Science.gov

Sample records for adverse listening conditions

  1. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  2. Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

  3. The Temporal Dynamics of Spoken Word Recognition in Adverse Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. "candle"), an onset competitor (e.g. "candy"), a rhyme competitor (e.g.…

  4. The Temporal Dynamics of Spoken Word Recognition in Adverse Listening Conditions.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. candle), an onset competitor (e.g. candy), a rhyme competitor (e.g. sandal), and an unrelated distractor (e.g. lemon). Target words were presented in quiet, mixed with broadband noise, or mixed with background speech. Results showed that lexical competition changes throughout the observation window as a function of what is presented in the background. These findings suggest that, rather than being strictly sequential, stream segregation and lexical competition interact during spoken word recognition. PMID:26420754

  5. Intelligibility of foreign-accented speech: Effects of listening condition, listener age, and listener hearing status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2005-09-01

    It is well known that, for listeners with normal hearing, speech produced by non-native speakers of the listener's first language is less intelligible than speech produced by native speakers. Intelligibility is well correlated with listener's ratings of talker comprehensibility and accentedness, which have been shown to be related to several talker factors, including age of second language acquisition and level of similarity between the talker's native and second language phoneme inventories. Relatively few studies have focused on factors extrinsic to the talker. The current project explored the effects of listener and environmental factors on the intelligibility of foreign-accented speech. Specifically, monosyllabic English words previously recorded from two talkers, one a native speaker of American English and the other a native speaker of Spanish, were presented to three groups of listeners (young listeners with normal hearing, elderly listeners with normal hearing, and elderly listeners with hearing impairment; n=20 each) in three different listening conditions (undistorted words in quiet, undistorted words in 12-talker babble, and filtered words in quiet). Data analysis will focus on interactions between talker accent, listener age, listener hearing status, and listening condition. [Project supported by American Speech-Language-Hearing Association AARC Award.

  6. Strength of British English Accents in Altered Listening Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Peter; Barry, William; Vinson, David

    2007-01-01

    This work is concerned with the processing or representational level at which accent forms learned early in life can change, and whether alteration to the speaker's auditory environment can elicit an original accent. In experiment one, recordings were made of an equal number of a) speakers living in the Home Counties of Britain (around the London conurbation), but who claimed to have retained the accent of the region they originally came from, b) speakers who stated they had lost their regional accent and acquired a Home Counties accent and c) native Home Counties speakers. They read two texts in a normal listening environment. Listeners rated the similarity in accent between each of these texts and all other texts. The results showed that in the normal listening conditions, speakers who had lost their accent were rated more similar to Home Counties English speakers than to those speakers from the same region who had retained their accent. In experiment two, recordings of the same speakers under frequency shifted and delayed auditory feedback, as well as the normal listening conditions used earlier, were rated in order to see whether the manipulations of listening environment elicited the speaker's original accent. Listeners rated similarity of accent in a sample of speech recorded under normal listening against a sample read by another speaker in one of the altered listening conditions. When listening condition was altered, speakers who had lost their original accent were rated as more similar to those who had retained their accent. It is concluded that accent differences can be elicited by altering listening environment because the speech systems of these speakers are more vulnerable than speakers who do not change their original accent. PMID:16617838

  7. Is Listening in Noise Worth It? The Neurobiology of Speech Recognition in Challenging Listening Conditions.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Mark A; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan; Vaden, Kenneth I

    2016-01-01

    This review examines findings from functional neuroimaging studies of speech recognition in noise to provide a neural systems level explanation for the effort and fatigue that can be experienced during speech recognition in challenging listening conditions. Neuroimaging studies of speech recognition consistently demonstrate that challenging listening conditions engage neural systems that are used to monitor and optimize performance across a wide range of tasks. These systems appear to improve speech recognition in younger and older adults, but sustained engagement of these systems also appears to produce an experience of effort and fatigue that may affect the value of communication. When considered in the broader context of the neuroimaging and decision making literature, the speech recognition findings from functional imaging studies indicate that the expected value, or expected level of speech recognition given the difficulty of listening conditions, should be considered when measuring effort and fatigue. The authors propose that the behavioral economics or neuroeconomics of listening can provide a conceptual and experimental framework for understanding effort and fatigue that may have clinical significance. PMID:27355759

  8. Subjective study of preferred listening conditions in Italian Catholic churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The paper describes the results of research aimed at investigating the preferred subjective listening conditions inside churches. The effect of different musical motifs (spanning Gregorian chants to symphonic music) was investigated and regression analysis was performed in order to point out the relationship between subjective ratings and acoustical parameters. In order to present realistic listening conditions to the subjects a small subset of nine churches was selected among a larger set of acoustic data collected in several Italian churches during a widespread on-site survey. The subset represented different architectural styles and shapes, and was characterized by average listening conditions. For each church a single source-receiver combination with fixed relative positions was chosen. Measured binaural impulse responses were cross-talk cancelled and then convolved with five anechoic motifs. Paired comparisons were finally performed, asking a trained panel of subjects their preference. Factor analysis pointed out a substantially common underlying pattern characterizing subjective responses. The results show that preferred listening conditions vary as a function of the musical motif, depending on early decay time for choral music and on a combination of initial time delay and lateral energy for instrumental music.

  9. Perceptual Learning of Speech under Optimal and Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable ability to understand spoken language despite the large amount of variability in speech. Previous research has shown that listeners can use lexical information to guide their interpretation of atypical sounds in speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). This kind of lexically induced perceptual learning enables people to adjust to the variations in utterances due to talker-specific characteristics, such as individual identity and dialect. The current study investigated perceptual learning in two optimal conditions: conversational speech (Experiment 1) vs. clear speech (Experiment 2), and three adverse conditions: noise (Experiment 3a) vs. two cognitive loads (Experiments 4a & 4b). Perceptual learning occurred in the two optimal conditions and in the two cognitive load conditions, but not in the noise condition. Furthermore, perceptual learning occurred only in the first of two sessions for each participant, and only for atypical /s/ sounds and not for atypical /f/ sounds. This pattern of learning and non-learning reflects a balance between flexibility and stability that the speech system must have to deal with speech variability in the diverse conditions that speech is encountered. PMID:23815478

  10. HEPA Filter Performance under Adverse Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven; Waggoner, Charles

    2007-07-01

    This study involved challenging nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Energy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled and uncontrolled challenge, and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by traditional differential pressure techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceeded their usable lifetime. Significant findings from this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter housing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of filters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl. (authors)

  11. Differential modulation of auditory responses to attended and unattended speech in different listening conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Mullangi, Ala; Ding, Nai

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how top-down attention modulates neural tracking of the speech envelope in different listening conditions. In the quiet conditions, a single speech stream was presented and the subjects paid attention to the speech stream (active listening) or watched a silent movie instead (passive listening). In the competing speaker (CS) conditions, two speakers of opposite genders were presented diotically. Ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) responses were measured in each condition and cross-correlated with the speech envelope of each speaker at different time lags. In quiet, active and passive listening resulted in similar neural responses to the speech envelope. In the CS conditions, however, the shape of the cross-correlation function was remarkably different between the attended and unattended speech. The cross-correlation with the attended speech showed stronger N1 and P2 responses but a weaker P1 response compared with the cross-correlation with the unattended speech. Furthermore, the N1 response to the attended speech in the CS condition was enhanced and delayed compared with the active listening condition in quiet, while the P2 response to the unattended speaker in the CS condition was attenuated compared with the passive listening in quiet. Taken together, these results demonstrate that top-down attention differentially modulates envelope-tracking neural activity at different time lags and suggest that top-down attention can both enhance the neural responses to the attended sound stream and suppress the responses to the unattended sound stream. PMID:25124153

  12. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress.

  13. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress. PMID:26139190

  14. Effects of Conditioning Voices as Reinforcers for Listener Responses on Rate of Learning, Awareness, and Preferences for Listening to Stories in Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, R. Douglas; Pistoljevic, Nirvana; Cahill, Claire; Du, Lin

    2011-01-01

    We used a delayed non-concurrent pre- and post-intervention probe design to test the effects of a voice conditioning protocol (VCP) with 3 preschoolers with autism on (a) rate of acquisition of listener curricular objectives, (b) observing voices and the presence of adults across 3 settings, (c) selecting to listen to adults tell stories in free…

  15. Quality of whey powders stored under adverse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein concentrate powder (WPC) is exported by the U.S. and is included in emergency aid foods, but the bags sent overseas are usually stored without refrigeration and under elevated temperature and relative humidity (RH). The shelf life of WPC under adverse conditions must be known to preven...

  16. Telling Stories: Sustaining Improvement in Schools Operating under Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2006-01-01

    We know what good schools look like but experience tells us that it is very difficult to create and maintain them, especially when they are operating under adverse conditions-constant change, limited resources, high staff and student turnover, and a concentration of first time leaders and beginning teachers. The "Changing Schools in Changing Times…

  17. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules-namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  18. Effects of conditioning voices as reinforcers for listener responses on rate of learning, awareness, and preferences for listening to stories in preschoolers with autism.

