward-related, and executive control-related processes. This crosstalk results in chronic low-grade inflammation, thereby contributing to adiposity, insulin resistance, and other predisease states. In the brain, inflammatory mediators act on cortico-amygdala threat and cortico-basal ganglia reward, circuitries in a manner that predisposes individuals to self-medicating behaviors like smoking, drug use, and consumption of high-fat diets. Acting in concert with inflammation, these behaviors accelerate the pathogenesis of emotional and physical health problems. PMID:26166230

  9. Emotional suppression mediates the relation between adverse life events and adolescent suicide: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Julie B; Gipson, Polly Y; Horwitz, Adam G; Burch, Bianca N; King, Cheryl A

    2014-04-01

    Suicidal ideation substantially increases the odds of future suicide attempts, and suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents. A history of adverse life events has been linked with future suicidal ideation and attempts, although studies examining potential mediating variables have been scarce. One probable mediating mechanism is how the individual copes with adverse life events. For example, certain coping strategies appear to be more problematic than others in increasing future psychopathology, and emotional suppression in particular has been associated with poor mental health outcomes in adults and children. However, no studies to date have examined the potential mediating role of emotional suppression in the relation between adverse life events and suicidal thoughts/behavior in adolescence. The goal of the current study was to examine emotional suppression as a mediator in the relation between childhood adversity and future suicidal thoughts/behaviors in youth. A total of 625 participants, aged 14-19 years, seeking ER services were administered measures assessing adverse life events, coping strategies, suicidal ideation in the last 2 weeks, and suicide attempts in the last month. The results suggest that emotional suppression mediates the relation between adversity and both (1) suicidal thoughts and (2) suicide attempts above and beyond demographic variables and depressive symptoms. This study has important implications for interventions aimed at preventing suicidal thoughts and behavior in adolescents with histories of adversity. PMID:23412949

  10. Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Recent Adverse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard; Narasimhan, Subasri; Everson, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a well-known link between adverse experiences and suicidal ideation, there has been little study of the effects of recent adverse experiences on suicidal ideation in teenagers. This study examined the association between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation in a sample of 740 at-risk 16-year-old youth in the LONGSCAN…

  11. Childhood Adversity and Cumulative Life Stress: Risk Factors for Cancer-Related Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.; Crosswell, Alexandra D.; Slavich, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in healthy and clinical populations, including cancer survivors. However, risk factors for cancer-related fatigue have not been identified. On the basis of research linking stress with other fatigue-related disorders, we tested the hypothesis that stress exposure during childhood and throughout the life span would be associated with fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Stress exposure was assessed using the Stress and Adversity Inventory, a novel computer-based instrument that assesses for 96 types of acute and chronic stressors that may affect health. Results showed that breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue reported significantly higher levels of cumulative lifetime stress exposure, including more stressful experiences in childhood and in adulthood, compared to a control group of nonfatigued survivors. These findings identify a novel risk factor for fatigue in the growing population of cancer survivors and suggest targets for treatment. PMID:24377083

  12. [Life-threatening adverse effects of pharmacologic antihyperuricemic therapy].

    PubMed

    Russmann, St; Lauterburg, B

    2004-09-01

    Minor hypersensitivity reactions to allopurinol presenting as skin rash occur in approximately 2% of patients. A more severe, albeit rare, hypersensitivity reaction with fever, eosinophilia, dermatitis, renal failure, vasculitis and hepatic dysfunction carries a mortality of up to 20%. The incidence of this severe reaction can probably be reduced by adjusting the dose of allopurinol in patients with impaired renal function. Azathioprine and mercaptopurine are metabolised by xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that is inhibited by allopurinol. Concomitant administration can result in life-threatening neutropenia unless the dose of allopurinol is reduced by approximately 75%. The uricosuric agent benzbromarone has recently been withdrawn from the market because of several cases of fulminant hepatic failure with subsequent death of the patient or liver transplantation. PMID:15493119

  13. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  14. A mechanistic look at the effects of adversity early in life on cardiovascular disease risk during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Loria, A. S.; Ho, D. H.; Pollock, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Early origins of adult disease may be defined as adversity or challenges during early life that alter physiological responses and prime the organism to chronic disease in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences or early life stress (ELS) may be considered a silent independent risk factor capable of predicting future cardiovascular disease risk. Maternal separation (Mat-Sep) provides a suitable model to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the links between behavioural stress early in life and chronic cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We will discuss the following: (i) adult cardiovascular outcomes in humans subjected to ELS, (ii) Mat-Sep as an animal model of ELS as well as the limitations and advantages of this model in rodents and (iii) possible ELS-induced mechanisms that predispose individuals to greater cardiovascular risk. Overall, exposure to a behavioural stressor early in life sensitizes the response to a second stressor later in life, thus unmasking an exaggerated cardiovascular dysfunction that may influence quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood. PMID:24330084

  15. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

  16. Linking systemic arterial stiffness among adolescents to adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Stephen A; Chirico, Daniele; O'Leary, Deborah D; Cairney, John; Wade, Terrance J

    2016-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with cardiovascular disease and early mortality among adults. Most research examines this relationship retrospectively. Examining the association between ACEs and children's cardiovascular health is required to understand the time course of this association. We examined the relationship between ACEs exposure and ECG-to-toe pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of systemic arterial stiffness that is strongly related to cardiovascular mortality among adults. PWV (distance/transit time; m/s) was calculated using transit times from the ECG R-wave to the pulse wave contour at the toe. Transit times were collected over 15 heartbeats and the distance from the sternal notch to the left middle toe was used. A total of 221 children (119 females) aged 10-14 years participated in data collection of PWV, hemodynamic and anthropometric variables. Parents of these children completed a modified inventory of ACEs taken from the Childhood Trust Events Survey. Multivariable regression assessed the relationship between ACEs group (<4 ACEs versus ≥4 ACEs) and PWV. Analyses yielded an ACEs group by sex interaction, with males who experienced four or more ACEs having higher PWV (p<0.01). This association was independent of hemodynamic, anthropometric and sociodemographic variables (R(2)=0.346; p<0.01). Four or more ACEs is associated with greater arterial stiffness in male children aged 10-14 years. Addressing stress and trauma exposure in childhood is an important target for public health interventions to reduce early cardiovascular risk. PMID:27107504

  17. A latent class analysis of adolescent adverse life events based on a Danish national youth probability sample.

    PubMed

    Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if there are meaningful clusters of individuals with similar experiences of adverse life events in a nationally representative sample of Danish adolescents. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify such clusters or latent classes. In addition, the relationships between the latent classes and living arrangements and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were estimated. A four-class solution was found to be the best description of multiple adverse life events, and the classes were labelled "Low Risk", "Intermediate Risk", "Pregnancy" and "High Risk". Compared with the Low Risk class, the other classes were found to be significantly more likely to have a diagnosis PTSD and live with only one parent. This paper demonstrated how trauma research can focus on the individual as the unit of analysis rather than traumatic events. PMID:18609032

  18. The impact of adverse life events and the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism on the development of eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Akkermann, Kirsti; Kaasik, Kadri; Kiive, Evelyn; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus

    2012-01-01

    Adverse life events have been shown to predict weight fluctuations and dietary restraint, as well as eating disorders during adolescence or early adulthood. Since the s-allele carriers of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are biologically more reactive to stress related stimuli, we aimed to explore whether the eating disturbances are predicted by environmental stressors and moderated by the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The sample was based on the younger cohort of the Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study and included those participating in its second and third wave. The history of stressful life events was self-reported at age 15. Data on eating behaviour and attitudes, anxiety, impulsivity and depressiveness were collected at age 18. The effect of the adverse life events on binge eating and on drive for thinness was found to be moderated by the 5-HTTLPR. Adolescent girls who at age 15 had reported a history of frequent adverse life events had elevated scores in EDI-2 Bulimia subscale at age 18 if they were carrying the s-allele. The effect of the s-allele on binge eating was even more pronounced when solely the experience of sexual abuse was considered. The interaction effect of the 5-HTTLPR and the past sexual abuse was also observed on drive for thinness. These data give further support to the idea that adverse life events in childhood may heighten susceptibility to serotonergic dysregulation following stress, and suggest that in individuals vulnerable to eating disorders this may result in disturbed eating behaviours. PMID:22018958

  19. "They're Battle Scars, I Wear Them Well": A Phenomenological Exploration of Young Women's Experiences of Building Resilience Following Adversity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Claire; Reynolds, Frances Ann; Moran, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored young women's accounts of building resilience following chains of adverse life experiences in adolescence. Six participants were interviewed, aged 20-25 years. Most had, or were receiving, a university education. They described their recovery from adversity as starting with certain pivotal moments, followed by…

  20. Depression among Black Bisexual Men with Early and Later Life Adversities

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Hector F.; Williams, John K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a six-session health intervention, and at baseline reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination (R2 = .25, F3, 112 = 12.67, p < .001) and chronic stress (R2 = .17, F3, 112 = 7.41, p < .001). Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination (b = −.154, t(111) = −2.82, p < .01) and chronic stress (b = −.019, t(111) = −3.759, p < .01). Men’s early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW’s early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. PMID:24099486

  1. Adverse childhood experiences: Prevalence and related factors in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort☆

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Howe, Laura D.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect people's health and wellbeing not only at the time the ACE is experienced, but also later in life. The majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in high-income countries and little is known about its prevalence in low and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACEs, associations between ACEs and sociodemographic factors, and the interrelationship between types of ACEs in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort. Data from 3,951 adolescents (78.4% of the original cohort) from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort were analyzed. Seven types of ACEs were assessed in those up to 18 years old: physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, domestic violence, parental separation and parental death. The most common ACE was parental separation (42%), followed by emotional neglect (19.7%) and domestic violence (10.3%). Approximately 85% of the adolescents experienced at least one ACE, and females reported a higher number of adversities. Several socioeconomic, demographic and family-related characteristics were associated with the occurrence of ACEs, e.g. non-white skin color, low family income, low maternal schooling, absence of mother's partner, maternal smoking, and poor maternal mental health. A strong interrelationship was observed among the ACEs, indicating clustering of risk. These aspects should be considered by health and social care professionals in the prevention and identification of childhood adversities. PMID:26707919

  2. Adverse childhood experiences: Prevalence and related factors in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Howe, Laura D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect people's health and wellbeing not only at the time the ACE is experienced, but also later in life. The majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in high-income countries and little is known about its prevalence in low and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACEs, associations between ACEs and sociodemographic factors, and the interrelationship between types of ACEs in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort. Data from 3,951 adolescents (78.4% of the original cohort) from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort were analyzed. Seven types of ACEs were assessed in those up to 18 years old: physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, domestic violence, parental separation and parental death. The most common ACE was parental separation (42%), followed by emotional neglect (19.7%) and domestic violence (10.3%). Approximately 85% of the adolescents experienced at least one ACE, and females reported a higher number of adversities. Several socioeconomic, demographic and family-related characteristics were associated with the occurrence of ACEs, e.g. non-white skin color, low family income, low maternal schooling, absence of mother's partner, maternal smoking, and poor maternal mental health. A strong interrelationship was observed among the ACEs, indicating clustering of risk. These aspects should be considered by health and social care professionals in the prevention and identification of childhood adversities. PMID:26707919

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Health of University Students in Eight Provinces of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Quynh Anh; Dunne, Michael P; Vo, Thang Van; Luu, Ngoc Hoat

    2015-11-01

    Recent systematic reviews have emphasized the need for more research into the health and social impacts of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the Asia-Pacific region. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2099 young adult students in 8 medical universities throughout Vietnam. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire included the World Health Organization ACE-International Questionnaire and standardized measures of mental and physical health. Three quarters (76%) of the students reported at least one exposure to ACEs; 21% had 4 or more ACEs. The most commonly reported adversities were emotional abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing a household member being treated violently (42.3%, 39.9%, and 34.6%, respectively). Co-occurrence of ACEs had dose-response relationships with poor mental health, suicidal ideation, and low physical health-related quality of life. This first multisite study of ACEs among Vietnamese university students provided evidence that childhood adversity is common and is significantly linked with impaired health and well-being into the early adult years. PMID:26047629

  4. Adolescent parents and their children: a multifaceted approach to prevention of adverse childhood experiences (ACE).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lynn Milgram; Thursby, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Childhood experiences can have long-term effects. Research shows that children who undergo adverse childhood experiences (ACE) often have negative health and mental health outcomes later in life. Children of adolescent parents with high ACE Scores are at greater risk of ACE. As such, an intergenerational approach to preventing ACE is proposed in this article, addressing the needs of both the adolescent parent and their children. A review of the literature indicates that a public health perspective can guide the development of a prevention model aimed at reducing the effects of ACE. The current article proposes a universal, multifaceted, and interdisciplinary prevention science model that has two targets: adolescent parents and their children. Schools and early childhood programs can be mobilized to offer community prevention strategies across realms to include the individual, community, provider, coalitions/networks, organizational practices, and policy/legislation. PMID:22970783

  5. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  6. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as 'developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)' or 'Barker' hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene-environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10-20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  7. Adverse childhood experiences of persons at risk for Huntington's disease or BRCA1/2 hereditary breast/ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, L B; van Duijn, E; Wolterbeek, R; Tibben, A

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is known to have a negative impact on family life. Offspring of HD patients may be exposed to adversity in childhood because of the parent's disease and its psychological consequences. BRCA1/2 hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (BRCA1/2) increases the risk for offspring of being exposed to parental disease or loss. Childhood adversity is associated with psychopathology and various other problems in later life. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) before age 16 were assessed in adults at 50% risk for HD (n = 74) or BRCA1/2 (n = 82) and in controls (n = 101), using the Negative Life Events Scale. Mean number and occurrence of ACEs were compared between groups. The odds of having experienced adversity in childhood were higher in HD offspring and BRCA1/2 offspring than in controls. HD offspring reported a higher mean number of ACEs than controls or BRCA1/2 offspring. In HD offspring, the prevalence of parental disease and parental dysfunction experienced before age 16 was higher than in controls. In BRCA1/2 offspring, the prevalence of parental loss before age 16 was higher than in controls. This study indicates that 53% of HD offspring and 45% of BRCA1/2 offspring are exposed to adversity in childhood or adolescence. The relevance of these findings for counseling in predictive testing programs, reproductive decision-making, and child rearing matters is discussed. PMID:21895638

  8. Genetic predisposition for high stress reactivity amplifies effects of early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    McIlwrick, Silja; Rechenberg, Alexandra; Matthes, Mariana; Burgstaller, Jessica; Schwarzbauer, Thomas; Chen, Alon; Touma, Chadi

    2016-08-01

    A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the experience of early-life adversity are both well-established risk factors for the development of affective disorders, such as major depression. However, little is known about the interaction of these two factors in shaping endophenotypes of the disease. Here, we studied the gene-environment interaction of a genetic predisposition for HPA axis dysregulation with early-life stress (ELS), assessing the short-, as well as the long-lasting consequences on emotional behavior, neuroendocrine functions and gene expression profiles. Three mouse lines, selectively bred for either high (HR), intermediate (IR), or low (LR) HPA axis reactivity, were exposed to one week of ELS using the limited nesting and bedding material paradigm. Measurements collected during or shortly after the ELS period showed that, regardless of genetic background, ELS exposure led to impaired weight gain and altered the animals' coping behavior under stressful conditions. However, only HR mice additionally showed significant changes in neuroendocrine stress responsiveness at a young age. Accordingly, adult HR mice also showed lasting consequences of ELS, including hyperactive stress-coping, HPA axis hyperreactivity, and gene expression changes in the Crh system, as well as downregulation of Fkbp5 in relevant brain regions. We suggest that the genetic predisposition for high stress reactivity interacts with ELS exposure by disturbing the suppression of corticosterone release during a critical period of brain development, thus exerting lasting programming effects on the HPA axis, presumably via epigenetic mechanisms. In concert, these changes lead to the emergence of important endophenotypes associated with affective disorders. PMID:27179233

  9. Self-immolation and its adverse life-events risk factors: results from an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Schwebel, David C.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Taliee, Kobra; Karim, Hosein; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Despite considerable loss of life by deliberate self-burning in low and middle-income countries, few scholars have examined psychiatric factors such as adverse life events that may be related to self-immolation. Methods: This case-control study investigated adverse life-events as risk factors for self-immolation patients admitted to a burn center serving the western region of Iran. Variables investigated included the following adverse life-events: unplanned pregnancy, infertility, homelessness, financial hardship, problems with friends, intimate relationship break-up , school or university failure, anxiety about school/university performance, problems at work, personal history of suicide attempts, family history of suicide attempts, individual history of mental disorders, and malignant disease. Results: Financial hardship (OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.19-9.90), intimate relationship break-up (OR=5.45, 95% CI=1.20-11.99), and personal history of suicide attempts (OR=7.00, 95% CI=1.38-35.48) were associated with increased risk of self-immolation. Conclusions: This study suggests that financial hardship, intimate relationship break-ups, and personal history of suicide attempts are risk factors for self-immolation. Other variables studied did not play a role as individually protective or risk factors for self-immolation. Further study is needed to substantiate findings of this study and direct research toward tailoring culturally sensitive, empirically-supported interventions for prevention of self-immolation. PMID:25618437

  10. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  11. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

  12. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume☆

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Nicholas D.; Dalgleish, Tim; Lombardo, Michael V.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Ban, Maria; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to childhood adversities (CA) is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV). Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4) with (n = 27) or without (n = 31) CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE) recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life. PMID:25061568

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Health Outcomes Among Veteran and Non-Veteran Women

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Dichter, Melissa E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women veterans represent a vulnerable population with unique health needs and disparities in access to care. One constellation of exposures related to subsequent poor health includes adverse childhood experiences (ACEs; e.g., physical and sexual child abuse), though research on impacts of ACEs among women veterans is limited. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the 11 states that included the ACE module (n=36,485). Weighted chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence of ACEs among women veterans compared with women non-veterans and differences in the following outcomes, controlling for ACEs: social support, inadequate sleep, life satisfaction, mental distress, smoking, heavy alcohol use, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease symptoms, asthma, and disability. Results: Women veterans (1.6% of the total sample) reported a higher prevalence of 7 out of 11 childhood adversities and higher mean ACE score than women non-veterans. Women veterans were more likely to be current smokers and report a disability, associations which were attenuated when controlling for ACE. Conclusions: Despite women veterans' higher prevalence of ACE, their health outcomes did not differ substantially from non-veterans. Further research is needed to understand the intersections of traumatic experiences and sources of resilience over the lifecourse among women veterans. PMID:26390379

  14. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. PMID:27481911

  15. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  16. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents: FKBP5 genotype--early life adversity interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Comasco, Erika; Gustafsson, Per A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Agnafors, Sara; Aho, Nikolas; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial and their symptoms overlap. Constitutional and environmental factors influence each other, and this contributes to risk and resilience in mental ill-health. We investigated functional genetic variation of stress responsiveness, assessed as FKBP5 genotype, in relation to early life adversity and mental health in two samples of adolescents. One population-based sample of 909 12-year-old adolescents was assessed using the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. One sample of 398 17-year-old adolescents, enriched for poly-victimized individuals (USSS), was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The FKBP5 rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR. Most prominently among poly-victimized older male adolescents, the least common alleles of the polymorphisms, in interaction with adverse life events, were associated with psychiatric symptoms, after controlling for ethno-socio-economic factors. The interaction effect between rs3800373 and adverse life events on the TSCC sub-scales-anxiety, depression, anger, and dissociation-and with the rs1360780 on dissociation in the USSS cohort remained significant after Bonferroni correction. This pattern of association is in line with the findings of clinical and neuroimaging studies, and implies interactive effects of FKBP5 polymorphisms and early life environment on several psychiatric symptoms. These correlates add up to provide constructs that are relevant to several psychiatric symptoms, and to identify early predictors of mental ill-health. PMID:26424511

  17. The lasting impact of early-life adversity on individuals and their descendants: potential mechanisms and hope for intervention.

    PubMed

    Cowan, C S M; Callaghan, B L; Kan, J M; Richardson, R

    2016-01-01

    The adverse effects of early-life stress are pervasive, with well-established mental and physical health consequences for exposed individuals. The impact of early adverse experiences is also highly persistent, with documented increases in risk for mental illness across the life span that are accompanied by stable alterations in neural function and hormonal responses to stress. Here, we review some of these 'stress phenotypes', with a focus on intermediary factors that may signal risk for long-term mental health outcomes, such as altered development of the fear regulation system. Intriguingly, recent research suggests that such stress phenotypes may persist even beyond the life span of the individuals, with consequences for their offspring and grand-offspring. Phenotypic characteristics may be transmitted to future generations via either the matriline or the patriline, a phenomenon that has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we highlight behavioral and epigenetic factors that may contribute to this multigenerational transmission and discuss the potential of various treatment approaches that may halt the cycle of stress phenotypes. PMID:26482536

  18. Dying to be famous: retrospective cohort study of rock and pop star mortality and its association with adverse childhood experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Sharples, Olivia; Hennell, Tom; Hardcastle, Katherine A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Rock and pop fame is associated with risk taking, substance use and premature mortality. We examine relationships between fame and premature mortality and test how such relationships vary with type of performer (eg, solo or band member) and nationality and whether cause of death is linked with prefame (adverse childhood) experiences. Design A retrospective cohort analysis based on biographical data. An actuarial methodology compares postfame mortality to matched general populations. Cox survival and logistic regression techniques examine risk and protective factors for survival and links between adverse childhood experiences and cause of death, respectively. Setting North America and Europe. Participants 1489 rock and pop stars reaching fame between 1956 and 2006. Outcomes Stars’ postfame mortality relative to age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched populations (USA and UK); variations in survival with performer type, and in cause of mortality with exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Results Rock/pop star mortality increases relative to the general population with time since fame. Increases are greater in North American stars and those with solo careers. Relative mortality begins to recover 25 years after fame in European but not North American stars. Those reaching fame from 1980 onwards have better survival rates. For deceased stars, cause of death was more likely to be substance use or risk-related in those with more adverse childhood experiences. Conclusions Relationships between fame and mortality vary with performers’ characteristics. Adverse experiences in early life may leave some predisposed to health-damaging behaviours, with fame and extreme wealth providing greater opportunities to engage in risk-taking. Millions of youths wish to emulate their icons. It is important they recognise that substance use and risk-taking may be rooted in childhood adversity rather than seeing them as symbols of success. PMID:23253869

  19. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Geriatric Depression: Results from the 2010 BRFSS

    PubMed Central

    Ege, Margaret A.; Messias, Erick; Thapa, Puru; Krain, Lewis P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, have been shown to result in a variety of poor outcomes including depression. The majority of research has examined the impact of such events on adolescents and young adults leaving a dearth of information regarding how these events may affect depressive symptom point prevalence later in life. Methods Data from the CDC’s 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) were used to estimate the point prevalence of depression in individuals sixty years of age and greater based on presence or absence of certain ACEs. Depressive symptoms were assessed using eight items from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Subjects with a PHQ score of 10 or greater were categorized as depressed. Six different types of ACE were included in the study: parents being physically abusive to each other, being physically harmed by a parent, being sworn at by the parent, being touched sexually by an adult, being forced to sexually touch an adult, and being forced into a sexual encounter. ACEs were categorized as never, single if subject reported it occurring once, or repeated if subject reported multiple episodes. Results The study sample consisted of 8,051 adults aged 60 years and greater who responded to questions about adverse childhood experiences. The study sample was comprised of 53% females, 83% Caucasians, and had a mean age of 70.4 years. After controlling for age, gender, and race, depression was significantly correlated with repeated ACEs of all types (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ranging from 2.41 to 9.78, all statistically significant). The only ACE where a single occurrence was significantly associated with late life depression was forced sexual intercourse (AOR 2.92, 95% C.I. 1.06-8.02). After controlling for all types of abuse in a single model, repeated physical abuse and repeated forced sexual intercourse remained significant (AOR 2.94, 95% C.I. 1.68-5.13, and AOR

  1. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Visceral Pain in Later Life: Importance of Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2012-01-01

    A history of early life adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA. PMID:23407595

  2. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Gelaye, Bizu; Jackson, Chandra L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represent substantial threats to public health and affect about 58% of youth in the US. In addition to their acute effects such as injury and physical trauma, ACEs are associated with an increased risk of several negative health outcomes throughout the life course. Emerging evidence suggests sleep disorders may be one such outcome, but existing studies have not been systematically reviewed and summarized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between ACEs and sleep disorders and disturbances, with a focus on adult women. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science using key words “childhood,” “adversity,” “abuse,” and “sleep” as well as searches of the reference lists of eligible studies. Studies evaluating ACEs that occurred before 18 years of age and sleep outcomes that were assessed at 18 years or older were adjudicated and included. A total of 30 publications were identified. Of the 30 studies, 28 were retrospective analyses and there was vast heterogeneity in types of ACEs and sleep outcomes measured. The majority of retrospective studies (N=25 of 28) documented statistically significant associations between sleep disorders including sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmare distress, sleep paralysis, and psychiatric sleep disorders with a history of childhood adversity. In many studies, the strengths of associations increased with the number and severity of adverse experiences. These associations were corroborated by the two prospective studies published to date. Notably, investigators have documented statistically significant associations between family conflict at 7-15 years of age and insomnia at 18 years of age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7) and between childhood sexual abuse and sleep disturbances 10 years later in adult women (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). There is a growing scientific body of

  3. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Gelaye, Bizu; Jackson, Chandra L; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represent substantial threats to public health and affect about 58% of youth in the US. In addition to their acute effects such as injury and physical trauma, ACEs are associated with an increased risk of several negative health outcomes throughout the life course. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep disorders may be one such outcome, but existing studies have not been systematically reviewed and summarized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between ACEs and sleep disorders and disturbances, with a focus on adult women. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science using the keywords "childhood," "adversity," "abuse," and "sleep" as well as searches of the reference lists of eligible studies. Studies evaluating ACEs that occurred before 18 years of age and sleep outcomes that were assessed at 18 years or older were adjudicated and included. A total of 30 publications were identified. Of the 30 studies, 28 were retrospective analyses and there was vast heterogeneity in the types of ACEs and sleep outcomes measured. The majority of retrospective studies (N = 25 of 28) documented statistically significant associations between sleep disorders including sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmare distress, sleep paralysis, and psychiatric sleep disorders with a history of childhood adversity. In many studies, the strengths of associations increased with the number and severity of adverse experiences. These associations were corroborated by the two prospective studies published to date. Notably, investigators have documented statistically significant associations between family conflict at 7-15 years of age and insomnia at 18 years of age (odds ratio, OR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.2-1.7) and between childhood sexual abuse and sleep disturbances 10 years later in adult women (β = 0.24, p

  4. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B.; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  5. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-06-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  6. Examining the association between early life social adversity and BMI changes in childhood: a life course trajectory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Northstone, K.; Howe, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background A number of studies have found associations between multiple aspects of social adversity and obesity in childhood, yet this research has largely been limited to cross‐sectional data. Objectives This study aimed to address this limitation by using life course trajectory methods to determine whether multiple aspects of social adversity in early childhood are associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) throughout childhood. Methods Associations between multiple measures of social adversity from birth to 4 years and subsequent BMI trajectories to age 17 were examined in 7021 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Results Higher BMI throughout ages 12–17 were observed for children whose parents had separated, were exposed to frequent residential mobility or who experienced moderate or great household financial difficulty in early childhood. After adjustment for confounding variables, associations were attenuated but remained for both moderate (two moves) and high (≥3 moves) residential mobility (mean % difference in BMI at age 17 for children experiencing moderate and high residential mobility before age 4 compared with those experiencing no moves: 2.3; 95% CI: 0.5–4.2; P = 0.015 and 4.2; 95% CI: 1.4–7.0; P = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Associations between BMI and social adversity in childhood are present but largely explained by background socioeconomic position. However, there remain small but important differences between the BMI of children who are exposed to frequent residential mobility in early childhood after adjustment for socioeconomic and other confounders. PMID:26305573

  7. Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Stellern, Sarah A; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M; Gunnar, Megan R

    2012-10-16

    Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

  8. Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Stellern, Sarah A.; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

  9. Negative emotionality and disconstraint influence PTSD symptom course via exposure to new major adverse life events.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Harkness, Kate L

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23-68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  10. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  11. Usage patterns and adverse experiences in traditional Korean medicine: results of a survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although traditional medicine (TM) in South Korea is included in the national health care system, it is considered complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and not mainstream medicine. Therefore, the lack of statistical data regarding the usage and adverse experiences of traditional Korean medicine (TKM) makes difficult to understand the current status of TM. In this study, we aimed to report usage patterns and adverse experiences on TKM targeting consumers in South Korea. Methods A total of 2000 consumers participated in the survey on usage and adverse experiences in 2008. Among the 2,000 participants, 915 (45.8%) had taken herbal medicine or received traditional medicinal therapies; these individuals were further surveyed on the internet or in an interview. Results The usage rate was higher among women and among patients in their 30s. Of the total TKM usage, acupuncture accounted for 36.7%, and herbal medicine accounted for 13.4%. Regarding the frequency of use of TKM, 73.8% of patients reported using TM less than 5 times in 1 year. Of the 915 respondents, 8.2% of individuals had some type of adverse experience resulting from TKM. Adverse experiences were primarily caused by acupuncture and herbal medicines, and they primarily involved diseases of the digestive system and skin. The incidence of adverse experiences was less than 3.7% for acupuncture and 3.8% for herbal medicine. Overall, the incidence rate of adverse experiences for TKM for the entire population was 0.04 per 10,000 individuals. Conclusions The medical usage and occurrence of adverse events on TKM should be surveyed periodically, and the statistical trends should be analysed. The disparity between the survey results for traditional herbal medicines and medical practices, and those for the national pharmacovigilance system or academic reports of adverse experiences should be examined. The national pharmacovigilance system must be improved to compensate for the disparities. Policies

  12. Interactions between the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele status and adverse childhood experiences on depressive symptoms in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Nam, Yoon-Young; Sim, Yoojin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of childhood adversity on depression is modulated by genetic vulnerability. The apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE-ε4) allele is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because late-life depressive symptoms could be a part of the preclinical course of AD, the APOE-ε4 allele may contribute to depression in old age. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an APOE-ε4 carrier status was associated with depressive symptoms in older adults and to detect the gene–environment interaction between APOE-ε4 status and childhood adversity in relation to depressive symptoms in old age. Method The participants consisted of 137 older adults (age range 50–70) without any psychiatric history or clinically significant cognitive impairment. APOE genotypes and measures of childhood adversity and depressive symptoms were obtained. Results There was a significant positive association between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) scores and depressive symptoms (B=0.60; 95% CI=0.26, 0.93 for a 1 score increase in ACE scores; p=0.001). Although APOE-ε4 status per se was not associated with depressive symptoms, there was a significant interaction of the ACE scores with the APOE genotype in relation to depressive symptoms (B=0.78; 95% CI=0.02, 1.55; p=0.044). There was a significantly higher effect of childhood adversity on depressive symptoms in APOE-ε4 carriers than non-carriers (t=2.13, p=0.035). Conclusions Our results suggest that the APOE-ε4 may modulate the association between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms in older adults. However, more research in a larger sample is needed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the APOE-ε4, childhood adversity, and depression. PMID:25630472

  13. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies. PMID:24188292

  14. Risky Health Behaviors among Mothers-to-Be: The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Esther K.; Nurmohamed, Laila; Mathew, Leny; Elo, Irma T.; Coyne, James C.; Culhane, Jennifer F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are risk factors for health problems later in life. This study aims to 1) assess the influence of ACEs on risky health behaviors among mothers-to-be, and 2) determine whether a dose response occurs between ACEs and risky behaviors. Methods Prospective survey of women attending health centers conducted at the first prenatal care visit, and 3 and 11 months postpartum. Surveys obtained information on maternal sociodemographic and health characteristics, and 7 ACEs prior to age 16. Risky behaviors included smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use and other illicit drug use during pregnancy. Results Our sample (n=1,476) consisted of low-income (mean annual personal income: $8272), young (mean age: 24 yrs), African American (71%), single (75%) women. Twenty-three percent of women reported smoking even after finding out they were pregnant, 7% reported alcohol use, and 7% reported illicit drug use during pregnancy. Nearly three-fourths (71%) had one or more ACE(s). There was a higher prevalence of each risky behavior among those exposed to each ACE than among those unexposed. The exception was alcohol use during pregnancy where there was not an increased risk among those exposed when compared to those unexposed to witnessing a shooting or having a guardian in trouble with the law or in jail. The adjusted odds ratio for each risky behavior was greater than 2.5 for those with ≥ 3 ACEs when compared to those without. Conclusions ACEs were associated with risky health behaviors reported by mothers-to-be. Greater efforts should target the prevention of ACEs to lower the risk for adverse health behaviors that have serious consequences for adults and their children. PMID:20599179

  15. 21 CFR 314.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... scientific and medical journals either as case reports or as the result of a formal clinical trial. (2) As... experience, postmarketing clinical investigations, postmarketing epidemiological/surveillance studies... adverse drug experiences that occurred in clinical trials if they were previously submitted as part of...

  16. Skylab experiments. Volume 4: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The life sciences experiments conducted during Skylab missions are discussed. The general categories of the experiments are as follows: (1) mineral and hormonal balance, (2) hematology and immunology, (3) cardiovascular status, (4) energy expenditure, (5) neurophysiology, and (7) biology. Each experiment within the general category is further identified with respect to the scientific objectives, equipment used, performance, and data to be obtained.

  17. Leadership and the Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Francis J.

    This paper discusses the experience of living and what that means to the development of leadership. The author feels that although childhood is a critical time for the development of leadership qualities, the developmental process is lifelong and does not end with adolescence. Therefore, to raise the leadership potential in society we must work…

  18. Life threatening biphasic adverse reactions to desmopressin: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Chen, Ruijun; Tian, Fang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Li; Yu, Baojun; Huang, Xianwen; Zhang, Yuehui; Su, Shengyuan; Ma, Guangnian; Wang, Kaichen

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with desmopressin diacetate arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) and its withdrawal are associated with side effects. We present a rare case of severe biphasic adverse reactions induced by DDAVP and its withdrawal in a 63-year-old female patient. A lump in the left axillary region was biopsied, and she received DDAVP after surgery. The following day, she lost consciousness, with foaming at the mouth and seizures. Hypotonic encephalopathy was considered. DDAVP was ceased, and she received electrolytes. On day 1, she displayed low blood pressure and increased urine output. She received DDAVP and dopamine as well as electrolytes. The patient was ambulatory on day 7 and was discharged without brain abnormalities on MRI. In conclusion, severe hyponatremia induced by DDAVP and massive polyuria and hypovolemic shock induced by DDAVP withdrawal are life-threatening conditions. This case underlines the need to be vigilant when administering DDAVP and to monitor for any side effects. PMID:27142268

  19. Life sciences flight experiments microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartram, Peter N.

    1987-01-01

    A promising microcomputer configuration for the Spacelab Life Sciences Lab. Equipment inventory consists of multiple processors. One processor's use is reserved, with additional processors dedicated to real time input and output operations. A simple form of such a configuration, with a processor board for analog to digital conversion and another processor board for digital to analog conversion, was studied. The system used digital parallel data lines between the boards, operating independently of the system bus. Good performance of individual components was demonstrated: the analog to digital converter was at over 10,000 samples per second. The combination of the data transfer between boards with the input or output functions on each board slowed performance, with a maximum throughput of 2800 to 2900 analog samples per second. Any of several techniques, such as use of the system bus for data transfer or the addition of direct memory access hardware to the processor boards, should give significantly improved performance.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences among Hawai'i adults: Findings from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Survey.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dailin; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among Hawai'i adults and their impact on the health of affected individuals are unknown. Aiming to provide Hawai'i State baseline information on ACEs and their associations with health conditions and risk behaviors, the 2010 Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included the ACE module. Using 5,928 survey respondents who completed the module, demographic attributes were estimated and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between ACEs and sixteen selected health indicators. In 2010, approximately 57.8% of Hawai'i adults reported experiencing at least one ACE. Native Hawaiians had the highest prevalence followed by Whites. Adults aged ≥ 65 years had the lowest prevalence on all ACEs. The prevalence of ACEs was inversely related to education and household income levels. Compared to those without ACEs, adults with ACEs had higher odds for a number of health conditions and risk behaviors. Moreover, as the number of ACEs increased, the odds for these health conditions and risk behaviors increased. Hawai'i adults with ACEs were more likely to report dissatisfaction with life compared to those without ACEs. Men were more likely to report having a family member in prison, while women were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse. Recommendations include further research on the unbiased contributions of ACEs to diseases and risk behaviors, and the development of culturally-appropriate interventions to reduce the prevalence of ACEs in Hawai'i. PMID:24959392

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Hawai‘i Adults: Findings from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dailin

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among Hawai‘i adults and their impact on the health of affected individuals are unknown. Aiming to provide Hawai‘i State baseline information on ACEs and their associations with health conditions and risk behaviors, the 2010 Hawai‘i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included the ACE module. Using 5,928 survey respondents who completed the module, demographic attributes were estimated and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between ACEs and sixteen selected health indicators. In 2010, approximately 57.8% of Hawai‘i adults reported experiencing at least one ACE. Native Hawaiians had the highest prevalence followed by Whites. Adults aged ≥ 65 years had the lowest prevalence on all ACEs. The prevalence of ACEs was inversely related to education and household income levels. Compared to those without ACEs, adults with ACEs had higher odds for a number of health conditions and risk behaviors. Moreover, as the number of ACEs increased, the odds for these health conditions and risk behaviors increased. Hawai‘i adults with ACEs were more likely to report dissatisfaction with life compared to those without ACEs. Men were more likely to report having a family member in prison, while women were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse. Recommendations include further research on the unbiased contributions of ACEs to diseases and risk behaviors, and the development of culturally-appropriate interventions to reduce the prevalence of ACEs in Hawai‘i. PMID:24959392

  2. More Life-Science Experiments For Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Dalton, B.; Hogan, R.; Leon, H.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes experiments done as part of Spacelab Life Sciences 2 mission (SLS-2). Research planned on cardiovascular, vestibular, metabolic, and thermal responses of animals in weightlessness. Expected to shed light on effects of prolonged weightlessness on humans.

  3. Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: evidence from rodent and primate models.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M M; Ladd, C O; Plotsky, P M

    2001-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the view that the interaction of perinatal exposure to adversity with individual genetic liabilities may increase an individual's vulnerability to the expression of psycho- and physiopathology throughout life. The early environment appears to program some aspects of neurobiological development and, in turn, behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physiological development. Several rodent and primate models of early adverse experience have been analyzed in this review, including those that "model" maternal separation or loss, abuse or neglect, and social deprivation. Accumulating evidence shows that these early traumatic experiences are associated with long-term alterations in coping style, emotional and behavioral regulation. neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, social "fitness,' cognitive function, brain morphology, neurochemistry, and expression levels of central nervous system genes that have been related to anxiety and mood disorders. Studies are underway to identify important aspects of adverse early experience, such as (a) the existence of "sensitive periods" during development associated with alterations in particular output systems. (b) the presence of "windows of opportunity" during which targeted interventions (e.g., nurturant parenting or supportive-enriching environment) may prevent or reverse dysfunction, (c) the identity of gene polymorphisms contributing to the individual's variability in vulnerability, and (d) a means to translate the timing of these developmental "sensitive periods" across species. PMID:11523842

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Criminality: How Long Must We Live before We Possess Our Own Lives?

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, James A; Looman, Jan; Franco, Kristina A; Rojas, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research associated with the Kaiser Permanente and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study has demonstrated that ACE are associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including physical and mental health disorders and aggressive behavior. Methods: Subjects from 4 different offender groups (N = 151) who were referred for treatment at an outpatient clinic in San Diego, CA, subsequent to conviction in criminal court, completed the ACE Questionnaire. Groups (nonsexual child abusers, domestic violence offenders, sexual offenders, and stalkers) were compared on the incidence of ACE, and comparisons were made between the group offenders and a normative sample. Results: Results indicated that the offender group reported nearly four times as many adverse events in childhood than an adult male normative sample. Eight of ten events were found at significantly higher levels among the criminal population. In addition, convicted sexual offenders and child abusers were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse in childhood than other offender types. Conclusions: On the basis of a review of the literature and current findings, criminal behavior can be added to the host of negative outcomes associated with scores on the ACE Questionnaire. Childhood adversity is associated with adult criminality. We suggest that to decrease criminal recidivism, treatment interventions must focus on the effects of early life experiences. PMID:23704843

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  6. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  7. Validity of Adult Retrospective Reports of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Rutter, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influential studies have cast doubt on the validity of retrospective reports by adults of their own adverse experiences in childhood. Accordingly, many researchers view retrospective reports with scepticism. Method: A computer-based search, supplemented by hand searches, was used to identify studies reported between 1980 and 2001 in…

  8. 21 CFR 314.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences. 314.80 Section 314.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Applications § 314.80 Postmarketing reporting of...

  9. 21 CFR 314.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences. 314.80 Section 314.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Applications § 314.80 Postmarketing reporting of...

  10. 21 CFR 314.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences. 314.80 Section 314.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Applications § 314.80 Postmarketing reporting of...

  11. 21 CFR 314.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences. 314.80 Section 314.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Applications § 314.80 Postmarketing reporting of...

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Héctor E; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to increased use of tobacco products later in life. However, studies to date have ignored smokeless tobacco products. To address this, data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which interviewed adults 18 years and over (N = 102,716) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios of ever smoking, current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use in relation to ACEs. Results showed that less than 4 % of respondents currently used smokeless tobacco products, while 44.95 and 18.57 % reported ever and current smoking, respectively. Physical abuse (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14, 1.72), emotional abuse (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.67), sexual abuse (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.95), living with a drug user (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.93), living with someone who was jailed (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.11, 2.02) and having parents who were separated or divorced (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.57) were associated with smokeless tobacco use in unadjusted models. After accounting for confounders, physical abuse (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.16, 1.78), emotional abuse (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.10, 1.57), living with a problem drinker (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.58), living with a drug user (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.72) and living with adults who treated each other violently (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62) were associated with smokeless tobacco use. Living with someone who was mentally ill (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.53, 0.92) was associated with smokeless tobacco use after accounting for confounders and all ACEs. Results indicated that some childhood adversities are associated with use of smokeless tobacco products. Special attention is needed to prevent tobacco use of different types among those experiencing ACEs. PMID:27000040

  13. Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: Deprivation and Threat as Distinct Dimensions of Early Experience

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Lambert, Hilary K.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one’s physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

  14. Childhood adversity and neural development: deprivation and threat as distinct dimensions of early experience.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Lambert, Hilary K

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one's physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

  15. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted. PMID:27100471

  16. Limitations of toxicity characterization in life cycle assessment: Can adverse outcome pathways provide a new foundation?

    PubMed

    Gust, Kurt A; Collier, Zachary A; Mayo, Michael L; Stanley, Jacob K; Gong, Ping; Chappell, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has considerable merit for holistic evaluation of product planning, development, production, and disposal, with the inherent benefit of providing a forecast of potential health and environmental impacts. However, a technical review of current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods revealed limitations within the biological effects assessment protocols, including: simplistic assessment approaches and models; an inability to integrate emerging types of toxicity data; a reliance on linear impact assessment models; a lack of methods to mitigate uncertainty; and no explicit consideration of effects in species of concern. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate that a new concept in toxicological and regulatory assessment, the adverse outcome pathway (AOP), has many useful attributes of potential use to ameliorate many of these problems, to expand data utility and model robustness, and to enable more accurate and defensible biological effects assessments within LCIA. Background, context, and examples have been provided to demonstrate these potential benefits. We additionally propose that these benefits can be most effectively realized through development of quantitative AOPs (qAOPs) crafted to meet the needs of the LCIA framework. As a means to stimulate qAOP research and development in support of LCIA, we propose 3 conceptual classes of qAOP, each with unique inherent attributes for supporting LCIA: 1) mechanistic, including computational toxicology models; 2) probabilistic, including Bayesian networks and supervised machine learning models; and 3) weight of evidence, including models built using decision-analytic methods. Overall, we have highlighted a number of potential applications of qAOPs that can refine and add value to LCIA. As the AOP concept and support framework matures, we see the potential for qAOPs to serve a foundational role for next-generation effects characterization within LCIA. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  17. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  18. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations. PMID:25090126

  19. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  20. Life Skills. Teacher Experiences. A Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Twenty elementary and secondary teachers participated in workshops designed to present the rationale and process for identifying and effectively teaching parenting skills. Selected classroom experiences are described and analyzed by the teachers, and the grade level, curriculum, school, instructor and life skill involved are given. The skills were…

  1. Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Jim

    1988-01-01

    The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients. PMID:24872347

  3. Distinct contributions of adverse childhood experiences and resilience resources: a cohort analysis of adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18-79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed. PMID:25255340

  4. Distinct Contributions of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Resilience Resources: A Cohort Analysis of Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S.; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18–79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed. PMID:25255340

  5. [High frequency of cutaneous adverse effects under infliximab. Geneva experience, 1999-2008].

    PubMed

    Seydtaghia, Floriane; De Saussure, Philippe; Hadengue, Antoine

    2011-03-16

    Geneva experience, 1999-2008 Infliximab has been used for 10 years in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in the gastroenterology and hepatology department at the University Hospitals of Geneva. This retrospective study shows the follow-up of these patients treated with infliximab and reveals a high rate of cutaneous adverse events, which, although often mild, can sign a definitive intolerance to treatment. PMID:21510346

  6. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  7. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  8. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states. PMID:26115697

  9. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Chuang, Deng-Min; Lee, Yookyong

    2016-12-01

    Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score) and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice. PMID:27413671

  10. Examining Resilience of Quality of Life in the Face of Health-Related and Psychosocial Adversity at Older Ages: What Is "Right" about the Way We Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildon, Zoe; Montgomery, Scott M.; Blane, David; Wiggins, Richard D.; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines resilience at older ages, focusing on the relationships between quality of life (qol) and adversity. Our objectives are to identify (a) the basis of adversity, (b) the characteristics of resilient individuals, and (c) the attributes that attenuate the full impact of adversity. Design and Methods: Resilience is…

  11. Coupling of the HPA and HPG axes in the context of early life adversity in incarcerated male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dismukes, Andrew R; Johnson, Megan M; Vitacco, Michael J; Iturri, Florencia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2015-09-01

    The effects of early life adversity can be observed across the lifespan, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes could be mechanistic intermediaries underlying this phenomenon. The current study examined 50 adolescent males aged 12-18 in a maximum-security correctional and treatment setting. Saliva samples were collected five times a day for 2 days and assayed for cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA. Youth completed semi-structured life stress interviews and self-reports of child maltreatment to index adversity. When youth had higher testosterone levels, they had higher cortisol and DHEA levels, indicating positive "coupling" of the HPA-HPG axes. In addition, children experiencing greater life adversity had tighter coupling of the HPA-HPG axes. Additional analyses hint that coupling may be driven largely by HPG axis functioning. Results indicate that positive coupling of the HPA-HPG axis is observed within incarcerated adolescents, especially for those with the greatest life stress. PMID:25213098

  12. Assessing the Impact of Life Changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Irwin G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Described the development of the life experiences survey for the measurement of life changes. It was designed to eliminate shortcomings of previous life stress measures and to allow for separate assessment of positive and negative life experiences. Studies bearing on the usefulness of the life experiences survey are presented. (Author/BEF)

  13. Neighborhood Collective Efficacy Moderates the Association between Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Marital Conflict.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, André; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-06-01

    In a socio-demographically diverse sample of 501 caregivers participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study during the childbearing years, we examined whether neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the association between maternal adverse childhood experience (ACEs) and marital conflict. Maternal ACEs were assessed via retrospective reports. Neighborhood collective efficacy was measured via maternal and paternal reports at 2 months, and maternal reports of marital conflict were collected at infant age 2 and 18 months. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that maternal ACEs were associated with increased marital conflict. Neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the association between early maternal ACEs and marital conflict, such that mothers experiencing ACEs had lower levels of marital conflict when exposed to high levels of neighborhood collective efficacy. Results suggest that extra-familial sources of social support and control, such as feelings of security, trust, order, and connectedness with others, may buffer the effects of early adversity on marital discord. PMID:27250904

  14. Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B; Merrick, Melissa T; Rolle, Italia V; Giles, Wayne H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population. Materials and methods Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ≥18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Results Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ≥1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61), sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10), living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81), witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72), and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80) during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs. Reporting ≥5 ACEs (PR =2.08, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.80) compared to none was associated with a higher likelihood of COPD among women only. Conclusion ACEs are related to COPD, especially among women. These findings underscore the need for further research that examines sex-specific differences and the possible mechanisms linking ACEs and COPD. This work adds to a growing body of research suggesting that ACEs may contribute to health problems later in life and suggesting a need for program and policy solutions. PMID:25298732

  15. National household survey of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship with resilience to health-harming behaviors in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and biomedical evidence link adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with health-harming behaviors and the development of non-communicable disease in adults. Investment in interventions to improve early life experiences requires empirical evidence on levels of childhood adversity and the proportion of HHBs potentially avoided should such adversity be addressed. Methods A nationally representative survey of English residents aged 18 to 69 (n = 3,885) was undertaken during the period April to July 2013. Individuals were categorized according to the number of ACEs experienced. Modeling identified the proportions of HHBs (early sexual initiation, unintended teenage pregnancy, smoking, binge drinking, drug use, violence victimization, violence perpetration, incarceration, poor diet, low levels of physical exercise) independently associated with ACEs at national population levels. Results Almost half (47%) of individuals experienced at least one of the nine ACEs. Prevalence of childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse was 6.3%, 14.8%, and 18.2% respectively (population-adjusted). After correcting for sociodemographics, ACE counts predicted all HHBs, e.g. (0 versus 4+ ACEs, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals)): smoking 3.29 (2.54 to 4.27); violence perpetration 7.71 (4.90 to 12.14); unintended teenage pregnancy 5.86 (3.93 to 8.74). Modeling suggested that 11.9% of binge drinking, 13.6% of poor diet, 22.7% of smoking, 52.0% of violence perpetration, 58.7% of heroin/crack cocaine use, and 37.6% of unintended teenage pregnancy prevalence nationally could be attributed to ACEs. Conclusions Stable and protective childhoods are critical factors in the development of resilience to health-harming behaviors in England. Interventions to reduce ACEs are available and sustainable, with nurturing childhoods supporting the adoption of health-benefiting behaviors and ultimately the provision of positive childhood environments for future generations

  16. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:27449360

  17. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. PMID:26726759

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Arrest Patterns in a Sample of Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-06-01

    Developmental psychopathology theories suggest that childhood adversity can contribute to antisocial conduct and delinquent activities. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on arrest patterns in a sample of sexual offenders (N = 740). Higher ACE scores were associated with a variety of arrest outcomes, indicating that the accumulation of early trauma increased the likelihood of versatility and persistence of criminal behavior. Rapists of adults had higher ACE scores, lower levels of specialization, and higher levels of persistence than sex offenders with minor victims only. Child sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and domestic violence in the childhood home were significant predictors of a higher number of sex crime arrests. For measures of nonsexual arrests and criminal versatility, it was the household dysfunction factors-substance abuse, unmarried parents, and incarceration of a family member-that were predictive, suggesting that family dysfunction and a chaotic home environment contributed significantly to increased risk of general criminal behavior. Sex offenders inspire little sympathy in our society but may be among those most in need of trauma-informed models of treatment that recognize the influence of early adversity on maladaptive schema and self-regulation deficits related to criminal behavior. PMID:25711615

  19. Doctors' experiences of adverse events in secondary care: the professional and personal impact.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Stewart, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional online survey of fellows and members of the Royal College of Physicians to establish physicians' experiences of adverse patient safety events and near misses, and the professional and personal impact of these. 1,755 physicians answered at least one question; 1,334 answered every relevant question. Of 1,463 doctors whose patients had an adverse event or near miss, 1,119 (76%) believed this had affected them personally or professionally. 1,077 (74%) reported stress, 995 (68%) anxiety, 840 (60%) sleep disturbance and 886 (63%) lower professional confidence. 1,192 (81%) became anxious about the potential for future errors. Of 1,141 who had used NHS incident reporting systems, only 315 (28%) were satisfied with this process. 201 (14%) received useful feedback, 201 (19%) saw local improvements and 277 (19%) saw system changes. 364 (25%) did not report an incident that they should have. Adverse safety events affect physicians, but few formal sources of support are available. Most doctors use incident-reporting systems, but many describe a lack of useful feedback, systems change or local improvement. PMID:25468840

  20. NASDA life science experiment facilities for ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, F.; Masuda, D.; Yano, S.; Fujimoto, N.; Kamigaichi, S.

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been developing various experiment facilities to conduct space biology researches in KIBO (JEM). The Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) and the Clean Bench (CB) are installed into JEM Life Science Rack. The Biological Experiment Units (BEU) are operated in the CBEF and the CB for many kinds of experiments on cells, tissues, plants, microorganisms, or small animals. It is possible for all researchers to use these facilities under the system of the International Announcement of Opportunity. The CBEF is a CO2 incubator to provide a controlled environment (temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration), in which a rotating table is equipped to make variable gravity (0-2g) for reference experiments. The containers called "Canisters" can be used to install the BEU in the CBEF. The CBEF supplies power, command, sensor, and video interfaces for the BEU through the utility connectors of Canisters. The BEU is a multiuser system consisting of chambers and control segments. It is operated by pre-set programs and by commands from the ground. NASDA is currently developing three types of the BEU: the Plant Experiment Unit (PEU) for plant life cycle observations and the Cell Experiment Unit (CEU1&2) for cell culture experiments. The PEU has an automated watering system with a water sensor, an LED matrix as a light source, and a CCD camera to observe the plant growth. The CEUs have culture chambers and an automated cultural medium exchange system. Engineering models of the PEU and CEU1 have been accomplished. The preliminary design of CEU2 is in progress. The design of the BEU will be modified to meet science requirements of each experiment. The CB provides a closed aseptic work-space (Operation Chamber) with gloves for experiment operations. Samples and the BEU can be manually handled in the CB. The CB has an air lock (Disinfection Chamber) to prevent contamination, and HEPA filters to make class-100-equivalent clean air

  1. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2–12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood. PMID:26566292

  2. Group attachment-based intervention: trauma-informed care for families with adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Howard; Bate, Jordan; Nikitiades, Adella; Allman, Brooke; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Steele, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the main premises of an innovative trauma-informed intervention, group attachment-based intervention, specifically developed to target vulnerable families with infants and toddlers, living in one of the poorest urban counties in the nation. It also reports on the trauma-relevant characteristics of 60 families entering a clinical trial to study the effectiveness of Group Attachment-Based Intervention. Initial survey results revealed high levels of neglect, abuse, and household dysfunction in mothers' histories (77% reported ≥4 adverse childhood experiences, with more than 90% reporting 2 or more current toxic stressors, including poverty, obesity, domestic and community violence, and homelessness). PMID:26017004

  3. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  4. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shawi, Ameel F.; Lafta, Riyadh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile) is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57) and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile) is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life. PMID:25983602

  5. Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

  6. The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Anda, Robert F.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Bremner, J. Douglas; Walker, John D.; Whitfield, Charles; Perry, Bruce D.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment has been linked to a variety of changes in brain structure and function and stress-responsive neurobiological systems. Epidemiological studies have documented the impact of childhood maltreatment on health and emotional well-being. Methods After a brief review of the neurobiology of childhood trauma, we use the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study as an epidemiological “case example” of the convergence between epidemiologic and neurobiological evidence of the effects of childhood trauma. The ACE Study included 17,337 adult HMO members and assessed 8 adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and serious household dysfunction. We used the number of ACEs (ACE score) as a measure of cumulative childhood stress and hypothesized a “dose-response” relationship of the ACE score to 18 selected outcomes and to the total number of these outcomes (comorbidity). Results Based upon logistic regression analysis, the risk of every outcome in the affective, somatic, substance abuse, memory, sexual, and aggression-related domains increased in a graded fashion as the ACE score increased (P < 0.001). The mean number of comorbid outcomes tripled across the range of the ACE score. Conclusions The graded relationship of the ACE score to 18 different outcomes in multiple domains theoretically parallels the cumulative exposure of the developing brain to the stress response with resulting impairment in multiple brain structures and functions. PMID:16311898

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Intimate Partner Violence: Testing Psychosocial Mediational Pathways among Couples

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased likelihood of intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. This study tests whether psychosocial factors, such as depression, anxiety, and impulsivity, and problem drinking mediate associations between ACEs and IPV. Methods Couple data from a cross-sectional sample of married/cohabiting couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities (n=1,861 couples) were used. Hypothesized relationships among male and female ACE, male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV), frequency of intoxication, depression, impulsivity, and anxiety were tested with structural equation path models, and the significance of both individual direct paths and indirect associations was determined. Results Male and female partners had positive direct associations between ACEs and depression, anxiety, and impulsivity. Males’ anxiety and impulsivity, and females’ depression, were positively related to MFPV. Males’ depression and frequency of intoxication, and females’ depression, were positively related to FMPV. Indirect associations between male ACEs and MPFV via depression; male ACEs and FMPV via anxiety and impulsivity; and female ACEs and MPFV and FMPV via depression were all positive and significant. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences impact IPV partially through psychosocial characteristics. Interventions targeted at reducing ACEs and subsequent psychosocial outcomes may help reduce adult IPV. PMID:23084843

  8. Prevalence and relationship between adverse childhood experiences and child behavior among young children.

    PubMed

    Clarkson Freeman, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect impact a child's socioemotional development. Drawing from the methods employed in the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE; Felitti et al.,) Study, the present study utilized data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine the prevalence of ACEs among children birth to 6 years, and the relationship of ACEs to emotional and behavioral outcomes 59 to 97 months after the close of investigation or assessment. Logistic regression also was used to examine the cumulative impact of ACEs on child behavior outcomes. By the age of 6, approximately 70% of children experienced three or more ACEs, and there were strong relationships between ACEs. Numerous ACEs were associated with long-term behavioral problems, and results supported a dose-response effect. Three or greater ACEs more than quadrupled the risk of experiencing internalizing problems, and almost quadrupled the risk of experiencing either externalizing or total problems at 59 to 97 months' postinvestigation. Based on these findings, it is crucial for both early screening/assessment and increased collaboration between child welfare and early intervention programs. PMID:25798504

  9. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children. PMID:26455263

  10. Research Note: Are Life-Course-Persistent Offenders at Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.; Daigle, Leah E.; Gibson, Chris; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Tibbetts, Stephen G.

    2007-01-01

    Moffitt's developmental taxonomy of adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent offenders has received much empirical attention, with researchers focusing on the etiology and trajectory of offending between the two groups. Recently, Moffitt articulated a new hypothesis that has yet to be empirically assessed--that life-course-persistent…

  11. Adverse Life Events, Coping and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Urban African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-01-01

    African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…

  12. Adverse family experiences and obesity in children and adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Brian A; Agunwamba, Amenah; Wilson, Patrick M; Kumar, Seema; Jacobson, Robert M; Phelan, Sean; Cristiani, Valeria; Fan, Chun; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-09-01

    While exposure to adverse family experiences (AFEs), subset of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), has been associated with childhood obesity, less is known about the impact of exposures to each type of AFE. Using 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data, we evaluated associations between exposure to individual AFEs and overweight/obesity status in children 10years or older, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Caregivers reported their child's height, weight, and exposure to nine AFEs; body mass index (BMI) was classified by Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) guidelines. At Mayo Clinic, we calculated frequencies and weighted estimates of socio-demographic factors and AFEs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted multinomial logistic regression models were employed to assess the independent associations of each AFE and the different AFE composite scores with BMI category. Exposure to two or more AFEs was independently associated with increased odds of overweight (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13, 1.56) and obese (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21, 1.73) status after adjustment for age, household income, parents' education-level, race and sex. Death of parent (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.15) and hardship due to family income (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were independently associated with obesity status with adjustment for other AFEs and socio-demographic factors. Our results suggest that, in addition to cumulative exposure to AFEs, exposure to certain childhood experiences are more strongly associated with childhood obesity than others. Death of parent and hardship due to family income are individual AFEs, which are strongly predictive of obesity. PMID:27377335

  13. [The role of genotype in the intergenerational transmission of experiences of childhood adversity].

    PubMed

    Reichl, Corinna; Kaess, Michael; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood abuse and maltreatment is estimated to lie at about 15% in the overall German population. Previous research suggested that about one third of all individuals who had experienced childhood adversity subsequently maltreated their own children or responded insensitively to their children's needs. Empirical studies imply that interindividual differences in the responsiveness to childhood adversity can partially be explained by gene-environment interactions. This article discusses the potential interplay of genes and environment in the context of transmitting maltreating behavior and (in)sensitive parenting against the background of current challenges in genetic research. Selected studies on gene × environment interactions are presented and relevant gene polymorphisms are identified. Overall, previous studies reported interactions between polymorphisms of the serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocin-related, and arginine vasopressin-related systems and childhood experiences of care and abuse in the prediction of social behaviors during mother-child interactions. The results indicate a differential susceptibility toward both negative and positive environments which is dependent on genetic characteristics. Future research should thus investigate the effects of children's presumed risk gene variants toward negative as well as positive parenting. This could contribute to a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the intergenerational transmission of abusive and beneficial parenting behavior and help to avoid false stigmatizations. PMID:25163997

  14. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert

    2016-07-01

    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified. PMID:26438634

  15. Hypomagnesemia as a potentially life-threatening adverse effect of omeprazole

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Bent-Are; Bruserud, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Hypomagnesemia can be caused by a wide range of diseases (e.g. gastrointestinal disorders, kidney diseases or endocrine disorders), but it can also be a side effect of several drugs. It can be asymptomatic or cause many different clinical symptoms, and the clinical manifestations mainly depend on the rate of development rather than the actual serum magnesium concentration. We here present a 40-year-old female patient with Torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia and cardiac arrest caused by severe hypomagnesemia as an adverse effect of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. PMID:27471598

  16. Adverse Prenatal, Perinatal and Neonatal Experiences in Children with Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Johnco, Carly; Lewin, Adam B; Salloum, Alison; Murphy, Tanya K; Crawford, Erika A; Dane, Brittney F; McBride, Nicole M; Storch, Eric A

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the incidence of adverse prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal experiences amongst children with anxiety disorders, and the relationship to clinical symptomology and functional impairment in treatment-seeking children (N = 107) with a primary anxiety disorder. Anxious children had higher rates of reported maternal prescription medication use during pregnancy, maternal smoking and illness during pregnancy and neonatal complications (including neonatal intensive care and feeding issues) compared with population base rates and non-affected children. Almost one-third had early problems with sleep. Developmental problems were common with more than half having at least one area of delay. More than three quarters of anxious children had a first-degree family member with a psychiatric history. There were several associations between neonatal complications and subsequent clinical symptomology, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and depressive comorbidity, anxiety severity and functional impairment. Findings suggest higher rates of perinatal complications in anxious children. PMID:26206734

  17. The experiences of risk managers in providing emotional support for health care workers after adverse events.

    PubMed

    Edrees, Hanan; Brock, Douglas M; Wu, Albert W; McCotter, Patricia I; Hofeldt, Ron; Shannon, Sarah E; Gallagher, Thomas H; White, Andrew A

    2016-04-01

    Risk managers often meet with health care workers who are emotionally traumatized following adverse events. We surveyed members of the American Society for Health care Risk Management (ASHRM) about their training, experience, competence, and comfort with providing emotional support to health care workers. Although risk managers reported feeling comfortable and competent in providing support, nearly all respondents prefer to receive additional training. Risk managers who were comfortable listening to and supporting health care workers were more likely to report prior training. Health care organizations implementing second victim support programs should not rely solely on risk managers to provide support, rather engage and train interested risk managers and provide them with opportunities to practice. PMID:27088771

  18. Adverse childhood experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and emotional intelligence in partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Swopes, Rachael M; Simonet, Daniel V; Jaffe, Anna E; Tett, Robert P; Davis, Joanne L

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and low emotional intelligence (EI). Relationships among adverse childhood experiences (ACE), PTSD symptoms, and partner aggression (i.e., generalized tendency to aggress toward one's partner) were assessed in 108 male IPV offenders. It was hypothesized that ACE is positively correlated with partner aggression, PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression relationship, and the ACE-PTSD-aggression mediation varies by selected EI facets. Results indicate that ACE has an indirect effect on partner aggression via PTSD and PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression link when emotional self-regulation is low and when intuition (vs. reason) is high. Trauma-exposed IPV offenders may benefit from comprehensive treatments focusing on PTSD symptoms, emotional control, and reasoning skills to reduce aggression. PMID:23862313

  19. Neural Basis of Psychological Growth following Adverse Experiences: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Jung, Minyoung; Kojima, Masahiko; Saito, Daisuke N; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, research on the aftereffects of stressful or traumatic events has emphasized the negative outcomes from these experiences. However, the positive outcomes deriving from adversity are increasingly being examined, and such positive changes are described as posttraumatic growth (PTG). To investigate the relationship between basal whole-brain functional connectivity and PTG, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the neural networks using independent component analysis in a sample of 33 healthy controls. Correlations were calculated between the network connectivity strength and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) score. There were positive associations between the PTGI scores and brain activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal lobule (SPL) within the left central executive network (CEN) (respectively, r = 0.41, p < 0.001; r = 0.49, p < 0.001). Individuals with higher psychological growth following adverse experiences had stronger activation in prospective or working memory areas within the executive function network than did individuals with lower psychological growth (r = 0.40, p < 0.001). Moreover, we found that individuals with higher PTG demonstrated stronger connectivity between the SPL and supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The SMG is one of the brain regions associated with the ability to reason about the mental states of others, otherwise known as mentalizing. These findings suggest that individuals with higher psychological growth may have stronger functional connectivity between memory functions within the CEN and social functioning in the SMG, and that their better sociality may result from using more memory for mentalizing during their daily social interactions. PMID:26291449

  20. Neural Basis of Psychological Growth following Adverse Experiences: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Masahiko; Saito, Daisuke N.; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, research on the aftereffects of stressful or traumatic events has emphasized the negative outcomes from these experiences. However, the positive outcomes deriving from adversity are increasingly being examined, and such positive changes are described as posttraumatic growth (PTG). To investigate the relationship between basal whole-brain functional connectivity and PTG, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the neural networks using independent component analysis in a sample of 33 healthy controls. Correlations were calculated between the network connectivity strength and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) score. There were positive associations between the PTGI scores and brain activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal lobule (SPL) within the left central executive network (CEN) (respectively, r = 0.41, p < 0.001; r = 0.49, p < 0.001). Individuals with higher psychological growth following adverse experiences had stronger activation in prospective or working memory areas within the executive function network than did individuals with lower psychological growth (r = 0.40, p < 0.001). Moreover, we found that individuals with higher PTG demonstrated stronger connectivity between the SPL and supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The SMG is one of the brain regions associated with the ability to reason about the mental states of others, otherwise known as mentalizing. These findings suggest that individuals with higher psychological growth may have stronger functional connectivity between memory functions within the CEN and social functioning in the SMG, and that their better sociality may result from using more memory for mentalizing during their daily social interactions. PMID:26291449

  1. Adverse life events and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence: the role of non-verbal cognitive ability and negative cognitive errors.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430 children (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Total difficulties (i.e., emotional symptoms, peer problems, hyperactivity, and conduct problems) were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adjustment was made for gender, age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, and family socio-economic disadvantage. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1191-1200, 1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. Non-verbal cognitive ability was measured with Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus. Non-verbal cognitive ability moderated the effect of adverse life events both on total difficulties and on emotional symptoms. Overgeneralizing mediated the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events and total difficulties. Adverse life events were related to a tendency to overgeneralize which was associated with emotional and behavioral problems, but particularly among those adolescents with lower non-verbal cognitive ability. PMID:21503645

  2. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  3. Adverse childhood experiences and physiological wear-and-tear in midlife: Findings from the 1958 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Barboza Solís, Cristina; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Fantin, Romain; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Torrisani, Jérôme; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2015-01-01

    Allostatic load (AL) is a measure of overall physiological wear-and-tear over the life course, which could partially be the consequence of early life exposures. AL could allow a better understanding of the potential biological pathways playing a role in the construction of the social gradient in adult health. To explore the biological embedding hypothesis, we examined whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with elevated AL in midlife. We used imputed data on 3,782 women and 3,753 men of the National Child Development Study in Britain followed up seven times. ACEs were measured using prospective data collected at ages 7, 11, and 16. AL was operationalized using data from the biomedical survey collected at age 44 on 14 parameters representing four biological systems. We examined the role of adult health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and socioeconomic status as potential mediators using a path analysis. ACEs were associated with higher AL for both men and women after adjustment for early life factors and childhood pathologies. The path analysis showed that the association between ACEs and AL was largely explained by early adult factors at age 23 and 33. For men, the total mediated effect was 59% (for two or more ACEs) via health behaviors, education level, and wealth. For women, the mediated effect represented 76% (for two or more ACEs) via smoking, BMI, education level, and wealth. Our results indicate that early psychosocial stress has an indirect lasting impact on physiological wear-and-tear via health behaviors, BMI, and socioeconomic factors in adulthood. PMID:25646470

  4. Cumulative trauma, adversity and grief symptoms associated with fronto-temporal regions in life-course persistent delinquent boys.