    PubMed

    Greer, R Douglas; Pistoljevic, Nirvana; Cahill, Claire; Du, Lin

    2011-01-01

    We used a delayed non-concurrent pre- and post-intervention probe design to test the effects of a voice conditioning protocol (VCP) with 3 preschoolers with autism on (a) rate of acquisition of listener curricular objectives, (b) observing voices and the presence of adults across 3 settings, (c) selecting to listen to adults tell stories in free play setting, and (d) the occurrence of stereotypy in the story setting. The VCP conditioned voices as reinforcers for listening to recordings of voices via stimulus-stimulus pairing, which resulted in the children listening to audio recordings of voices in 90% of intervals in 5-min concurrent-operant preference tests. After voices became conditioned reinforcers, all 3 children's learning accelerated; 2 children's observing responses increased in the 3 settings; and 2 children selected to listen to stories and also showed decreased stereotypy in the story setting. The data suggest that conditioned reinforcement for observing responses may be a verbal behavior developmental cusp that acts to accelerate learning that involves listening, and that the cusp may be induced using the VCP. PMID:22532758

  19. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  20. Speech perception under adverse conditions: insights from behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research

    PubMed Central

    Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Specifically, we highlight the potential role of learning algorithms that rely on prediction error signals and discuss specific neural structures that are likely to contribute to such learning. To this end, we review behavioral studies, computational accounts, and neuroimaging findings related to adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Already, a few studies have alluded to a potential role of these mechanisms in adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Furthermore, we consider research topics in neuroscience that offer insight into how perception can be adaptively tuned to short-term deviations while balancing the need to maintain stability in the perception of learned long-term regularities. Consideration of the application and limitations of these algorithms in characterizing flexible speech perception under adverse conditions promises to inform theoretical models of speech. PMID:24427119

  1. Children's Performance in Complex Listening Conditions: Effects of Hearing Loss and Digital Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of hearing loss (HL) on children's performance for an auditory task under demanding listening conditions and to determine the effect of digital noise reduction (DNR) on that performance. Method: Fifty children with normal hearing (NH) and 30 children with HL (8-12 years of age) categorized words in the presence of…

  2. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically

  3. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana C; Mestrinho, Heliana D; Stevens, Sophie; van Wijk, Arjen J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young adults, the oral health conditions would have no impact on their quality of life. The participants were 611 new patients aged 16-32 years seeking consultation at the Saint-Luc University Hospital in Brussels in 2010-2011. The patients (56.0% female) were examined for their oral health conditions and answered a validated questionnaire about sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants in addition to questions about their OHRQoL. The abridged Oral Health Impact Profile-14 was used to assess the OHRQoL. Interexaminer reliability for caries was 0.86 (95% CI 0.84-0.89, nonweighted κ). The outcome was a high score on the OHRQoL (median split). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that young adults with clinical absolute D1MFS scores between 9 and 16 (OR = 2.14, p = 0.031) and between 17 and 24 (OR = 3.10, p = 0.003) were significantly more likely to report a high impact on their quality of life than those with lower scores. Also, periodontal conditions compromised significantly (OR = 1.79, p = 0.011) the quality of life of young adults. In conclusion, this study identified oral health conditions with a significant adverse effect on the OHRQoL of young adults. However, the prevalence of young adults reporting impacts on at least 1 performance affected fairly often or very often was limited to 18.7% of the sample. PMID:25832802

  4. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  5. Non-Listening and Self Centered Leadership – Relationships to Socioeconomic Conditions and Employee Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Theorell, Töres; Nyberg, Anna; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Westerlund, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Background The way in which leadership is experienced in different socioeconomic strata is of interest per se, as well as how it relates to employee mental health. Methods Three waves of SLOSH (Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, a questionnaire survey on a sample of the Swedish working population) were used, 2006, 2008 and 2010 (n = 5141). The leadership variables were: “Non-listening leadership” (one question: “Does your manager listen to you?” - four response categories), “Self centered leadership” (sum of three five-graded questions – “non-participating”, “asocial” and “loner”). The socioeconomic factors were education and income. Emotional exhaustion and depressive symptoms were used as indicators of mental health. Results Non-listening leadership was associated with low income and low education whereas self-centered leadership showed a weaker relationship with education and no association at all with income. Both leadership variables were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depressive symptoms. “Self centered” as well as “non-listening” leadership in 2006 significantly predicted employee depressive symptoms in 2008 after adjustment for demographic variables. These predictions became non-significant when adjustment was made for job conditions (demands and decision latitude) in the “non-listening” leadership analyses, whereas predictions of depressive symptoms remained significant after these adjustments in the “self-centered leadership” analyses. Conclusions Our results show that the leadership variables are associated with socioeconomic status and employee mental health. “Non-listening” scores were more sensitive to societal change and more strongly related to socioeconomic factors and job conditions than “self-centered” scores. PMID:23028491

  6. Listening and the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper emphasizes the connections between listening and the language arts. It lists advantages of students who are good listeners, such as students can learn more when listening well, and students learn to be polite by listening. In addition, the paper lists the following conditions which improve student listening: teaching and learning…

  7. 75 FR 8353 - Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions February 16, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Due to adverse weather conditions, the Federal Communications..., February 11, 2010. In recognition of the numerous closings and disruptions caused by the weather in...

  8. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  9. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  10. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  11. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  12. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  13. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  14. Neural dynamics of audiovisual speech integration under variable listening conditions: an individual participant analysis.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Nicholas; Wenger, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Speech perception engages both auditory and visual modalities. Limitations of traditional accuracy-only approaches in the investigation of audiovisual speech perception have motivated the use of new methodologies. In an audiovisual speech identification task, we utilized capacity (Townsend and Nozawa, 1995), a dynamic measure of efficiency, to quantify audiovisual integration. Capacity was used to compare RT distributions from audiovisual trials to RT distributions from auditory-only and visual-only trials across three listening conditions: clear auditory signal, S/N ratio of -12 dB, and S/N ratio of -18 dB. The purpose was to obtain EEG recordings in conjunction with capacity to investigate how a late ERP co-varies with integration efficiency. Results showed efficient audiovisual integration for low auditory S/N ratios, but inefficient audiovisual integration when the auditory signal was clear. The ERP analyses showed evidence for greater audiovisual amplitude compared to the unisensory signals for lower auditory S/N ratios (higher capacity/efficiency) compared to the high S/N ratio (low capacity/inefficient integration). The data are consistent with an interactive framework of integration, where auditory recognition is influenced by speech-reading as a function of signal clarity.

  15. The role of adverse weather conditions in acute releases of hazardous substances, Texas, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Borders, Julie; Villanacci, John; Harris, Richard; Samples-Ruiz, Melissa

    2004-11-11

    High winds, flooding, lightning, and other phenomena associated with adverse weather can cause power failures, equipment damage, and process upsets resulting in chemical releases. Of the 5000 events in Texas that were reported to the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system during 2000-2001, adverse weather conditions contributed to 110 (2%) events. Rain was the most frequent adverse weather condition. Most events to which adverse weather conditions contributed occurred during June or September; these months correspond with the high temperature and hurricane season in Texas. Most events occurred in coastal counties with large numbers of industrial facilities. Three industries reported the majority of events: industrial and miscellaneous chemicals manufacturing; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resin manufacturing. Power failures were associated more often with adverse weather-related events than with nonweather-related events. Releases occurred most commonly from ancillary process equipment and process vessels. Events associated with adverse weather-related conditions involved nine victims. System and process design improvements, such as improved backup power generation and redesigned secondary containment systems, could be explored to reduce the potential negative effects of severe weather.

  16. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  17. Enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning after a Mozart listening condition in Alzheimer's disease: a case study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J K; Cotman, C W; Tasaki, C S; Shaw, G L

    1998-12-01

    Several recent studies have investigated the effectiveness of various behavioral interventions on the cognitive performance of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Simulations of Shaw's structured model of the cortex led to the predictions that music might enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. A subsequent behavioral study in college students documented an improvement in scores on a spatial-temporal task after listening to a Mozart piano sonata. In this study, we investigated the enhancement of scores on a spatial-temporal task after a Mozart listening condition in a set of twins who are discordant for AD. After listening to an excerpt from a Mozart piano sonata, the AD twin showed considerable improvement on the spatial-temporal task when compared with pretest scores. Furthermore, no enhancement of scores was seen following either of the control conditions (i.e., silence or 1930s popular tunes). This finding suggests that music may be used as a tool to investigate functional plasticity in Alzheimer's disease and to better understand the underlying pathophysiology.

  18. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers. PMID:27624491

  19. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers.

  20. Minimalistic toy robot to analyze a scenery of speaker-listener condition in autism.

    PubMed

    Giannopulu, Irini; Montreynaud, Valérie; Watanabe, Tomio

    2016-05-01

    Atypical neural architecture causes impairment in communication capabilities and reduces the ability of representing the referential statements of other people in children with autism. During a scenery of "speaker-listener" communication, we have analyzed verbal and emotional expressions in neurotypical children (n = 20) and in children with autism (n = 20). The speaker was always a child, and the listener was a human or a minimalistic robot which reacts to speech expression by nodding only. Although both groups performed the task, everything happens as if the robot could allow children with autism to elaborate a multivariate equation encoding and conceptualizing within his/her brain, and externalizing into unconscious emotion (heart rate) and conscious verbal speech (words). Such a behavior would indicate that minimalistic artificial environments such as toy robots could be considered as the root of neuronal organization and reorganization with the potential to improve brain activity. PMID:26872960

  1. Adverse Pregnancy Conditions, Infertility, and Future Cardiovascular Risk: Implications for Mother and Child

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki; Wei, Janet; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2016-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy conditions in women are common and have been associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes such as myocardial infarction and stroke. As risk stratification in women is often suboptimal, recognition of non-traditional risk factors such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and premature delivery has become increasingly important. Additionally, such conditions may also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in the children of afflicted women. In this review, we aim to highlight these conditions, along with infertility, and the association between such conditions and various cardiovascular outcomes and related maternal risk along with potential translation of risk to offspring. We will also discuss proposed mechanisms driving these associations as well as potential opportunities for screening and risk modification. PMID:26037616

  2. Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions and Inflammatory Markers among Middle-Aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Morley, John E.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse housing and neighborhood conditions are independently associated with an increased risk of various diseases and conditions. One possible explanation relates to systemic inflammation, which is associated with these adverse health outcomes. The authors investigated the association between housing and neighborhood conditions with inflammatory markers using data about 352 persons aged 49–65 years from the African American Health study. Participants were identified by a multistage random selection process in 2000 to 2001(response rate, 76%). Blood was analyzed for soluble cytokine receptors (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α), C-reactive protein, and adiponectin. Neighborhood and housing characteristics consisted of five observed block face conditions (external appearance of the block on which the subject lived), four perceived neighborhood conditions, four observed housing conditions (home assessment by the interviewers rating the interior and exterior of the subject’s building), and census-tract level poverty rate from the 2000 census. Differences in some inflammatory markers were found by age, gender, chronic conditions, and body mass index (all Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.0034). There was no association between any of the housing/neighborhood conditions and the pro-inflammatory markers and potential associations between some housing/neighborhood conditions and adiponectin (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-adjusted p > 0.0034). Inflammation does not appear to be a mediator of the association between poor housing/neighborhood conditions and adverse health outcomes in middle-aged African Americans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-009-9426-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20186494