    PubMed

    Lansing, Amy E; Virk, Agam; Notestine, Randy; Plante, Wendy Y; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2016-08-30

    Delinquent youth have substantial trauma exposure, with life-course persistent delinquents [LCPD] demonstrating notably elevated cross-diagnostic psychopathology and cognitive deficits. Because adolescents remain in the midst of brain and neurocognitive development, tailored interventions are key to improving functional outcomes. This structural magnetic resonance imaging study compared neuroanatomical profiles of 23 LCPD and 20 matched control adolescent boys. LCPD youth had smaller overall gray matter, and left hippocampal, volumes alongside less cortical surface area and folding within the left pars opercularis and supramarginal cortex. LCPD youth had more adversity-related exposures, and their higher Cumulative Trauma, Adversity and Grief [C-TAG] symptoms were associated with less surface area and folding in the pars opercularis and lingual gyrus. Neuroanatomical differences between LCPD and control youth overlap with data from both maltreatment and antisocial literatures. The affected left frontal regions also share connections to language- and executive-related functions, aligning well with LCPD youths' cognitive and behavioral difficulties. These data also dovetail with research suggesting the possibility of neurodevelopmental delays or disruptions related to cumulative adversity burden. Thus, concurrent treatment of LCPD youths' C-TAG symptoms and, cognitive deficits with overlapping neuroanatomical bases, may be most effective in improving outcomes and optimizing neurodevelopmental trajectories. PMID:27388804

  5. Adverse events in childhood and chronic widespread pain in adult life: Results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth T; Power, Chris; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2009-05-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common and frequently disabling condition. Several studies have shown that early life adversity is associated with CWP in later life; however, the majority are retrospective and suffer from potential recall bias. Using data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study, the aim of the current study was to examine, prospectively, the relationship between childhood physical and psychological adversity and CWP in adulthood. At 7 yrs data were collected, by parental report, on physically traumatic events (hospitalisation following a road traffic accident, or for surgery); and factors indicating poor social and psychological environment (periods in local authority care, death of a parent; or parental divorce, alcoholism, or financial hardship). CWP was assessed at 45 yrs using self-completion questionnaires. The relationship between childhood events and CWP was examined using Poisson regression. 7571 individuals provided pain data at 45 yrs (71.5%). There was no association between childhood surgery and CWP in adulthood (relative risk: 1.0; 95%CI: 0.9-1.1). However, children who had been hospitalised following a road traffic accident experienced a significant increase in the risk of future CWP (1.5; 1.05-2.1). Children who had resided in institutional care also experienced an increase in the risk of CWP (1.7; 1.3-2.4) as did those who experienced maternal death (2.0; 1.08-3.7) and familial financial hardship (1.6; 1.3-1.9). Further these associations were not explained by adult psychological distress or social class. To prevent long-term consequences of adverse childhood events, future research should study the mechanisms, in particular the biological mechanisms, underlying these relationships. PMID:19304391

  6. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat.

    PubMed

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  7. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  8. Altered fetal skeletal muscle nutrient metabolism following an adverse in utero environment and the modulation of later life insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Kristyn; Cedrone, Megan; Staples, James F; Regnault, Timothy R H

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the in utero environment as a contributor to later life metabolic disease has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we consider how disruption of normal fetal growth may impact skeletal muscle metabolic development, ultimately leading to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity, a key precursor to later life metabolic disease. In cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associated with hypoxia, where the fetus fails to reach its full growth potential, low birth weight (LBW) is often the outcome, and early in postnatal life, LBW individuals display modifications in the insulin-signaling pathway, a critical precursor to insulin resistance. In this review, we will present literature detailing the classical development of insulin resistance in IUGR, but also discuss how this impaired development, when challenged with a postnatal Western diet, may potentially contribute to the development of later life insulin resistance. Considering the important role of the skeletal muscle in insulin resistance pathogenesis, understanding the in utero programmed origins of skeletal muscle deficiencies in insulin sensitivity and how they may interact with an adverse postnatal environment, is an important step in highlighting potential therapeutic options for LBW offspring born of pregnancies characterized by placental insufficiency. PMID:25685986

  9. Altered Fetal Skeletal Muscle Nutrient Metabolism Following an Adverse In Utero Environment and the Modulation of Later Life Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Kristyn; Cedrone, Megan; Staples, James F.; Regnault, Timothy R.H.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the in utero environment as a contributor to later life metabolic disease has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we consider how disruption of normal fetal growth may impact skeletal muscle metabolic development, ultimately leading to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity, a key precursor to later life metabolic disease. In cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associated with hypoxia, where the fetus fails to reach its full growth potential, low birth weight (LBW) is often the outcome, and early in postnatal life, LBW individuals display modifications in the insulin-signaling pathway, a critical precursor to insulin resistance. In this review, we will present literature detailing the classical development of insulin resistance in IUGR, but also discuss how this impaired development, when challenged with a postnatal Western diet, may potentially contribute to the development of later life insulin resistance. Considering the important role of the skeletal muscle in insulin resistance pathogenesis, understanding the in utero programmed origins of skeletal muscle deficiencies in insulin sensitivity and how they may interact with an adverse postnatal environment, is an important step in highlighting potential therapeutic options for LBW offspring born of pregnancies characterized by placental insufficiency. PMID:25685986

  10. Interactions between life stress factors and carrying the APOE4 allele adversely impact self-reported health in old adults.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Hughes, Claude L; Lewis, Megan A; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Fengyu

    2011-10-01

    Based on the multiple logistic regression analysis of data from a random sample of 1,023 old adults collected in Taiwan in 2000, we found that interactions between carrying the APOE4 allele and one of four life stress factors (relocated mainlander, living in a crowded household with six or more persons, living in an earthquake-damaged house, and monthly financial difficulty) significantly increased the odds ratio of poor self-reported health. Correlations between carrying the APOE4 allele and the life stress factors were ruled out by statistical tests. These life stress factors had a substantially larger adverse impact on self-reported health in APOE4 allele carriers than in noncarriers. This study provides evidence that interaction between carrying APOE4 allele and chronic life stressors has significant impacts on self-reported health while controlling for various sociodemographic and health behavior factors. Further studies with richer biomarkers are warranted for deeper understanding of the biological mechanisms. PMID:21768502

  11. Spacelab 1 and the Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, W. H.; Clark, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program (LSFEP) was established by NASA in 1978 to plan and direct efforts necessary to conduct a continuing program of in-flight life science investigations throughout the Space Shuttle era. The Spacelab 1 (SL-1) mission, conducted from November 28 to December 8, 1983, was to verify Spacelab performance through a variety of scientific experiments including life science. A description is given of the seven NASA life sciences experiments, which consisted of four human experiments, a fungus experiment, a plant experiment, and radiation experiments. Ten life sciences experiments from the European Space Agency were also flown. The experiments include studies of the circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa, the nutation of Helianthus annus, the vestibular function during weightlessness, the influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man, and the adaptation of vestibulo-spinal reflex mechanisms during space flight.

  12. Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

    1992-10-01

    Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them. PMID:1299462

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of physical violence in adolescent dating relationships

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua; Chung, W-J Joanie; Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A; Kessler, Ronald C

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluates associations of commonly co-occurring childhood adversities with physical violence in dating relationships to identify potential strategies for refining and targeting dating violence prevention programmes. Methods Data on 5130 adult respondents to a nationally representative survey with at least one dating relationship before the age of 21 years were analysed. Logistic regression models assessed associations between 12 childhood adversities and physical dating violence (PDV). Results Adjusting for the number of co-occurring adversities, 10 of the 12 childhood adversities were significantly associated with PDV perpetration or victimisation (OR 1.5–2.8). The population attributable risk proportion of PDV due to all 12 childhood adversities was 53.4%. Childhood adversities with the highest attributable risk proportions were sexual abuse (13.8%), interparental violence (11.6%) and parent mental illness (10.7%). Multivariate prediction equations ranked respondents by their childhood adversity risk profiles; 46.4% of PDV cases occurred in the top two risk deciles. Conclusions Assessment of a broad range of childhood exposures to familial adversities may help to identify adolescents at particularly high risk of PDV and to guide prevention efforts. PMID:21321063

  14. Association of adverse childhood experiences with shaking and smothering behaviors among Japanese caregivers.

    PubMed

    Isumi, Aya; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-07-01

    Shaking and smothering in response to infant crying are life-threatening child abuse. Parental childhood abuse history is known to be one of the most robust risk factors for abusing their offspring. In addition to childhood abuse history, other adverse childhood exposures (ACEs) need to be considered due to co-occurrence. However, few studies have investigated the impact of ACEs on caregivers shaking and smothering their infant. This study aims to investigate the association of ACEs with shaking and smothering among caregivers of infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers participating in a four-month health checkup between September 2013 and August 2014 in Chiba City, Japan, to assess their ACEs (parental death, parental divorce, mentally ill parents, witness of intimate partner violence, physical abuse, neglect, psychological abuse and economic hardship), and shaking and smothering toward their infants (N=4297). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the cumulative and individual impacts of ACEs on shaking and smothering. Analyses were conducted in 2015. A total of 28.3% reported having experienced at least one ACE during their childhood. We found that only witness of IPV had a significant association with shaking of infant (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.03-3.61). The total number of ACEs was not associated with either shaking or smothering. Our findings suggest that shaking and smothering in response to crying can occur regardless of ACEs. Population-based strategies that target all caregivers to prevent shaking and smothering of infants are needed. PMID:27262606

  15. Early Life Adverse Environmental Exposures Increase the Risk of Uterine Fibroid Development: Role of Epigenetic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Fibroids [UF(s), AKA: leiomyoma] are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women's health. They are the most common cause of hysterectomy imposing untold personal consequences and 100s of billions of healthcare dollars, worldwide. Currently, there is no long term effective FDA-approved medical treatment available, and surgery is the mainstay. The etiology of UFs is not fully understood. In this regard, we and others have recently reported that somatic mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional mediator subunit Med12 are found to occur at a high frequency (∼85%) in UFs. UFs likely originate when a Med12 mutation occurs in a myometrial stem cell converting it into a tumor-forming stem cell leading to a clonal fibroid lesion. Although the molecular attributes underlying the mechanistic formation of UFs is largely unknown, a growing body of literature implicates unfavorable early life environmental exposures as potentially important contributors. Early life exposure to EDCs during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life. Neonatal exposure to the EDCs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and genistein during reproductive tract development has been shown to increase the incidence, multiplicity and overall size of UFs in the Eker rat model, concomitantly reprogramming estrogen-responsive gene expression. Importantly, EDC exposure represses enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and reduces levels of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark through Estrogen receptor/Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Protein kinase B non-genomic signaling in the developing uterus. Considering the fact that distinct Mediator Complex Subunit 12 (Med12) mutations are detected in different fibroid lesions in the same uterus, the emergence of each Med12 mutation is likely an independent event in an altered myometrial stem cell. It is therefore possible that a chronic reduction in

  16. Early Life Adverse Environmental Exposures Increase the Risk of Uterine Fibroid Development: Role of Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Fibroids [UF(s), AKA: leiomyoma] are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women’s health. They are the most common cause of hysterectomy imposing untold personal consequences and 100s of billions of healthcare dollars, worldwide. Currently, there is no long term effective FDA-approved medical treatment available, and surgery is the mainstay. The etiology of UFs is not fully understood. In this regard, we and others have recently reported that somatic mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional mediator subunit Med12 are found to occur at a high frequency (∼85%) in UFs. UFs likely originate when a Med12 mutation occurs in a myometrial stem cell converting it into a tumor-forming stem cell leading to a clonal fibroid lesion. Although the molecular attributes underlying the mechanistic formation of UFs is largely unknown, a growing body of literature implicates unfavorable early life environmental exposures as potentially important contributors. Early life exposure to EDCs during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life. Neonatal exposure to the EDCs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and genistein during reproductive tract development has been shown to increase the incidence, multiplicity and overall size of UFs in the Eker rat model, concomitantly reprogramming estrogen-responsive gene expression. Importantly, EDC exposure represses enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and reduces levels of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark through Estrogen receptor/Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Protein kinase B non-genomic signaling in the developing uterus. Considering the fact that distinct Mediator Complex Subunit 12 (Med12) mutations are detected in different fibroid lesions in the same uterus, the emergence of each Med12 mutation is likely an independent event in an altered myometrial stem cell. It is therefore possible that a chronic reduction in

  17. Women convicted for violent offenses: Adverse childhood experiences, low level of education and poor mental health

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In past years, the female offender population has grown, leading to an increased interest in the characteristics of female offenders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of female violent offending in a Swiss offender population and to compare possible socio-demographic and offense-related gender differences. Methods Descriptive and bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for a representative sample of N = 203 violent offenders convicted in Zurich, Switzerland. Results 7.9% (N = 16) of the sample were female. Significant gender differences were found: Female offenders were more likely to be married, less educated, to have suffered from adverse childhood experiences and to be in poor mental health. Female violent offending was less heterogeneous than male violent offending, in fact there were only three types of violent offenses females were convicted for in our sample: One third were convicted of murder, one third for arson and only one woman was convicted of a sex offense. Conclusions The results of our study point toward a gender-specific theory of female offending, as well as toward the importance of developing models for explaining female criminal behavior, which need to be implemented in treatment plans and intervention strategies regarding female offenders. PMID:20028499

  18. Adverse childhood experiences influence white matter microstructure in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Mazza, Elena; Bollettini, Irene; Locatelli, Clara; Cavallaro, Roberto; Smeraldi, Enrico; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-10-30

    Integrity of brain white matter (WM) tracts in adulthood could be detrimentally affected by exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE). Changes of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures suggesting WM disruption have been reported in patients with schizophrenia together with a history of childhood maltreatment. We therefore hypothesized that ACE could be associated with altered DTI measures of WM integrity in patients with schizophrenia. We tested this hypothesis in 83 schizophrenia patients using whole brain tract-based spatial statistics in the WM skeleton with threshold-free cluster enhancement of DTI measures of WM microstructure: axial, radial, and mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA). We observed an inverse correlation between severity of ACE and DTI measures of FA, and a positive correlation with MD in several WM tracts including corona radiata, thalamic radiations, corpus callosum, cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus. Lower FA and higher MD are indexes of a reduction in fibre coherence and integrity. The association of ACE to reduced FA and increased MD in key WM tracts contributing to the functional integrity of the brain suggests that ACE might contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia through a detrimental action on structural connectivity in critical cortico-limbic networks. PMID:26341951

  19. Examination of the Factorial Structure of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Recommendations for Three Subscale Scores

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Derek C.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Parks, Sharyn E.; Breiding, Matthew J.; Gilbert, Leah K.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Barile, John P.; Thompson, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the current investigation is to assess and validate the factor structure of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System’s (BRFSS) Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) module. Method ACE data available from the 2009 BRFSS survey were fit using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to estimate an initial factorial structure. The exploratory solution was then validated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with data from the 2010 BRFSS survey. Lastly, ACE factors were tested for measurement invariance using multiple group factor analysis. Results EFA results suggested that a 3-factor solution adequately fit the data. Examination of factor loadings and item content suggested the factors represented the following construct areas: Household Dysfunction, Emotional/Physical Abuse, and Sexual Abuse. Subsequent CFA results confirmed the 3-factor solution and provided preliminary support for estimation of an overall latent ACE score summarizing the responses to all available items. Measurement invariance was supported across both gender and age. Conclusions Results of this study provides support for the use of the current ACE module scoring algorithm, which uses the sum of the number of items endorsed to estimate exposure. However, the results also suggest potential benefits to estimating 3 separate composite scores to estimate the specific effects of exposure to Household Dysfunction, Emotional/Physical Abuse, and Sexual Abuse. PMID:26430532

  20. Early Adverse Experience Increases Emotional Reactivity in Juvenile Rhesus Macaques: Relation to Amygdala Volume

    PubMed Central

    Howell, B.R.; Grand, A. P.; McCormack, K. M.; Shi, Y.; LaPrarie, J.; Maestripieri, D.; Styner, M. A.; Sanchez, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of infant maltreatment on juvenile rhesus monkeys’ behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli and its associations with amygdala volume. Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli of varying threat intensity was measured using Approach/Avoidance (AA) and Human Intruder (HI) tasks. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure amygdala volume. Interestingly, group behavioral differences were context-dependent. When exposed to a human intruder, maltreated subjects displayed more anxious behaviors than controls; however, when presented with fear-evoking objects, maltreated animals exhibited increased aggression and a shorter latency to inspect the objects. Finally, under testing conditions with the lowest levels of threat (neutral novel objects) maltreated animals also showed shorter latencies to inspect objects, and reduced avoidance and increased exploration compared to controls. This suggests alterations in threat assessment and less behavioral inhibition in animals with early adverse experience compared to controls. Some of these behavioral responses were associated with amygdala volume, which was positively correlated with abuse rates received during infancy, particularly reflecting a relationship with exploration, consistent with previous studies. PMID:25196846

  1. Patient reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions: a review of published literature and international experience

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsopp, A; Wilkie, P; Wang, M; Routledge, P A

    2007-01-01

    Aims To synthesize data from published studies and international experience to identify evidence of potential benefits and drawbacks of direct patient reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by patients. Methods Structured search of MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO supplemented by internet searches and requests for information to key contacts. Results Seven studies (eight papers) were included in the review. None of the studies concerned spontaneous reporting by patients. Information on patient reporting systems was obtained for six countries, with summary data reported by four. Patient reports identified possible new ADRs that had not previously been reported by health professionals. The quality of patient reports appears to be similar to that of health professional reports. There is some evidence that patients report an ADR when they consider their health professional has not paid attention to their concerns. Patient reports may, at least initially, be more time consuming to process. Conclusions Overall, the evidence indicates that patient reporting of suspected ADRs has more potential benefits than drawbacks. Evaluation of patient reporting systems is needed to provide further evidence. PMID:17274788

  2. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  3. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? Methods We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12–19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Results Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Conclusions Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring

  4. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.   Results Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than < 30 years and weighing < 70 kg were significantly associated with VVR, hyperventilation, and nausea (p < 0.005). Undergraduates and Urdu speaking donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p < 0.05).   Conclusion The prevalence of adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions. PMID:27168923

  5. Association of adverse childhood experiences, age of menarche, and adult reproductive behavior: does the androgen receptor gene play a role?

    PubMed

    Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Rodgers, Bryan; Jacomb, Patricia A; Easteal, Simon

    2004-02-15

    Previous research has reported associations between adverse childhood experiences, early menarche, and early sexual activity. One hypothesis to account for these findings is that an X-linked androgen receptor GGC-repeat polymorphism predisposes fathers to behaviors which include family abandonment and their daughters to earlier menarche and sexual activity and less stable relationships. Retrospective data relevant to this theory were examined from a community survey involving 3,702 women in the age groups 20-24, 40-44, and 60-64 years, and another involving 908 women aged 18-79 years. Earlier age of menarche was found to be associated with adverse childhood experiences and earlier sexual activity. However, the androgen receptor gene polymorphism was unrelated to adverse fathering behavior or to marital breakdown. PMID:14755454

  6. Urinary catheterization may not adversely impact quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    James, Rebecca; Frasure, Heidi E; Mahajan, Sangeeta T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) healthcare providers (HCP) have undergone considerable educational efforts regarding the importance of evaluating and treating pelvic floor disorders, specifically, urinary dysfunction. However, limited data are available to determine the impact of catheterization on patient quality of life (QoL). Objectives. To describe the use of urinary catheterization among MS patients and determine the differences between those who report positive versus negative impact of this treatment on QoL. Methods. Patients were queried as part of the 2010 North American Research Committee On Multiple Sclerosis survey; topics included 1) urinary/bladder, bowel, or sexual problems; 2) current urine leakage; 3) current catheter use; 4) catheterizing and QoL. Results. Respondents with current urine leakage were 5143 (54.7%), of which 1201 reported current catheter use (12.8%). The types of catheters (intermittent self-catheterization and Foley catheter (indwelling and suprapubic)) did not differ significantly. Of the current catheter users, 304 (25.35%) respondents reported catheterization negatively impacting QoL, 629 (52.4%) reported a positive impact on QoL, and 223 (18.6%) reported neutral QoL. Conclusions. A large proportion of catheterized MS patients report negative or positive changes in QoL associated with urinary catheterization. Urinary catheterization does not appear to have a universally negative impact on patient QoL. PMID:25006498

  7. TGFB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Are Associated With Adverse Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Christopher A. Stock, Richard G.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Atencio, David P.; Peters, Sheila B.A.; Burri, Ryan J.; Stone, Nelson N.; Ostrer, Harry; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within TGFB1 might be predictive for the development of adverse quality-of-life outcomes in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 141 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy were screened for SNPs in TGFB1 using DNA sequencing. Three quality-of-life outcomes were investigated: (1) prospective decline in erectile function, (2) urinary quality of life, and (3) rectal bleeding. Median follow-up was 51.3 months (range, 12-138 months; SD, 24.4 months). Results: Those patients who possessed either the T/T genotype at position -509, the C/C genotype at position 869 (pro/pro, codon 10) or the G/C genotype at position 915 (arg/pro, codon 25) were significantly associated with the development of a decline in erectile function compared with those who did not have these genotypes: 56% (9 of 16) vs. 24% (11 of 45) (p = 0.02). In addition, patients with the -509 T/T genotype had a significantly increased risk of developing late rectal bleeding compared with those who had either the C/T or C/C genotype at this position: 55% (6 of 11) vs. 26% (34 of 130) (p = 0.05). Conclusions: Possession of certain TGFB1 genotypes is associated with the development of both erectile dysfunction and late rectal bleeding in patients treated with radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Therefore, identification of patients harboring these genotypes may represent a means to predict which men are most likely to suffer from poor quality-of-life outcomes after radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  9. Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

  10. The association of adverse childhood experiences and appetitive aggression with suicide attempts and violent crimes in male forensic psychiatry inpatients.

    PubMed

    Dudeck, Manuela; Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Otte, Stefanie; Rasche, Katharina; Leichauer, Katharina; Tippelt, Susanne; Shenar, Riad; Klingner, Solveig; Vasic, Nenad; Streb, Judith

    2016-06-30

    Although previous studies in inmates, forensic and psychiatric samples suggest the relation between childhood trauma and suicide behavior as well as between childhood trauma and violent delinquency, the understanding of possible underlying mechanisms is still fragmentary. In a naturalistic study design, we tested if suicidal attempts and violent crimes are differently associated with adverse childhood experiences and levels of appetitive aggression in male forensic psychiatry inpatients. Adverse childhood experiences and appetitive aggression styles were collected by means of self-report measures, suicide attempts were taken from the medical history and violent crimes were appraised by official court records. The data were analyzed by the means of generalized linear models. Results revealed that appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences were significant predictors of suicide attempts, whereas violent crimes were associated solely with appetitive aggression. Suicide attempts and violent delinquency in forensic patients seem to be both positively associated with high levels of appetitive aggression, whereas their etiological pathways might differ with regard to adverse childhood experiences. Considering these interrelations to a greater extent might improve both diagnostics and treatment of forensic patients. PMID:27138831

  11. Resilience in the Face of Cyberbullying: An Ecological Perspective on Young People's Experiences of Online Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatraianou, Lisa H.; Levine, Diane; West, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents experience a variety of biological, psychological and social changes. While some adolescents face significant risk, the majority of young people are able to successfully navigate their way through to maintaining resilience, that is, the ability to cope and overcome adversity despite facing challenges. However, exposure to acts of…

  12. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  13. Suicidal Ideation, Parent-Child Relationships, and Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Cross-Validation Study Using a Graphical Markov Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Herke, Max; Schier, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in many Western countries. An exploration of factors associated with suicidality may help to understand the mechanisms that lead to suicide. Two samples in Germany (n = 500 and n = 477) were examined via Internet regarding suicidality, depression, alcohol abuse, adverse childhood experiences, and…

  14. 21 CFR 310.305 - Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human use without approved new drug applications. 310.305 Section 310.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS...

  15. 21 CFR 310.305 - Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human use without approved new drug applications. 310.305 Section 310.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS...

  16. 21 CFR 310.305 - Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human use without approved new drug applications. 310.305 Section 310.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS...

  17. 21 CFR 310.305 - Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human use without approved new drug applications. 310.305 Section 310.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS...

  18. 21 CFR 310.305 - Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records and reports concerning adverse drug experiences on marketed prescription drugs for human use without approved new drug applications. 310.305 Section 310.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS...

  19. Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Almuneef, Maha; Qayad, Mohammed; Aleissa, Majid; Albuhairan, Fadia

    2014-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with risky health behaviors and the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. This study examined associations between ACEs, chronic diseases, and risky behaviors in adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2012 using the ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). A cross-sectional design was used, and adults who were at least 18 years of age were eligible to participate. ACEs event scores were measured for neglect, household dysfunction, abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), and peer and community violence. The ACE-IQ was supplemented with questions on risky health behaviors, chronic diseases, and mood. A total of 931 subjects completed the questionnaire (a completion rate of 88%); 57% of the sample was female, 90% was younger than 45 years, 86% had at least a college education, 80% were Saudi nationals, and 58% were married. One-third of the participants (32%) had been exposed to 4 or more ACEs, and 10%, 17%, and 23% had been exposed to 3, 2, or 1 ACEs respectively. Only 18% did not have an ACE. The prevalence of risky health behaviors ranged between 4% and 22%. The prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases ranged between 6% and 17%. Being exposed to 4 or more ACEs increased the risk of having chronic diseases by 2-11 fold, and increased risky health behaviors by 8-21 fold. The findings of this study will contribute to the planning and development of programs to prevent child maltreatment and to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:24974249

  20. Community pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and experiences about adverse drug reaction reporting in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Alswaida, Yazeed; Alshammari, Thamir; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Alrasheedy, Alian; Hassali, Mohamad Azmi; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess community pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and experiences relating to Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 147 community pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results The questionnaire was distributed to 147 pharmacists, of whom 104 responded to the survey, a 70.7% response rate. The mean age of participants was 29 years. The majority (n = 101, 98.1%) had graduated with a bachelorette degree and worked in chain pharmacies (n = 68, 66.7%). Only 23 (22.1%) said they were familiar with the ADR reporting process, and only 21 (20.2%) knew that pharmacists can submit ADR reports online. The majority of the participants (n = 90, 86.5%) had never reported ADRs. Reasons for not reporting ADRs most importantly included lack of awareness about the method of reporting (n = 22, 45.9%), misconception that reporting ADRs is the duty of physician and hospital pharmacist (n = 8, 16.6%) and ADRs in community pharmacies are simple and should not be reported (n = 8, 16.6%). The most common approach perceived by community pharmacists for managing patients suffering from ADRs was to refer him/her to a physician (n = 80, 76.9%). Conclusion The majority of community pharmacists in Riyadh have poor knowledge of the ADR reporting process. Pharmacovigilance authorities should take necessary steps to urgently design interventional programs in order to increase the knowledge and awareness of pharmacists regarding the ADR reporting process. PMID:25473329

  1. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Ruvani W; Minnis, Alexandra M; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions that

  2. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    PubMed Central

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  3. Unexpected adverse childhood experiences and subsequent drug use disorder: a Swedish population study (1995–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Giuseppe N.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Aims Exposure to extraordinary traumatic experience is one acknowledged risk factor for drug use. We aim to analyse the influence of potentially life-changing childhood stressors, experienced second-hand, on later drug use disorder in a national population of Swedish adolescent and young adults (aged 15–26 years). Design We performed Cox Proportional Hazard regression analyses, complemented with co-relative pair comparisons. Setting Sweden Participants All individuals in the Swedish population born 1984 to 1995, who were registered in Sweden at the end of the calendar year they turned 14 years of age. Our follow-up time (Mean: 6.2 years; Range 11 years) started at the year they turned 15 and continued to December 2011 (N=1,409,218). Measurements Our outcome variable was drug use disorder, identified from medical, legal and pharmacy registry records. Childhood stressors, as per DSM-IV stressor criteria, include death of an immediate family member and second-hand experience of diagnoses of malignant cancer, serious accidental injury, and victim of assault. Other covariates include parental divorce, familial psychological well-being, and familial drug and alcohol use disorders. Findings After adjustment for all considered confounders, individuals exposed to childhood stressors ‘parental death’ or ‘parental assault’ had over twice the risk of drug use disorder than those who were not (HR = 2.63 (2.23–3.09) and 2.39 (2.06–2.79), respectively). Conclusions Children under 15 who experience second-hand an extraordinary traumatic event (such as a parent or sibling being assaulted, diagnosed with cancer, or dying) appear to have approximately twice the risk of developing a drug use disorder than those who do not. PMID:24612271

  4. Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thao N.

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and…

  5. Impact of Life Experiences on Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorndike, Robert M.; And Others

    The kinds of life events that may affect cognitive development were explored for 777 students, mostly freshmen, enrolled in introductory social science courses at Western Washington University Bellingham (Washington). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection (MER) of M. B. Taylor (1983). Students also…

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Eslinger, Jessica G.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S.; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. Participants Adults (ages 18–64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). Design and Main Outcome Measures The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce). Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support) and structural (living with another adult) support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race) and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health) to the model. Results ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories). ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5–2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs). Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42–0.63]) and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41–0.56]) were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health. Conclusions ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen

  7. Skylab Experiments, Volume 4, Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book, one of a series, for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their basis for material selection. This fourth volume is concerned with experiments designed to improve man's understanding of…

  8. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William G.; Bonner, Richard W.; Dussinger, Peter M.; Hartenstine, John R.; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 725 K (170 to 450 C), including space nuclear power system radiators, fuel cells, and high temperature electronics cooling. Historically, water has been used in heat pipes at temperatures up to about 425 K (150 C). Recent life tests, updated below, demonstrate that titanium/water and Monel/water heat pipes can be used at temperatures up to 550 K (277 C), due to water's favorable transport properties. At temperatures above roughly 570 K (300 C), water is no longer a suitable fluid, due to high vapor pressure and low surface tension as the critical point is approached. At higher temperatures, another working fluid/envelope combination is required, either an organic or halide working fluid. An electromotive force method was used to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This procedure was used to reject aluminum and aluminum alloys as envelope materials, due to their high decomposition potential. Titanium and three corrosion resistant superalloys were chosen as envelope materials. Life tests were conducted with these envelopes and six different working fluids: AlBr3, GaCl3, SnCl4, TiCl4, TiBr4, and eutectic diphenyl/diphenyl oxide (Therminol VP-1/Dowtherm A). All of the life tests except for the GaCl3 are ongoing; the GaCl3 was incompatible. As the temperature approaches 725 K (450 C), cesium is a potential heat pipe working fluid. Life tests results are also presented for cesium/Monel 400 and cesium/70-30 copper/nickel heat pipes operating near 750 K (477 C). These materials are not suitable for long term operation, due to copper transport from the condenser to the evaporator.

  9. Preliminary analysis of a radiobiological experiment for LifeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Nealy, John E.; Hardy, Alva C.; Atwell, William; Schimmerling, Walter

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of performing radiation life science experiments on a dedicated satellite (LifeSat) in space, a combined effort in radiation physics and radiation dosimetry, in addition to radiation biology, is clearly required to ensure that meaningful biological experiments can be performed. To better understand the relationship of these disciplines, some possible LifeSat missions are examined. As a trial biological system, tumorigenesis is considered in the Harderian gland of mice, a system of sufficient radiosensitivity for which relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is well defined by laboratory experiments.

  10. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:26260665

  11. Prevalence of negative life events and chronic adversities in European pre- and primary-school children: results from the IDEFICS study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4–11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project (‘Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS’). Results The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children is exposed to multiple, accumulating adversities; (3) The prevalence of childhood adversity is influenced by geographical location (e.g. north versus south), age group and sex; (4) Childhood adversities are associated and co-occur, resulting in potential cumulative childhood stress. Conclusions This study demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities. PMID:23173879

  12. Life sciences experiments on Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buderer, M. C.; Salinas, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and procedures regarding various biological experiments to be conducted on Spacelab 1 are reviewed. These include the mapping of the HZE cosmic ray particle flux within the Spacelab module, investigating the effects of nullgravity on circadian cycles in the slime mold, Neurospora crassa, and measuring nutations of the dwarf sunflower, Helianthus annus. Emphasis is placed on research regarding possible changes in vestibulocular reflexes, vestibulospinal pathways, cortical functions involving perception of motion and spatial susceptibility. Also discussed are experiments regarding erythrokinetics in man and the effects of prolonged weightlessness of the humoral immune response in humans.

  13. Nexavar®-related adverse reactions: Calabrian (Italy) experience for sorafenib exposition in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Cilurzo, Felisa; Staltari, Orietta; Patanè, Marinella; Ammendola, Michele; Garaffo, Caterina; Di Paola, Eugenio Donato

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major global health problem and Calabria in the south of Italy is not an exception. Sorafenib is the first and only Food and Drug Administration approved drug for the treatment of advanced HCC and it is currently under intensive monitoring by the Health Authorities in Italy Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco. This general report has been developed with the aim of briefly reviewing the data found in the reports of adverse reactions (ADRs) collected in Calabria in 2012 for sorafenib treated patients. Extrapolated data have highlighted some differences between the adverse drug reactions reported in patients younger or older than 70 years and other important differences with the current approved leaflet. Several limitations might be present in data analysis form spontaneous reporting, however, the relevance of reporting ADRs (dermatitis, asthenia, vomiting, etc.) for the early identification of drug related signals has to be underlined. PMID:24347990

  14. Adverse incidents and patient safety - improving the learning experience of junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Nina

    2014-02-01

    The need to ensure patient safety in the National Health Service (NHS) is a national priority. However, it has long been recognised that a culture of blame impedes learning from previous adverse incidents. It is important to feedback the outcomes of investigations into incidents to NHS staff, but junior doctors have little knowledge of learning points from investigations into adverse incidents. Learning from past mistakes would improve practice and the level of care provided by junior doctors. A forum for learning from mistakes could also provide an opportunity to review past incidents in an open and supportive environment. This could, in turn, start to change the current culture of blame in the NHS and contribute to higher standards of patient safety in the future. PMID:24532743

  15. Influence of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Adverse Life Events on Depressive Symptoms in the Elderly: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Davin, Annalisa; Monti, Maria Cristina; Polito, Letizia; Vaccaro, Roberta; Abbondanza, Simona; Gnesi, Marco; Villani, Simona; Guaita, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is common in the elderly. The role of genetic and environmental factors in modulating depressive symptoms is not clear. Methods We evaluated the influence of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and recent adverse life events on depressive symptoms in an elderly Italian population. We used data from “InveCe.Ab”, a population-based study of 1321 subjects aged 70–74 years. We used the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to assess depressive symptoms–a GDS score ≥5 points (GDS≥5) indicated the presence of clinically relevant symptoms–and performed 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 genotyping to obtain the triallelic polymorphism of the serotonin transporter. We used the Geriatric Adverse Life Events Scale to measure adverse life events, and logistic regression models to evaluate the role of genotype and recent adverse life events in depressive symptoms, controlling for potential confounders and independent predictors. Results Two hundred subjects (15.76%) had a GDS≥5. The 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism was significantly associated with GDS≥5. Only S′S′ carriers showed an increased risk of depressive symptoms (ORadj = 1.81, p = .022); one extra adverse life event increased this risk by 14% (p = .061) independently of genotype. Other factors significantly related to GDS≥5 were: female gender (ORadj = 2.49, p < .001), age (ORadj = 1.19, p = .007), a history of depression (ORadj = 4.73, p < .001), and comorbidity (ORadj = 1.23, p = .001). One extra adverse life event increased the risk of depressive symptoms by 57% (p = .005) only in the L′L′ carriers, while antidepressant intake was directly related to GDS≥5 in the L′S′ carriers (ORadj = 2.46, p = .036) and borderline significant in the S′S′ carriers (ORadj = 2.41, p = .081). Discussion The S′S′ genotype and recent exposure to adverse life events were independently associated with depressive symptoms. The S′S′ genotype, compared with the environment

  16. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  17. The longitudinal study of rat hippocampus influenced by stress: early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengkui; Li, Lei; Shi, Mei; Li, Zhenzi; Zhou, Jinghua; Chen, Li

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that early adverse experience is related to learning disabilities in adults, but the neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. We used longitudinal animal experiments to test the hypothesis that early life stress enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats. The expression of Synaptophysin (SYN) and apoptosis (Apo) in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were examined to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on the hippocampus. The working memory errors via radial 8-arm maze were studied to evaluate the long-term effect of early stress on rats' spatial learning ability. Our results indicated that chronic restraint stress in early life and forced cold water swimming stress in adulthood reduced SYN expression and increased Apo levels in rat hippocampus, but the hippocampal damage tended to recover when rats returned to a non-stress environment. In addition, when the rats were exposed to forced cold water swimming stress during adulthood, SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and Apo levels (CA3 region) in rat hippocampus showed statistical difference between early restraint stress group and non-early restraint stress group (rats exposed to stress in adulthood only). One month after the two groups of rats returned to non-stress environment, this difference of SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and working memory deficit between the two groups was still statistically significant. Our study findings suggested that early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats, and reduces structural plasticity of hippocampus. PMID:23500055

  18. 'Skating on thin ice?' Consultant surgeon's contemporary experience of adverse surgical events.

    PubMed

    Skevington, Suzanne M; Langdon, Joanne E; Giddins, Grey

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about patient safety have prompted studies of adverse surgical events (ASEs), but descriptive classification of errors and malpractice claims have overshadowed qualitative investigations into the processes that lead to expert errors and their solutions. We studied consultant surgeon's perspectives on how and why events occurred through semi-structured interviews about general and specific events. The sample contained heterogeneous cross-section of ages, gender and specialists, with >2 years consultant status and working within a 25-mile radius. Overarching findings included (1) pressures to work harder, faster and beyond capability within a blaming culture; (2) optimism bias from over-confidence and complacency; and (3) multiple pressures to 'finish' an operation or list, resulting in completion bias. Seven high order themes were identified on the healthcare system, adverse event types, contributing factors, emotions, cognitive processes, error detection, and strategies, solutions and barriers. The process of classifying event types guided solution selection, and the decision about whether to formally report it. How serious consequences were for patients and their temporal effects, defined an adversity continuum. Minor events arose routinely i.e. technical discrepancies, side-effects. More problematic were sub-optimal outcomes and avoidable events. Despite their expertise, consultants were vulnerable to unavoidable, uncontrollable events which were major concerns. Most serious were near-misses, errors and mistakes. However, major errors did not inevitably lead to a catastrophe and minor errors could be extremely serious. A 'cascade' of minor events exacerbated by negative emotions can precipitate major events, and interception methods need investigation. Consultants felt powerless and helpless to change environmental, organisational and systemic problems; new communication and action channels are desirable. Confidence building in team leadership would

  19. Health-related quality of life in childhood epilepsy: Moving beyond 'seizure control with minimal adverse effects'

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Gabriel M; Streiner, David L; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Childhood epilepsy is one of the most important and prevalent neurological conditions in the developing years. Persons with childhood onset epilepsy are at a high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, even without experiencing co-morbidities. The goal of management of children with epilepsy should be to enable the child and the family to lead a life as free as possible from the medical and psychosocial complications of epilepsy. This comprehensive care needs to go beyond simply trying to control seizures with minimal adverse drug reactions. Seizure frequency and severity is only one important outcome variable. Other factors such as social, psychological, behavioural, educational, and cultural dimensions of their lives affect children with epilepsy, their families and their close social networks. A number of epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) scales for children have been developed with the aim to include and measure accurately the impact and burden of epilepsy. Their target populations, details of the origin of the items, and psychometric properties vary significantly. Their strengths and weaknesses will be identified more clearly through their continued use in the clinical setting and in research studies. Only a few studies to date have utilized these or generic HRQL measures to assess the HRQL of specific populations with epilepsy. Future research needs to develop theory driven models of HRQL and identify measurable factors that have important correlations with outcomes. Since biomedical variables like seizure frequency and severity have only moderate correlations with HRQL, other independent factors including the child's resilience, co-morbid conditions, parental well-being, family factors and societal/cultural variables may play a major role. We also need to learn what encompasses comprehensive patient care, define the goals of management and evaluate the impact of different interventions. Future studies need to include the children's own

  20. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Sijtsema, J J; Van Roon, A M; Groot, P F C; Riese, H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a longitudinal population-based study (N=624, Mage=16.14 years, 49.2% boys). Perinatal adversities were unrelated to antisocial behavior, but experiencing more stressful adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior at age 16 in boys with blunted PEP reactivity and smaller PEP differences from rest to recovery. Number of adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior in boys with blunted and girls with heightened RSA reactivity and larger PEP differences from rest to recovery. The association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior were small in effect size and depended upon sex and PEP and RSA reactivity and recovery. PMID:26164813

  1. Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Frida; San Sebastian, Miguel; Strömsten, Lotta M. J.; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low) in adolescence (age 16) were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/non-manual) was measured using the participant’s own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068) which was partially explained by people’s own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an unfavorable

  2. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  3. The role of adverse childhood experiences in cardiovascular disease risk: a review with emphasis on plausible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Su, Shaoyong; Jimenez, Marcia P; Roberts, Cole T F; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversity, characterized by abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, is a problem that exerts a significant impact on individuals, families, and society. Growing evidence suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with health decline in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the current review, we first provide an overview of the association between ACEs and CVD risk, with updates on the latest epidemiological evidence. Second, we briefly review plausible pathways by which ACEs could influence CVD risk, including traditional risk factors and novel mechanisms. Finally, we highlight the potential implications of ACEs in clinical and public health. Information gleaned from this review should help physicians and researchers in better understanding potential long-term consequences of ACEs and considering adapting current strategies in treatment or intervention for patients with ACEs. PMID:26289252

  4. Sibling Socialization: The Effects of Stressful Life Events and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…

  5. The Farm Experience: Its Importance in a Child's Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Richard

    For the past 10 summers a rural Ohio farm family, convinced of the merits of involving children in farm experiences and/or plant and animal care, has shared its farmstead with approximately 3,000 urban elementary school children. This paper discusses the impact of farm experiences on children's development, exploring rural community life among the…

  6. Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (5α3α-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5α3α-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR δ subunit (δ0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, δ0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of δ0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress

  7. Patient-reported adverse drug reactions and their influence on adherence and quality of life of chronic myeloid leukemia patients on per oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kekäle, Meri; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Airaksinen, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) experienced by chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients during per oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment and correlation of ADR symptoms with medication adherence and perceived quality of life (QoL). Patients and methods Eighty-six adult, chronic-phase CML patients who had been on TKI treatment (79% on imatinib, 10.5% dasatinib, and 10.5% nilotinib) for at least 6 months participated in the study (mean age: 57.8 years, 52% males). The mean time from diagnosis was 5.1 years. All patients were interviewed, and patient-reported ADRs were obtained using a structured list. Adherence was assessed using Morisky’s 8-item Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). The symptoms’ interference with patient’s daily QoL was measured by asking patients about the influence of symptom(s) on their mood, general condition, enjoyment of life, walking, relationships, and work. Results Ninety-seven percent of the patients were suffering from at least one ADR. The mean number of different symptoms was seven (range: 0–15, median 6). The most commonly perceived ADRs were muscle soreness or cramp (69/86, 80%); swelling of hands, legs, feet, or around the eyes (59/86, 69%); and fatigue (43/86, 50%). No correlation was found between adherence and ADRs, because symptoms were equally common in each MMAS adherence class. Half of the patients felt that the ADRs had a negative influence on their daily QoL. A quarter of the patients reported that ADRs affected either their mood, general condition, or enjoyment of life. The incidence of almost all ADRs was much higher among patients reporting negative influence of ADRs on their daily life compared to total study population (P=0.016). Conclusion TKI-related ADRs were common among CML patients irrespective of patient’s adherence level. Patients who reported that ADRs had a negative influence on their daily QoL perceived more ADRs than those who did not experience a negative influence. PMID

  8. The effects of early-life adversity on fear memories in adolescent rats and their persistence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Makuch, Wioletta; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Dudys, Dorota; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by extensive morphological and functional remodeling of the brain. The processes of brain maturation during this period may unmask malfunctions that originate earlier in life as a consequence of early-life stress (ELS). This is associated with the emergence of many psychopathologies during adolescence, particularly affective spectrum disorders. In the present study, we applied a maternal separation (MS) procedure (3h/day, on postnatal days 1-14) as a model of ELS to examine its effects on the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear memories in adolescent rats. Additionally, we studied the persistence of these memories into adulthood. We found that MS decreased the expression of both contextual (CFC) and auditory (AFC) fear conditioning in adolescent rats. Besides, MS had no impact on the acquisition of extinction learning. During the recall of extinction MS animals both, those previously subjected and not subjected to the extinction session, exhibited equally low levels of freezing. In adulthood, the MS animals (conditioned during adolescence) still displayed impairments in the expression of AFC (only in males) and CFC. Furthermore, the MS procedure had also an impact on the expression of CFC (but not AFC) after retraining in adulthood. Our findings imply that ELS may permanently affect fear learning and memory. The results also support the hypothesis that, depending on individual predispositions and further experiences, ELS may either lead to a resilience or a vulnerability to early- and late-onsets psychopathologies. PMID:24508235

  9. Adult Cancer Risk Behaviors Associated with Adverse Childhood Experiences in a Low Income Population in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Charles P.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Liu, Jianguo; Fadeyi, Saudat; Blot, William J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can affect health in adulthood. We investigate the relationship between childhood experiences and adult cancer risk and screening behaviors in a racially diverse, low income population. Methods Nearly 22,000 adults 40 years and older in the Southern Community Cohort Study were administered the ACE questionnaire. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI and five cancer screening methods in relation to the ACE score. Results Over half reported at least one ACE, with percentages higher for women (61%) than men (53%). Higher ACE scores were related to increased prevalence of smoking (ORs 1.25 (1.05–1.50) to 2.33 (1.96–2.77). Little association was seen between rising ACE score and alcohol consumption or BMI, except for a modest trend in morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Mammography and cervical cancer screening decreased with rising ACE scores, but no trends were seen with prostate or colorectal cancer screening. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are strong predictors of adult cancer risk behaviors, particularly increased likelihood of smoking, and among women, lower mammography and Pap screening rates. PMID:27168716

  10. Trauma changes everything: examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Perez, Nicholas; Cass, Elizabeth; Baglivio, Michael T; Epps, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Among juvenile offenders, those who commit the greatest number and the most violent offenses are referred to as serious, violent, and chronic (SVC) offenders. However, current practices typically identify SVC offenders only after they have committed their prolific and costly offenses. While several studies have examined risk factors of SVCs, no screening tool has been developed to identify children at risk of SVC offending. This study aims to examine how effective the adverse childhood experiences index, a childhood trauma-based screening tool developed in the medical field, is at identifying children at higher risk of SVC offending. Data on the history of childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, criminal behavior, and other criminological risk factors for offending among 22,575 delinquent youth referred to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice are analyzed, with results suggesting that each additional adverse experience a child experiences increases the risk of becoming a serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offender by 35, when controlling for other risk factors for criminal behavior. These findings suggest that the ACE score could be used by practitioners as a first-line screening tool to identify children at risk of SVC offending before significant downstream wreckage occurs. PMID:25703485

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Resilience and Mindfulness-Based Approaches: Common Denominator Issues for Children with Emotional, Mental, or Behavioral Problems.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Christina; Gombojav, Narangerel; Solloway, Michele; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    US children with emotional, mental, or behavioral conditions (EMB) have disproportionate exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). There are theoretic and empirical explanations for early and lifelong physical, mental, emotional, educational, and social impacts of the resultant trauma and chronic stress. Using mindfulness-based, mind-body approaches (MBMB) may strengthen families and promote child resilience and success. This paper examines associations between EMB, ACEs, and protective factors, such as child resilience, parental coping/stress, and parent-child engagement. Findings encourage family-centered and mindfulness-based approaches to address social and emotional trauma and potentially interrupt cycles of ACEs and prevalence of EMB. PMID:26980120

  12. Space Station life sciences guidelines for nonhuman experiment accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R.; Hilchey, J.

    1985-01-01

    Life scientists will utilize one of four habitable modules which constitute the initial Space Station configuration. This module will be initially employed for studies related to nonhuman and human life sciences. At a later date, a new module, devoted entirely to nonhuman life sciences will be launched. This report presents a description of the characteristics of a Space Station laboratory facility from the standpoint of nonhuman research requirements. Attention is given to the science rationale for experiments which support applied medical research and basic gravitational biology, mission profiles and typical equipment and subsystem descriptions, issues associated with the accommodation of nonhuman life sciences on the Space Station, and conceptual designs for the initial operational capability configuration and later Space Station life-sciences research facilities.

  13. Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

  14. Understanding the potency of stressful early life experiences on brain and body function.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2008-10-01

    Early life experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire life span and influencing brain function, behavior, and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of early life adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called "epigenetics" as well as the role of naturally occurring alleles of a number of genes. These studies also provide insights into the adaptive value as well as the negative consequences, of early life stress, exposure to novelty, and poor-quality vs good-quality maternal care. Animal models begin to provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how brain development and physiological functioning is affected in children exposed to early life abuse and neglect, where there is a burgeoning literature on the consequences for physical health and emotional and cognitive development. An important goal is to identify interventions that are likely to be most effective in early life and some guidelines are provided. PMID:18803958

  15. Octogenarian Reports of Lifetime Spiritual Experiences: Types of Experience and Early Life Predictors

    PubMed Central

    PERGAKIS, MELISSA B.; HASAN, NADEEM S.; HELLER, NINA R.; WALDINGER, ROBERT J.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed lifetime histories of discrete spiritual experiences recalled by 144 octogenarian men studied since adolescence and 80 spouses. Women were more likely to report discrete spiritual experiences, as were those from higher socioeconomic backgrounds and those judged more open to experience as young adults. Factor analysis revealed four types of experiences related to beauty/nature, negative life events, protection by a sacred other, and traditional religious settings. Men from better childhood environments more commonly reported spiritual experiences concerning negative life events. Those with serious childhood illnesses were less likely to report experiences of feeling protected by a sacred other. PMID:21709773

  16. Exposure to socioeconomic adversity in early life and risk of depression at 18 years: The mediating role of locus of control

    PubMed Central

    Culpin, Iryna; Stapinski, Lexine; Miles, Ömür Budanur; Araya, Ricardo; Joinson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have linked exposure to early socioeconomic adversity to depression, but the mechanisms of this association are not well understood. Locus of control (LoC), an individual's control-related beliefs, has been implicated as a possible mechanism, however, longitudinal evidence to support this is lacking. Methods The study sample comprised 8803 participants from a UK cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Indicators of early socioeconomic adversity were collected from the antenatal period to 5 years and modelled as a latent factor. Depression was assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) at 18 years. LoC was assessed with the Nowicki–Strickland Internal–External (CNSIE) scale at 16 years. Results Using structural equation modelling, we found that 34% of the total estimated association between early socioeconomic adversity and depression at 18 years was explained by external LoC at 16 years. There was weak evidence of a direct pathway from early socioeconomic adversity to depression after accounting for the indirect effect via external locus of control. Socioeconomic adversity was associated with more external LoC, which, in turn, was associated with depression. Limitations Attrition may have led to an underestimation of the direct and indirect effect sizes in the complete case analysis. Conclusions Results suggest that external LoC in adolescence is one of the factors mediating the link between early adversity and depression at 18 years. Cognitive interventions that seek to modify maladaptive control beliefs in adolescence may be effective in reducing risk of depression following early life adversity. PMID:26047304

  17. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: Early life conditions and later-life mortality

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi A.; Norton, Maria C.; Hollingshaus, Michael S.; Mineau, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child’s, adolescent’s, or even young adult’s life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring’s marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent’s remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages. PMID:24530028

  18. FKBP5 polymorphisms moderate the influence of adverse life events on the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Sandra; Ising, Marcus; Uhr, Manfred; Otto, Yvonne; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette Maria

    2016-01-01

    FKBP5 is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders. Studies have shown that FKBP5 genotypes moderate the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatized adults. We aimed to replicate this finding in a sample of preschool children. Parents of preschoolers (N = 186) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders and to quantify the child's exposure to adverse events. All FKBP5 polymorphisms showed significant interactions with mild to moderate life events, but not with severe life events, in predicting the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders (p = 0.003-0.019). Children who experienced a high number of mild to moderate life events had a higher risk of developing an anxiety and/or depressive disorder if they were carriers of the minor allele compared to major allele homozygotes. Results indicate that genetic variation in FKBP5 influences the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders in preschool age by altering the sensitivity to the deleterious effects of mild to moderate adverse events. In case of severe life events, the FKBP5 genotype does not seem to play a role, suggesting that severe life events might influence directly the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders independent of an FKBP5 genotype-dependent vulnerability. PMID:26521051

  19. A review of primary care interventions to improve health outcomes in adult survivors of adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Korotana, Laurel M; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis; Josephson, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between the experience of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health conditions, including mental and physical health problems. While a focus on the prevention or mitigation of adversity in childhood is an important direction of many programs, many individuals do not access support services until adulthood, when health problems may be fairly engrained. It is not clear which interventions have the strongest evidence base to support the many adults who present to services with a history of ACEs. The current review examines the evidence base for psychosocial interventions for adults with a history of ACEs. The review focuses on interventions that may be provided in primary care, as that is the setting where most patients will first present and are most likely to receive treatment. A systematic review of the literature was completed using PsycInfo and PubMed databases, with 99 studies identified that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies evaluated a range of interventions with varying levels of supportive evidence. Overall, cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have the most evidence for improving health problems - in particular, improving mental health and reducing health-risk behaviors - in adults with a history of ACEs. Expressive writing and mindfulness-based therapies also show promise, whereas other treatments have less supportive evidence. Limitations of the current literature base are discussed and research directions for the field are provided. PMID:27179348

  20. Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. Purpose To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Methods Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states’ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071). Results Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Conclusions Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population. PMID:23372755

  1. Web-Based Family Life Education: Spotlight on User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Jennifer; Doty, Matthew; Dwrokin, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    Family Life Education (FLE) websites can benefit from the field of user experience, which makes technology easy to use. A heuristic evaluation of five FLE sites was performed using Neilson's heuristics, guidelines for making sites user friendly. Greater site complexity resulted in more potential user problems. Sites most frequently had problems…

  2. Poetry Efforts by Aged Deaf: Expression of Life Cycle Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Teena M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a day-long Aging Awareness workshop in which a group of 12 elderly were involved in a poetry-writing exercise focusing on meaningful life change. Ramifications of this positive experience are discussed in view of the cultural/language barrier and traditional aging awareness issues such as reminiscence. (JAC)

  3. Understanding the potency of stressful early life experiences on brain and body function

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    Early life experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire lifespan and influencing brain function, behavior and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of early life adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called “epigenetics” as well as the role of naturally occurring alleles of a number of genes. These studies also provide insights into the adaptive value, as well as the negative consequences, of early life stress, exposure to novelty, and poor vs good quality maternal care. Animal models begin to provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how brain development and physiological functioning is affected in children exposed to early life abuse and neglect, where there is a burgeoning literature on the consequences for physical health and emotional and cognitive development. An important goal is to identify interventions that are likely to be most effective in early life and some guidelines are provided. PMID:18803958

  4. Virtually numbed: immersive video gaming alters real-life experience.

    PubMed

    Weger, Ulrich W; Loughnan, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    As actors in a highly mechanized environment, we are citizens of a world populated not only by fellow humans, but also by virtual characters (avatars). Does immersive video gaming, during which the player takes on the mantle of an avatar, prompt people to adopt the coldness and rigidity associated with robotic behavior and desensitize them to real-life experience? In one study, we correlated participants' reported video-gaming behavior with their emotional rigidity (as indicated by the number of paperclips that they removed from ice-cold water). In a second experiment, we manipulated immersive and nonimmersive gaming behavior and then likewise measured the extent of the participants' emotional rigidity. Both studies yielded reliable impacts, and thus suggest that immersion into a robotic viewpoint desensitizes people to real-life experiences in oneself and others. PMID:24163171

  5. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?: A Patient Study Considering Just World Beliefs as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  6. Male experiences of life after recovery from an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Björk, Tabita; Wallin, Karin; Pettersen, Gunn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how former male patients perceive life after recovery from an eating disorder. A qualitative method with a phenomenographic approach was used to identify ways of experiencing recovery. Two descriptive categories were developed: body acceptance and self-worth. Six conceptions describe how recovered patients now relate in a balanced way to exercise and food, using strategies to avoid relapse. With a sense of self-acceptance and autonomy, they now appreciate their social life. Some perceive recovery as coping with remaining impulses to diet or exercise. Others experience themselves as totally free from the eating disorder. PMID:22985242

  7. Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) gas cell life test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, E. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Harvey, G. A.; Park, J. H.; Richardson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) will use gas filter correlation radiometry to measure the atmospheric concentration profiles of HCl, HF, NO, and CH4 from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The need to contain the gases for the gas filter measurements has resulted in the development of gas cells and the need for a life test program to demonstrate that the gas cells will perform their functions for extended periods (several years) of time. This report describes the tests in the life test program, the test apparatus used, and the analysis techniques developed. The report also presents data obtained during the first 14 months of the test program.

  8. BIOSPEX: Biological space experiments, a compendium of life sciences experiments carried on US spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M.; Rummel, J. A. (Editor); Deutsch, S. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    United States space life science experiments, encompassing 27 years of experience beginning with sounding rocket flights carrying primates (1948) to the last U.S. spaceflight, the joint US/USSR Apollo Test Project (1975), are presented. The information for each experiment includes Principal Investigators, the program and mission on which it was flown, the specimens used, the objectives, protocol, equipment, results, conclusions, and bibliographic reference citations for publications derived from each experiment.

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and their impact on frequency, severity, and the individual function of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Mattern, Margarete; Plener, Paul L; Bifulco, Antonia; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2013-04-30

    This study aimed to investigate a specific relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and a variety of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) over and above childhood abuse and their impact on frequency, severity, and functions of NSSI. A sample of 125 inpatients (aged 13 to 26) was consecutively recruited within a psychiatric university hospital. Frequency, methods and functions of NSSI were assessed by the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), ACEs were assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). The 12 month prevalence of NSSI in this representative, clinical sample was 60.0%. Engagement in NSSI was significantly related to ACEs with highest associations for maternal antipathy and neglect. Whilst ACEs were not associated with frequency or severity of NSSI, some ACEs were significantly related to the automatic functions of NSSI (e.g., affect regulation, anti-dissociative function or self-punishment) as well as to a peer identification function. NSSI represents a frequent phenomenon among young clinical populations and seems to be specifically related to ACEs with maternal antipathy or neglect commonly featured over and above experiences of abuse. Since ACEs also influence the functions of NSSI such factors need to be examined as part of clinical care planning. PMID:23159195

  10. Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2015-01-01

    Significant life experiences (SLE) research has been criticized for a disproportionate focus on privileged groups and positive experiences. In this paper, I use textual analysis to examine the SLEs within the Environmental Justice (EJ) literature. Theoretically, I blend feminist theory, the sociology of disaster, and research on EJ motives for…

  11. Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

  12. Freedom and Confinement: Patients' Experiences of Life with Home Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Vestman, C.; Hasselroth, M.; Berglund, M.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic end stage renal disease need dialysis to survive; however, they also need a treatment that suits their life situation. It is important that healthcare providers provide reliable, up-to-date information about different dialysis treatment options. Since home haemodialysis is a relatively new treatment, it is necessary to gather more knowledge about what the treatment entails from the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences of having home haemodialysis. To gain access to the patients' experiences, they were asked to write narratives, which describe both their good and bad experiences of life with the treatment. The narratives were analysed with a qualitative method. The results of this analysis are subdivided into five themes: freedom to be at home and control their own treatment, feeling of being alone with the responsibility, changes in the home environment, need for support, and security and well-being with home haemodialysis. The conclusion is that home haemodialysis provides a certain level of freedom, but the freedom is limited as the treatment itself is restrictive. In order to improve patients' experiences with home haemodialysis, more research based on patients' experiences is needed and it is necessary to involve the patients in the development of the care. PMID:25587441

  13. New Horizon in Life: Experiences of Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Mohammadpour, Ali; Fathi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The treatment quality of diseases can affect the patient's experience. Due to its different complications among cancer patients, the experience of chemotherapy is unique. The present study was conducted to explore the lived experience among cancer patients who had received chemotherapy. Methods: The study was conducted by a qualitative approach and a phenomenological method. In so doing, 12 cancer patients who had received chemotherapy were purposefully selected were interviewed using an in-depth method. After the required data were collected, they were analyzed by Tanner, Allen, Diekelmann method. Results: Analysis of the collected data indicated that the experience of chemotherapy appeared as “a new horizon in life” for the patients. Secondary themes of the new horizon in life included rebirth, understanding of life values, dependence, and need. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it was concluded that in addition to taking into providing mental-spiritual support and reducing the complications of the treatment, nurses in chemotherapy wards should pay attention to the experiences of the patients receiving chemotherapy and enhance hope and positive attitude among them. PMID:26573050

  14. Pharmacovigilance Analysis of Serious Adverse Events Reported for Biologic Response Modifiers Used as Prophylaxis against Transplant Rejection: a Real-World Postmarketing Experience from the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immunosuppression by biologic response modifiers (BRM) is a crucial component for successful organ transplantation. In addition to their variable effectiveness in the prevention of organ rejection, these medications have safety concerns that complicate therapeutic outcomes in organ transplant patients. Objective: This study aims at identifying and characterizing safety signals of serious adverse events associated with exposure to BRM among organ transplant patients in a real-world environment. Methods: The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System was utilized to apply a pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis to indentify serious adverse events. Associations between drugs and events were measured by empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (EB05–EB95). Associations with EBGM≥2 were considered significant safety signals. Results: From 1997 to 2012, a total of 12,151 serious adverse event reports for BRM were reported; 15.6% of them (n=1,711) met the safety signal threshold of EB05>1, and 11.6% of these signals (n=199) were significant (EBGM≥2). Sirolimus and mycophenolate accounted for the majority of all signals; antithymocyte immunoglobulin (ATI) and cyclosporine contributed to the majority of significant signals. The following significant signals were identified for ATI (reduced therapeutic response, pulmonary edema, hypotension, serum sickness, infusion-related reaction, and anaphylactic reaction); for azathioprine (alternaria infection, fungal skin infection, and lymphoproliferative disorder); for cyclosporine (neurotoxicity, graft vs. host disease, and thyroid cancer); for cyclophosphamide (disease progression); for daclizumab (cytomegalovirus infection); and for tacrolimus (coma and tremor). 33.6% of these events contributed to patient death (n=67); 6.5% were life-threatening (n=13); 32.1% lead to hospitalization (n=64); and 27.6% resulted in other serious outcomes (n=55). Conclusion: Utilization

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Well-Being of Women Who Were in Foster Care as Children

    PubMed Central

    Bruskas, Delilah; Tessin, Dale H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Research has shown that many children in foster care later have psychosocial problems as adults; this is often attributed to cumulative adversities and a lack of supportive caregivers. The risk factors associated with foster care, such as maternal separation and multiple placements, often counteract many protective factors that can ameliorate the effects of childhood adversities. This study assessed the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychosocial well-being in women who were in foster care as children. Methods: A total of 101 women aged 18–71 years (mean, 36.83 [12.95] years) completed an anonymous online survey based on the 10-item ACE Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. Results: More than 56% of respondents were identified as experiencing current psychological distress. Sense of coherence scores (mean, 54.26 [15.35]) showed a significant inverse association with both General Health Questionnaire (mean, 14.83 [5.88]) and ACE (mean, 5.68 [2.90]) scores (r = −0.64 and −0.31, respectively) and 97% reported at least 1 ACE, 70% reported ≥ 5 and 33% reported ≥ 8. Linear regressions indicated that ACEs reported to occur before foster care were associated with lower levels of sense of coherence (8%) and higher levels of psychological distress (6%). Physical neglect and living in a dysfunctional household (parental loss, maternal abuse, or household member associated with substance abuse or prison) significantly decreased during foster care by 16 and 19 percentage points, respectively. Rates of emotional and physical abuse did not change. Conclusion: The number of ACEs was associated with the level of psychological distress. Our findings suggest that children entering the foster care system are already vulnerable and at risk of experiencing ACEs during foster care and psychological distress during adulthood. Measures implemented to protect children must

  16. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. J.; Haven, C. P.; McCollum, S. G.; Lee, A. M.; Kamman, M. R.; Baumann, D. K.; Anderson, M. E.; Buderer, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process.

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Haven, C P; McCollum, S G; Lee, A M; Kamman, M R; Baumann, D K; Anderson, M E; Buderer, M C

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment. PMID:11669134

  18. Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-08-01

    Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity λ is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and λ using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures. PMID:23579043

  19. Early-life experience, epigenetics, and the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent-offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent-offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  20. Early-Life Experience, Epigenetics, and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent–offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent–offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  1. Using patients’ experiences of adverse events to improve health service delivery and practice: protocol of a data linkage study of Australian adults age 45 and above

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Merrilyn; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Harrison, Reema; Manias, Elizabeth; Iedema, Rick; Kelly, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evidence of patients’ experiences is fundamental to creating effective health policy and service responses, yet is missing from our knowledge of adverse events. This protocol describes explorative research redressing this significant deficit; investigating the experiences of a large cohort of recently hospitalised patients aged 45 years and above in hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods and analysis The 45 and Up Study is a cohort of 265 000 adults aged 45 years and above in NSW. Patients who were hospitalised between 1 January and 30 June 2014 will be identified from this cohort using data linkage and a random sample of 20 000 invited to participate. A cross-sectional survey (including qualitative and quantitative components) will capture patients’ experiences in hospital and specifically of adverse events. Approximately 25% of respondents are likely to report experiencing an adverse event. Quantitative components will capture the nature and type of events as well as common features of patients’ experiences. Qualitative data provide contextual knowledge of their condition and care and the impact of the event on individuals. Respondents who do not report an adverse event will report their experience in hospital and be the control group. Statistical and thematic analysis will be used to present a patient perspective of their experiences in hospital; the characteristics of patients experiencing an adverse event; experiences of information sharing after an event (open disclosure) and the other avenues of redress pursued. Interviews with key policymakers and a document analysis will be used to create a map of the current practice. Ethics and dissemination Dissemination via a one-day workshop, peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations will enable effective clinical responses and service provision and policy responses to adverse events to be developed. PMID:25311039

  2. Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

  3. Adversity and Syndemic Production Among Men Participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: A Life-Course Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sin How; Plankey, Michael W.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Guadamuz, Thomas T.; Kao, Uyen; Shoptaw, Steven; Carrico, Adam; Ostrow, David; Stall, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We tested a theory of syndemic production among men who have sex with men (MSM) using data from a large cohort study. Methods. Participants were 1551 men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study enrolled at 4 study sites: Baltimore, Maryland–Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants who attended semiannual visits from April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, completed an additional survey that captured data about events throughout their life course thought to be related to syndemic production. Results. Using multivariate analysis, we found that the majority of life-course predictor variables (e.g., victimization, internalized homophobia) were significantly associated with both the syndemic condition and the component psychosocial health outcomes (depressive symptoms, stress, stimulant use, sexual compulsivity, intimate partner violence). A nested negative binomial analysis showed that the overall life course significantly explained variability in the syndemic outcomes (χ2 = 247.94; P < .001; df = 22). Conclusions. We identified life-course events and conditions related to syndemic production that may help to inform innovative interventions that will effectively disentangle interconnecting health problems and promote health among MSM. PMID:23153154

  4. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles. PMID:24118915

  5. Shared ancestry, evolving stories: similar and contrasting life experiences described by foreign born and U.S. born Latino parents.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Córdova, David; Holtrop, Kendal; Villarruel, Francisco A; Wieling, Elizabeth

    2008-06-01

    As the Latino population in the United States continues to increase, so does the necessity for in-depth knowledge about their life experiences. This qualitative study sought to privilege the voices of Latino parents by utilizing focus group discussions. Specifically, participants described the life experiences that have the greatest influence on their parenting efforts. Similar and contrasting themes were identified based on participant country of origin (i.e., foreign born vs. U.S. born). Findings described the participants' commitment to being good parents, as well as the ways in which their parenting efforts are influenced by experiences of adversity and discrimination, Latino cultural values, gender roles, and resilience. The results of this investigation can inform researchers and mental health professionals working with Latino families. PMID:18605119

  6. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties

    PubMed Central

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555

  7. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    PubMed

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555

  8. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development. PMID:24595754

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: Sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285

  10. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research. PMID:26579624

  11. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285

  12. Engineering and simulation of life science Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, B.; Rummel, J.; Johnston, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Approaches to the planning and realization of Spacelab life sciences experiments, which may involve as many as 16 Space Shuttle missions and 100 tests, are discussed. In particular, a Spacelab simulation program, designed to evaluate problems associated with the use of live animal specimens, the constraints imposed by zero gravity on equipment operation, training of investigators and data management, is described. The simulated facility approximates the hardware and support systems of a current European Space Agency Spacelab model. Preparations necessary for the experimental program, such as crew activity plans, payload documentation and inflight experimental procedures are developed; health problems of the crew, including human/animal microbial contamination, are also assessed.

  13. The NASA Life Sciences experiment program for Shuttle/Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Life Sciences experiment program for the Shuttle/Spacelab has basically two scientific objectives. The first objective is related to an understanding and interpretation of the medical data from Skylab. The second objective is concerned with a utilization of the space environment, notably the very low g field, as an experimental variable in a broad range of fundamental studies. The program considered will use the pressurized module, almost exclusively, and will aim toward the greatest investigator participation in flight that is possible. Facilities must be provided to support such requirements as tissue biopses, blood, urine and tissue collections, and microbial and plant manipulations.

  14. Bios-3: Siberian experiments in bioregenerative life support.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, F B; Gitelson, J I; Lisovsky, G M

    1997-10-01

    The Russian experience with the bioregenerative life support system Bios-3 at Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, is reviewed. A brief review of other bioregenerative systems examines Biosphere 2 in Oracle, Arizona, and the Bios-1 and Bios-2 systems that preceded Bios-3. Physical details of the Bios-3 facility are provided. The use of Chlorella and higher plants for gas exchange is examined. Long-term studies of human habitation are discussed. Other topics include microflora in Bios-3, the theory of closed systems, and problems for the future. PMID:11540303

  15. Bios-3: Siberian experiments in bioregenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Gitelson, J. I.; Lisovsky, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The Russian experience with the bioregenerative life support system Bios-3 at Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, is reviewed. A brief review of other bioregenerative systems examines Biosphere 2 in Oracle, Arizona, and the Bios-1 and Bios-2 systems that preceded Bios-3. Physical details of the Bios-3 facility are provided. The use of Chlorella and higher plants for gas exchange is examined. Long-term studies of human habitation are discussed. Other topics include microflora in Bios-3, the theory of closed systems, and problems for the future.