  3. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  4. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  5. Benefits of teaching voice amplification as related to subjective laryngeal symptoms in teachers, and to the listening conditions for pupils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, Valdis

    2005-04-01

    Teachers unfavorable working conditions-large classrooms with poor acoustics, background noise and the great distance between teacher and pupils often are the main reasons for teachers voice problems. For pupils, the same circumstances simultaneously create unfavorable listening conditions. One way to diminish the vocal load of teaching is by making use of technical equipment. This Icelandic study explores whether voice amplification usage: (1) diminishes the teachers subjective symptoms of vocal fatigue; (2) makes it easier for pupils to listen and follow lessons; and (3) reveals other benefits and/or disadvantages of the usage of amplification in classrooms. Thirty-three teachers with their students (total 791), from grade school to university level, volunteered as subjects. The teachers used amplification in class for at least a week. At the end of the research period, the participants answered questionnaires, except the pupils between 6-9 years of age who were asked two questions. The results showed: (1) the majority of teachers found it easier to talk and experienced less fatigue using vocal amplification; (2) the students found it easier to hear the teacher through class chatter and to follow the lessons; (3) the disadvantages mentioned were mainly technical problems.

  6. Early Life Conditions, Adverse Life Events, and Chewing Ability at Middle and Later Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard G.; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the extent to which early life conditions and adverse life events impact chewing ability in middle and later adulthood. Methods. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in the years 2006 to 2009 and encompassing information on current chewing ability and the life history of persons aged 50 years or older from 13 European countries. Logistic regression models were estimated with sequential inclusion of explanatory variables representing living conditions in childhood and adverse life events. Results. After controlling for current determinants of chewing ability at age 50 years or older, certain childhood and later life course socioeconomic, behavioral, and cognitive factors became evident as correlates of chewing ability at age 50 years or older. Specifically, childhood financial hardship was identified as an early life predictor of chewing ability at age 50 years or older (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.06). Conclusions. Findings suggest a potential enduring impact of early life conditions and adverse life events on oral health in middle and later adulthood and are relevant for public health decision-makers who design strategies for optimal oral health. PMID:24625140

  7. Algorithms for contours depicting static electric fields during adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A flexible and functional analytical tool is developed for the study of electric fields during adverse weather conditions. This tool is designed for use by members of the Atmospheric Science Group as part of their overall effort to appraise environmental conditions during these situations. It is also used to illustrate approaches open to those interested in the study of the physics of ambient electric field phenomena. Computer resources of KSC are coordinated with original software to produce contour interpretations of electric field data available from a grid of field mills spanning the region. Three model algorithms are presented and examples are given illustrating the system design, flexibility, and utility.

  8. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  9. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  10. The preferred response slopes and two-channel compression ratios in twenty listening conditions by hearing-impaired and normal-hearing listeners and their relationship to the acoustic input.

    PubMed

    Keidser, Gitte; Brew, Chris; Brewer, Scott; Dillon, Harvey; Grant, Frances; Storey, Lydia

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the results from two experiments in which normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners used an adaptive procedure to select their preferred frequency response slope and two-channel compression ratios in twenty listening conditions. Whereas the preferred response slope mostly depended on the difference in SNR between frequency bands, the preferred output levels in two channels depended highly on the intensity level entering each band. In both cases, subjects preferred less gain in frequency bands where noise was more intrusive and they preferred less gain for listening comfort than for speech understanding. The preferred response slope also depended on the slope of the audiogram. Relative to the prescribed NAL-RP response, the preferred gain variations improved the broadband SNR and hence listening comfort, but not the estimated speech intelligibility index. Overall, the findings confirm the approach used in many commercial products of applying wide dynamic range compression in multiple bands with additional gain reductions in bands where the noise is estimated to be dominant.

  11. Teaching Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemtchinova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…

  12. Listening Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolvin, Andrew D.; Coakley, Carolyn Gwynn

    Designed to aid high school and college teachers in teaching the fundamentals of listening, this booklet includes sections on theory and on practice. The section on theory discusses the listening process and its importance, examines five purposes for listening (appreciative, discriminative, comprehensive, therapeutic, and critical), and tells how…

  13. Effect of Number of Graphic Symbols, Levels, and Listening Conditions on Symbol Identification and Latency in Persons with Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Petroi, Diana; Koul, Rajinder K; Corwin, Melinda

    2014-02-27

    This study investigated the ability of persons with aphasia to complete a series of experimental tasks involving single symbol and subject-verb-object sentence identification on a speech-generating device (SGD) in the presence/absence of competing stimuli. In all, 10 persons with Broca's aphasia and 10 persons in the control group were compared on accuracy and response latency of symbol identification across three listening conditions. Persons with aphasia identified fewer symbols accurately and had longer response latencies than persons in the control group. Number of symbols on the screen and location level had a significant effect on accuracy and latency for both groups. Persons with aphasia perceived tasks to be more difficult than persons in the control group. Results indicate that effective use of SGDs by persons with aphasia may depend on several message organization factors including location and number of symbols per screen. PMID:24575783

  14. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mosedale, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Robert J.; Maclean, Ilya M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions. PMID:26496127

  15. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  16. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  17. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  18. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  19. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  20. Research on long-range laser active imaging system applied in adverse weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-gang; Liu, Meng-de; Yang, Li; Kabanov, V. V.; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jie; Chu, Shi-bo; Yang, Jun-xian; Zhou, Yang

    2013-09-01

    A low-light level night vision device or thermal infrared imager belonging to passive imaging system is generally used in daily target detection and identification. But in adverse weather conditions of dark of night, poor atmospheric transmission characteristics or strong backscattering (fog, dust, rain, snow, etc.), even the most sensitive low-light level night vision could not provide enough image resolution for detecting and identifying targets, and the thermal infrared imager is also limited by low temperature contrast. A long-range laser active imaging system, in combination with high-power semiconductor pulsed lasers with collimation technology, receiving objective lens of large diameter, long focal length and narrow viewing angle, high-gain image intensifier CCD (ICCD) camera and range-gated synchronization control technology, is developed for long distance target detection and high resolution imaging in adverse weather conditions. The system composition and operating principle are introduced. The extremely powerful and efficient illuminators with collimation technology are able to deliver uniform beams, which are essential for illuminating targets at a distance and generating high-quality images. The particular receiving objective lens, ICCD camera and range-gated synchronization control technology could reduce strong backscattering signal and improve imaging signal-to-noise ratio. The laboratory and outfield experiments have been done to validate imaging effect and imaging quality. The results show that the minimum resolution is about 3-5cm, 10cm, and greater than 20 cm for target far from 1100m, 4700m, and 6700m respectively in dark of night. Furthermore, the minimum resolution could reach to 10cm and 20cm for target far from 2500m and 4800m respectively and the image is too blurred to accurately identify the target when observing the target far from 7200m in rainy condition.

  1. Cost-sharing, physician utilization, and adverse selection among Medicare beneficiaries with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    Pooled data from the 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Surveys were used to compare the number of self-reported annual physician visits among 36,808 Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 in insurance groups with differential cost-sharing. Adjusted for adverse selection and a set of health covariates, Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) only beneficiaries had similar physician utilization compared with HMO enrollees but fewer visits compared with those with supplemental (1.04, p = .001) and Medicaid (1.55, p = .003) coverage. FFS only beneficiaries in very good or excellent health had fewer visits compared with those of similar health status with supplemental (1.30, p = .001) or Medicaid coverage (2.15, p = .002). For subpopulations with several chronic conditions, FFS only beneficiaries also had fewer visits compared with beneficiaries with supplemental or Medicaid coverage. Observed differences in utilization may reflect efficient and necessary physician utilization among those with chronic health needs.

  2. Functions of Nitric Oxide (NO) in Roots during Development and under Adverse Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2015-01-01

    The free radical molecule, nitric oxide (NO), is present in the principal organs of plants, where it plays an important role in a wide range of physiological functions. Root growth and development are highly regulated by both internal and external factors such as nutrient availability, hormones, pattern formation, cell polarity and cell cycle control. The presence of NO in roots has opened up new areas of research on the role of NO, including root architecture, nutrient acquisition, microorganism interactions and the response mechanisms to adverse environmental conditions, among others. Additionally, the exogenous application of NO throughout the roots has the potential to counteract specific damages caused by certain stresses. This review aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on NO functions in the roots of higher plants. PMID:27135326

  3. Determination and representation of electric charge distributions associated with adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for determining the size and location of electric charges which model storm systems and lightning strikes. The analysis utilizes readings from a grid of ground level field mills and geometric constraints on parameters to arrive at a representative set of charges. This set is used to generate three dimensional graphical depictions of the set as well as contour maps of the ground level electrical environment over the grid. The composite, analytic and graphic package is demonstrated and evaluated using controlled input data and archived data from a storm system. The results demonstrate the packages utility as: an operational tool in appraising adverse weather conditions; a research tool in studies of topics such as storm structure, storm dynamics, and lightning; and a tool in designing and evaluating grid systems.