  16. Chemical interpretation of Viking Lander 1 life detection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.; Lehwalt, M. E.; Mack, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An earth-based evaluation of the Viking Lander 1 life-detection experiments was conducted using a radiofrequency glow discharge in a simulated Martian atmosphere. The Gas Exchange Experiment conducted in the humid mode released substantial amounts of CO2, O2, N2, Ar, and CO into the atmosphere, indicating that these substances were adsorbed onto the Martian soil. An adsorption potential plot is given, graphing quantity of gas against time (d). For a model surface area of 17 squares meters per gram of measured substance, oxygen adsorption was found to be relatively high, a result which tends to confirm the hypothesis that Martian oxygen exists largely in chemisorbed states or in active oxygen compounds, e.g., peroxide, superoxide, hydroperoxide

  17. Bringing history to life: simulating landmark experiments in psychology.

    PubMed

    Boynton, David M; Smith, Laurence D

    2006-05-01

    The course in history of psychology can be challenging for students, many of whom enter it with little background in history and faced with unfamiliar names and concepts. The sheer volume of material can encourage passive memorization unless efforts are made to increase student involvement. As part of a trend toward experiential history, historians of science have begun to supplement their lectures with demonstrations of classic physics experiments as a way to bring the history of science to life. Here, the authors report on computer simulations of five landmark experiments from early experimental psychology in the areas of reaction time, span of attention, and apparent motion. The simulations are designed not only to permit hands-on replication of historically important results but also to reproduce the experimental procedures closely enough that students can gain a feel for the nature of early research and the psychological processes being studied. PMID:17152604

  18. Recent abuse from in-laws and associations with adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women: Extended families as part of the ecological model

    PubMed Central

    Falb, Kathryn L.; Annan, Jeannie; Hossain, Mazeda; Topolska, Monika; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women in the aftermath of conflict represents a growing area of concern. However, little is known about violence perpetrated by a woman’s in-laws and how these experiences may be related to adverse experiences during a crisis. Therefore, guided by the ecological model, the objectives of the following analysis were to (1) document adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women and (2) investigate the association between such experiences and abuse perpetrated by partners’ extended families, among a sample of women residing in rural Côte d’Ivoire. Utilising data from a baseline survey conducted in 2010, we generated descriptive statistics and used generalised estimating equations to assess the relationships of interest. Women whose family was victimised during the crisis had 1.7 times the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to those women whose families did not experience such adversity (95% CI: 1.1–2.4), and women who experienced a personal form of adversity had twice the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to women who did not report victimisation (95% CI: 1.2–3.2). Being forced to flee was not statistically associated with in-law abuse. Findings underscore the importance of addressing in-law abuse in order to promote women’s health in post-conflict settings. PMID:23826969

  19. Recent abuse from in-laws and associations with adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women: extended families as part of the ecological model.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Hossain, Mazeda; Topolska, Monika; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women in the aftermath of conflict represents a growing area of concern. However, little is known about violence perpetrated by a woman's in-laws and how these experiences may be related to adverse experiences during a crisis. Therefore, guided by the ecological model, the objectives of the following analysis were to (1) document adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women and (2) investigate the association between such experiences and abuse perpetrated by partners' extended families, among a sample of women residing in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Utilising data from a baseline survey conducted in 2010, we generated descriptive statistics and used generalised estimating equations to assess the relationships of interest. Women whose family was victimised during the crisis had 1.7 times the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to those women whose families did not experience such adversity (95% CI: 1.1-2.4), and women who experienced a personal form of adversity had twice the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to women who did not report victimisation (95% CI: 1.2-3.2). Being forced to flee was not statistically associated with in-law abuse. Findings underscore the importance of addressing in-law abuse in order to promote women's health in post-conflict settings. PMID:23826969

  20. Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A study from the 2007 the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Bentall, Richard P; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86-42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26-37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations. PMID:22496540

  1. Engineering and simulation of life sciences Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. S.; Bush, W. H. Jr; Rummel, J. A.; Alexander, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The third in a series of Spacelab Mission Development tests was conducted at the Johnson (correction of Johnston) Space Center as a part of the development of Life Sciences experiments for the Space Shuttle era. The latest test was a joint effort of the Ames Research and Johnson Space Centers and utilized animals and men for study. The basic objective of this test was to evaluate the operational concepts planned for the Space Shuttle life science payloads program. A three-man crew (Mission Specialist and two Payload Specialists) conducted 26 experiments and 12 operational tests, which were selected for this 7-day mission simulation. The crew lived on board a simulated Orbiter/Spacelab mockup 24 hr a day. The Orbiter section contained the mid deck crew quarters area, complete with sleeping, galley and waste management provisions. The Spacelab was identical in geometry to the European Space Agency Spacelab design, complete with removable rack sections and stowage provisions. Communications between the crewmen and support personnel were configured and controlled as currently planned for operational shuttle flights. For this test a Science Operations Remote Center was manned at the Ames Research Center and was managed by simulated Mission Control and Payload Operation Control Centers at the Johnson Space Center. This paper presents the test objectives, description of the facilities and test program, and the results of this test.

  2. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed. PMID:25134042

  3. Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

  4. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Singh, Gopal K

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0-17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6-29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0–17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6–29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  7. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Akinori; Yamanaka, Takao; Hirakawa, Tadatoshi; Koga, Yasuyuki; Minomo, Ryosuke; Munemoto, Takao; Tei, Chuwa

    2007-01-01

    Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years) who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9) and illness in household (RR = 1.7) increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder. PMID:17407551

  8. Interaction of FKBP5 Gene Variants and Adverse Life Events in Predicting Depression Onset: Results From a 10-Year Prospective Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Petra; Brückl, Tanja; Nocon, Agnes; Pfister, Hildegard; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Uhr, Manfred; Lieb, Roselind; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Holsboer, Florian; Ising, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Objective The binding protein FKBP5 is an important modulator of the function of the glucocorticoid receptor, the main receptor of the stress horm one system. This turns the FKBP5 gene into a key candidate for gene-environment interactions, which are considered critical for pathogenesis of stress-related disorders. The authors explored gene-environment interactions between FKBP5 gene variants and adverse life events in predicting the first occurrence of a major depressive episode. Method The analyses were based on 884 Caucasians in a 10-year prospective community study. At baseline, they were 14–24 years old and did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode. The DSM-IV-based Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess adverse life events preceding baseline and major depressive episodes during follow-up. On the basis of previous findings, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FKBP5 gene were selected for genotyping. Results While the authors did not observe genetic main effects, they found interactions between the five SNPs and traumatic (but not separation) events, with the strongest effect for severe trauma. The effect of trauma on incident major depressive episodes was evident among subjects homozygous for the minor alleles but not subjects with other genotypes. The findings were replicated in the U.K. Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study. Conclusions These hypothesis-driven results suggest that an interaction between FKBP5 genotype and trauma is involved in the onset of depression. Subjects homozygous for the minor alleles of the investigated FKBP5 SNPs seem to be particularly sensitive to effects of trauma exposure in terms of triggering depression onset. PMID:21865530

  9. Patient Experience, Pain, and Quality of Life after Lower Limb Angioplasty: A Multisite Prospective Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Culverwell, A. D.; Tapping, C. R.; Ettles, D. F.; Kessel, D.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To explore the experience of patients undergoing endovascular lower limb angioplasty and evaluate the improvements in quality of life and disease-related symptoms after the procedure. Methods: Patients completed a questionnaire before treatment and three questionnaires after the procedure (immediately after the procedure, and again 4 weeks and 3 months later). Anxiety, patient understanding, procedure-related pain, and disease-related pain were assessed by a visual analog score (VAS). Complications, analgesic requirements, and satisfaction were recorded. Changes to quality of life were assessed by the validated SF36 questionnaire. Results: A total of 88 patients (41%) responded. Overall, disease-related pain decreased over 3 months after the procedure. Smokers had more pain both before and after the procedure (P < 0.05). Explanation was considered better if provided by radiologist (P < 0.05). Sixty-nine percent of patients found the procedures less painful (mean VAS 2.5) than they had anticipated (VAS 5.5). Fifty percent of patients experienced adverse effects related to their puncture site, but this was highest among patients who had undergone the procedure before and smokers. The greatest quality-of-life improvements were in emotional and general health. Higher levels of disease-related pain were associated with worse general, emotional, and physical health (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Lower limb angioplasty provides symptomatic and quality-of-life improvements. Implementation of simple measures could improve patient satisfaction-for example, treatment should be explained by the radiologist in advance. Routine prescription of analgesics with particular attention to smokers and those undergoing repeat interventions is suggested.

  10. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    PubMed

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations. PMID:26850613

  11. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life. PMID:26640647

  12. Ground based simulation of life sciences Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Alexander, W. C.; Bush, W. H.; Johnston, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The third in a series of Spacelab Mission Development tests was a joint effort of the Ames Research and Johnson Space Centers to evaluate planned operational concepts of the Space Shuttle life sciences program. A three-man crew conducted 26 experiments and 12 operational tests, utilizing both human and animal subjects. The crew lived aboard an Orbiter/Spacelab mockup for the seven-day simulation. The Spacelab was identical in geometry to the European Space Agency design, complete with removable rack sections and stowage provisions. Communications were controlled as currently planned for operational Shuttle flights. A Science Operations Remote Center at the Ames Research Center was managed by simulated Mission Control and Payload Operation Control Centers at the Johnson Space Center. This paper presents the test objectives, describes the facilities and test program, and outlines the results of this test.

  13. Life science experiments during parabolic flight: The McGill experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, D. G. D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past twelve years, members of the Aerospace Medical Research Unit of McGill University have carried out a wide variety of tests and experiments in the weightless condition created by parabolic flight. This paper discusses the pros and cons of that environment for the life scientist, and uses examples from the McGill program of the types of activities which can be carried out in a transport aircraft such as the NASA KC-135.

  14. The relationship between adverse childhood experience and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and beliefs: the role of anxiety, depression, and experiential avoidance.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Eric S; Price, Ian R

    2009-12-01

    Current cognitive-behavioral models of the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that maladaptive appraisal of otherwise normal intrusive thoughts have their origins in early learning experiences. The present study investigated the relationship between adverse childhood experience and OCD symptoms and related dysfunctional beliefs in a general population using a structural equation modeling approach. The role of experiential avoidance and anxiety and depression were also explored in the model. Results indicated that adverse childhood experience was strongly associated with OCD symptoms and beliefs, but after controlling for anxiety and depression the relationship with OCD symptoms became non-significant and only a weak relationship with OCD beliefs remained. Experiential avoidance was significantly associated with OCD symptoms and beliefs and remained significant after controlling for anxiety and depression. Implications of these results in the context of a complete model of the development of OCD are discussed. PMID:19635653

  15. Ground experiments for finding principles and working out methods for preventing adverse effects of weightlessness on the human organism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakurin, L. I.; Gregoryev, A. I.; Mikhailov, V. M.; Tishler, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different prophylactic procedures to prevent the adverse effects of weightlessness is presented. It is concluded that: physical training is most effective but no single method by itself produces the full effect, and an adjustment of regimes to one another enhances the effect. The approved complex of prophylactic procedures affected basic changes occurring in hypokinesia: deficit of muscular activity, no or reduced BP hydrostatic component, reduced volume of blood circulation, reduced hydration level, and the application of various prophylactic complexes during 49 day antiorthostatic hypodynamia eliminated or reduced the adverse effects of weightlessness in simulation.

  16. Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bentall, Richard P.; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86–42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26–37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations. PMID:22496540

  17. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  18. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  19. INVESTIGATING ALTERNATIVES TO THE FISH EARLY-LIFE STAGE TEST: A STRATEGY FOR DISCOVERING AND ANNOTATING ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAYS FOR EARLY FISH DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

    2014-01-01

    The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence–based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:158–169. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any

  20. Low health-related quality of life is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with chronic nonischemic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Zakliczyński, Michał; Owczarek, Aleksander; Partyka, Robert; Mościński, Mateusz; Pudlo, Robert; Kaczmarczyk, Marcin; Zembala, Marian; Poloński, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The need to indentify patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) at a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) has become increasingly important; therefore, new parameters, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), are gaining ground. The aim of this study The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for MACEs, with a special emphasis on HRQoL in chronic non-ischemic heart failure (NIHF) patients. Material and methods This prospective study enrolled 271 hospitalized patients with heart failure symptoms (NYHA II and III), without neoplastic disease, diabetes, hepatic cirrhosis or chronic kidney disease, who had been receiving optimal medical treatment. In all the patients, laboratory examinations, electrocardiography, echocardiography, a 6-minute walking test, invasive right heart pressure measurements and coronary angiography were performed. HRQoL assessment was conducted with the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical observation commenced on admission to the hospital and lasted 3 years. Data concerning MACE incidence (death, transplantation, circulatory support, hospitalization) were obtained during outpatient visits. Results The final analysis enrolled 202 patients, while 17 patients were lost to follow up. The MACE incidence was 42.1%. Major adverse cardiovascular events risk factors in multiple factor analysis were: alkaline phosphatase (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01; p < 0.05); right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (HR = 1.08; p < 0.001); hsCRP (HR = 1.04; p < 0.05); and the following HRQoL indices: Bodily Pain (HR = 0.98; p < 0.05) and Mental Health (HR = 0.97; p < 0.01). Conclusions Low values for HRQoL parameters (Bodily Pain and Mental Health), right ventricular end-diastolic diameter, serum concentration of hsCRP and alkaline phosphatase are prognostic factors in NIHF patients. PMID:26336436

  1. Early-Life Adversity Interacts with FKBP5 Genotypes: Altered Working Memory and Cardiac Stress Reactivity in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project.

    PubMed

    Lovallo, William R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Vincent, Andrea S; Goldman, David

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods of development can have adverse effects on adult health behaviors, and genetic vulnerabilities may enhance these stress effects. We carried out an exploratory examination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of 252 healthy young adults for the impact of early-life adversity (ELA) in relation to the G-to-A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9296158, of the FKBP5 gene. FKBP5 is a molecular cochaperone that contributes to the functional status of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and to the quality of corticosteroid signaling. FKBP5 expression is upregulated by cortisol exposure during stressful episodes, with greater upregulation seen in A-allele carriers. As such, FKBP5 expression and GR function may be environmentally sensitive in A-allele carriers and therefore suitable for the study of gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Compared with FKBP5, GG homozygotes (N=118), A-allele carriers (N = 132) without psychiatric morbidity had progressively worse performance on the Stroop color-word task with increasing levels of ELA exposure (Genotype × ELA, F=5.14, P=0.007), indicating a G × E interaction on working memory in early adulthood. In addition, heart rate response to mental stress was diminished overall in AA/AG-allele carriers (F=5.15, P=0.024). Diminished working memory and attenuated autonomic responses to stress are both associated with risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. The present data suggest that FKBP5 in the GR pathway may be a point of vulnerability to ELA, as seen in this group of non-traumatized young adults. FKBP5 is accordingly a potential target for more extensive studies of the impact of ELA on health and health behaviors in adulthood. PMID:26632991

  2. Precursor life science experiments and closed life support systems on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Paille, C.; Rebeyre, P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, C.

    Nowadays the Moon is not only a scientific exploration target but also potentially also a launch pad for deeper space exploration. Establishing an extended human presence on the Moon could reduce the cost of further space exploration, and gather the technical and scientific experience that would make possible the next steps of space exploration, namely manned-missions to Mars. To enable the establishment of such a Moon base, a reliable and regenerative life support system (LSS) is required: without any recycling of metabolic consumables (oxygen, water and food), a 6-person crew during the course of one year would require a supply of 12t from Earth (not including water for hygiene purposes), with a prohibitive associated cost! The recycling of consumables is therefore mandatory for a combination of economic, logistical and also safety reasons. Currently the main regenerative technologies used, namely water recycling in the ISS, are physical-chemical but they do not solve the issue of food production. In the European Space Agency, for the last 15 years, studies are being performed on several life support topics, namely in air revitalisation, food, water and waste management, contaminants, monitoring and control. Ground demonstration, namely the MELiSSA Pilot Plant and Concordia Station, and simulation studies demonstrated the studies feasibility and the recycling levels are promising. To be able to build LSS in a Moon base, the temperature amplitude, the dust and its 14-day night, which limits solar power supply, should be regarded. To reduce these technical difficulties, a landing site should be carefully chosen. Considering the requirements of a mission to the Moon and within the Aurora programme phase I, a preliminary configuration for a regenerative LSS can be proposed as an experiment for a precursor mission to the Moon. An overview of the necessary LSS to a Moon base will be presented, identifying Moon?s specific requirements and showing preliminary

  3. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  4. An intricate dance: Life experience, multisystem resiliency, and rate of telomere decline throughout the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa

    2012-11-01

    Accumulation of life stressors predicts accelerated development and progression of diseases of aging. Telomere length, the DNA-based biomarker indicating cellular aging, is a mechanism of disease development, and is shortened in a dose response fashion by duration and severity of life stressor exposures. Telomere length captures the interplay between genetics, life experiences and psychosocial and behavioral factors. Over the past several years, psychological stress resilience, healthy lifestyle factors, and social connections have been associated with longer telomere length and it appears that these factors can protect individuals from stress-induced telomere shortening. In the current review, we highlight these findings, and illustrate that combining these `multisystem resiliency' factors may strengthen our understanding of aging, as these powerful factors are often neglected in studies of aging. In naturalistic studies, the effects of chronic stress exposure on biological pathways are rarely main effects, but rather a complex interplay between adversity and resiliency factors. We suggest that chronic stress effects can be best understood by directly testing if the deleterious effects of stress on biological aging processes, in this case the cell allostasis measure of telomere shortening, are mitigated in individuals with high levels of multisystem resiliency. Without attending to such interactions, stress effects are often masked and missed. Taking account of the cluster of positive buffering factors that operate across the lifespan will take us a step further in understanding healthy aging. While these ideas are applied to the telomere length literature for illustration, the concept of multisystem resiliency might apply to aging broadly, from cellular to systemic health. PMID:23162608

  5. An intricate dance: Life experience, multisystem resiliency, and rate of telomere decline throughout the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of life stressors predicts accelerated development and progression of diseases of aging. Telomere length, the DNA-based biomarker indicating cellular aging, is a mechanism of disease development, and is shortened in a dose response fashion by duration and severity of life stressor exposures. Telomere length captures the interplay between genetics, life experiences and psychosocial and behavioral factors. Over the past several years, psychological stress resilience, healthy lifestyle factors, and social connections have been associated with longer telomere length and it appears that these factors can protect individuals from stress-induced telomere shortening. In the current review, we highlight these findings, and illustrate that combining these `multisystem resiliency' factors may strengthen our understanding of aging, as these powerful factors are often neglected in studies of aging. In naturalistic studies, the effects of chronic stress exposure on biological pathways are rarely main effects, but rather a complex interplay between adversity and resiliency factors. We suggest that chronic stress effects can be best understood by directly testing if the deleterious effects of stress on biological aging processes, in this case the cell allostasis measure of telomere shortening, are mitigated in individuals with high levels of multisystem resiliency. Without attending to such interactions, stress effects are often masked and missed. Taking account of the cluster of positive buffering factors that operate across the lifespan will take us a step further in understanding healthy aging. While these ideas are applied to the telomere length literature for illustration, the concept of multisystem resiliency might apply to aging broadly, from cellular to systemic health. PMID:23162608

  6. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place different organisms with appropriate numbers and proportions. This research cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) in the Closed Integrative Cultivating System (CICS) of the Integrative Experimental Sys-tem (IES) with Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the Plate Photo Bioreactor (PPB) of the IES. Gas exchange between testers and the IES were conducted periodically. The automotive control system of the PPB changed the illumination intensity of the photo bioreactor according to the CO2 concentration in the IES to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels by regu-lating the photosynthesis of alga. The conveyor-type cultivation method which was harvesting the biggest batch of lettuce and silkworms through the mass exchange chamber of IES every four days and transferring the smallest batch of lettuce and silkworms into the system; carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with nutrient liquid replenished into the system was implemented in the experiments. In terms of gas circulation, CO2 /O2 concentration changes in the system with trace gas contaminants (CH4 , NH3 and C2 H4 ) were measured. As to the mass transfer and transformation, element (C, H, O, N) contents, height, crown width and biomasses of lettuce in different developing stages, silkworms' bioconversion rates, alga's biomass changes, the amount and community change trends of the microorganism in different positions of the system, the quality of condensates gained under different running conditions and so on were studied. Results showed

  7. Life Course Experiences, Pain and Suffering: A Case Study of an Older Mexican American Woman with Mobility Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Janiece L.; Harrison, Tracie C.; Hendrickson, Sherry G.

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature examining how adversity shapes the experiences of pain and/or suffering in a middle aged Mexican American women. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to understand pain and suffering from a life course perspective as described by a Mexican American woman aging with early onset mobility impairment. This Hispanic woman experienced episodes of abuse and rejection over the life course, which may have significantly influenced her pain and suffering experience in adulthood. This adds to the literature on how adversity influences later life pain experience and provides insight on why pharmacological treatment alone may not be as successful as a holistic intervention. Hay escasez de literatura que examine cómo la adversidad da forma a las experiencias de dolor y / o sufrimiento en mujeres mexicana-americana mayores de edad. El propósito de este estudio descriptivo cualitativo fue comprender el dolor y el sufrimiento desde una perspectiva de ciclo de vida como descrito por una mujer mexicana-americana envejeciendo con inicio temprano de deterioro de movilidad. Esta Latina experimentó episodios de maltrato y rechazo, que se percibió haber afectado su experiencia de dolor y sufrimiento luego como adulta. Este estudio aumenta la literatura sobre cómo la adversidad influya la experiencia de dolor más tarde en la vida, y nos permite comprender mejor como el tratamiento farmacológico por sí solo no es tan exitoso como pueda ser una intervención integral. PMID:24830728

  8. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  9. Labeled Release - An experiment in radiorespirometry. [for Viking Mars Program life detection experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Labeled Release extraterrestrial life detection experiment onboard the Viking spacecraft is described as it will be implemented on the surface of Mars in 1976. This experiment is designed to detect heterotrophic life by supplying a dilute solution of radioactive organic substrates to a sample of Martian soil and monitoring for evolution of radioactive gas. A significantly attenuated response by a heat-sterilized control sample of the same soil would confirm a positive metabolic response. Experimental assumptions as well as criteria for the selection of organic substrates are presented. The Labeled Release nutrient has been widely tested, is versatile in eliciting terrestrial metabolic responses, and is stable to heat sterilization and to the long-term storage required before its use on Mars. A testing program has been conducted with flight-like instruments to acquire science data relevant to the interpretation of the Mars experiment. Factors involved in the delineation of a positive result are presented and the significance of the possible results discussed.

  10. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30,60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  11. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  12. Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes Associated with a Life-Long High Fat Diet: Role of Altered Development of the Placental Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Jim J.; Storozhuk, Yaryna; Paez-Parent, Sabrina; Dai, Qin; Samjoo, Imtiaz A.; Mansell, Margaret; Gruslin, Andree; Holloway, Alison C.; Raha, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Maternal obesity results in a number of obstetrical and fetal complications with both immediate and long-term consequences. The increased prevalence of obesity has resulted in increasing numbers of women of reproductive age in this high-risk group. Since many of these obese women have been subjected to hypercaloric diets from early childhood we have developed a rodent model of life-long maternal obesity to more clearly understand the mechanisms that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in obese women. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON - 16% of calories from fat) or high fat diet (HF - 45% of calories from fat) from 3 to 19 weeks of age. Prior to pregnancy HF-fed dams exhibited significant increases in body fat, serum leptin and triglycerides. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day 15 to evaluate fetal and placental development. The remaining animals were allowed to deliver normally. HF-fed dams exhibited a more than 3-fold increase in fetal death and decreased neonatal survival. These outcomes were associated with altered vascular development in the placenta, as well as increased hypoxia in the labyrinth. We propose that the altered placental vasculature may result in reduced oxygenation of the fetal tissues contributing to premature demise and poor neonatal survival. PMID:22442686

  13. Self-reported experience of bullying of students who stutter: relations with life satisfaction, life orientation, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M; Tramontana, G Michael; Sylvia, Anna J; Boyle, Michael P; Motzko, Gina R

    2011-10-01

    Self-reported self-esteem, life orientation, satisfaction with life, and bullying were examined in relation to victimization experiences among 54 students who stuttered and 54 students who did not stutter. Those who stuttered reported greater, i.e., clinically significant, victimization (44.4%) than students who did not stutter (9.2%). Significant differences were found between means for self-esteem and life orientation, with students who stuttered reporting lower self-esteem and less optimistic life orientation than those who did not stutter. In both groups of students, high victimization scores had statistically significant negative correlations with optimistic life orientation, high self-esteem, and high satisfaction with life scores. Given the increased likelihood of students who stuttered being bullied, the negative relation of adjustment variables and bullying, and the potentially negative long-term effects of bullying, increased vigilance and early intervention are discussed. PMID:22185050

  14. Physiological Reactivity and Recent Life-Stress Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardine, Peter; Napoli, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    Assessed differences in cardiovascular reactivity between high and low life-stress students (N=26). Results indicated high life-stress individuals maintained their elevated stressor levels throughout recovery from a laboratory stressor, and showed significantly higher systolic recovery levels compared to the low stress group. (JAC)

  15. Synaptic rewiring of stress-sensitive neurons by early-life experience: A mechanism for resilience?

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Taylor, Akanksha; Korosi, Aniko; Molet, Jenny; Gunn, Benjamin G.; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2014-01-01

    Genes and environment interact to influence cognitive and emotional functions throughout life. Early-life experiences in particular contribute to vulnerability or resilience to a number of emotional and cognitive illnesses in humans. In rodents, early-life experiences directly lead to resilience or vulnerability to stress later in life, and influence the development of cognitive and emotional deficits. The mechanisms for the enduring effects of early-life experiences on cognitive and emotional outcomes are not completely understood. Here, we present emerging information supporting experience-dependent modulation of the number and efficacy of synaptic inputs onto stress-sensitive neurons. This synaptic ‘rewiring’, in turn, may influence the expression of crucial neuronal genes. The persistent changes in gene expression in resilient versus vulnerable rodent models are likely maintained via epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, early-life experience may generate resilience by altering synaptic input to neurons, which informs them to modulate their epigenetic machinery. PMID:25530985

  16. Thursday's child: the role of adverse childhood experiences in explaining mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John R; Andersen, Judith P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined how adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may explain disparities in poor mental health between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB), and heterosexual adults. Data are from three US states' 2010 behavioral risk factor surveillance system surveys (n = 20,060) that included sexual orientation, ACE inventory, and mental distress. LGB status was significantly associated with mental distress (OR = 1.85 [1.14-3.02]). Once incorporating ACE scores into the multiple regression analysis, LGB status was no longer associated with mental distress (OR = 1.28 [0.76-2.16]). The results corroborate previous research that LGB individuals report greater prevalence of childhood adversity than their heterosexual peers, which may explain LGB adulthood health disparities. PMID:25367679

  17. Thursday’s child: The role of adverse childhood experiences in explaining mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Andersen, Judith P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) may explain disparities in poor mental health between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual adults. Data are from three U.S. states’ 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n=20,060) that included sexual orientation, ACE inventory, and mental distress. LGB status was significantly associated with mental distress (OR=1.85 [1.14–3.02]). Once incorporating ACE scores into the multiple regression analysis, LGB status was no longer associated with mental distress (OR=1.28 [0.76–2.16]). The results corroborate previous research that LGB individuals report greater prevalence of childhood adversity than their heterosexual peers, which may explain LGB adulthood health disparities. PMID:25367679

  18. Imagining the Alternatives to Life Prolonging Treatments: Elders' Beliefs about the Dying Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Parker, Barbara; Schneider, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Deciding for or against a life-prolonging treatment represents a choice between prolonged life and death. When the death alternative is not described, individuals must supply their own assumptions. How do people imagine the experience of dying? The authors asked 40 elderly people open-ended questions about dying without 4 common life-prolonging…

  19. The Experience of Critical Self-Reflection by Life Coaches: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Deanna Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of critical self-reflection by life coaches. Life coaching is expanding within many disciplines including education, health care, business, social work, and wellness. Life coaching involves a coach working with an individual or groups aimed at effecting change for professional and personal…

  20. College Students' Life Experiences in Korea and in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sunwoo; Youn, Gahyun; Stilwell, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Even though college students may be faced with developmental life tasks that might lead them to cognitive and emotional growth, little is known about how college students' life experiences are related to their cultural values. Understanding college students' life across culture requires both exploratory and confirmatory approaches to…

  1. Life sciences flight experiments program, life sciences project division, procurement quality provisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, G.

    1980-01-01

    Methods are defined for implementing quality assurance policy and requirements for life sciences laboratory equipment, experimental hardware, integration and test support equipment, and integrated payloads.

  2. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  3. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: the impact of socio-economic factors and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics drugs.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; de Araújo Dantas, Diego; do Nascimento, Gemma Galgani; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Chaves, Katarina Melo; de Lima Silva, Vanessa; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the effects of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs on quality of life (QoL) and side effects in 218 patients with schizophrenia attending the ambulatory services of psychiatric in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socio-economic variables were compared. The five-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate QoL, and side effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale. Data were analysed using the χ (2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Average monthly household incomes in the medication groups were 1.1-2.1 minimum wages ($339-$678). UKU Scale scores showed significant differences in side effects, mainly, clozapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone (p < 0.05). EQ-5D scores showed that all drugs except olanzapine significantly impacted mobility (p < 0.05), and proportions of individuals reporting problems in other dimensions were high: 63.6 % of clozapine users reported mobility problems, 63.7 and 56.3 % of clozapine and ziprasidone users, respectively, had difficulties with usual activities, 68.8 and 54.5 % of ziprasidone and clozapine users, respectively, experienced pain and/or discomfort, and 72.8 % of clozapine users reported anxiety and/or depression. Psychiatric, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects, as well as other side effects, were prevalent in users of atypical antipsychotic drugs, especially clozapine and ziprasidone. Olanzapine had the least side effects. QoL was impacted by side effects and economic conditions in all groups. Thus, the effects of these antipsychotic agents appear to have been masked by aggravating social and economic situations. PMID:24789610

  4. Life sciences flight experiments program mission science requirements document. The first life sciences dedicated Spacelab mission, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Mission Science Requirements Document (MSRD) for the First Dedicated Life Sciences Mission (LS-1) represents the culmination of thousands of hours of experiment selection, and science requirement definition activities. NASA life sciences has never before attempted to integrate, both scientifically and operationally, a single mission dedicated to life sciences research, and the complexity of the planning required for such an endeavor should be apparent. This set of requirements completes the first phase of a continual process which will attempt to optimize (within available programmatic and mission resources) the science accomplished on this mission.

  5. 45 CFR 158.231 - Life-years used to determine credible experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life-years used to determine credible experience. 158.231 Section 158.231 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING... and Providing the Rebate § 158.231 Life-years used to determine credible experience. (a) The...

  6. 45 CFR 158.231 - Life-years used to determine credible experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life-years used to determine credible experience. 158.231 Section 158.231 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING... and Providing the Rebate § 158.231 Life-years used to determine credible experience. (a) The...

  7. Older Women and Sexuality: Experiences in Marital Relationships across the Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Laura Hurd

    2006-01-01

    Rates of sexual activity have been found to decline over the life course, as individuals experience marital transitions and the loss of partners, health problems, and decreased sexual interest. This article compares and contrasts earlier and later-life sexual experiences and examines the changing meanings that older women ascribe to sexuality over…

  8. Significant Life Experiences Revisited: A Review of Research on Sources of Environmental Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Louise

    1998-01-01

    States that environmental sensitivity, an important variable in environmental awareness and in the predisposition to take responsible environmental action, has been the subject of research in which sensitivity is associated with particular kinds of significant life experiences. Reviews studies of the significant life experiences of environmental…

  9. Life-Experience Credit: Academic Rip-Off or Antidote for Academic Overkill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Supports granting formal credit for "life experiences," especially in the social sciences, and reviews the writings of John Dewey on the assessment of life experiences and criteria for awarding credit. Also describes current methods of earning degree credit at Jamestown Community College. (MB)

  10. Language Learning in Second Life: American and Turkish Students' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcikanli, Cem

    2012-01-01

    There have been several attempts to integrate Web 2.0 technologies including podcasts, weblogs, wikis, and virtual 3D communities into language education thus far. Second Life, a virtual 3D community, might create unique opportunities for language learners specifically in the following ways: As a source of authentic interaction with target…

  11. Life's Stress Events That American River College Students Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Richard A.; Grill, Cathleen; Barr, James E.

    This study investigated stress levels and the sources of stress upon students enrolled at American River College (California), a community college of 20,000 students. Participants responded to a questionnaire measuring degrees of stress experienced in 43 life events within the past 12 months. Each individual's stress weights were then summed to…

  12. Monitoring Urban Quality of Life: The Porto Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Luis Delfim; Martins, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the monitoring system of the urban quality of life developed by the Porto City Council, a new tool being used to support urban planning and management. The two components of this system--a quantitative approach based on statistical indicators and a qualitative analysis based on the citizens' perceptions of the conditions of…

  13. Family Life Education for Young Adolescents. A Quasi-Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Elicia J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The impact of the Family Life Education Program for disadvantaged inner-city minority students (grades seven and eight) was investigated. Compared to the control group, program participants displayed improved knowledge about contraception, reproductive physiology, and adolescent pregnancy outcomes. Implications for school-based sex education…

  14. Operational plans for life science payloads - From experiment selection through postflight reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollum, G. W.; Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Key features of operational plans developed in a study of the Space Shuttle era life science payloads program are presented. The data describes the overall acquisition, staging, and integration of payload elements, as well as program implementation methods and mission support requirements. Five configurations were selected as representative payloads: (a) carry-on laboratories - medical emphasis experiments, (b) mini-laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (c) seven-day dedicated laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (d) 30-day dedicated laboratories - Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) with selected life science experiments, and (e) Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) - extended duration primate (Type I) and small vertebrate (Type II) missions. The recommended operational methods described in the paper are compared to the fundamental data which has been developed in the life science Spacelab Mission Simulation (SMS) test series. Areas assessed include crew training, experiment development and integration, testing, data-dissemination, organization interfaces, and principal investigator working relationships.