  4. Friction of composite cushion bearings for total knee joint replacements under adverse lubrication conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T; Jin, Z M; Fisher, J

    1997-01-01

    Conventional joint replacements consist of a polished metallic or ceramic component articulating against a layer of polyethylene. Although the friction in the contact between these articulating surfaces is low, polyethylene wear is produced as a result of a boundary/mixed lubrication regime. Wear debris is generated by direct asperity contact, abrasion, adhesion and fatigue, and has been shown to cause adverse tissue reactions which can lead to joint failure. The introduction of soft compliant materials, similar in stiffness to articular cartilage, has shown that with cyclic loading and relative motion between the articulating surfaces typical of normal walking, a fluid film can be maintained through combined entraining and squeeze-film actions, and hence wear can be minimized. For 95 per cent of the time, however, we are not walking but standing still or moving slowly. A pendulum simulator has been used in the present study to investigate the effect of adverse tribological conditions which may lead to fluid film breakdown, such as severe cyclic loading, particularly in the swing phase, reduced sliding velocity, reduced stroke length and start-up after a period of constant loading. Friction of a model composite cushion knee bearing, manufactured from a graded modulus (20-1000 MPa) layer of polyurethane, sliding against a polished metal cylinder has been measured for various lubricants and the results have been analysed using a Stribeck assessment. Severe cyclic loading, decreased sliding velocity and decreased stroke length have been found to limit the degree of fluid entrainment previously allowed during the swing phase of normal walking, thus allowing breakdown of fluid films and elevated levels of friction and surface damage. Soft layer joint replacements must therefore be designed to operate with thick elastohydrodynamic fluid films to provide some degree of protection when tribological conditions become severe, or alternatively incorporate alternative boundary

  5. Friction of composite cushion bearings for total knee joint replacements under adverse lubrication conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T; Jin, Z M; Fisher, J

    1997-01-01

    Conventional joint replacements consist of a polished metallic or ceramic component articulating against a layer of polyethylene. Although the friction in the contact between these articulating surfaces is low, polyethylene wear is produced as a result of a boundary/mixed lubrication regime. Wear debris is generated by direct asperity contact, abrasion, adhesion and fatigue, and has been shown to cause adverse tissue reactions which can lead to joint failure. The introduction of soft compliant materials, similar in stiffness to articular cartilage, has shown that with cyclic loading and relative motion between the articulating surfaces typical of normal walking, a fluid film can be maintained through combined entraining and squeeze-film actions, and hence wear can be minimized. For 95 per cent of the time, however, we are not walking but standing still or moving slowly. A pendulum simulator has been used in the present study to investigate the effect of adverse tribological conditions which may lead to fluid film breakdown, such as severe cyclic loading, particularly in the swing phase, reduced sliding velocity, reduced stroke length and start-up after a period of constant loading. Friction of a model composite cushion knee bearing, manufactured from a graded modulus (20-1000 MPa) layer of polyurethane, sliding against a polished metal cylinder has been measured for various lubricants and the results have been analysed using a Stribeck assessment. Severe cyclic loading, decreased sliding velocity and decreased stroke length have been found to limit the degree of fluid entrainment previously allowed during the swing phase of normal walking, thus allowing breakdown of fluid films and elevated levels of friction and surface damage. Soft layer joint replacements must therefore be designed to operate with thick elastohydrodynamic fluid films to provide some degree of protection when tribological conditions become severe, or alternatively incorporate alternative boundary

  6. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  7. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only. PMID:27454867

  8. Effects of listening to music with headphones on hearing--especially under noisy conditions.

    PubMed

    Miyake, S; Kumashiro, M

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of exposure to music using headphones under noisy conditions on hearing. The most comfortable loudness (MCL) for three kinds of music (Rock, Popular, Japanese songs) decided by two normal hearing subjects was measured under 6 noisy conditions (Train, Subway, Tram, Bus, Underground, Street) in a soundproof room. In the same manner, the MCL of favorite tunes of five subjects were measured. Temporary threshold shift 2 min after exposure (TTS2) to music for 30 min at the highest MCL was obtained. Furthermore, the characteristics such as spectral structures in one-third octave band or level fluctuations (coefficient of variation) were obtained for noise and music and compared. Statistical analysis revealed that MCL in Street was significantly higher than under other conditions and there was no significant differences in MCL among the various types of music. However, the highest MCL was found for Rock. About 20 dB of TTS was observed in one ear and the hazardous of headphones use in noisy conditions was suggested.

  9. The Impact of Listening Condition on Background Noise Acceptance for Young Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E.; Estis, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different speech conditions on background noise acceptance. A total of 23 stimulus pairings, differing in primary talker gender (female, male, conventional), number of background talkers (1, 4, 12), and gender composition of the background noise (female, male, mixed) were used to evaluate background noise…

  10. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  11. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health, chronic medical conditions, and development in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zhang, Jinjin; Nadeem, Erum; Stein, Ruth E. K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health, chronic medical conditions and social development among young children in the child welfare system. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, using a nationally representative sample of children investigated by child welfare (National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II) from 2008–2009. Our analysis included caregiver interviews and caseworker reports about children age 18–71 months who were not in out-of-home care (N=912). We examined the associations between ACEs and mental health (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)), reported chronic medical conditions, and social development (measured by the Vineland Socialization Scale), in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Nearly all children (98.1%) were reported to have had an ACE in their lifetime; the average number of ACEs was 3.6. For every additional reported ACE there was a 32% increased odds of having a problem score on the CBCL (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53), and a 21% increased odds of having a chronic medical condition (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40). Among children 36–71 months, for every additional reported ACE there was a 77% increased odds of a low Vineland Socialization score (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78). Conclusion and Relevance ACEs were associated with poor early childhood mental health and chronic medical conditions, and, among children age 3–5, social development. Efforts are needed to examine whether providing early intervention to families with multiple stressors mitigates the impact of ACEs on children’s outcomes. PMID:26183001

  13. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you...

  14. Quality-quantity trade-off of human offspring under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Meij, J J; van Bodegom, D; Ziem, J B; Amankwa, J; Polderman, A M; Kirkwood, T B L; de Craen, A J M; Zwaan, B J; Westendorp, R G J

    2009-05-01

    A central paradigm in life-history theory is the trade-off between offspring number and quality. Several studies have investigated this trade-off in humans, but data are inconclusive, perhaps because prosperous socio-cultural factors mask the trade-off. Therefore, we studied 2461 offspring groups in an area under adverse conditions in northern Ghana with high fertility and mortality rates. In a linear mixed model controlling for differences in age and tribe of the mother and socioeconomic status, each additional child in the offspring group resulted in a 2.3% (95% CI 1.9-2.6%, P < 0.001) lower proportional survival of the offspring. Furthermore, we made use of the polygamous population structure and compared offspring of co-wives in 388 households, thus controlling for variation in resources between compounds. Here, offspring survival decreased 2.8% (95% CI 2.3-4.0%, P < 0.001) for each increase in offspring number. We interpret these data as an apparent quality-quantity trade-off in human offspring.

  15. Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause specific adult mortality: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, George Davey; Hart, Carole; Blane, David; Hole, David

    1998-01-01

    . Mortality from lung cancer, other cancer, and accidents and violence is predominantly influenced by risk factors that are related to social circumstances in adulthood. Key messages Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood are associated with mortality in later life Mortality from stroke and stomach cancer is particularly dependent on social circumstances in childhood Mortality from coronary heart disease and respiratory disease is dependent on social circumstances in both adulthood and childhood Mortality from accidents and violence and from lung cancer is mainly dependent on factors acting in adulthood The increases in child poverty seen in Britain and elsewhere over the past 20 years may herald unfavourable future trends in adult health PMID:9603744

  16. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  17. Effects of noise, reverberation and foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' performance of English speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z Ellen; Wang, Lily M

    2016-05-01

    A large number of non-native English speakers may be found in American classrooms, both as listeners and talkers. Little is known about how this population comprehends speech in realistic adverse acoustical conditions. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of background noise level (BNL), reverberation time (RT), and talker foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' speech comprehension, while controlling for English language abilities. A total of 115 adult listeners completed comprehension tasks under 15 acoustic conditions: three BNLs (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50) and five RTs (from 0.4 to 1.2 s). Fifty-six listeners were tested with speech from native English-speaking talkers and 59 with native Mandarin-Chinese-speaking talkers. Results show that, while higher BNLs were generally more detrimental to listeners with lower English proficiency, all listeners experienced significant comprehension deficits above RC-40 with native English talkers. This limit was lower (i.e., above RC-30), however, with Chinese talkers. For reverberation, non-native listeners as a group performed best with RT up to 0.6 s, while native listeners performed equally well up to 1.2 s. A matched foreign accent benefit has also been identified, where the negative impact of higher reverberation does not exist for non-native listeners who share the talker's native language.

  18. Effects of noise, reverberation and foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' performance of English speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z Ellen; Wang, Lily M

    2016-05-01

    A large number of non-native English speakers may be found in American classrooms, both as listeners and talkers. Little is known about how this population comprehends speech in realistic adverse acoustical conditions. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of background noise level (BNL), reverberation time (RT), and talker foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' speech comprehension, while controlling for English language abilities. A total of 115 adult listeners completed comprehension tasks under 15 acoustic conditions: three BNLs (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50) and five RTs (from 0.4 to 1.2 s). Fifty-six listeners were tested with speech from native English-speaking talkers and 59 with native Mandarin-Chinese-speaking talkers. Results show that, while higher BNLs were generally more detrimental to listeners with lower English proficiency, all listeners experienced significant comprehension deficits above RC-40 with native English talkers. This limit was lower (i.e., above RC-30), however, with Chinese talkers. For reverberation, non-native listeners as a group performed best with RT up to 0.6 s, while native listeners performed equally well up to 1.2 s. A matched foreign accent benefit has also been identified, where the negative impact of higher reverberation does not exist for non-native listeners who share the talker's native language. PMID:27250170

  19. Supportive Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susanne M.

    2011-01-01

    "Listening" is a multidimensional construct that consists of complex (a) cognitive processes, such as attending to, understanding, receiving, and interpreting messages; (b) affective processes, such as being motivated and stimulated to attend to another person's messages; and (c) behavioral processes, such as responding with verbal and nonverbal…

  20. On The (Un)importance of Working Memory in Speech-in-Noise Processing for Listeners with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of cognitive hearing science, increased attention has been given to individual differences in cognitive functioning and their explanatory power in accounting for inter-listener variability in the processing of speech in noise (SiN). The psychological construct that has received much interest in recent years is working memory. Empirical evidence indeed confirms the association between WM capacity (WMC) and SiN identification in older hearing-impaired listeners. However, some theoretical models propose that variations in WMC are an important predictor for variations in speech processing abilities in adverse perceptual conditions for all listeners, and this notion has become widely accepted within the field. To assess whether WMC also plays a role when listeners without hearing loss process speech in adverse listening conditions, we surveyed published and unpublished studies in which the Reading-Span test (a widely used measure of WMC) was administered in conjunction with a measure of SiN identification, using sentence material routinely used in audiological and hearing research. A meta-analysis revealed that, for young listeners with audiometrically normal hearing, individual variations in WMC are estimated to account for, on average, less than 2% of the variance in SiN identification scores. This result cautions against the (intuitively appealing) assumption that individual variations in WMC are predictive of SiN identification independently of the age and hearing status of the listener. PMID:27625615

  1. On The (Un)importance of Working Memory in Speech-in-Noise Processing for Listeners with Normal Hearing Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of cognitive hearing science, increased attention has been given to individual differences in cognitive functioning and their explanatory power in accounting for inter-listener variability in the processing of speech in noise (SiN). The psychological construct that has received much interest in recent years is working memory. Empirical evidence indeed confirms the association between WM capacity (WMC) and SiN identification in older hearing-impaired listeners. However, some theoretical models propose that variations in WMC are an important predictor for variations in speech processing abilities in adverse perceptual conditions for all listeners, and this notion has become widely accepted within the field. To assess whether WMC also plays a role when listeners without hearing loss process speech in adverse listening conditions, we surveyed published and unpublished studies in which the Reading-Span test (a widely used measure of WMC) was administered in conjunction with a measure of SiN identification, using sentence material routinely used in audiological and hearing research. A meta-analysis revealed that, for young listeners with audiometrically normal hearing, individual variations in WMC are estimated to account for, on average, less than 2% of the variance in SiN identification scores. This result cautions against the (intuitively appealing) assumption that individual variations in WMC are predictive of SiN identification independently of the age and hearing status of the listener. PMID:27625615

  2. On The (Un)importance of Working Memory in Speech-in-Noise Processing for Listeners with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of cognitive hearing science, increased attention has been given to individual differences in cognitive functioning and their explanatory power in accounting for inter-listener variability in the processing of speech in noise (SiN). The psychological construct that has received much interest in recent years is working memory. Empirical evidence indeed confirms the association between WM capacity (WMC) and SiN identification in older hearing-impaired listeners. However, some theoretical models propose that variations in WMC are an important predictor for variations in speech processing abilities in adverse perceptual conditions for all listeners, and this notion has become widely accepted within the field. To assess whether WMC also plays a role when listeners without hearing loss process speech in adverse listening conditions, we surveyed published and unpublished studies in which the Reading-Span test (a widely used measure of WMC) was administered in conjunction with a measure of SiN identification, using sentence material routinely used in audiological and hearing research. A meta-analysis revealed that, for young listeners with audiometrically normal hearing, individual variations in WMC are estimated to account for, on average, less than 2% of the variance in SiN identification scores. This result cautions against the (intuitively appealing) assumption that individual variations in WMC are predictive of SiN identification independently of the age and hearing status of the listener.

  3. Effects of Free versus Directed Listening on Duration of Individual Music Listening by Prekindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Wendy L.

    2005-01-01

    Preschool children's listening time responses to free versus directed listening activities were compared. For the free condition, children were instructed just to "listen as long as you would like." The directed condition was a written task designed to focus attention on specific aspects of the music and give children something concrete to do…

  4. High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed.

  5. Improving Pupil Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Listening is relevant in all academic disciplines and in the "curriculum of life." The purpose or reasons for listening depend upon the speaking activity involved--thus listening in a conversation is different from listening to follow directions. The teacher needs to establish clear purposes or objectives for learners in the area of listening. To…

  6. The Moderating Effect of Success Importance on the Relationship Between Listening Demand and Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A common element of the psychophysiological research on listening effort is the focus on listening demand as determinant of effort. The article discusses preceding studies and theorizing on effort to show that the link between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by various variables. Moreover, I will present a recent study that examined the joint effect of listening demand and success importance on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity in an auditory discrimination task. Results for pre-ejection period reactivity-an indicator of sympathetic activity-supported the hypothesis that the relationship between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by other variables: Pre-ejection period reactivity was higher in the high-demand-high-success-importance condition than in the other three conditions. This new finding as well as the findings of previous research on effort suggest that a broader perspective on the determinants of listening effort is warranted.

  7. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources..., pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or...

  8. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  9. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  10. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  11. Listeners' impressions of speakers with lateral lisps.

    PubMed

    Silverman, E M

    1976-11-01

    This paper reports research conducted to determine whether the lateral lisp is a speech defect. The specific purpose of this research was to determine whether the lateral lisp calls adverse attention to the speaker. Two groups of broadcast communication students rates the concept "The Person Speaking" on a 49-scale semantic differential. One group performed the task after listening to a tape recording of a young woman reading contextual material with a simulated lateral lisp. The other group performed the task after listening to a recording of the same woman reading the material in a normal manner. Analyses of the scale values computed for the two conditions indicated that the lateral lisp called adverse attention to the speaker. A systematic replication was undertaken to assess the generality of this finding. The procedures of the original investigation were followed except that business administration students served as judges. The results replicated those of the original investigation. These data indicate that the lateral lisp is probably a speech defect and suggest that the practice of eliminating school speech services for children whose only speech difference is a lateral lisp should be reconsidered. PMID:994486

  12. Objective Measurement of the Listening Condition in the Old Italian Opera House “TEATRO DI San CARLO”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IANNACE, G.; IANNIELLO, C.; MAFFEI, L.; ROMANO, R.

    2000-04-01

    The Teatro di San Carlo (Naples—Italy) is known to be the oldest working theatre in Europe. Since its opening on 4 November 1737 (41 years before the opening of La Scala in Milan and 51 years before the opening of La Fenice in Venice) a number of famous singers, musicians, conductors, and other artists as well, have brought great prestige to this theatre. The San Carlo is not short of praise for its acoustics but, to the knowledge of the authors, no objective study about this subject has ever been published. This paper reports the results of acoustic measurements carried out with the aim of obtaining objective parameters describing the acoustics of the San Carlo from the point of view of the listeners. They disclose a behaviour of the theatre that is typical of the Italian style opera house

  13. Intelligibility, listening difficulty and listening efficiency in auralized classrooms.

    PubMed

    Prodi, Nicola; Visentin, Chiara; Farnetani, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    In order to obtain an effective speech communication in rooms it is advisable, besides reaching the full intelligibility of words, to minimize the effort paid by the listener in the recognition of the speech material. This twofold requirement is not easily described by the current room acoustic indicators, which are mainly concerned either with a subjective rating by means of word recognition scores or with using listeners' impressions of reported listening difficulties. In this work, the problem is tackled by introducing the concept of "listening efficiency," which is defined as a combination of the accuracy of intelligibility and of the effort spent on achieving this goal. This indicator is here developed, and an application of the former and of the "listening efficiency" is presented in the field of classroom acoustics. Listening tests with pupils and adults were performed and the subsequent statistical analyses indicated several interesting findings. In particular, listening efficiency is able to clearly discriminate between equal intelligibility scores obtained under different acoustical conditions, permitting room acoustics to be tailored for specific groups, such as children.

  14. All about Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunkemeyer, Florence B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the importance of effective listening and problems in the listening process. Presents a matrix evaluating 18 listening inventories on 8 criteria: cost effectiveness, educational use, business use, reliability, validity, adult audience, high school audience, and potential barriers. (JOW)

  15. Authentic Listening Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Don; Roberts, Jon

    1981-01-01

    Discusses use of authentic listening experiences in second language classroom so that students will become involved in listening process demanded in authentic listening situations. Gives examples of sample classroom activities. (BK)

  16. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Misyura, Maksym; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested.

  17. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Harding, Ann M A; Welcker, Jorg; Steen, Harald; Hamer, Keith C; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Fort, Jérôme; Talbot, Sandra L; Cornick, Leslie A; Karnovsky, Nina J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Grémillet, David

    2011-09-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species.

  18. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested. PMID:23162120

  20. The speaker as listener.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, S; Greer, R D

    1989-05-01

    This study reports the results of an experiment with 4 female 5-year-old children, in which the verbal behavior of the children (talking to themselves) was studied under two conditions-an anthropomorphic toy condition and a nonanthropomorphic toy condition. The anthropomorphic condition consisted of three-dimensional toys such as dolls, stuffed animals, and figurines. The nonanthropomorphic toy condition consisted of two-dimensional materials such as puzzles, coloring books, and story books. The independent variables were the toy conditions. The dependent variables were verbal-behavior units; these included mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, and conversational units. The conditions were compared using a multiple schedule design. The results showed that more total units occurred in the anthropomorphic toy condition than in the nonanthropomorphic toy condition and that conversational units occurred in the anthropomorphic condition only. Consistent with Skinner's (1957) hypothesis, the children acted as both speaker and listener when emitting verbal behavior to themselves in the anthropomorphic condition. PMID:16812582

  1. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  2. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-01-01

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR. PMID:25218504

  3. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-10-17

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR.

  4. Performance evaluation of laser scanners through the atmosphere with adverse condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespel, L.; Riviere, N.; Huet, T.; Tanguy, B.; Ceolato, R.