  15. Sensory-processing sensitivity moderates the association between childhood experiences and adult life satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Charlotte; Standage, Helen; Fox, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH: hypothesizing that some individuals are more responsive to both positive and negative experiences) with adult personality traits. The current study examined the DSH by investigating the moderating effect of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) on childhood experiences and life satisfaction. A total of 185 adults completed measures of SPS, positive/negative childhood experiences and life satisfaction. SPS did moderate the association between childhood experiences and life satisfaction. Simple slopes analysis compared those reporting high and low SPS (+/− 1 SD) and revealed that the difference was observed only for those who reported negative childhood experiences; with the high SPS group reporting lower life satisfaction. There was no difference observed in those reporting positive childhood experiences, which supported a diathesis-stress model rather than the DSH. PMID:26688599

  16. Site-specific methylation changes in the glucocorticoid receptor exon 1F promoter in relation to life adversity: systematic review of contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    There has been recent interest in epigenetics in psychiatry since it offers a means of understanding how stressful life experiences, in interaction with the genotype, result in epigenetic changes that result in altered gene expression, ultimately affecting the risk for mental disorders. Many studies focused on methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor exon 1F promoter following an initial observation that changes in this region could be modulated by the environment. This review examines all published studies that have attempted to measure methylation in this region using different techniques, several tissue types, populations at different behavioral state and stages of development. Methodological issues have been raised with the aim of attempting to understand methylation quantification and site of action. We propose that it is useful to examine whether methylation at specific sites within the promoter region may be particularly relevant to psychiatric vulnerability to stress-related outcomes. PMID:25484853

  17. Real life experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters

    SciTech Connect

    Sakariassen, R.

    1996-12-31

    Multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters are to be considered as newcomers among flow meters for large, high pressure gas flows. Although the advantages of this type of meters are many and obvious, the metering community is still hesitating to go for it mainly because of lack of experience. The objective of this paper is to present the experience of Statoil after more than six years experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters. Their experience includes laboratory testing and operation in the field for a variety of designs and dimensions. This paper presents the accuracy achieved by such meters including comparison between ultrasonic meters and orifice metering systems in operation, the unique possibilities that this type of meter offers for on-line verification of performance and installation effects. Of particular interest should be noted that in the vicinity of low-noise control valves, such meters could stop functioning completely if no precautions are taken.

  18. Prevalence of cutaneous adverse events associated with long-term disease-modifying therapy and their impact on health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFN-β) are disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis that are administered through subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) injections. Skin reactions associated with DMTs are common and may influence patient’s health-related quality of life (QoL). We aimed to determine the prevalence of cutaneous adverse events associated with long-term DMT use, and to assess the impact of cutaneous adverse events on QoL. Methods A cross-sectional study among patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with their first DMT for at least 2 years. Cutaneous events were assessed from photographs of injection-sites by dermatologists blinded for DMT. Generic and dermatology-specific health-related QoL were assessed using validated patient-reported questionnaires. Results A total of 229 patients were enrolled, of whom 156 (68%) had at least one skin reaction. The prevalence of cutaneous adverse events was higher for SC DMTs (75-82%) compared to IM DMT (41%) (P < 0.001). Erythema and lipoatrophy were the most common skin reactions, observed in 156 (68%) and 45 (20%) patients, respectively. Dermatology-specific, but not generic, QoL was significantly lower among patients with skin reactions compared to those without. Conclusions The prevalence of cutaneous adverse events was high in long-term DMT-treatment. Patients with cutaneous adverse events had a lower perceived dermatology-specific QoL. PMID:24131589

  19. Virtual Worlds: Relationship between Real Life and Experience in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstadt, Scott P.; Bradley, Shannon; Burnette, Ashley; Medley, Lesley L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the unique applications of virtual reality in many modern contexts, Second Life (SL) offers inimitable opportunities for research and exploration and experiential learning as part of a distance learning curriculum assignment. A review of current research regarding SL examined real world social influences in online interactions and what the…

  20. Pathways to Equity in Mathematics Education: How Life Experiences Impact Researcher Positionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Q.; Gau Bartell, Tonya

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the life histories of a group of emerging scholars in the field of mathematics education who identify themselves as having a particular interest in and concern for issues of equity and diversity. Experiences of being the "other," "bearing witness" to "othering experiences," and "orienting experiences" in relation to issues of…

  1. Cognitive impairment effects of early life stress in adolescents can be predicted with early biomarkers: Impacts of sex, experience, and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21). Blood samples were taken at distinct developmental time points for analysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, and IL-10, followed by win-shift cognitive testing and analysis of mPFC parvalbumin (PVB) immunofluorescent interneurons in adolescence. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between early cytokines and adolescent behavioral measures. We observed sex- and age-dependent effects of MS on circulating cytokines. MS also yielded adolescent decreases in mPFC PVB and cognitive deficits, which were predicted by early cytokine expression in a sex- and experience-dependent manner. Taken together, the present data reveals that circulating cytokines and PVB levels are predictive of adolescent cognitive deficits, and therefore provide compelling evidence for a putative role of early biomarkers in mediating MS-induced behavioral dysfunction. Importantly, predictive relationships often depended on sex and on MS history, suggesting that early life experiences may yield individualistic mechanisms of vulnerability compared to the general population. PMID:27235636

  2. Predicted optical performance of the high-altitude balloon experiment (HABE) telescope in an adverse thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Akau, R.L.; Givler, R.C.; Eastman, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) telescope was designed to operate at an ambient temperature of {minus}55 C and an altitude of 26 km, using a precooled primary mirror. Although at this altitude the air density is only 1.4 percent of the value at sea level, the temperature gradients within the telescope are high enough to deform the optical wavefront. This problem is considerably lessened by precooling the primary mirror to {minus}35 C. This paper describes the application of several codes to determine the range of wavefront deformation during a mission.

  3. Life's a switch. Experiences in NSF undergraduate design projects.

    PubMed

    Popp, Stephanie A; Barnes, Jennifer R; Barrett, Steven F; Laurin, Kathy M

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002 Stephanie Popp and Jennifer Barnes developed a manual, "Life's a Switch," through a project funded by the National Science Foundation. This manual teaches people how to build their own cost effective assistive switches. Assistive switches are a form of assistive technology which includes any device that enhances a person's quality of life by improving the individual's mobility, ability to perform daily activities, enhancing communication, or allowing participation in education, vocational activities and recreation. One main goal of assistive technology is to provide opportunities for children with disabilities to explore, play, learn, and communicate with others. Switches are essential tools used to provide these opportunities. When a child with developmental disabilities understands the connection between the activation of a switch and the resulting action it triggers, the knowledge of cause and effect is gained. Therefore, the basis for all future learning is established [1]. One of the current problems facing assistive switch users is the cost of available items. This project provides more affordable solutions for switch users by teaching the families and educators of switch users how to make their own switches and adaptors in the "Life's a Switch" manual. For example, some assistive technology vendors sell large button switches from $25.00 to $45.00, tread switches for $40.00, and pillow switches for $35.00 [2]. Amazingly, all parts and tools used to make these assistive switches can be bought and made into personally designed assistive devices averaging a cost of around $10.00 [3]. A workshop to teach this manual was also developed. This workshop will spread awareness of the more affordable options this project sets forth. In September of 2002, the first workshop was held in a laboratory classroom at the University of Wyoming's College of Engineering. Each attendant was provided with a kit that included all essential tools and

  4. Grassroots volunteers in context: rewarding and adverse experiences of local women working on HIV and AIDS in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Corbin, J Hope; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Lie, Gro T

    2016-09-01

    Many nongovernmental organizations in Africa rely on grassroots volunteers to provide critical health services. Considering context and the interplay of individual, organizational, and societal influences on the experience of volunteers, this paper addresses three questions: What do grassroots volunteers contribute? What organizational processes promote volunteer engagement? What are the positive and negative consequences of volunteering? Eighteen members and staff of the Tanzanian HIV and AIDS NGO, KIWAKKUKI, were selected from 6000+ women volunteers to be interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for themes. Within KIWAKKUKI, volunteers contributed time and local knowledge, leading to an indigenous educational approach building on local norms and customs. Volunteers' engagement was motivated by the desire to support family members, reverse stigma, and work/socialize with other women. Benefits to volunteers included skills acquisition and community recognition; yet some volunteers also reported negative experiences including burnout, conferred stigma, and domestic violence. Positive organizational processes built on cultural practices such as collective decision-making and singing. The findings point to important considerations about context, including the synergistic effect training can have on local traditions of caring, complications of gender inequity, and how community health planning processes may need to be modified in extremely poor settings. This research also suggests good utility of the research framework (the Bergen Model of Collaborative Functioning) that was used to analyze volunteer engagement for service delivery in sub-Saharan contexts. PMID:25802302

  5. Experiments in software reliability - Life-critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses four reliability data gathering experiments which were conducted using a small sample of programs for two problems having ultrareliability requirements, n-version programming for fault detection, and repetitive run modeling for failure and fault rate estimation. The experimental results agree with those of Nagel and Skrivan in that the program error rates suggest an approximate log-linear pattern and the individual faults occurred with significantly different error rates. Additional analysis of the experimental data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults. This phenomenon may provide one explanation for software reliability decay. The fourth experiment underscored the difficulty in distinguishing between observations of deficiencies in the design of the algorithm and observations of software faults for real-time process control software. These experiments are a part of a program of serial experiments being pursued by the System Validation Methods of NASA-Langley Research Center to find a means of credibly performing reliability evaluations of flight control software.

  6. Vibrate... Resonate... Quicken the Educational Experience into Intensest Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In the quest for more effective education, how can direct personal engagement with actual aesthetic experiences--attendance of performances, participation in artistic workshops and activities, and viewing of actual artworks--play an important role? Art educators have a tremendous opportunity to guide students to engage mind, body, and soul--until…

  7. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  8. Apollo experience report: Protection of life and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    The development, implementation, and effectiveness of the Apollo Lunar Quarantine Program and the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program are discussed as part of the broad program required for the protection of the life and health of U.S. astronauts. Because the goal of the Apollo Program has been the safe transport of men to the moon and back to earth, protection of the astronauts and of the biosphere from potentially harmful lunar contaminants has been required. Also, to ensure mission success, the continuing good health of the astronauts before and during a mission has been necessary. Potential applications of specific aspects of the health and quarantine programs to possible manned missions to other planets are discussed.

  9. Spotlighting a Silent Category of Young Females: The Life Experiences of "House Girls" in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Kezban; Lukuslu, Demet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the everyday life experiences of young women in Turkey known as "ev kizi" or "house girls." The article explores how traditional gender roles and family structure in Turkish society limit their full participation in political, economic, and public life. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted with a total of 30…

  10. 45 CFR 158.231 - Life-years used to determine credible experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for the 2013 MLR reporting year only. (e) For the 2014 MLR reporting year for the student market only— (1) If an issuer's experience for the 2014 MLR reporting year is fully credible, the life-years used to determine credibility are the life-years for the 2014 MLR reporting year only; (2) If an...

  11. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  12. Development of the Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS): Using Daily Life Experiences to Verify Levels of Self-Reported Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavallee, Loraine F.; Hatch, P. Maurine; Michalos, Alex C.; McKinley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    On average, Anglo-Americans report that they are satisfied with their lives, but their global evaluations tend to deviate from their daily experiences (e.g., Oishi [2002, "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 28(10), 1398-1406]). We explored the hypothesis that the average life satisfaction of Anglo-Americans is better characterized as…

  13. Environmental parameters of shuttle support for life sciences experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The environments provided by the Orbiter vehicle and by the Spacelab will differ substantially from the environment provided by prior spacecraft. The specific design limits for each environmental parameter and expected operating characteristics are presented for both the Orbiter and the Spacelab. The environments are compared with those of earlier spacecraft and with the normal earth laboratory. Differences between the spacecraft environments and the normal laboratory environment and the impact of these differences on experiments and equipment design are discussed.

  14. Quality of life and epilepsy: the Liverpool experience.

    PubMed

    Baker, G A

    1998-01-01

    The use of quality of life (QOL) measures in epilepsy research is relatively recent compared with that in other chronic conditions such as coronary heart disease and diabetes. However, in recent years much research has been undertaken to develop and validate QOL measures for use in various groups of people with epilepsy, including children, the elderly, and newly diagnosed patients. QOL measures are now available for use in both clinical trials and primary care. The Liverpool Group is one of the leading research teams in this field and is probably best known for developing the Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale. However, the group has also developed a number of other QOL measures, with an emphasis on keeping the measures appropriate, practical, and responsive, and always considering the burden to patients. This review describes some of the measures the Liverpool Group has developed, outlines their application in clinical trials of a number of aspects of antiepileptic drugs, and details the importance of some of the findings. The diversity of the group's approach and of its involvement in assessing the QOL of people with epilepsy are emphasized. PMID:9589809

  15. Breaking the cycle/mending the hoop: adverse childhood experiences among incarcerated American Indian/Alaska Native women in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    De Ravello, Lori; Abeita, Jessica; Brown, Pam

    2008-03-01

    Incarcerated American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have multiple physical, social, and emotional concerns, many of which may stem from adverse childhood experiences (ACE). We interviewed 36 AI/AN women incarcerated in the New Mexico prison system to determine the relationship between ACE and adult outcomes. ACE assessment included physical neglect, dysfunctional family (e.g., household members who abused substances, were mentally ill or suicidal, or who were incarcerated), violence witnessed in the home, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. The most prevalent ACE was dysfunctional family (75%), followed by witnessing violence (72%), sexual abuse (53%), physical abuse (42%), and physical neglect (22%). ACE scores were positively associated with arrests for violent offenses, lifetime suicide attempt(s), and intimate partner violence. PMID:18350429

  16. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morphological characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat liver subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that early rupture of the maternal bond and social isolation are variables involved in social and emotional behaviors and in increase in anxiety, particularly in stressful situations. The liver plays a role in the adaptation to stress, yet the possible morphologic changes that its structure can suffer have been studied very little. Therefore, the aim here was to ascertain, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the stereologic characteristics of the liver in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, distributed into 5 groups, under standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The experimental groups were exposed to early (E1), late (E2), and early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. The liver of each animal was isolated, and the stereologic characteristics of Nv, Vv, and Sv of the hepatocytes were determined. The results from the experimental groups were significantly higher than those obtained in the control groups. The highest values were found in group E3 (Nv = 4.43 ± 0.89 x 105/mm3, Vv = 68.74 ± 2.01%, Sv = 68.78 ± 3.77 mm2/mm3). Considering these results, the hepatic morphology can be affected by exposure to chronic stress; however, when the individuals have been subjected to previous adverse experiences, the changes are more evident. PMID:25197335

  17. Association between children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry J.; Thomson, W Murray; Taylor, Alan; Sears, Malcolm R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Research into social inequalities in health has tended to focus on low socioeconomic status in adulthood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with a wide range of health risk factors and outcomes in adult life. Methods We studied an unselected cohort of 1000 children (born in New Zealand during 1972–73) who had been assessed at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. At age 26 years, we assessed these individuals for health outcomes including body-mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, dental caries, plaque scores, gingival bleeding, periodontal disease, major depression, and tobacco and alcohol dependence, and tested for associations between these variables and childhood and adult socioeconomic status. Findings Compared with those from high socioeconomic status backgrounds, children who grew up in low socioeconomic status families had poorer cardiovascular health. Significant differences were also found on all dental health measures, with a threefold increase in adult periodontal disease (31·1% vs 11·9%) and caries level (32·2% vs 9·9%) in low versus high childhood socioeconomic status groups. Substance abuse resulting in clinical dependence was related in a similar way to childhood socioeconomic status (eg, 21·5% vs 12·1% for adult alcohol dependence). The longitudinal associations could not be attributed to life-course continuity of low socioeconomic status, and upward mobility did not mitigate or reverse the adverse effects of low childhood socioeconomic status on adult health. Interpretation Protecting children against the effects of socioeconomic adversity could reduce the burden of disease experienced by adults. These findings provide strong impetus for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to direct energy and resources towards childhood as a way of improving population health. PMID:12457787

  18. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY) saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost) then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required. PMID:18489787

  19. Traveling-wave tube reliability estimates, life tests, and space flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Speck, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Infant mortality, useful life, and wearout phase of twt life are considered. The performance of existing developmental tubes, flight experience, and sequential hardware testing are evaluated. The reliability history of twt's in space applications is documented by considering: (1) the generic parts of the tube in light of the manner in which their design and operation affect the ultimate reliability of the device, (2) the flight experience of medium power tubes, and (3) the available life test data for existing space-qualified twt's in addition to those of high power devices.

  20. NASA - selected life science experiments for the first NASA/ESA Spacelab flight 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab 1 will carry 17 NASA-sponsored research projects. Seven of these investigations will concern the life sciences. Because of NASA's interest in space motion sickness, two vestibular studies will be conducted. Two other experiments will be concerned with the effects of spaceflight on the hematologic system. The fifth life science study will involve nutations in plant organs. The sixth investigation will examine the effects of the Spacelab environment on circadian rhythms in microorganisms. Finally, cosmic radiation inside the Spacelab will be mapped. These seven life science experiments represent both basic and applied areas of research.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences, psychosocial well-being and cognitive development among orphans and abandoned children in five low income countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    performance. There is no significant association between orphan status per se and cognitive development, though the negative and significant association between higher emotional difficulties and lags in cognitive development hold across all orphan subgroups. Conclusions These findings suggest that interventions targeting psychosocial support for vulnerable children, especially vis a vis traumatic experiences, may ease strains inhibiting a child’s learning. Family based interventions to stabilize socioeconomic conditions may help overcome psychosocial challenges that otherwise would present as barriers to the child’s learning. PMID:24606949

  2. The life of a vortex knot (in experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Scheeler, Martin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.

    2013-11-01

    In recent experiments on linked and knotted vortices in classical fluids, we have found that they undergo a spontaneous change in topology: they untie themselves through a series of local reconnections. This outcome is at odds with the notion that fluid helicity (knottedness) should be conserved, as it should be for a dissipation-less fluid. Remarkably similar behavior is found for simulations of superfluid knots using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We will discuss our search for the missing helicity and the possibility of a universal driving mechanism for reconnections in topological vortices. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Materials Research and Engineering Centers (MRSEC) Program at the University of Chicago (DMR-0820054) and the Packard Foundation through a Packard fellowship.

  3. The "Radioactive Dice" Experiment: Why Is the "Half-Life" Slightly Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Arthur; Hart, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The "radioactive dice" experiment is a commonly used classroom analogue to model the decay of radioactive nuclei. However, the value of the half-life obtained from this experiment differs significantly from that calculated for real nuclei decaying exponentially with the same decay constant. This article attempts to explain the discrepancy and…

  4. Teaching Students to Deconstruct Life Experience with Addictions: A Structured Reflection Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Kathy; McGuire, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Students come to the classroom with life experience that may reinforce stigmatization of those who struggle with addiction. Educators must address this dynamic directly if addiction practitioners are to move beyond their personal experiences and come to understand the neuroscience of addiction, evidence-based practices, and the human potential for…

  5. Talking about Ourselves, Talking about Our Mothers: Latina Prospective Teachers Narrate Their Life Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    Through a Bakhtinian conceptual framework, this text explores Latina prospective teachers' life histories--their experiences at home, in their K-12 schooling, on campus in a Midwestern university, and in their teacher education program. Further, it shows how often, when asked about their own experiences, Latinas responded with stories of their…

  6. An Investigation into the Life Experiences and Beliefs of Teachers Exhibiting Highly Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Chuck; Hargrove, Pauline; Harris, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the life experiences and beliefs of highly effective teachers exhibiting effective classroom management. This study explores the beliefs, background, and experiences of exemplary teachers in the area of classroom management. The goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of how individuals…

  7. Life without plastic: A family experiment and biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Shelton, Janie F; Piegler, Kathrin; Wallner, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates has been associated with negative health outcomes in animal and human studies, and human bio-monitoring studies demonstrate widespread exposure in the US and Europe. Out of concern for the environment and health, individuals may attempt to modify their environment, diet, and consumer choices to avoid such exposures, but these natural experiments are rarely if ever quantitatively evaluated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites following an exposure reduction intervention among an Austrian family of five. Urine samples were taken shortly after the family had removed all plastic kitchenware, toys, and bathroom products, and started a concerted effort to eat less food packaged in plastic. Two-months later, urine samples were collected at a follow-up visit, and concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites were compared. Shortly after removal of plastic urinary concentrations of BPA were below limit of quantification in all samples. Phthalate concentrations were low, however, 10 of 14 investigated metabolites could be found above limit of quantification. After the two-month intervention, phthalate urinary concentrations had declined in some but not all family members. In the mother most phthalate metabolites increased. The low levels might be partly due to the environmentally conscious lifestyle of the family and partly due to the fact that body levels had dropped already because of the delay of four days between finishing removal and first measurement. Further two months avoidance of dietary exposure and exposure to environmental plastics reduced urinary concentrations for all but one metabolite in the oldest son only, but decreased somewhat in all family members except the mother. PMID:27235111

  8. Life experience of sixth-grade students in analog domains of sixth-grade science textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagamon, Barbara J.

    This study was conducted to determine if analog domains in sixth grade science textbooks were common to the life experience of sixth grade students and if experience differed according to moderating variables. The researcher reviewed three sixth grade general science textbooks and selected analogies that were unsupported by extended text, photos, or diagrams. Analogies were limited to ones which were unsupported because the intent was to identify students who were ready by virtue of life experience to confront analogies unaided by contextual clues. The researcher designed the Life Experiences in Analog Domains (LEAD) Questionnaire to survey students in 50 analog domains. Subjects of the study were 331 sixth grade students from an urban school district. Thirty were tested with the instrument one year later. Data on age, gender, ethnicity and income were analyzed for variance. Standardized achievement test scores were correlated to the LEAD Questionnaire. Results revealed sharp contrasts of experience by analog domain. Experience in analog domains was indicated 52% of the time overall. There were significant differences in the experience of students grouped by moderating variables. Younger students reported more experience than older students. The higher income group reported more experience than the lower income group. Caucasian students reported more experience overall than African American students. Chi-square tests revealed that differences in scores by ethnicity were not controlled by income. of three skills, reading comprehension, mathematics, and science, reading comprehension was most closely correlated to questionnaire score. Results suggest that many of the sixth grade students in the study may be without experience in analog domains when they encounter analogies in a textbook. Assuming subsequent implementations of the Questionnaire confirm these results, teachers should survey life experience of students and help them develop experiences that complement

  9. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  10. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  11. Life on Mars? Reinterpretation of the Viking Life Detection Experiments: A Possible Biogenic Origin of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Houtkooper, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Many of the results of the Viking life detection experiments remain puzzling to this day. Here, we present a hypothesis that would explain the Viking observations remarkably well: putative Martian organisms might incorporate H2O2 into their intracellular liquids as adaptation to Martian environmental conditions. Contrary to common belief, H2O2 is used by many terrestrial organisms for diverse purposes (e.g., metabolism (Acetobacter peroxidans)), as defense mechanism (Bombardier beetle), and also to mediate diverse physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. This adaptation would have several advantages such as a providing a low freezing point, a source of oxygen, and hygroscopicity, allowing an organism to obtain water vapor from the Martian atmosphere. It would explain many of the puzzling Viking observations such as (1) the lack of organics detected by GC-MS, (2) the lack of detected oxidant(s) to support a chemical explanation, (3) evolution of O2 upon wetting (GEx experiment), (4) limited organic synthesis reactions (PR experiment), and (5) the gas release observations made (LR experiment; Table). Our hypothesis of Martian organisms that would utilize a H2O mixture as an intracellular liquid is of great consequence for future missions searching for extant life on Mars such as the Mars Phoenix, ExoMars, and Mars Science Laboratory missions, and future sampling return missions. Rather than exploring in the equatorial belt, where temperatures might allow liquid water to exist for only brief periods of time, life may well exist in temperate or sub-arctic regions, where temperatures are colder and the atmosphere contains more water vapor.

  12. Evaluation of the fluids mixing enclosure system for life science experiments during a commercial Caenorhabditis elegans spaceflight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Paul; Golden, Andy; Hanover, John; Love, Dona; Shephard, Freya; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2013-06-01

    The Student Spaceflight Experiments Program (SSEP) is a United States national science, technology, engineering, and mathematics initiative that aims to increase student interest in science by offering opportunities to perform spaceflight experiments. The experiment detailed here was selected and flown aboard the third SSEP mission and the first SSEP mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Caenorhabditis elegans is a small, transparent, self-fertilizing hermaphroditic roundworm that is commonly used in biological experiments both on Earth and in Low Earth Orbit. Past experiments have found decreased expression of mRNA for several genes whose expression can be controlled by the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. We flew a daf-16 mutant and control worms to determine if the effects of spaceflight on C. elegans are mediated by DAF-16. The experiment used a Type Two Fluids Mixing Enclosure (FME), developed by Nanoracks LLC, and was delivered to the ISS aboard the SpaceX Dragon and returned aboard the Russian Soyuz. The short time interval between experiment selection and the flight rendered preflight experiment verification tests impossible. In addition, published research regarding the viability of the FME in life science experiments was not available. The experiment was therefore structured in such a way as to gather the needed data. Here we report that C. elegans can survive relatively short storage and activation in the FME but cannot produce viable populations for post-flight analysis on extended missions. The FME appears to support short-duration life science experiments, potentially on supply or crew exchange missions, but not on longer ISS expeditions. Additionally, the flown FME was not properly activated, reportedly due to a flaw in training procedures. We suggest that a modified transparent FME could prevent similar failures in future flight experiments.

  13. Evaluation of the Fluids Mixing Enclosure System for Life Science Experiments During a Commercial Caenorhabditis elegans Spaceflight Experiment.

    PubMed

    Warren, Paul; Golden, Andy; Hanover, John; Love, Dona; Shephard, Freya; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2013-06-01

    The Student Spaceflight Experiments Program (SSEP) is a United States national science, technology, engineering, and mathematics initiative that aims to increase student interest in science by offering opportunities to perform spaceflight experiments. The experiment detailed here was selected and flown aboard the third SSEP mission and the first SSEP mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Caenorhabditis elegans is a small, transparent, self-fertilizing hermaphroditic roundworm that is commonly used in biological experiments both on Earth and in Low Earth Orbit. Past experiments have found decreased expression of mRNA for several genes whose expression can be controlled by the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. We flew a daf-16 mutant and control worms to determine if the effects of spaceflight on C. elegans are mediated by DAF-16. The experiment used a Type Two Fluids Mixing Enclosure (FME), developed by Nanoracks LLC, and was delivered to the ISS aboard the SpaceX Dragon and returned aboard the Russian Soyuz. The short time interval between experiment selection and the flight rendered preflight experiment verification tests impossible. In addition, published research regarding the viability of the FME in life science experiments was not available. The experiment was therefore structured in such a way as to gather the needed data. Here we report that C. elegans can survive relatively short storage and activation in the FME but cannot produce viable populations for post-flight analysis on extended missions. The FME appears to support short-duration life science experiments, potentially on supply or crew exchange missions, but not on longer ISS expeditions. Additionally, the flown FME was not properly activated, reportedly due to a flaw in training procedures. We suggest that a modified transparent FME could prevent similar failures in future flight experiments. PMID:23794777

  14. Evaluation of the Fluids Mixing Enclosure System for Life Science Experiments During a Commercial Caenorhabditis elegans Spaceflight Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Paul; Golden, Andy; Hanover, John; Love, Dona; Shephard, Freya; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The Student Spaceflight Experiments Program (SSEP) is a United States national science, technology, engineering, and mathematics initiative that aims to increase student interest in science by offering opportunities to perform spaceflight experiments. The experiment detailed here was selected and flown aboard the third SSEP mission and the first SSEP mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Caenorhabditis elegans is a small, transparent, self-fertilizing hermaphroditic roundworm that is commonly used in biological experiments both on Earth and in Low Earth Orbit. Past experiments have found decreased expression of mRNA for several genes whose expression can be controlled by the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. We flew a daf-16 mutant and control worms to determine if the effects of spaceflight on C. elegans are mediated by DAF-16. The experiment used a Type Two Fluids Mixing Enclosure (FME), developed by Nanoracks LLC, and was delivered to the ISS aboard the SpaceX Dragon and returned aboard the Russian Soyuz. The short time interval between experiment selection and the flight rendered preflight experiment verification tests impossible. In addition, published research regarding the viability of the FME in life science experiments was not available. The experiment was therefore structured in such a way as to gather the needed data. Here we report that C. elegans can survive relatively short storage and activation in the FME but cannot produce viable populations for post-flight analysis on extended missions. The FME appears to support short-duration life science experiments, potentially on supply or crew exchange missions, but not on longer ISS expeditions. Additionally, the flown FME was not properly activated, reportedly due to a flaw in training procedures. We suggest that a modified transparent FME could prevent similar failures in future flight experiments. PMID:23794777

  15. Life Experiences of People Who Stutter, and the Perceived Impact of Stuttering on Quality of Life: Personal Accounts of South African Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klompas, Michelle; Ross, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the life experiences of a group of South African adults who stutter and the impact of stuttering on their quality of life. Participants were 16 adults with a mean age of 28.9 and ranging from 20 to 59 years. Methods involved individual interviews designed to explore the life domains of education; social…

  16. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    PubMed

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PMID:25222524

  17. Caring for People at the End of Life: Iranian Oncology Nurses' Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Dargahi, Helen; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To explore the meaning of Iranian oncology nurses' experiences of caring for people at the end of life. Materials and Methods: A phenomenological hermeneutic approach was applied. Fifteen nurses working in oncology units were interviewed in 2007 regarding their experiences of caring for people at the end of life. Results: Participants experienced caring for people at the end of life as sharing space and time to be lost within an organizational context. This main theme was divided into three subthemes including being attentive to the dying persons and their families, being cared for by the dying persons and their families, and being faced with barriers. Conclusion: The study suggests that the nurses' success in caring for people at the end of life is reliant on their interpersonal caring relationship. Facilitating such relationship requires the establishment of palliative care unit, incorporation of palliative care into undergraduate nursing studies, and cultural preparation through public education. PMID:20668594

  18. Life Experience and Demographic Influences on Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ε4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ε4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483

  19. NASA-Ames Life Sciences Flight Experiments program - 1980 status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.; Macleod, G.; Williams, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the ESA's Spacelab LSFE (Life Sciences Flight Experiments) program which, once operational, will provide new and unique opportunities to conduct research into the effects of spaceflight and weightlessness on living organisms under conditions approximating ground-based laboratories. Spacelab missions, launched at 18-month intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and similar life sciences.

  20. Ninth Graders' Learning Interests, Life Experiences and Attitudes Towards Science & Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shu-Nu; Yeung, Yau-Yuen; Cheng, May Hung

    2009-10-01

    Students' learning interests and attitudes toward science have both been studied for decades. However, the connection between them with students' life experiences about science and technology has not been addressed much. The purpose of this study is to investigate students' learning interests and life experiences about science and technology, and also their attitudes toward technology. A total of 942 urban ninth graders in Taiwan were invited to participate in this study. A Likert scale questionnaire, which was developed from an international project, ROSE, was adapted to collect students' ideas. The results indicated that boys showed higher learning interests in sustainability issues and scientific topics than girls. However, girls recalled more life experiences about science and technology in life than boys. The data also presented high values of Pearson correlation about learning interests and life experiences related to science and technology, and in the perspective on attitudes towards technology. Ways to promote girls' learning interests about science and technology and the implications of teaching and research are discussed as well.

  1. The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to PTSD, Depression, Poly-Drug Use and Suicide Attempt in Reservation-Based Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brockie, Teresa N; Dana-Sacco, Gail; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Wilcox, Holly C; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with numerous risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among youth. This study examines the relationship between the number of types of exposures to ACEs and risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among reservation-based Native Americans. In 2011, data were collected from Native American (N = 288; 15-24 years of age) tribal members from a remote plains reservation using an anonymous web-based questionnaire. We analyzed the relationship between six ACEs, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect, witness to intimate partner violence, for those <18 years, and included historical loss associated symptoms, and perceived discrimination for those <19 years; and four risk behavior/mental health outcomes: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression symptoms, poly-drug use, and suicide attempt. Seventy-eight percent of the sample reported at least one ACE and 40 % reported at least two. The cumulative impact of the ACEs were significant (p < .001) for the four outcomes with each additional ACE increasing the odds of suicide attempt (37 %), poly-drug use (51 %), PTSD symptoms (55 %), and depression symptoms (57 %). To address these findings culturally appropriate childhood and adolescent interventions for reservation-based populations must be developed, tested and evaluated longitudinally. PMID:25893815

  2. A Sidewalk Astronomy Experience in Second Life (R) for IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Adrienne J.; Huber, D.; I. New Media Task Group

    2009-01-01

    The NMTG has created an IYA 2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (R), where residents (or avatars) interact with content built by others in dynamic, innovative, and social ways. The IYA2009 virtual real estate (called an island) will open in early January 2009 with an initial set of exhibits and interactives. Through 2009, additional exhibits, live talks, and webstreamed content will be added.Our Sidewalk Astronomy experience will be premiered for the island opening. We have designed the interactive to replicate a real-life small telescope experience. Visitors to our Second Life telescopes will first see an image of the object "as the eye sees" and will hear/read a narrative about the object, as one would experience in real life. The narratives have been carefully crafted to take the observer on a journey and not just hear straight facts about the object. Diving further into astronomical imagery, avatars will explore visible, infrared, X-ray, and radio views of the object (if available), all wrapped in contextual information that ties the multiwavelength views together. The content of the telescopes will update every month to be equivalent to mid-latitude 9pm sky views for the Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere pending. Supplemental materials will include World Wide Telescope tours and Google Sky layers. We are hoping to add live star party events throughout the year, using real life video feeds from amateur telescopes. Additionally, we will have links to the Sidewalk Astronomy IYA webpage so virtual residents can find real life star parties to attend. The Sidewalk Astronomy Second Life experience will also have a traveling version that can be placed in multiple locations (stores, events, parks) in order to bring astronomy to the virtual masses in a true Sidewalk Astronomy way.