    2011-11-01

    Using laser imaging systems to represent 3-D scene becomes a referent prospective technology in the areas of guidance and navigation. Measurements with high spatial resolution for significant range can be achieved, even in degraded visibility conditions such as the Brown-White Out, rain, fog, sandstorms... Moreover, this technology is well suited for assisted perception tasks (access to 3D information) and obstacle detection (telemetry of small objects). For airborne applications, it is very complementary to conventional enhanced vision systems such as Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and millimeter wave radar to provide images of land in environments with limited visibility. It also offers a 3D mapping of land or a single location in relation to the environment, which means alone or coupled with others, can realign and secure real-time database of information used such in a synthetic vision system (SVS). The objective of the work is to assess the impact of degraded visibility conditions on the laser radiometric propagation of a 3D laser scanner as they directly influence the performance of the ladar system [1].

  5. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions.

  6. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. PMID:27542493

  7. Eye Movements and Reading Comprehension While Listening to Preferred and Non-Preferred Study Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Mossberg, Frans; Lindgren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 24 university students read four different texts in four conditions: (1) while listening to music they preferred to listen to while studying; (2) while listening to music they did not prefer to listen to while studying; (3) while listening to a recording of noise from a cafe; and finally (4) in silence. After each text they…

  8. The Continuum of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rud, A. G.; Garrison, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The distinction between "apophatic" and "cataphatic" listening is defined and analyzed. "Apophatic" listening is more or less devoid of cognitivist claims, whereas "cataphatic" listening involves cognition and questioning. Many of the papers in this volume are discussed along the continuum determined by these two types of listening.…

  9. Optical tests of a space mechanism under an adverse environment: GAIA secondary mirror mechanism under vaccum and thermal controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Urgoiti, Eduardo; Ramírez Quintana, Argiñe

    2007-09-01

    In this work, the optical evaluation of a mechanism for space applications under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA) is reported. The mechanism was developed by the Spanish company SENER to fulfill the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for GAIA Astrometric Mission; in particular, a five degrees of freedom (dof), three translations and two rotations positioning mechanism for the secondary mirror of the GAIA instrument. Both interferometric tests and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions: vacuum and thermal controlled conditions, up to a 10 -6mbar and 100K. The scope of this paper will cover the measurements concept selection, the presentation of verification activities, the results of such dedicated optical measurements, the correlation with the mechanical models and a brief description of the design process followed to meet the test requirements.

  10. Selection for Genetic Variation Inducing Pro-Inflammatory Responses under Adverse Environmental Conditions in a Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kuningas, Maris; May, Linda; Tamm, Riin; van Bodegom, David; van den Biggelaar, Anita H. J.; Meij, Johannes J.; Frölich, Marijke; Ziem, Juventus B.; Suchiman, Helena E. D.; Metspalu, Andres; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic age-associated, degenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory host responses that are deleterious later in life may originate from evolutionary selection for genetic variation mediating resistance to infectious diseases under adverse environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings In the Upper-East region of Ghana where infection has remained the leading cause of death, we studied the effect on survival of genetic variations at the IL10 gene locus that have been associated with chronic diseases. Here we show that an IL10 haplotype that associated with a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, characterised by low IL-10 (p = 0.028) and high TNF-α levels (p = 1.39×10−3), was enriched among Ghanaian elders (p = 2.46×10−6). Furthermore, in an environment where the source of drinking water (wells/rivers vs. boreholes) influences mortality risks (HR 1.28, 95% CI [1.09–1.50]), we observed that carriers of the pro-inflammatory haplotype have a survival advantage when drinking from wells/rivers but a disadvantage when drinking from boreholes (pinteraction = 0.013). Resequencing the IL10 gene region did not uncover any additional common variants in the pro-inflammatory haplotype to those SNPs that were initially genotyped. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these data lend strong arguments for the selection of pro-inflammatory host responses to overcome fatal infection and promote survival in adverse environments. PMID:19907653

  11. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  12. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  13. Listeners' Perceptions of Nonspeech Characteristics of Normal and Dysarthric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of listeners' evaluations of nonspeech characteristics of eight dysarthric (due to cerebral palsy) and eight normal speaking children (ages 6-11) found that dysarthric speech adversely affected listeners' perceptions of the dysarthric speakers' personality and physical appearance characteristics. (Author/DB)

  14. Listening Assessment: The Watson-Barker Listening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kittie W.; Barker, Larry L.

    An overview of listening tests and a description of the Watson-Barker Listening Test are presented in this paper. Topics covered include the readability and validity of listening tests; listening test administration; listening test criteria; creation of the Watson-Barker Listening Test; development, validation, and proper administration of this…

  15. Barriers to Effective Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following barriers which interfere with listening efficiency: content, speaker, medium, distractions, mindset, language, listening speed, and feedback. Suggests ways to combat these obstacles to accurate comprehension. (MM)

  16. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  17. Display of Bombyx mori Alcohol Dehydrogenases on the Bacillus subtilis Spore Surface to Enhance Enzymatic Activity under Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; Chang, Cheng; Yao, Qin; Li, Guohui; Qin, Lvgao; Chen, Liang; Chen, Keping

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are oxidoreductases catalyzing the reversible oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones accompanied by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as coenzyme. ADHs attract major scientific and industrial interest for the evolutionary perspectives, afforded by their wide occurrence in nature, and for their use in industrial synthesis. However, the low activity of ADHs under extremes of pH and temperature often limits their application. To obtain ADH with high activity, in this study, we used Bombyx mori alcohol dehydrogenases (BmADH) as foreign gene and constructed a recombinant integrative plasmid pJS700-BmADH. This pJS700-BmADH was transformed into Bacillus subtilis by double cross-over and produced an amylase inactivated mutant. The fusion protein containing BmADH was expressed on the spore surface and recognized by BmADH-specific antibody. We also assayed the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the fusion protein together with the native BmADH at different pH and temperature levels, which indicated the recombinant enzyme exhibits activity over wider ranges of temperature and pH than its native form, perhaps due to the resistance properties of B. subtilis spores against adverse conditions. PMID:21738670

  18. Discrepancies in pain presentation caused by adverse psychosocial conditions as compared to pain due to high physical workload?

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Inger; Simonsen, Jenny Gremark; Balogh, Istvan; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Dahlqvist, Camilla; Granqvist, Lothy; Ohlsson, Kerstina; Axmon, Anna; Karlson, Björn; Nordander, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Disorders in the musculoskeletal system have been associated with a high physical workload as well as psychosocial and individual factors. It is however not obvious which of these factors that is most important to prevent. Musculoskeletal disorders in neck and upper extremity was assessed by interview and clinical examination in 79 teachers and 93 assisting nurses, all females. Psychosocial work environment was assessed by questionnaire. The physical workload was recorded by technical measurements of postures, movements and muscular load, in 9 teachers and 12 nurses. The physical workload was lower among the teachers, but they had a more demanding psychosocial work environment. Among the nurses, but not in the teachers, the neck-shoulder disorders were associated with a high body mass index (BMI). The teachers reported neck-shoulder complaints to a higher extent than the nurses, but had much lower prevalence of diagnoses in the clinical examination (12% vs. 25%; POR 0.3 CI 0.1 - 1.2; adjusted for age and BMI). The results suggest that adverse psychosocial conditions among the teachers give rise to a different kind of pain in the neck-shoulder region than from physical overload, troublesome but not as severe as the one afflicting the nurses. PMID:22317089

  19. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  20. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  1. Plato's Philosophy of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In the article, Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon asks, Did Plato have a philosophy of listening, and if so, what was it? Listening is the counterpart of speaking in a dialogue, and it is no less important. Indeed, learning from the dialogue is less likely to occur as people participate unless listening as well as speaking takes place. Haroutunian-Gordon…

  2. Listening across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2014-01-01

    Listening as a skills objective must be emphasized throughout the curriculum of school subjects. There are a variety of learning opportunities which stress the art and skills of listening. In conversation, it might be embarrassing if the sender of the message needs to repeat content due to faulty listening habits. Or, the responder in response…

  3. Listening Skills in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grognet, Allene; Van Duzer, Carol

    This article examines the listening process and factors affecting listening. It also suggests general guidelines for teaching and assessing listening and gives examples of activities for practicing and developing listening skills for the workplace. Listening is a demanding process that involves the listener, speaker, message content, and…

  4. Impacts of Authentic Listening Tasks upon Listening Anxiety and Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanlioglu, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Although listening is the skill mostly used by students in the classrooms, the desired success cannot be attained in teaching listening since this skill is shaped by multiple variables. In this research we focused on listening anxiety, listening comprehension and impact of authentic tasks on both listening anxiety and listening comprehension.…

  5. How Does Auditory Training Work? Joined-Up Thinking and Listening.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Melanie; Henshaw, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Auditory training aims to compensate for degradation in the auditory signal and is offered as an intervention to help alleviate the most common complaint in people with hearing loss, understanding speech in a background noise. Yet there remain many unanswered questions. This article reviews some of the key pieces of evidence that assess the evidence for whether, and how, auditory training benefits adults with hearing loss. The evidence supports that improvements occur on the trained task; however, transfer of that learning to generalized real-world benefit is much less robust. For more than a decade, there has been an increasing awareness of the role that cognition plays in listening. But more recently in the auditory training literature, there has been an increased focus on assessing how cognitive performance relevant for listening may improve with training. We argue that this is specifically the case for measures that index executive processes, such as monitoring, attention switching, and updating of working memory, all of which are required for successful listening and communication in challenging or adverse listening conditions. We propose combined auditory-cognitive training approaches, where training interventions develop cognition embedded within auditory tasks, which are most likely to offer generalized benefits to the real-world listening abilities of people with hearing loss. PMID:27587911

  6. Auditory training can improve working memory, attention, and communication in adverse conditions for adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Henshaw, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) helps compensate for degradation in the auditory signal. A series of three high-quality training studies are discussed, which include, (i) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of phoneme discrimination in quiet that trained adults with mild hearing loss (n = 44), (ii) a repeated measures study that trained phoneme discrimination in noise in hearing aid (HA) users (n = 30), and (iii) a double-blind RCT that directly trained working memory (WM) in HA users (n = 57). AT resulted in generalized improvements in measures of self-reported hearing, competing speech, and complex cognitive tasks that all index executive functions. This suggests that for AT related benefits, the development of complex cognitive skills may be more important than the refinement of sensory processing. Furthermore, outcome measures should be sensitive to the functional benefits of AT. For WM training, lack of far-transfer to untrained outcomes suggests no generalized benefits to real-world listening abilities. We propose that combined auditory-cognitive training approaches, where cognitive enhancement is embedded within auditory tasks, are most likely to offer generalized benefits to the real-world listening abilities of adults with hearing loss. PMID:26074826

  7. Sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma: prospective study on adverse events, quality of life, and related feasibility under daily conditions.