  3. Life goes on: the experiences of wives of multiply-deployed National Guard soldiers.

    PubMed

    Patzel, Brenda; McBride, Maryellen; Bunting, Judith; Anno, Tony

    2013-05-01

    Whether a service member is active duty or part of the National Guard, deployment of these service members is a major issue for most families. There is limited knowledge of the experience of multiple deployments on the family. The purpose of this study was to describe experiences of wives of National Guard soldiers that were deployed more than once. Nine wives were interviewed. An analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: (1) "Life Goes On" (i.e., despite the repeated deployments, life continues at home); (2) the "Guard is a Different Animal" (i.e., life as a National Guard spouse is different from that of an active duty spouse); (3) "It's a Mind-Set" (i.e., how wives cope their husband's deployment); and (4) "Going Back Again" (i.e., wives' experiences of multiple deployments). Exploring how multiple deployments affects wives of National Guard soldiers is helpful in understanding their experiences and the adjustments that must be made in family life. Knowledge of the experiences of these wives may help in formulating more effective interventions with families who have experienced multiple deployments. PMID:23663024

  4. Adaptive Use of Information during Growth Can Explain Long-Term Effects of Early Life Experiences.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Fawcett, Tim W; Higginson, Andrew D; Trimmer, Pete C; Uller, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Development is a continuous process during which individuals gain information about their environment and adjust their phenotype accordingly. In many natural systems, individuals are particularly sensitive to early life experiences, even in the absence of later constraints on plasticity. Recent models have highlighted how the adaptive use of information can explain age-dependent plasticity. These models assume that information gain and phenotypic adjustments either cannot occur simultaneously or are completely independent. This assumption is not valid in the context of growth, where finding food results both in a size increase and learning about food availability. Here, we describe a simple model of growth to provide proof of principle that long-term effects of early life experiences can arise through the coupled dynamics of information acquisition and phenotypic change in the absence of direct constraints on plasticity. The increase in reproductive value from gaining information and sensitivity of behavior to experiences declines across development. Early life experiences have long-term impacts on age of maturity, yet-due to compensatory changes in behavior-our model predicts no substantial effects on reproductive success. We discuss how the evolution of sensitive windows can be explained by experiences having short-term effects on informational and phenotypic states, which generate long-term effects on life-history decisions. PMID:27104994

  5. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  6. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  7. Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

  8. The experience of Chinese American parents of children with life-limiting illness: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjiao; Kearney, Joan A

    2013-07-01

    Life-limiting childhood illness is a traumatic experience presenting parents with psychological, physical, and social challenges. While cultural influences affect all parents coping with the life-limiting illness and end-of-life period of their child, little is known about the experiences of Chinese American parents. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to describe Chinese American parents' experiences during their children's end-of-life period from a culturally informed perspective. Important themes in the literature are revealed including culture-based phenomena regarding philosophy of life and illness that can affect treatment choices, cultural mores that influence parental behaviour in Western health-care systems, specific communication patterns within families and between families and providers, certain coping risks, and gender-based roles and caregiving activities that have implications for provider communication patterns. The findings are consonant with the larger literature regarding the impact of traditional culture and values on Chinese family and health behaviours. Health professionals must be sensitive to Chinese American parents' communication styles, unspoken concerns, and unresolved cultural conflicts in American health-care settings. Educational interventions may be very helpful in this regard. PMID:24273812

  9. Experience of gratitude, awe and beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feelings of gratitude and awe facilitate perceptions and cognitions that go beyond the focus of illness and include positive aspects of one’s personal and interpersonal reality, even in the face of disease. We intended to measure feelings of gratitude, awe, and experiences of beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders, particularly with respect to their engagement in specific spiritual/religious practices and their life satisfaction. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with standardized questionnaires to measure engagement in various spiritual practices (SpREUK-P) and their relation to experiences of Gratitude, Awe and Beauty in Life and life satisfaction (BMLSS-10). In total, 461 individuals (41 ± 13 years; 68% women) with multiple sclerosis (46%) and depressive (22%) or other psychiatric disorders (32%) participated. Results Among participants, 23% never, 43% rarely, 24% often, and 10% frequently experienced Gratitude. In contrast, 41% never, 37% rarely, 17% often, and 6% frequently experienced Awe. Beauty in Life was never experienced by 8% of the sample, and 28% rarely, 46% often, and 18% frequently experienced it. Gratitude (F = 9.2; p = .003) and Beauty in Life (F = 6.0; p = .015) were experienced significantly more often by women than men. However, the experience of Awe did not differ between women and men (F = 2.2; n.s.). In contrast to our hypothesis, Gratitude/Awe cannot explain any relevant variance in patients’ life satisfaction (R2 = .04). Regression analyses (R2 = .42) revealed that Gratitude/Awe can be predicted best by a person’s engagement in religious practices, followed by other forms of spiritual practices and life satisfaction. Female gender was a weak predictor and underlying disease showed no effect. Conclusions Gratitude/Awe could be regarded as a life orientation towards noticing and appreciating the positive in life - despite the symptoms of

  10. Life Experience Unit Guide Developed for Junior High and High School Resource Room Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorhman, Mary H.; Riker, Jerry

    The life experience unit guide, which is intended to be used with emotionally unstable adolescents and which offers selected activities for an integrated language arts, science, and social studies curriculum, is described. Provided for the language arts strand are forms such as sentence completion forms, a feeling checklist, a self evaluation…

  11. Passion for Life: Lived Experiences of Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Nooredin; Abbasi, Mohammad; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Salehiomran, Abbas; Davaran, Saeid; Norouzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) improves the quality of life, increases survival, and influences the patient's mental and emotional aspects. Little information is available on the lived experience of Iranian patients after this surgery. Understanding the lived experiences of patients will help health professionals with better provision of high quality care. Methods: This hermeneutic phenomenological study aimed to understand the lived experience of patients after CABG. Van Manen's method was used to conduct the study. A semi-structured, face-to-face interview technique was employed to explore the experiences of the patients following surgery. Seven men and 4 women between 49 and 80 years old were interviewed. Results: Passion for life was the main theme extracted from the participants’ interviews. This theme comprised the three sub-themes of receiving attention from family, being hopeful, and being spiritually oriented. Conclusion: The results showed that the participants experienced passion for life after their surgery. This finding reveals that patients tend to find a new perspective on life and their health after surgery. PMID:26697085

  12. Air and Life. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 223. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    The purpose of these activities is to offer the secondary school student an opportunity to review what he/she has learned about air by moving quickly through a series of "Do-it-yourself" experiments. Emphasis is placed on the study of the composition of air and relating this information to life in aquatic and marine environments. Included are…

  13. The Impact of ICT on Work-Life Experiences among University Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterlund, Katherine; Robson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Email is now commonplace in the university environment, but little research has addressed the impact of this technology on the work-life experiences of Teaching Assistants (TAs). These workers are of interest as they are typically responsible for most day-to-day, routine interaction with undergraduates, for ensuring students understand lectures…

  14. Early Care, Education, and Family Life in Rural Fiji: Experiences and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Janis

    2005-01-01

    As a member of a delegation of educators, physicians, and lay people to rural Fiji the author shares her experiences and reflections of early care, education, and family life on a small, remote island. She discusses her visits to the village and boarding school, and her interactions with teachers, children, and parents in the early childhood…

  15. Experiences of School Bullying in Northern Ireland: Data from the Life and Times Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Guckin, Conor; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the levels of bully/victim behaviors in schools in Northern Ireland. The aim of the present study was to supplement previous research findings from Northern Ireland by examining the self-reported experiences of school bullying among Northern Ireland children through data collected as part of the 1998 "Youth Life and Times…

  16. Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) Experiences with Scientific Language and Inquiry within a Real Life Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algee, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on…

  17. Significant Life Experiences on the Formation of Environmental Action among Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Danqing; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence young adults' engagement in environmental action is critical to further developing their active and important participation in environmental issues. In this paper, we designed two studies to identify life experiences of Chinese college students that foster environmental action. In Study 1, we used an…

  18. Relationships between the Sociodemographic and Family Characteristics, Street Life Experiences and the Hopelessness of Street Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyan, Veli

    2005-01-01

    Throughout its history, street children have been a major concern of Turkish society and have lately been uppermost on social workers agenda. This study examines the relationships between sociodemographic and family characteristics, family relations, street life experiences and the hopelessness of street children. The study focuses on a population…

  19. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  20. The Development and Validation of a Life Experience Inventory for the Identification of Creative Electrical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, William B.; Colson, Kenneth R.

    1979-01-01

    The construction and validation of the Life Experience Inventory (LEI) for the identification of creative electrical engineers are described. Using the number of patents held or pending as a criterion measure, the LEI was found to have high concurrent validity. (JKS)

  1. Second Life in the Library: An Empirical Study of New Users' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Christopher Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the experiences of new users of Second Life in order to identify potential barriers and attractors to the expansion of the userbase and therefore the market for in-world information services. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-faceted methodological approach was taken utilising two questionnaires (pre- and…

  2. Against All Odds: Positive Life Experiences of People with Advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; McNicoll, Paule

    1998-01-01

    Describes the nature of positive life experiences of 13 people coping exceptionally well while living with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's, disease and the resulting significant physical disabilities. Emerging themes were the use of cognitive reappraisal, reframing, and intellectual stimulation as coping mechanisms;…

  3. Inclusion and Participation in Everyday School Life: Experiences of Children with Physical (Dis)Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjørnslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn Helene; Helseth, Sølvi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the school experiences of children with physical (dis)abilities. Based on 39 interviews with 15 Norwegian children, participation in everyday school life is introduced as a central theme and divided into three sub-themes: community and independence; adequate help and influence in the classroom; and influence in planning and…

  4. Simulated Real-Life Experiences Using Classified Ads in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechler, Ellen

    This guide contains activities to help teachers give middle school students experience in practical life skills. Techniques include role playing and using classified advertisements from newspapers. The five lessons include teacher tips on conducting the activities. Lessons contain objectives, materials needed, discussion, and suggested dialogue.…

  5. Life Experiences of Dissatisfied Science and Engineering Graduate Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the life experiences of science/engineering students who had been dissatisfied with their lives during graduate school in Taiwan. This study adopted a qualitative method of phenomenology utilizing in-depth interviews for data collection. Thirteen male and five female students with an average age of 24.85…

  6. Role of Significant Life Experiences in Building Environmental Knowledge and Behavior among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Kathryn T.; Peterson, M. Nils; Carrier, Sarah J.; Strnad, Renee L.; Bondell, Howard D.; Kirby-Hathaway, Terri; Moore, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Significant life experience research suggests that the presence of role models, time outdoors, and nature-related media foster pro-environmental behavior, but most research is qualitative. Based on a random sample of middle school students in North Carolina, USA, we found limited positive associations between presence of a role model and time…

  7. Exploring the Relationships between Principals' Life Experiences and Transformational Leadership Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Steve; Bangert, Art

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this research study was to explore the relationships between principals' life experiences and their transformational leadership behaviours. Over 212 public school principals completed both the lifetime leadership inventory (LLI) and the multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor…

  8. Psychosocial Dimensions of Exceptional Longevity: A Qualitative Exploration of Centenarians' Experiences, Personality, and Life Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darviri, Christina; Demakakos, Panayotes; Tigani, Xanthi; Charizani, Fotini; Tsiou, Chrysoula; Tsagkari, Christina; Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Monos, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study provides a comprehensive account of the social and life experiences and strategies and personality attributes that characterize exceptional longevity (living to 100 or over). It is based on nine semi-structured interviews of relatively healthy and functional Greek centenarians of both sexes. The analytic approach was…

  9. Satisfaction in Stages of the Life Cycle, Levels of General Happiness and Frequency of Peak Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert A. C.

    1976-01-01

    This study focuses on reported (a) satisfaction in stages of the life cycle; (b) levels of general happiness; and (c) frequency of peak experiences. Subjects were 48 undergraduate students (17 males, 31 females) at Laurentian University, Canada. Results from all three areas in this study accord closely with other relevant published work. (Author)

  10. Risk of spontaneous preterm birth in relation to maternal experience of serious life events during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Yasmin V; Sanchez, Sixto E; Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in relation to serious life events experienced during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods This case-control study included 479 PTB cases and 480 term controls. In-person interviews asked information regarding sociodemographics, medical and reproductive histories, and serious life events experienced during pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Compared with women who did not experience a serious life event during pregnancy, those who experienced the following life events had a more than two-fold increased odds of PTB: death of first-degree relative (adjusted OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.38–3.20), divorce or separation (adjusted OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.10–4.00), financial troubles (adjusted OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.85–3.94), or serious fight with partner (adjusted OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.78–3.17). Women who experienced any serious life events during pregnancy had higher odds (adjusted OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.65–3.18) of suffering spontaneous preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes (adjusted OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.56–3.08), compared with women who did not experience any such events. Associations of similar directions and extent were observed for severity of PTB (ie, very, moderate, or late PTB). The magnitude of the associations increased as increased frequency of serious life events (Ptrend <0.001). Conclusion Experiencing serious life events during pregnancy was associated with increased odds of PTB among Peruvian women. Interventions aimed at assisting women experiencing serious life events may reduce the risk of PTB. Future studies should include objective measures of stress and stress response to understand better the biological underpinnings of these associations. PMID:24591850

  11. Mini-Review: Probing the limits of extremophilic life in extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lage, Claudia A. S.; Dalmaso, Gabriel Z. L.; Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Bendia, Amanda G.; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Galante, Douglas; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Azúa-Bustos, Armando; Pelizzari, Vivian H.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2012-10-01

    Astrobiology is a relatively recent scientific field that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the Universe. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain life in the cosmic context throughout human history, but only now, technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are ubiquitous. How these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years old Solar system appeared in a 10 billion years old Universe. Thus, simple cells such as micro-organisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or in other suitable places in the Universe. One hypothesis related to the appearance of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the Universe billions of years ago, travelling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets such as Earth. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile micro-organisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is in progress at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics (UFRJ, Brazil) to test whether microbial life could withstand inhospitable environments. Radiation-resistant (known or novel ones) micro-organisms collected from extreme terrestrial environments have been exposed (at synchrotron accelerators) to intense radiation sources simulating Solar radiation, capable of emitting radiation in a few hours equivalent to many years of accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal an interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  12. The limits of extremophilic life expanded under extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lage, C.; Dalmaso, G.; Teixeira, L.; Bendia, A.; Rosado, A.

    2012-09-01

    Astrobiology is a brand new area of science that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the universe. Several hypotheses to explain life in the cosmic context have been developed throughout human history, but only now technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are found universally. As these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still a challenge to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years-old solar system was born within a 10-billion years-old universe. Thus, simple cells like microorganisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or other suitable molecular places in the universe. One hypothesis to explain the origin of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the universe billions of years ago, traveling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets like ours. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile microorganisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is ongoing at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics to test whether microbial life could withstand those inhospitable environments. Ultra-resistant (known or novel ones) microorganisms collected from terrestrial extreme environments, extremophiles, have been exposed to intense radiation sources simulating solar radiation (at synchrotron accelerators), capable of emitting in a few hours radiation equivalent of million years accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal the interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  13. Early Life Stage Exposure to BDE-47 Causes Adverse Effects on Reproductive Success and Sexual Differentiation in Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Thornton, Leah M; Path, Elise M; Nystrom, Gunnar S; Venables, Barney J; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2016-07-19

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a compound manufactured for use as a flame retardant, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and suspected endocrine disruptor. Though several studies have explored the reproductive effects of BDE-47 in adult fish, there is a paucity of data regarding the reproductive effects of early life stage exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the reproductive effects of early life stage BDE-47 exposure in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). To achieve this, minnows were exposed to either a low (57.68 μg BDE-47/g Artemia) or high (392.59 μg BDE-47/g Artemia) dose of BDE-47 from fertilization to 34 days postfertilization (dpf) via a combination of maternal transfer and dietary exposure. Larvae were then raised on a clean diet until sexual maturity (∼184 dpf) when reproductive function was evaluated using a 21 day breeding study. Fish exposed to BDE-47 had significantly reduced clutch size and fecundity relative to controls. BDE-47 exposed groups also had female-biased sex ratios and exposed males had fewer tubercles. Overall, this study demonstrates that exposure to BDE-47 during early life stages can alter both sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:27326452

  14. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2009-12-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress. PMID:18799323

  15. Cost analysis of life sciences experiments and subsystems. [to be carried in the Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    Cost estimates for experiments and subsystems flown in the Spacelab were established. Ten experiments were cost analyzed. Estimated cost varied from $650,000 for the hardware development of the SPE water electrolysis experiment to $78,500,000 for the development and operation of a representative life sciences laboratory program. The cost of subsystems for thermal, atmospheric and trace contaminants control of the Spacelab internal atmosphere was also estimated. Subsystem cost estimates were based on the utilization of existing components developed in previous space programs whenever necessary.

  16. Experiences of drug use and ageing: health, quality of life, relationship and service implications

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Brenda; Beynon, Caryl; Pickering, Lucy; Duffy, Paul

    2010-01-01

    roe b., beynon c., pickering l. & duffy p. (2010)Experiences of drug use and ageing: health, quality of life, relationship and service implications. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(9), 1968–1979. Aim This paper is a report of an exploration of older people’s experiences of substance use in the context of ageing, and its impact on health, quality of life, relationships and service use. Background Use of illicit drugs by older people is a neglected policy, research and service provision and is generally perceived as a lifestyle of younger populations. Method A convenience sample of 11 people aged 49–61 years (mean 57 years) in contact with voluntary sector drug treatment services participated in qualitative semi-structured tape-recorded interviews and thematic content analysis was performed. The data were collected in 2008. Findings Drug use can have negative impacts on health status, quality of life, family relationships and social networks that accrue with age. Participants were identified as early or later onset users of drugs due to the impact of life events and relationships. A range of substances had been used currently and throughout their lives, with no single gateway drug identified as a prelude to personal drug careers. Life review and reflection were common, in keeping with ageing populations, along with regret of ever having started to use drugs. Living alone and their accommodation made them more susceptible to social isolation, and they reported experiences of death and dying of their contemporaries and family members earlier than usual in the life course. Conclusion Older people who continue to use drugs and require the support of services for treatment and care are an important emerging population and their specific needs should recognized. PMID:20626477

  17. [Satisfaction with life, dental experience and self-perception of oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Rigo, Lilian; Basso, Kenny; Pauli, Jandir; Cericato, Graziela Oro; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Garbin, Raissa Rigo

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between satisfaction with quality of life, self-perception of oral health and experience with dental surgeons. The study is cross-sectional epidemiological in structure with a sample of 326 elderly individuals over 60 years of age living in a city in the north of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered questionnaire with queries relating to self-perception in oral health (OHIP - Oral Health Impact Profile), Quality of Life Satisfaction scale and sociodemographic issues. The findings showed that the elderly with higher levels of quality of life satisfaction manifested an enhanced perception of their own oral health as well as a better perceived image of dental surgeons and less anxiety about their experiences with the dentist. It was proven that both the self-perception that the elderly have about oral health as well as their experience with dentists is associated with the quality of life satisfaction of the elderly. The results have important implications for decision-makers and formulators of public policy. PMID:26691793

  18. Experiences of Pediatric Oncology Patients and Their Parents at End of Life: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Sawin, Kathleen J; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in pediatric palliative and end-of-life care has been identified as an ongoing research priority. The child and parent experience provides valuable information to guide how health care professionals can improve the transition to end of life and the care provided to children and families during the vulnerable period. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the experience of pediatric oncology patients and their parents during end of life, and identify gaps to be addressed with interventions. A literature search was completed using multiple databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycInfo. A total of 43 articles were included in the review. The analysis of the evidence revealed 5 themes: symptom prevalence and symptom management, parent and child perspectives of care, patterns of care, decision making, and parent and child outcomes of care. Guidelines for quality end-of-life care are needed. More research is needed to address methodological gaps that include the pediatric patient and their sibling's experience. PMID:26219300

  19. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  20. Physiological adaption to maternal malaria and other adverse exposure: low birth weight, functional capacity, and possible metabolic disease in adult life.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Kapur, Anil; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2011-11-01

    The concept of developmental origins of health and disease and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries has increased the focus on low birth weight (LBW). Most studies linking LBW to future risk of metabolic diseases have focused on maternal nutrition and anemia. Several studies have shown that LBWis linked to skeletal muscle insulin resistance and future risk of type 2 diabetes, possibly caused by permanent modifications in skeletal muscle morphology and biochemistry leading to lowered functional capacity and physical activity in adult life. In some parts of the world, malaria infection during pregnancy is the most common cause of anemia and LBW. By causing disruption to nutrient supply, as well as hypoxia, placental malaria and anemia negatively impact intrauterine fetal development. Thus, in utero exposure to placental malaria and consequent LBW may impart a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in early adult life. This has not been investigated systematically. Worldwide, an estimated 125 million pregnancies occur annually in malarial areas with a vast potential for intrauterine growth restriction, LBW, and subsequent risk of metabolic dysfunction, including type 2 diabetes; this potential link also opens an opportunity for early prevention of future metabolic diseases by paying greater attention to malaria during pregnancy. PMID:22099434

  1. Enduring as Lived Experience: Exploring the Essence of Spiritual Resilience for Women in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore spirituality and its relationship to resilience for women in late life. Over thirty interviews with six women aged 80 and older provide a dataset allowing for the phenomenological investigation of spiritual resilience. Themes emerged illustrating the components of spiritual resilience. The components of spiritual resilience are having divine support, maintaining purpose, and expressing gratitude. These factors are essential to the women’s resilience and act as mechanisms that promote high levels of subjective well-being and an overall good quality of life. Essentially, participants articulate how their experiences of enduring hardships are informed by spiritual resilience. PMID:22869460

  2. Stressful life experiences and mental health problems among unaccompanied asylum-seeking children.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tine K; Fjermestad, Krister W; Granly, Lene; Wilhelmsen, Nicolai H

    2015-01-01

    Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children aged 10-16 years (N = 93, M = 13.8, SD = 1.4, 81% boys) were assessed 6 months after arrival in Norway (SD = 5 months). Participants originated from 14 countries (63% Asia; 36% Africa). Severe life events (SLE) and psychological symptoms were measured by self-report. Participants reported a mean of 5.5 SLE (SD = 2.4), the most prevalent being death of a close person (68%), witnessing violence (63%), and war (62%). Some 54% scored above clinical cutoff on posttraumatic stress symptoms, 30% on anxiety symptoms, 20% on depressive symptoms, and 7% on externalizing symptoms. Number of SLE was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (r =.50, p < .001), depression (r =.27, p = .020), and anxiety symptoms(r =. 34, p = .003), but not externalizing symptoms (r =.02, p = .874). None of the symptom variables were associated with age or gender. Results indicate that many unaccompanied asylum-seeking children have experienced not only war-related traumas but several other severe life adversities as well. It may thus be helpful to conduct early assessments on this group of children to assess their need for treatment or other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23982990

  3. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese ‘Kibo’ facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the ‘Rad Gene’ project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated p53 gene (mp53) and a parental wild-type p53 gene (wtp53) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation–induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing p53-dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing p53-dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type p53 genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024. PMID:27130692

  4. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese 'Kibo' facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the 'Rad Gene' project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated P53 : gene (m P53 : ) and a parental wild-type P53 : gene (wt P53 : ) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation-induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type P53 : genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024. PMID:27130692

  5. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  6. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

    2014-11-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  7. Lifetime Adversity Leads to Blunted Stress Axis Reactivity: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Can stressful events in early life alter the response characteristics of the human stress axis? Individual differences in stress reactivity are considered potentially important in long-term health and disease, however little is known about the sources of these individual differences. We present evidence that adverse experience in childhood and adolescence can alter core components of the stress axis, including cortisol and heart rate reactivity. Methods We exposed 354 healthy young adults (196 women) to public speaking and mental arithmetic stressors in the laboratory. Stress responses were indexed by self-report, heart rate, and cortisol levels relative to measures on a nonstress control day. Subjects were grouped into those who had experienced 0, 1, or 2 or more significant adverse life events including Physical or Sexual Adversity (mugged, threatened with a weapon, experienced a break-in or robbery; or raped or sexually assaulted by a relative or nonrelative) or Emotional Adversity (separation from biological mother or father for at least 6 months prior to age 15). Results Experience of adversity predicted smaller heart rate and cortisol responses to the stressors in a dose-dependent fashion (0 > 1 > 2 or more events; (Fs = 5.79 and 8.11, ps < .004) for both men and women. This was not explained by differences in socioeconomic status, the underlying cortisol diurnal cycle, or subjective experience during the stress procedure. Conclusion The results indicate a long-term impact of stressful life experience on the reactivity of the human stress axis. PMID:22112928

  8. Tolstoy, stories, and facilitating insight in end of life care: exploring ethics through vicarious experience.

    PubMed

    Begley, Ann Marie; Glackin, Marie; Henry, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Facilitating moral insight in end of life care can be challenging, and the purpose of this paper is to illustrate how this can be nurtured by means of creative literature. Tolstoy's Death of Ivan Ilych is presented as an example of such literature. Aristotle's Nichomean Ethics provides the philosophical underpinning for the method used. Sources also include the nursing literature, and students' evaluations of the impact of Tolstoy's novella on their ability to perceive the ethical issues arising in end of life care. Comments from evaluations were analysed and significant themes emerged. Students' comments clearly support the suggestion that use of this novella has facilitated insight into ethical issues at the end of life. Evaluations also indicate that vicarious experience gained through reading this novella has helped to nurture sensitivity and professional insight into the importance of compassion and offering 'comfort' to the dying person. PMID:20974506

  9. The Life Sciences Programme of the European Space Agency, and opportunities for radiation biology experiments.

    PubMed

    Oser, H

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of Europe's commitment to contribute the European Space Agency (ESA) to the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) by means of the Spacelab programme, a new area for research opportunities on Life Sciences has been created for the European scientific community. Although considered as a young and new discipline, the goals of Life Sciences research in space had soon been defined by the ESA advising Life Sciences Working Group in the beginning of 1977. The programme proposals of the various subdisciplines concentrated on the advantageous use of the microgravity environment, to study in more depth the gravity relevance of biological systems. It included, however, also the use of other factors during space flight which cannot be reproduced or adequately simulated on the ground: cosmic radiation in its total spectrum, particularly HZE particles, solar and UV radiation, vacuum, and the combination of radiation and weightlessness, etc. On this basis, call for proposals in the various subdisciplines resulted in experiments also in the field of radiation biology which were flown on the Spacelab 1 mission and which were selected for later missions. In particular, ESA is providing the science community with mission opportunities on Spacelab, either European or International, with platforms to be launched by STS, and with so called multi-user facilities (e.g. Biorack). Typically, the experiments will be the responsibility of the scientists, the integration and mission phase the responsibility of ESA. Both mission definition and experiment selection rests with the ultimate decision of the responsible ESA Programme Board. A further description of missions envisioned, the Spacelab facility, platforms, multi-user facilities and areas of research applicable to radiobiology will be given. ESA's continuing interaction with the scientific community through the Life Sciences Working Group, and the advice on future programmes will be stressed as a vital factor

  10. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  11. An animal model of eating disorders associated with stressful experience in early life.

    PubMed

    Jahng, Jeong Won

    2011-02-01

    Experience of childhood abuse is prevalent among patients with eating disorders, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is implicated in its pathophysiology. Neonatal maternal separation is considered as an animal model of stressful experience early in life. Many of studies have demonstrated its impact both on the activity of HPA axis and the development of psycho-emotional disorders later in life. In this paper, a series of our researches on developing an animal model of eating disorders is reviewed. An animal model of neonatal maternal separation was used; Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of life (MS) or undisturbed. Anxiety-/depression-like behaviors were observed in MS rats at the age of two months with decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus and the raphe. Post-weaning social isolation promoted food intake and weight gain of adolescent MS pups, with impacts on anxiety-like behaviors. Sustained hyperphagia was observed in the MS pups subjected to a fasting/refeeding cycle repeatedly during adolescence, with increased plasma corticosterone levels. Anhedonia, major symptom of depression, to palatable food was observed in adolescent MS pups with blunted response of the mesolimbic dopaminergic activity to stress. Results suggest that neonatal maternal separation lead to the development of eating disorders when it is challenged with social or metabolic stressors later in life, in which dysfunctions in the HPA axis and the brain monoaminergic systems may play important roles. PMID:21093444

  12. Road Traffic Accident Victims’ Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. Objectives This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. Patients and Methods This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims’ experiences of reintegration to normal life. Conclusions The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims’ needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims. PMID:27275399

  13. Burn Survivors' Experience of Core Outcomes during Return to Life: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Lotfi, Mojgan; Salehi, Feridoon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Burn is one of the main and common health problems that face the victims with significant challenges in their lives. The main purpose of caring and rehabilitating these people is returning them to their previous life situation. Thus, the present study was conducted with the purpose of determining the experience of burn survivors with regard to returning to life in order to be able to obtain new concepts of acceptable implications in the present cultural and religious context. Methods: The present study is a qualitative study that was conducted using qualitative content analysis and in-depth unstructured interviews with 15 burn survivors in 2012 and 2013 in Tabriz. Results: During the process of qualitative analysis, the content of the category "balance", as the core essence of the experience of participants, was extracted according to three sub-categories: a- the physical integration (physiological stability, saving the affected limb), b-connecting to the life stream (self-care, getting accustomed, normalization), and c- return to the existence (sense of inner satisfaction and excellence). Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the physical, psychological and social scales introduced by other studies. Also proposed the concept "return to the existence", that can be measured by the emergence of a sense of inner satisfaction and excellence in the individual, as one of the key and determinant scales in returning the victims of burn to life. PMID:25717453

  14. Ethno-cultural diversity in the experience of widowhood in later life: Chinese widows in Canada.

    PubMed

    Martin-Matthews, Anne; Tong, Catherine E; Rosenthal, Carolyn J; McDonald, Lynn

    2013-12-01

    This paper utilizes Helena Znaniecka Lopata's concept of life frameworks as a lens through which to understand the experience of widowhood amongst elderly Chinese immigrant women living in Toronto, Canada. While Lopata defined life frameworks as including social supports, social relations and social roles, for these widows, personal resources (framed in Chinese cultural context) were also important aspects of life frameworks. In-depth interviews with 20 widows contacted through a Chinese community center were conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese and then transcribed and interpreted through team-based qualitative analyses. These women ranged in age from 69 to 93 years and had been in Canada an average of 17 years, with over half of them widowed following immigration. Our analysis framed the widows' narratives in terms of four types of supports defined by Lopata: social, service, financial and emotional supports. They had fairly extensive social and service supports focused primarily around family and the Chinese community. Although norms of filial piety traditionally dictate sons as primary supports, daughters predominated as providers of supports to these widows. Interpreted from a life course perspective, financial supports were deemed sufficient, despite overall limited financial means. Emotional support was more nuanced and complex for these widows. Loneliness and feelings of social isolation were prevalent. Nevertheless, themes of acceptance and satisfaction dominated our findings, as did reciprocity and exchange. The narrative accounts of these widows depict a complexity of experience rooted in their biographies as Chinese women and as immigrants, rather than primarily in widowhood itself. PMID:24300070

  15. Understanding the life experiences of older adults in Korea following a suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yujin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe life experiences following suicide attempts from the perspective of older Korean adults. Both field notes and in-depth interviews with 35 elderly Koreans who had attempted suicide were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. With an underlying theme of "life with no way out for those who believe they do not even have any luck in dying," I classified the experiences of participants in the wake of a failed suicide attempt into four categories: (a) facing additional hardships including deteriorating physical health, (b) having more sadness and loneliness than before the suicide attempt, (c) deepening dependency on tranquilizers, and (d) seesawing between despair and faint hope. Based on these research findings, I make four recommendations regarding secondary preventive interventions for elderly suicide attempters. PMID:25147216

  16. Exploring the Work/Life/Study Balance: The Experience of Higher Education Students in a Scottish Further Education College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Janet; Gayle, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the dimensions of the work/life/study balance and its influence on student participation in higher education, through a case study of the experience of higher education students, studying both full time and part time, in a Scottish further education college. The experience of the students and the work/life/study challenges that…

  17. "I Have Lived an Autism Experience. Autism Is an Interesting Disease": The Life Story of a Young Man with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulec-Aslan, Yesim; Ozbey, Fidan; Yassibas, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the life experiences of a young man who has been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) through a narrative research. In other words, our research aim is to investigate the nature of life and especially the social and school experiences of individual affected by this syndrome. Data were collected via…

  18. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morpho-quantitative characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat spleen subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Morpho-quantitative studies of the spleen indicate that the proportions of the compartments and sub-compartments are stable in normal conditions. However, disorders due to stress can influence the number and function of the immune cells in this organ. The aim of this study was to determine, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and altering the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the morpho-quantitative characteristics of the spleen in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, kept under the standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The rats were assigned randomly to 2 control groups (C1 and C2) and 3 experimental groups, exposed to early (E1), late (E2) or early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood (C2, E1, E2 and E3). The spleen of each animal was isolated and its morphometric characteristics were determined: volume density (Vv) of the red pulp, white pulp, marginal zone, splenic lymph nodule, periarterial lymphatic sheath and germinal center; areal number density (Na), surface density (Sv), number density (Nv), diameter (D) and total number of splenic lymph nodules. The mass of each compartment was also determined. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffé’s post hoc test were used for the statistical analysis. The p values were considered significant when they were less than 0.05 (*) and very significant at less than 0.025 (**). There were significant differences in the Vv of the red pulp, white pulp and their sub-compartments between the control and experimental groups. The white pulp increased significantly (P = 0.000) in E1, E2 and E3 compared to C1 and C2. The average Na and D values of the splenic lymph nodules were also higher in the experimental groups. The ANOVA for the mass of the spleen and the red pulp revealed no differences between the groups. The mass of the

  19. [Philosophy of psychiatry and phenomenology of everyday life: The disruptions of ordinary experience in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Troubé, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the philosophy of psychiatry from the perspective of everyday life, as a particular structure of experience. We outline some questions raised by disturbances typical of psychotic disorders with regard to a phenomenology of the everyday and common sense. As a link between philosophy and clinical psychopathology, this phenomenology implies a transcendental point of view, embedded in concrete and practical forms of ordinary experience, along with social norms. This opens the possibility of a mutual questioning between philosophy and psychiatry, drawing on its clinical, epistemological, and ethical dimensions. PMID:27550459

  20. The Gas Exchange Experiment for life detection - The Viking Mars Lander.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, V. I.

    1972-01-01

    The Gas Exchange Experiment of the Viking mission accepts a sample of Martian soil, incubates this soil with nutrient medium, and periodically samples the enclosed atmosphere over this soil for the gases H2, N2, O2, Kr, and CO2. These gases are analyzed by an automated gas chromatograph, and the data are transmitted to earth. The design of the experiment and the qualitative and quantitative changes, if any, of gas composition should allow conclusions to be made on the presence of life on Mars. Data and theory substantiating this approach are presented.

  1. MIT-NASA/KSC space life science experiments - A telescience testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Fiser, Richard L.; Vordermark, Deborah S.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments performed at MIT to better define Space Station information system telescience requirements for effective remote coaching of astronauts by principal investigators (PI) on the ground are described. The experiments were conducted via satellite video, data, and voice links to surrogate crewmembers working in a laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Teams of two PIs and two crewmembers performed two different space life sciences experiments. During 19 three-hour interactive sessions, a variety of test conditions were explored. Since bit rate limits are necessarily imposed on Space Station video experiments surveillance video was varied down to 50 Kb/s and the effectiveness of PI controlled frame rate, resolution, grey scale, and color decimation was investigated. It is concluded that remote coaching by voice works and that dedicated crew-PI voice loops would be of great value on the Space Station.