    PubMed

    Brunocilla, Paola Rita; Brunello, Franco; Carucci, Patrizia; Gaia, Silvia; Rolle, Emanuela; Cantamessa, Alessandro; Castiglione, Anna; Ciccone, Giovannino; Rizzetto, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In two randomized trials, sorafenib was reported to be safe without a significant impact on quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of adverse events, QoL variations, and treatment discontinuations in HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Between November 2009 and March 2011, all patients evaluated as suitable for sorafenib treatment were enrolled. Every patient was invited to complete the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary Questionnaire before starting therapy, at week 1, and at months 1 and 2. QoL scores were analyzed by the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Side effects were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.3.0. Thirty-six patients were enrolled. The cumulative incidence of therapy discontinuation for drug-related adverse events was 33 % (95 % confidence interval, 20.2-49.7). The most common adverse event was fatigue (66.7 %). The worst score decrease was detected from baseline to week 1 in physical well-being, with a median reduction of -8.3 (range -60.1 to 17.9; P = 0.0003). Treatment withdrawal from adverse events was higher than previously reported, significant QoL decrease occurred, and estimated feasibility was 66.7 %.

  8. Amplifying Learning through Sites of Pedagogical Practice: A Possible Effect of Working with Disciplinary Technologies in Schools Operating under Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Schools located within communities experiencing high levels of social dislocation, educational disadvantage and student disengagement from learning are working under "adverse conditions". These schools face particular challenges when it comes to stabilising and sustaining wholeschool change aimed at improving students' learning outcomes. In this…

  9. Genotype and Neuropsychological Response Inhibition as Resilience Promoters for ADHD, ODD, and CD under Conditions of Psychosocial Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Friderici, Karen; Park, Leeyoung; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas child personality, IQ, and family factors have been identified as enabling a resilient response to psychosocial adversity, more direct biological resilience factors have been less well delineated. This is particularly so for child ADHD, which has received less attention from a resilience perspective than have associated externalizing disorders. Children from two independent samples were classified as resilient if they avoided developing ADHD, ODD, or CD in the face of family adversity. Two protective factors were examined for their potential relevance to prefrontal brain development: neuropsychological response inhibition, as assessed by the Stop task, and a composite catecholamine genotype risk score. Resilient children were characterized in both samples by more effective response inhibition, although the effect in the second sample was very small. Genotype was measured in Sample 1, and a composite high risk genotype index was developed by summing presence of risk across markers on three genes expressed in prefrontal cortex: dopamine transporter, dopamine D4 receptor, and noradrenergic alpha 2 receptor. Genotype was a reliable resilience indicator against development of ADHD and CD, but not ODD, in the face of psychosocial adversity. Results illustrate potential neurobiological protective factors related to development of prefrontal cortex that may enable children to avoid developing ADHD and CD in the presence of psychosocial adversity. PMID:17705902

  10. Adversity-induced relapse of fear: neural mechanisms and implications for relapse prevention from a study on experimentally induced return-of-fear following fear conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Scharfenort, R; Menz, M; Lonsdorf, T B

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders is limited by high relapse rates. Relapse of anxiety disorders and addiction can be triggered by exposure to life adversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Seventy-six healthy adults were a priori selected for the presence or absence of adverse experiences during childhood (CA) and recent past (RA; that is, past 12 months). Participants underwent fear conditioning (day 1) and fear extinction and experimental return-of-fear (ROF) induction through reinstatement (a model for adversity-induced relapse; day 2). Ratings, autonomic (skin conductance response) and neuronal activation measures (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were acquired. Individuals exposed to RA showed a generalized (that is, not CS- specific) fear recall and ROF, whereas unexposed individuals showed differential (that is, CS+ specific) fear recall and ROF on an autonomic level despite no group differences during fear acquisition and extinction learning. These group differences in ROF were accompanied by corresponding activation differences in brain areas known to be involved in fear processing and differentiability/generalization of ROF (that is, hippocampus). In addition, dimensional measures of RA, CA and lifetime adversity were negatively correlated with differential skin conductance responses (SCRs) during ROF and hippocampal activation. As discriminating signals of danger and safety, as well as a tendency for overgeneralization, are core features in clinically anxious populations, these deficits may specifically contribute to relapse risk following exposure to adversity, in particular to recent adversity. Hence, our results may provide first and novel insights into the possible mechanisms mediating enhanced relapse risk following exposure to (recent) adversity, which may guide the development of effective pre- and intervention programs. PMID:27434492

  11. Coding strategies for cochlear implants under adverse environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmina, Qudsia

    Cochlear implants are electronic prosthetic devices that restores partial hearing in patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Although most coding strategies have significantly improved the perception of speech in quite listening conditions, there remains limitations on speech perception under adverse environments such as in background noise, reverberation and band-limited channels, and we propose strategies that improve the intelligibility of speech transmitted over the telephone networks, reverberated speech and speech in the presence of background noise. For telephone processed speech, we propose to examine the effects of adding low-frequency and high- frequency information to the band-limited telephone speech. Four listening conditions were designed to simulate the receiving frequency characteristics of telephone handsets. Results indicated improvement in cochlear implant and bimodal listening when telephone speech was augmented with high frequency information and therefore this study provides support for design of algorithms to extend the bandwidth towards higher frequencies. The results also indicated added benefit from hearing aids for bimodal listeners in all four types of listening conditions. Speech understanding in acoustically reverberant environments is always a difficult task for hearing impaired listeners. Reverberated sounds consists of direct sound, early reflections and late reflections. Late reflections are known to be detrimental to speech intelligibility. In this study, we propose a reverberation suppression strategy based on spectral subtraction to suppress the reverberant energies from late reflections. Results from listening tests for two reverberant conditions (RT60 = 0.3s and 1.0s) indicated significant improvement when stimuli was processed with SS strategy. The proposed strategy operates with little to no prior information on the signal and the room characteristics and therefore, can potentially be implemented in real-time CI

  12. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Roberta M.; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual) and top-down (cognitive-linguistic) resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational vs. clear speech technique), the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors), and the environment (in competing speech babble noise vs. quiet) interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with “clear speech,” (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones) their learning efficiency, immediate, and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field). This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker's speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding. PMID:26106353

  13. Graphics and Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhe, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of graphics as lecture comprehension supports for low-proficiency English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) listeners. The study compared the performance of Asian students in Canada listening to an audiotape while viewing an organizational graphic with that of a control group. Findings indicate that the graphics enhanced…

  14. Listening: A Virtue Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Context: Despite its significance for learning, listening has received very little attention in the philosophy of education literature. This article draws on the philosophy and educational thought of Aristotle to illuminate characteristics of good listening. The current project is exploratory and preliminary, seeking mainly to suggest…

  15. Listen, Listen, Listen and Listen: Building a Comprehension Corpus and Making It Comprehensible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordaunt, Owen G.; Olson, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Listening comprehension input is necessary for language learning and acculturation. One approach to developing listening comprehension skills is through exposure to massive amounts of naturally occurring spoken language input. But exposure to this input is not enough; learners also need to make the comprehension corpus meaningful to their learning…

  16. Listening to Sports Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob

    In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive" listeners, females. To test the…

  17. The Labor of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    This exercise is designed to illustrate how challenging it is to listen. Although listening is an activity that people use more than speaking, reading, or writing, it is typically not afforded the same level of instruction and focus (Adler & Rodman, 2011). In addition, humans are subject to such continual and diverse stimuli; most do not even…

  18. Listening to Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    This booklet looks at the role of learner feedback in the quality improvement process. It suggests how adult and community learning (ACL) providers can adapt and improve their practice to meet the needs of learners in the changed policy context. Chapter 1 explores why providers should listen to learners and finds that listening to learners…

  19. Speed Listening and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.

    Compressed speech (speed listening), in which audiotapes are speeded up, is examined in this paper along with its relationship to the reading process. Among the topics discussed first are the close relationship between reading and listening, the rationale behind compressed speech, and the use of compressed speech in business communication, special…

  20. Amplitude modulation detection by human listeners in reverberant sound fields: Effects of prior listening exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zahorik, Pavel; Anderson, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work [Zahorik et al., POMA, 15, 050002 (2012)] has reported that for both broadband and narrowband noise carrier signals in a simulated reverberant sound field, human sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM) is higher than would be predicted based on the acoustical modulation transfer function (MTF) of the listening environment. These results may be suggestive of mechanisms that functionally enhance modulation in reverberant listening, although many details of this enhancement effect are unknown. Given recent findings that demonstrate improvements in speech understanding with prior exposure to reverberant listening environments, it is of interest to determine whether listening exposure to a reverberant room might also influence AM detection in the room, and perhaps contribute to the AM enhancement effect. Here, AM detection thresholds were estimated (using an adaptive 2-alternative forced-choice procedure) in each of two listening conditions: one in which consistent listening exposure to a particular room was provided, and a second that intentionally disrupted listening exposure by varying the room from trial-to-trial. Results suggest that consistent prior listening exposure contributes to enhanced AM sensitivity in rooms. [Work supported by the NIH/NIDCD.] PMID:24163718