  2. Trajectories of experience of real life events. A semiotic approach to the dynamics of positioning.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alberto; González, Fernanda

    2013-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of experience as a semiotic process of constructing the personal meaning of the situation lived. Its main purpose is to devise a semiotic methodology capable of describing and explaining the dynamics of positioning when facing personal lived experiences in real life contexts. Twenty four young adults were exposed to a simulated conflict and then asked to write a narrative of their understanding of the incident and a self-report of their personal experiences. Results show how narratives and trajectories of experience present different forms in each participant, which could be related to: a) the understanding of the situation lived and the position taken regarding the conflict; and b) the position each participant takes regarding the reports they had to produce for the researchers. The incorporation of reflexivity into the applied method allows identification of how the dynamics of double positioning leave traces in the records produced. PMID:23943095

  3. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Clare C; Coombs, Chelsey B; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ''gets under the skin'' resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee's early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  4. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  5. Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Suderman, Matthew; McGowan, Patrick O; Sasaki, Aya; Huang, Tony C T; Hallett, Michael T; Meaney, Michael J; Turecki, Gustavo; Szyf, Moshe

    2012-10-16

    Early life experience is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. However, it is unlikely that such effects completely capture the evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms of early adaptation to environment. Here we present DNA methylation profiles spanning 6.5 million base pairs centered at the NR3C1 gene in the hippocampus of humans who experienced abuse as children and nonabused controls. We compare these profiles to corresponding DNA methylation profiles in rats that received differential levels of maternal care. The profiles of both species reveal hundreds of DNA methylation differences associated with early life experience distributed across the entire region in nonrandom patterns. For instance, methylation differences tend to cluster by genomic location, forming clusters covering as many as 1 million bases. Even more surprisingly, these differences seem to specifically target regulatory regions such as gene promoters, particularly those of the protocadherin α, β, and γ gene families. Beyond these high-level similarities, more detailed analyses reveal methylation differences likely stemming from the significant biological and environmental differences between species. These results provide support for an analogous cross-species epigenetic regulatory response at the level of the genomic region to early life experience. PMID:23045659

  6. Meaning-Making in Memories: A Comparison of Memories of Death-Related and Low Point Life Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Michael M.; Bluck, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Because of their extensive experience with death and dying, hospice volunteers may be more successful at engaging in meaning-making regarding their death-related experiences than their low point life experiences (e.g., job loss). Consequently, their memories of death-related experiences will manifest more meaning-making strategies (e.g.,…

  7. Hospice family members’ perceptions and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla; Kruse, Robin L.; Albright, David L; Lewis, Alexandria; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the fact that more than 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, end-of-life care has consistently been found to be less than adequate in this setting. Even for those residents on hospice, end-of-life care has been found to be problematic. This study had two research questions; 1) How do family members of hospice nursing home residents differ in their anxiety, depression, quality of life, social networks, perceptions of pain medication, and health compared to family members of community dwelling hospice patients? 2) What are family members’ perceptions of and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home setting? Methods This study is a secondary mixed methods analysis of interviews with family members of hospice nursing home residents and a comparative statistical analysis of standard outcome measures between family members of hospice patients in the nursing home and family member of hospice patients residing in the community. Results Outcome measures for family members of nursing home residents were compared (n=176) with family members of community dwelling hospice patients (n=267). The family members of nursing home residents reported higher quality of life however, levels of anxiety, depression, perceptions of pain medicine, and health were similar for hospice family members in the nursing home and in the community. Lending an understanding to the stress for hospice family members of nursing home residents concerns were found with collaboration between the nursing home and the hospice, nursing home care that did not meet family expectations, communication problems, and resident care concerns including pain management. Some family members reported positive end-of-life care experiences in the nursing home setting. Conclusion These interviews identify a multitude of barriers to quality end-of-life care in the nursing home setting, and demonstrate that support for family members is an essential part of quality end-of-life care for

  8. Understanding the experiences and quality of life issues of Bahraini women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jassim, Ghufran A; Whitford, David L

    2014-04-01

    We explored the experiences of Bahraini women who have survived breast cancer and their perception of quality of life after diagnosis. We conducted in depth, semi-structured face-to-face interviews with twelve women diagnosed with breast cancer. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews on a purposive sample of 12 Bahraini women with breast cancer was conducted. Similarities and differences in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts using a constant comparative approach. The themes identified were meaning of cancer and quality of life, spirituality and beliefs about causes of breast cancer, coping mechanisms, impact of illness and change in relationships. Quality of life was framed in terms of the ability to perform daily duties with emphasis on the physical component of quality of life. Themes that differed from previous western studies included a heavy emphasis on spiritual practices for comfort; the use of traditional clothing (hijab and abaya) to hide hair and body changes; the important role played by the family and husband in treatment decisions and concerns regarding satisfying the sexual needs of the husband, which were related to a fear of losing the husband to a second wife. Evil eye, stress and God's punishment were believed to be fundamental causes of the disease. The emotional shock of the initial diagnosis, concerns about whether to reveal the diagnosis and a desire to live a normal life were consistent with previous studies. However, cultural and religious issues such as role of the husband and impact of prayers were also important here. These themes are important to healthcare professionals for ensuring an individualized approach to the treatment of women with breast cancer. PMID:24631996

  9. Non-stop lab week: A real laboratory experience for life sciences postgraduate courses.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria João; Silva, Joana Vieira; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Fardilha, Margarida

    2016-05-01

    At the Portuguese universities, practical classes of life sciences are usually professor-centered 2-hour classes. This approach results in students underprepared for a real work environment in a research/clinical laboratory. To provide students with a real-life laboratory environment, the Non-Stop Lab Week (NSLW) was created in the Molecular Biomedicine master program at the University of Aveiro, Portugal. The unique feature of the NSLW is its intensity: during a 1-week period, students perform a subcloning and a protein expression project in an environment that mimics a real laboratory. Students work autonomously, and the progression of work depends on achieving the daily goals. Throughout the three curricular years, most students considered the intensity of the NSLW a very good experience and fundamental for their future. Moreover, after some experience in a real laboratory, students state that both the techniques and the environment created in the NSLW were similar to what they experience in their current work situation. The NSLW fulfills a gap in postgraduate students' learning, particularly in practical skills and scientific thinking. Furthermore, the NSLW experience provides skills to the students that are crucial to their future research area. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:297-303, 2016. PMID:26891775

  10. Hidden Voices: Disabled Women's Experiences of Violence and Support Over the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonali; Tsitsou, Lito; Woodin, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide social and human rights problem that cuts across cultural, geographic, religious, social, and economic boundaries. It affects women in countries around the world, regardless of class, religion, disability, age, or sexual identity. International evidence shows that approximately three in five women experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner. However, across the globe, women and girls with impairments or life-limiting illnesses are more susceptible to different forms of violence across a range of environments and by different perpetrators including professionals and family members as well as partners. However, they are likely to be seriously disadvantaged in gaining information and support to escape the abusive relationships. This article stems from the United Kingdom part of a comparative study with three other countries (Austria, Germany, and Iceland) funded by the European Commission (EC; 2013-2015). It presents preliminary findings, generated from life history interviews, about disabled women's experiences of violence and access to support (both formal and informal) over their life course and their aspirations for the prevention of violence in the future. The article includes examples of impairment-specific violence that non-disabled women do not experience. By bringing the voices of disabled women into the public domain, the article will facilitate a historically marginalized group to contribute to the debate about disability, violence, and support. PMID:26762144

  11. Teachers’ experiences of adolescents’ pain in everyday life: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Gudrun; Westergren, Thomas; Haraldstad, Kristin; Johannessen, Berit; Høie, Magnhild; Helseth, Sølvi; Fegran, Liv; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-01-01

    Objectives More adolescents report pain now than previously. In Norway, episodic pain problems have been reported by 60% of children and adolescents aged 8–18 years, with 21% reporting duration of pain of more than 3 months. Since adolescents spend much time at school, the attitude and behaviour of teachers play important roles regarding the experience of pain felt by adolescents in everyday life. Yet research on how teachers perceive the pain experienced by adolescents in a school setting is limited. We therefore seek to gain insight to teachers’ classroom experiences with (1) adolescent's self-reported pain symptoms; (2) adolescents management of their pain and (3) how to help adolescents manage their pain. Setting Teachers in 5 junior high schools in Norway representing municipalities in 3 rural areas and 2 cities. Research design A qualitative study with an explorative design comprising 5 focus group interviews. Each group consisted of 3–8 junior high school teachers. A semistructured interview guide was used to cover the issues. The transcribed text was analysed with qualitative content analysis. Participants 22 teachers participated (5 men, 17 women; age range 29–62 years) with teaching experience ranging from 3 to nearly 40 years. Results The main theme describing the experience of teachers with adolescents’ pain in everyday life is that pain and management of pain is a social, physical and psychological interwoven phenomenon. Through empirical analyses, 3 subcategories emerged: (1) everyday pain—expressing strenuous life; (2) managing pain—escaping struggle and (3) strategies of teachers—support and normalisation. Conclusions Teachers have a biopsychosocial understanding and approach to pain experienced by adolescents. This understanding influences the role of teachers as significant others in the lives of adolescents with regard to pain and management of their pain in a school setting. PMID:26338838

  12. UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. Innovative aerobatic parabolic flights for life sciences experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel

    We present an innovative method of performing parabolic flights with aerobatic single-engine planes. A parabolic platform has been established in Sabadell Airport (Barcelona, Spain) to provide an infraestructure ready to allow Life Sciences reduced gravity experiments to be conducted in parabolic flights. Test flights have demonstrated that up to 8 seconds of reduced gravity can be achieved by using a two-seat CAP10B aircraft, with a gravity range between 0.1 and 0.01g in the three axis. A parabolic flight campaign may be implemented with a significant reduction in budget compared to conventional parabolic flight campaigns, and with a very short time-to-access to the platform. Operational skills and proficiency of the pilot controling the aircraft during the maneuvre, sensitivity to wind gusts, and aircraft balance are the key issues that make a parabola successful. Efforts are focused on improving the total “zero-g” time and the quality of reduced gravity achieved, as well as providing more space for experiments. We report results of test flights that have been conducted in order to optimize the quality and total microgravity time. A computer sofware has been developed and implemented to help the pilot optimize his or her performance. Finally, we summarize the life science experiments that have been conducted in this platform. Specific focus is given to the very successful 'Barcelona ZeroG Challenge', this year in its third edition. This educational contest gives undergraduate and graduate students worldwide the opportunity to design their research within our platform and test it on flight, thus becoming real researchers. We conclude that aerobatic parabolic flights have proven to be a safe, unexpensive and reliable way to conduct life sciences reduced gravity experiments.

  13. Real-life experience with personally familiar faces enhances discrimination based on global information

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Goedele

    2016-01-01

    Despite the agreement that experience with faces leads to more efficient processing, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Building on empirical evidence from unfamiliar face processing in healthy populations and neuropsychological patients, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that personal familiarity is associated with superior discrimination when identity information is derived based on global, as opposed to local facial information. Diagnosticity and availability of local and global information was manipulated through varied physical similarity and spatial resolution of morph faces created from personally familiar or unfamiliar faces. We found that discrimination of subtle changes between highly similar morph faces was unaffected by familiarity. Contrariwise, relatively more pronounced physical (i.e., identity) differences were more efficiently discriminated for personally familiar faces, indicating more efficient processing of global, as opposed to local facial information through real-life experience. PMID:26855852

  14. Motivation and career outcomes of a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Robbie Ray

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented in professional science careers. In order to make Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers more accessible for underrepresented minorities, informal science programs must be utilized to assist in developing interest in STEM for minority youth. In addition to developing interest in science, informal programs must help develop interpersonal skills and leadership skills of youth, which allow youth to develop discrete social behaviors while creating positive and supportive communities thus making science more practical in their lives. This study was based on the premise that introducing underrepresented youth to the agricultural and life sciences through an integrated precollege experience of leadership development with university faculty, scientist, and staff would help increase youths' interest in science, while also increasing their interest to pursue a STEM-related career. Utilizing a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities, known as the Ag Discovery Camp, 33 middle school aged youth were brought to the Purdue University campus to participate in an experience that integrated a leadership development program with an informal science education program in the context of agriculture. The week-long program introduced youth to fields of agriculture in engineering, plant sciences, food sciences, and entomology. The purpose of the study was to describe short-term and intermediate student outcomes in regards to participants' interests in career activities, science self-efficacy, and career intentions. Youth were not interested in agricultural activities immediately following the precollege experience. However, one year after the precollege experience, youth expressed they were more aware of agriculture and would consider agricultural careers if their first career choice did not work out for them. Results also showed that the youth who participated in the precollege experience were

  15. When is it okay to cry? An end-of-life simulation experience.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jennifer L; Thomas-Wright, Jenny; Pugh, Holly

    2014-11-01

    This article details how a small college of nursing affiliated with a faith-based health care corporation integrated the education of end-of-life care into a megacode simulation. Students participated in a high-fidelity simulated megacode scenario in which the simulator died. Following de-briefing, student groups participated in an additional scenario in which faculty coached them through postmortem care and interaction with a family member and a hospital chaplain. As a result of this multidimensional, interprofessional simulation, students developed heightened skill in applying basic life-saving measures, increased knowledge of and comfort with postmortem care, and increased awareness of the emotions elicited by the experience. PMID:25350901

  16. Association between stressful life events and psychotic experiences in adolescence: evidence for gene–environment correlations

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Background Stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychotic experiences. SLEs might act as an environmental risk factor, but may also share a genetic propensity with psychotic experiences. Aims To estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence the relationship between SLEs and psychotic experiences. Method Self- and parent reports from a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) were analysed using structural equation model fitting. Results SLEs correlated with positive psychotic experiences (r = 0.12–0.14, all P<0.001). Modest heritability was shown for psychotic experiences (25–57%) and dependent SLEs (32%). Genetic influences explained the majority of the modest covariation between dependent SLEs and paranoia and cognitive disorganisation (bivariate heritabilities 74–86%). The relationship between SLEs and hallucinations and grandiosity was explained by both genetic and common environmental effects. Conclusions Further to dependent SLEs being an environmental risk factor, individuals may have an underlying genetic propensity increasing their risk of dependent SLEs and positive psychotic experiences. PMID:27056622

  17. Life-cycle experiments of medaka fish aboard the international space station.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Fish are the most likely candidates to be the first vertebrate to live their life cycle aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the space-shuttle experiment using medaka, the fry born in space had the same number of germ cells as the ground control fish, and these germ cells later developed to produce the offspring on the ground. Fry hatched in space did not exhibit any looping behavior regardless of their strain, visual acuity, etc. The aquatic habitat (AQH) is a space habitat designed for long-term breeding of medaka, zebrafish and Xenopus, and recent advancements in this hardware also support fish life-cycle experiments. From the crosses between two strains, fish having good eyesight and less sensitivity to gravity were obtained, and their tolerance to microgravity was tested by parabolic flight using an airplane. The fish exhibited less looping and no differences in degree of looping between light and dark conditions. These are possible candidates for the first adult medaka (parent fish) to start a life cycle aboard ISS. Embryos were treated with a three-dimensional clinostat. Such simulated microgravity caused no differences in tissue architecture or in gene expression within the retina, nor in formation of cartilage (head skeleton). Otolith formation in embryos and fry was investigated for wild-type and mutant (ha) medaka. The ha embryos could not form utricular otoliths. They formed saccular otoliths but with a delay. Fry of the mutant fish lacking the utricular otoliths are highly light-dependent at the time of hatching, showing a perfect dorsal-light response (DLR). As they grow, they eventually shift from being light dependent to gravity dependent. Continuous treatment of the fry with altered light direction suppressed this shift to gravity dependence. Being less dependent on gravity, these fish can serve as model fish in studying the differences expected for the fish that have experienced a life cycle in microgravity. PMID:14631634

  18. Predicting Bullying: Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior.

    PubMed

    Connell, Nadine M; Morris, Robert G; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    Although there has been much interest in research on aggression and in particular bullying, a relatively less charted area of research has centered on articulating a better understanding of the mechanisms and processes by which persons are at increased risk for bullying. Furthermore, those studies that have investigated the linkages between childhood experiences and bullying perpetration have been limited with respect to definitional and operational issues, reliance on cross-sectional data, and the lack of assessing competing explanations of bullying perpetration. Using five waves of data from a community-based longitudinal sample of children followed through age 18 (N = 763), the current study examines the extent to which childhood negative life events in a variety of domains predict adolescent bullying. Results show that early childhood experiences, particularly those within the family and school domains, may alter life trajectories and can act as predictors for later adolescent bullying, thereby underscoring the potential importance that relatively minor experiences can have over the long term. Implications for future research based on these analyses are examined. PMID:25759430

  19. Additional experiments relative to the shelf life of Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, J. Q.; Armijo, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    A continuing effort to develop a new thermal battery technology based on the Li(Si)/FeS2 electrochemical couple is reported. The results relate to the long shelf life requirement for thermal batteries designed by Sandia, and include topics relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal and accelerated aging experiments with materials new to the technology. Conclusions relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal are that the maximum leak rate must not exceed 1.8 x 10(-7) w, where w is the grams of Li(Si) contained by a battery, and that a bomb type leak test can be designed that is adequate for most Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. Conclusions relevant to long term compatibility of new materials include the following: nickel is not compatible with the iron disulfide in the cathode; the CaSi2 additive used to suppress the initial voltage transient does not react or degrade during accelerated aging experiments, but the use of that material can lead to an increase in the variability of the activated lives, especially for long life batteries; Grafoil current collectors used with the cathode do not degrade in accelerated aging experiments.

  20. Training for life science experiments in space at the NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Annette T.; Maese, A. Christopher

    1993-01-01

    As this country prepares for exploration to other planets, the need to understand the affects of long duration exposure to microgravity is evident. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's Space Life Sciences Payloads Office is responsible for a number of non-human life sciences payloads on NASA's Space Shuttle's Spacelab. Included in this responsibility is the training of those individuals who will be conducting the experiments during flight, the astronauts. Preparing a crew to conduct such experiments requires training protocols that build on simple tasks. Once a defined degree of performance proficiency is met for each task, these tasks are combined to increase the complexity of the activities. As tasks are combined into in-flight operations, they are subjected to time constraints and the crew enhances their skills through repetition. The science objectives must be completely understood by the crew and are critical to the overall training program. Completion of the in-flight activities is proof of success. Because the crew is exposed to the background of early research and plans for post-flight analyses, they have a vested interest in the flight activities. The salient features of this training approach is that it allows for flexibility in implementation, consideration of individual differences, and a greater ability to retain experiment information. This training approach offers another effective alternative training tool to existing methodologies.

  1. Faith Pinnacle Moments: Stress, Miraculous Experiences, and Life Satisfaction in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Manglos, Nicolette D.

    2013-01-01

    Religious beliefs often persist among unaffiliated young adults, and certain beliefs about God have been shown to support subjective well-being. Yet we know much less about the persistence or psychological impact of religious experiences, specifically miracles from God. I conceive of such experiences as faith pinnacle moments which express and reinvigorate the individual's reciprocal bond with God, frequently occur in response to certain types of stress, and support well-being by solidifying one's sense of that bond. My results show that net of institutional religiosity, young adults who experience stress from traumas are more likely to report miracles. This suggests that these reports often refer to healings or similar interventions. Stress from family breakups, however, is negatively correlated with miracles, presumably since these disruptions damage the bond with God due to the established connection between parental relationships and perceived relationship with God. Finally, miracles are positively correlated with life satisfaction and partially protect against the negative effects of stress on life satisfaction. PMID:23990701

  2. Evaluation of the Microbial Population in the Multibiological Life Support System Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuming; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

    In order to develop and evaluate a ground-based bioregenerative life support system satisfying half of one crew member's requirement towards O2 , Multibiological Life Support System Exper-iments (MLSSE) have been conducted. The MLSSE involved humans participating in the gas exchange with the closed equipment simulating the future extraterrestrial life support systems, which included three phases. The Phase I test involved one person participating in the gas exchange with lettuce in plant chamber as the primary means of air revitalization for 3 months. The Phase II test involved one person participating in the gas exchange with lettuce in plant chamber and micoalgae in bioreactor as the means of air revitalization for 1 month. In the Phase III test, silkworm was introduced into animal chamber for 2 months based on Phase II. The microbial dynamics in the closed chambers were evaluated during the whole experiments. The surfaces, water, and air of closed equipment were sampled for microbial content during the whole experiments. In general, the numbers of microbes in the chambers slowly increased with length of occupation. Compared with Phase I, the numbers of microbes of Phase II ob-viously increased, however, the numbers of microbes of Phase III did not increase relative to Phase II. The types of microbes found on the surfaces and in the air in all the experimental phases were similar. The most common bacteria were Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., as well as Sphingomonas sp., with Pencillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. the most common fungi. A few opportunistic pathogens were also determined, but neither phase had levels of microbes that would be considered an occupational health threat.

  3. A Review of Adversity, The Amygdala and the Hippocampus: A Consideration of Developmental Timing

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the human developmental neuroimaging literature that investigates outcomes following exposure to psychosocial adversity is presented with a focus on two subcortical structures – the hippocampus and the amygdala. Throughout this review, we discuss how a consideration of developmental timing of adverse experiences and age at measurement might provide insight into the seemingly discrepant findings across studies. We use findings from animal studies to suggest some mechanisms through which timing of experiences may result in differences across time and studies. The literature suggests that early life may be a time of heightened susceptibility to environmental stressors, but that expression of these effects will vary by age at measurement. PMID:20161700

  4. A Study of High School Students' Performance of a Chemistry Experiment within the Virtual World of Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Scott, Matthew; Wong, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    A small group of high school students performed a virtual laboratory experiment in Second Life that mimicked a real experiment in both its appearance and procedure. Lab report grades were equivalent to report grades for hands-on experiments, and the quality of students' results was similar. Results of an attitudinal survey show that students…

  5. Do You Look to the Future or Focus on Today? The Impact of Life Experience on Intertemporal Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wendy; Aaker, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In this research, we investigate the impact of significant life experiences on intertemporal decisions among young adults. A series of experiments focus specifically on the impact of experiencing the death of a close other by cancer. We show that such an experience, which bears information about time, is associated with making decisions that favor…

  6. The Experience of Being at Home throughout the Life Span. Investigation of Persons Aged from 2 to 102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingmark, Karin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined experience of 150 persons related to the phenomenon "being at home." Common aspects identified entailed cognitive, emotional, and conative dimensions. The sense of being related was a common experience, that is, related to significant others, things, places, and activities. A progression in the experience throughout the life span was…

  7. Dissociative experiences and quality of life in patients with non-epileptic attack disorder.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, James W; Ali, Fizzah; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2012-11-01

    Dissociative experiences are commonly reported by patients with non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD). This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and characteristics of dissociative experiences in patients with NEAD and assessed their association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fifty-three patients diagnosed with NEAD were consecutively recruited (70.0% female, mean age=42 years, 22.0% with comorbid epilepsy) from a specialist neuropsychiatric clinic. Our sample reported high levels of dissociative experiences, with 36.7% of patients scoring ≥30 on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Significant negative correlations were found between total DES scores and HRQoL, as measured by the QOLIE-31 questionnaire (r=-0.64, p<0.001). This association remained significant when accounting for symptoms of depression and anxiety, other psychiatric comorbidities, and attack frequency and severity. These findings suggest a high prevalence of dissociative experiences in this patient population, highlighting the importance of routinely screening patients for dissociative symptoms and their impact on patients' lives. PMID:23099232

  8. Association of Experience with Illness and End-of-life Care with Advance Care Planning in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Amjad, Halima; Towle, Virginia; Fried, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether experiences with illness and end-of-life care are associated with increased readiness to participate in advance care planning (ACP). Design Observational cohort study. Setting Community. Participants Persons age ≥ 60 recruited from physician offices and a senior center. Measurements Participants were asked about personal experience with major illness or surgery and experience with others’ end-of-life care, including whether they had made a medical decision for someone dying, knew someone who had a bad death due to too much/too little medical care, or experienced the death of a loved one who made end-of-life wishes known. Stages of change were assessed for specific ACP behaviors: completion of living will and healthcare proxy, communication with loved ones regarding life-sustaining treatments and quantity versus quality of life, and communication with physicians about these same topics. Stages of change included precontemplation, contemplation, preparation and action/maintenance corresponding to whether the participant was not ready to complete the behavior, was considering participation in the next six months, was planning participation within thirty days, or had already participated. Results Of 304 participants, 84% had one or more personal experiences or experience with others. Personal experiences were not associated with increased readiness for most ACP behaviors. In contrast, having one or more experiences with others was associated with increased readiness to complete a living will and healthcare proxy, discuss life-sustaining treatment with loved ones and discuss quantity versus quality of life with loved ones and with physicians. Conclusion Older individuals who have experience with end-of-life care for others demonstrate increased readiness to participate in ACP. Discussions with older patients regarding these experiences may be a useful tool in promoting ACP. PMID:24934237

  9. Origin of life. The role of experiments, basic beliefs, and social authorities in the controversies about the spontaneous generation of life and the subsequent debates about synthesizing life in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    For centuries the question of the origin of life had focused on the question of the spontaneous generation of life, at least primitive forms of life, from inanimate matter, an idea that had been promoted most prominently by Aristotle. The widespread belief in spontaneous generation, which had been adopted by the Church, too, was finally abandoned at the beginning of the twentieth century, when the question of the origin of life became related to that of the artificial generation of life in the laboratory. This paper examines the role of social authorities, researchers' basic beliefs, crucial experiments, and scientific advance in the controversies about spontaneous generation from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries and analyzes the subsequent debates about the synthesis of artificial life in the changing scientific contexts of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. It shows that despite the importance of social authorities, basic beliefs, and crucial experiments scientific advances, especially those in microbiology, were the single most important factor in the stepwise abandoning of the doctrine of spontaneous generation. Research on the origin of life and the artificial synthesis of life became scientifically addressed only when it got rid of the idea of constant smooth transitions between inanimate matter and life and explored possible chemical and physical mechanisms of the specificity of basic molecules and processes of life. PMID:23316565

  10. SPIRITUALITY AS A LIVED EXPERIENCE: EXPLORING THE ESSENCE OF SPIRITUALITY FOR WOMEN IN LATE LIFE*

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lydia K.

    2013-01-01

    Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over the life course. A hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of the interviews was performed and provided insights into the nature of their “lived experience” allowing for the understanding of the essence of their spirituality. The results are presented as an interpretation of the participants’ perceptions of their spirituality and spiritual experiences. For the women in this study, the essence of their spirituality lies in: being profoundly grateful; engaging in complete acceptance; and having a strong sense of assuredness, while stressing the linkages and importance of spirituality. Implications for understanding spirituality for older adults are considered. PMID:23185856

  11. Life Satisfaction and Perceived Meaningfulness of Learning Experience among First-Year Traditional Graduate Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakunmoju, Sunday; Donahue, Gilpatrick R.; McCoy, Shandria; Mengel, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about life satisfaction and learning experience among first-year graduate students is sparse, despite its relevance to instructional decisions, academic support, and success of students. Adequate knowledge is crucial, as it may help graduate students manage personal and professional life changes associated with graduate education. Using…

  12. Collaborative Science Learning in Three-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Worlds: Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussli, Natalie; Oh, Kevin; McCandless, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to help pre-service teachers experience and evaluate the potential of Second Life, a three-dimensional immersive virtual environment, for potential integration into their future teaching. By completing collaborative assignments in Second Life, nineteen pre-service general education teachers explored an…

  13. The Search for Subsurface Life on Mars: Results from the MARTE Analog Drill Experiment in Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2006-03-01

    The Mars Analog Research and Technology (MARTE) experiment has developed an automated drilling system on a simulated Mars lander platform including drilling, sample handling, core analysis and down-hole instruments relevant to searching for life in the Martian subsurface.

  14. The effects of video compression on acceptability of images for monitoring life sciences' experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Chuang, Sherry L.

    1993-01-01

    Current plans indicate that there will be a large number of life science experiments carried out during the thirty year-long mission of the Biological Flight Research Laboratory (BFRL) on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Non-human life science experiments will be performed in the BFRL. Two distinct types of activities have already been identified for this facility: (1) collect, store, distribute, analyze and manage engineering and science data from the Habitats, Glovebox and Centrifuge, (2) perform a broad range of remote science activities in the Glovebox and Habitat chambers in conjunction with the remotely located principal investigator (PI). These activities require extensive video coverage, viewing and/or recording and distribution to video displays on board SSF and to the ground. This paper concentrates mainly on the second type of activity. Each of the two BFRL habitat racks are designed to be configurable for either six rodent habitats per rack, four plant habitats per rack, or a combination of the above. Two video cameras will be installed in each habitat with a spare attachment for a third camera when needed. Therefore, a video system that can accommodate up to 12-18 camera inputs per habitat rack must be considered.

  15. Life Out There: An Astrobiological Multimedia Experience for the Digital Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Grinspoon, D.

    2013-04-01

    Planetariums have a long history of experimentation with audio and visuals to create new multimedia experiences. We report on a series of innovative experiences in the Gates Planetarium at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in 2009-2011 combining live performances of music and navigation through scientific visualizations. The Life Out There productions featured a story showcasing astrobiology concepts at scales ranging from galactic to molecular, and told using VJ-ing of immersive visualizations and musical performances from the House Band to the Universe. Funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's JPL-Titan Team, these hour-long shows were broken into four separate themed musical movements, with an improvisatory mix of music, dome visuals, and spoken science narrative which resulted in no two performances being exactly alike. Post-performance dissemination is continuing via a recorded version of the performance available as a DVD and online streaming video. Written evaluations from visitors who were present at the live shows reveal high satisfaction, while one of the Life Out There concerts was used to inaugurate a new evening program to draw in a younger audience demographic to DMNS.

  16. Life experiences of Taiwanese oral cancer patients during the postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of oral cancer has rapidly increased in Taiwan. Oral cancer and its surgical treatment may also cause physical and psychological problems for patients. During the postoperative period, patients face adjustments in their disease, treatment and lives. However, research on these relevant issues is scant. A qualitative study was conducted with the purpose of exploring the life experiences of surgically treated Taiwanese oral cancer patients during the postoperative period. Thirteen patients with oral cancer were recruited from the otolaryngology head and neck surgery wards of a medical centre in northern Taiwan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and tape recorded after informed consent had been obtained. Data were analysed using the content analysis method. Results show that the life experiences of the patients with oral cancer were related to the impact of threatening symptoms, concerns about survival, restriction of interpersonal relationships, self-restructuring and constructing a support network. The results of this study can provide healthcare professionals with a reference for implementing care plans to address the unique needs of patients with oral cancer. PMID:21883343

  17. Novice Nurses' Experiences With Palliative and End-of-Life Communication.

    PubMed

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Sawin, Kathleen J; Montgomery, Kitty; Dupree, Claretta; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste R; Carr, Barb; Haase, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    Health care providers recognize that delivery of effective communication with family members of children with life-threatening illnesses is essential to palliative and end-of-life care (PC/EOL). Parents value the presence of nurses during PC/EOL of their dying child. It is vital that nurses, regardless of their years of work experience, are competent and feel comfortable engaging family members of dying children in PC/EOL discussions. This qualitative-descriptive study used focus groups to explore the PC/EOL communication perspectives of 14 novice pediatric oncology nurses (eg, with less than 1 year of experience). Audio-taped focus group discussions were reviewed to develop the following 6 theme categories: (a) Sacred Trust to Care for the Child and Family, (b) An Elephant in the Room, (c) Struggling with Emotional Unknowns, (d) Kaleidoscope of Death: Patterns and Complexity, (e) Training Wheels for Connectedness: Critical Mentors during PC/EOL of Children, and (f) Being Present with an Open Heart: Ways to Maintain Hope and Minimize Emotional Distress. To date, this is the first study to focus on PC/EOL communication perspectives of novice pediatric oncology nurses. PMID:25556105

  18. Social media users have different experiences, motivations, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Jay; Folan, Denis; Diehl, Grace; Kable, Timothy; Rademeyer, Candice

    2015-08-30

    While the number of individuals participating in internet-based social networks has continued to rise, it is unclear how participating in social networks might influence quality of life (QOL). Individuals differ in their experiences, motivations for, and amount of time using internet-based social networks, therefore, we examined if individuals differing in social network user experiences, motivations and frequency of social network also differed in self-reported QOL. Two-hundred and thirty-seven individuals (aged 18-65) were recruited online using the online platform Mechanical Turk (MTurk). All participants completed a web-based survey examining social network use and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-Bref) to assess QOL. Individuals who reported positive associations with the use of social networks demonstrated higher QOL while those reporting negative associates demonstrated lower QOL. Moreover, individuals using social networks to stay connected to friends demonstrated higher QOL while those using social networking for dating purposes reported lower QOL. Frequency of social network use did not relate to QOL. These results suggest that QOL differs among social network users. Thus, participating in social networking may be a way to either promote or detract from QOL. PMID:26054935

  19. Opening toward life: Experiences of basic body awareness therapy in persons with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Louise; Rosberg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a vast amount of research on different strategies to alleviate depression, knowledge of movement-based treatments focusing on body awareness is sparse. This study explores the experiences of basic body awareness therapy (BBAT) in 15 persons diagnosed with major depression who participated in the treatment in a randomized clinical trial. Hermeneutic phenomenological methodology inspired the approach to interviews and data analysis. The participants’ experiences were essentially grasped as a process of enhanced existential openness, opening toward life, exceeding the tangible corporeal dimension to also involve emotional, temporal, and relational aspects of life. Five constituents of this meaning were described: vitality springing forth, grounding oneself, recognizing patterns in one's body, being acknowledged and allowed to be oneself, and grasping the vagueness. The process of enhanced perceptual openness challenges the numbness experienced in depression, which can provide hope for change, but it is connected to hard work and can be emotionally difficult to bear. Inspired by a phenomenological framework, the results of this study illuminate novel clinical and theoretical insight into the meaning of BBAT as an adjunctive approach in the treatment of depression. PMID:25956354

  20. Malnutrition in Early Life and Adult Mental Health: Evidence From a Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Phillips, Michael R.; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Jingxuan; Shi, Qichang; Song, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhijie; Pang, Shutao; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    As natural experiments, famines provide a unique opportunity to test the health consequences of nutritional deprivation during the critical period of early life. Using data on 4,972 Chinese born between 1956 and 1963 who participated in a large mental health epidemiology survey conducted between 2001 and 2005, we investigated the potential impact of famine exposure in utero and during the early postnatal life on adult mental illness. The risk of mental illness was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and eight other risk factors, and the famine impact on adult mental illness was estimated by difference-in-difference models. Results show that compared with women born in 1963, women born during the famine years (1959–1961) had higher GHQ scores (increased by 0.95 points; CI: 0.26, 1.65) and increased risk of mental illness (OR= 2.80; CI: 1.23, 6.39); those born in 1959 were the most affected and had GHQ scores 1.52 points higher (CI: 0.42, 2.63) and an OR for mental illness of 4.99 (CI: 1.68, 14.84). Compared to men in the 1963 birth cohort, men born during the famine had lower GHQ scores (decreased by 0.89 points; CI: −1.59, −0.20) and a nonsignificant decrease in the risk of mental illness (OR = 0.60; CI: 0.26, 1.40). We speculate that the long-term consequences of early-life famine exposure include both the selection of the hardiest and the enduring deleterious effects of famine on those who survive. The greater biological vulnerability and stronger natural selection in utero of male versus female fetuses during severe famine may result in a stronger selection effect among men than women, obscuring the deleterious impact of famine exposure on the risk of mental illness in men later in life. PMID:23313495