  1. The Effect of Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions on the Development of Diabetes Mellitus among Middle-aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, Mario; Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, J. Philip; Yan, Yan; Miller, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of observed neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with the incidence of diabetes by using data from 644 subjects in the African-American Health Study (St. Louis area, Missouri). They also investigated five mediating pathways (health behavior, psychosocial, health status, access to medical care, and sociodemographic characteristics) if significant associations were identified. The external appearance of the block the subjects lived on and housing conditions were rated as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Subjects reported about neighborhood desirability. Self-reported diabetes was obtained at baseline and 3 years later. Of 644 subjects without self-reported diabetes, 10.3% reported having diabetes at the 3-year follow-up. Every housing condition rated as fair-poor was associated with an increased risk of diabetes, with odds ratios ranging from 2.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.47, 4.34 for physical condition inside the building) to 1.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 3.07 for cleanliness inside the building) in unadjusted analyses. No association was found between any of the block face conditions or perceived neighborhood conditions and incident diabetes. The odds ratios for the five housing conditions were unaffected when adjusted for the mediating pathways. Poor housing conditions appear to be an independent contributor to the risk of incident diabetes in urban, middle-aged African Americans. PMID:17625220

  2. Talker intelligibility: Child and adult listener performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Duncan; Hazan, Valerie

    2002-05-01

    In a study of talker intelligibility, 45 voices (adults, 11-12 year old children) were presented to 135 listeners (adults, 11-12, and 7-8 year olds). Word materials were presented in a ``single-word'' condition, and in a ``triplet'' condition, where a ``normalizing'' precursor sentence preceded three keywords. In both conditions, voices were randomized, with no consecutive presentations from the same speaker. The specially designed word-set consisted of 124 words chosen to maximize consonant confusions. Adult female speakers were significantly more intelligible than other groups, as predicted by previous research, but the difference was small. The error rates for 7-8 year olds were slightly but significantly higher than those for the older children and adults. The effect of presentation condition, however, was not significant for any listener group. Across all listener groups, rankings of speakers by error rates were strikingly consistent, with a distinct cluster of eight low-intelligibility speakers common to all listener groups. This suggests that speaker intelligibility is little influenced by listener-related factors. In terms of their perception of speaker characteristics, children aged seven and above are showing similar patterns of behavior to adults, even though the younger children showed marginally higher error rates. [Work funded by the Wellcome Trust.

  3. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  4. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  5. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  6. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  7. The Resolution of Dynamic Speech in L2 Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieke, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    Since listening comprehension presupposes an orderly conversion of running speech into discrete linguistic units, certain restoration processes must apply. An approach is provided to explain the metamorphosis that language undergoes from dynamic speech representations to citation form strings, under listening conditions. Some performance…

  8. Effective Listening: Barriers to Listening in a Diverse Business Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Augusta M.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that listening skills are a critical starting point for the management of diversity in business organizations. Discusses listening barriers which prevent the nurturing of diversity in business. (PRA)

  9. Measuring the Effects of Reverberation and Noise on Sentence Intelligibility for Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Erwin L. J.; Goverts, S. Theo; Festen, Joost M.; Houtgast, Tammo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Speech Transmission Index (STI; Houtgast, Steeneken, & Plomp, 1980; Steeneken & Houtgast, 1980) is commonly used to quantify the adverse effects of reverberation and stationary noise on speech intelligibility for normal-hearing listeners. Duquesnoy and Plomp (1980) showed that the STI can be applied for presbycusic listeners, relating…

  10. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women.

  11. Dichotic Listening and Otoacoustic Emissions: Shared Variance between Cochlear Function and Dichotic Listening Performance in Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markevych, Vladlena; Asbjornsen, Arve E.; Lind, Ola; Plante, Elena; Cone, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated a possible connection between speech processing and cochlear function. Twenty-two subjects with age range from 18 to 39, balanced for gender with normal hearing and without any known neurological condition, were tested with the dichotic listening (DL) test, in which listeners were asked to identify CV-syllables in a…

  12. Mindful Music Listening Instruction Increases Listening Sensitivity and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mindful listening instruction on music listening sensitivity and music listening enjoyment. A pretest--posttest control group design was used. Participants, fourth-grade students (N = 42) from an elementary school in a large city in the Northeastern United States, were randomly assigned to two…

  13. One-against-All Weighted Dynamic Time Warping for Language-Independent and Speaker-Dependent Speech Recognition in Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianglilan; Sun, Jiping; Luo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English) names, language-independent (LI) with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD) automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW). This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI) for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW), as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER) compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions. PMID:24520317

  14. The Effect of Listening to Specific Musical Genre Selections on Measures of Heart Rate Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orman, Evelyn K.

    2011-01-01

    University students (N = 30) individually listened to the Billboard 100 top-ranked musical selection for their most and least liked musical genre. Two minutes of silence preceded each musical listening condition, and heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded throughout. All HRV measures decreased during music listening as compared with silence.…

  15. A Constructivist Approach to Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burleson, Brant R.

    2011-01-01

    This article develops a constructivist perspective on listening skill. Listening is conceptualized as "a process that involves the interpretation of messages that others have intentionally transmitted in the effort to understand those messages and respond to them appropriately." This definition allows listening to be understood both as a mindful…

  16. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  17. Consciousness and Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Michele

    To understand the demands and restrictions of human consciousness will allow teachers and students alike to actually "be" listeners. It is speculated (by K. Wilber, E. Neumann, J. Gebser and others) that human consciousness, in the course of human existence, has gone through several changes, different modes or structures, so to speak, lasting…

  18. Come, Listen, and Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Story hour began with an invitation to faculty to listen to stories from colleagues about their teaching experiences. Three teachers volunteered to prepare stories that would soothe and entertain, stories that would serve as an antidote for the many stresses teachers were undergoing. In less than a year, this simple idea progressed from stories…

  19. Developing Therapeutic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy; Prior, Seamus

    2013-01-01

    We present an experience-near account of the development of therapeutic listening in first year counselling students. A phenomenological approach was employed to articulate the trainees' lived experiences of their learning. Six students who had just completed a one-year postgraduate certificate in counselling skills were interviewed and the…

  20. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

  1. Hearing, Listening and Phonosensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David

    This paper examines human phonosensitivity (the process by which an organism receives acoustic stimuli and integrates them into its behavior patterns), which is divided into two distinct but inseparable systems: hearing, which controls the reception, transmission, and perception of acoustic stimuli, and listening, which controls the discrimination…

  2. Listening Is for Acting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Interpersonal communication researchers have not only tended to ignore the role that listening plays in face-to-face interaction, they have also viewed message production and message processing as distinct processes. The message production-message processing bipolarity is belied by recent research suggesting that mirror neurons subserving speech…

  3. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  4. Academic Listening: Research Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, John, Ed.

    A collection of essays address a variety of issues in listening in the academic context, particularly in a foreign or second language. Articles include: "Research of Relevance to Second Language Lecture Comprehension--An Overview" (John Flowerdew); "Expectation-Driven Understanding in Information Systems Lecture Comprehension" (Steve Tauroza,…

  5. Improving Listening Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiss, Patricia A.; Mayer, Rose

    This report describes a program for improving listening skills, lack of which interferes with second language acquisition. The targeted population was first- and second-year Spanish students in one middle school and one high school. Intervention over 15 weeks included changes in the classroom environment (desk arrangement, improved lighting,…

  6. Eavesdropping as Listening Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelmann, Kent

    2012-01-01

    In ordinary life we are constantly imbued by listening, and we seem to interact in different contextual dimensions of culture and society (Adelmann, 2002; Linell, 1998), both verbally and nonverbally. "Life by its very nature is dialogic. To live means to participate in dialogue," according to the Russian scholar Mikhail M. Bakhtin (1984, p.…

  7. Kinesics in Academic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Susan Lewis

    Although nonverbal behaviors have been shown to be learned, meaningful, systematic, and sometimes culture bound, kinesics, the science of body behavioral communication, has been a neglected factor in second language instruction and research, particularly in the area of academic listening. This paper describes steps taken to develop materials,…

  8. Central Auditory Processing of Temporal and Spectral-Variance Cues in Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Carol Q.; Bremen, Peter; Shen, Weidong; Yang, Shi-Ming; Middlebrooks, John C.; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Mc Laughlin, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners have difficulty understanding speech in complex listening environments. This deficit is thought to be largely due to peripheral encoding problems arising from current spread, which results in wide peripheral filters. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, central processing contributes to segregation of speech from competing sounds. We tested the hypothesis that basic central processing abilities are retained in post-lingually deaf CI listeners, but processing is hampered by degraded input from the periphery. In eight CI listeners, we measured auditory nerve compound action potentials to characterize peripheral filters. Then, we measured psychophysical detection thresholds in the presence of multi-electrode maskers placed either inside (peripheral masking) or outside (central masking) the peripheral filter. This was intended to distinguish peripheral from central contributions to signal detection. Introduction of temporal asynchrony between the signal and masker improved signal detection in both peripheral and central masking conditions for all CI listeners. Randomly varying components of the masker created spectral-variance cues, which seemed to benefit only two out of eight CI listeners. Contrastingly, the spectral-variance cues improved signal detection in all five NH listeners who listened to our CI simulation. Together these results indicate that widened peripheral filters significantly hamper central processing of spectral-variance cues but not of temporal cues in post-lingually deaf CI listeners. As indicated by two CI listeners in our study, however, post-lingually deaf CI listeners may retain some central processing abilities similar to NH listeners. PMID:26176553

  9. A Screening Approach for Classroom Acoustics Using Web-Based Listening Tests and Subjective Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Magnusson, Lennart; Fredriksson, Sofie; Croy, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Background Perception of speech is crucial in school where speech is the main mode of communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a web based approach including listening tests and questionnaires could be used as a screening tool for poor classroom acoustics. The prime focus was the relation between pupils’ comprehension of speech, the classroom acoustics and their description of the acoustic qualities of the classroom. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 1106 pupils aged 13-19, from 59 classes and 38 schools in Sweden participated in a listening study using Hagerman’s sentences administered via Internet. Four listening conditions were applied: high and low background noise level and positions close and far away from the loudspeaker. The pupils described the acoustic quality of the classroom and teachers provided information on the physical features of the classroom using questionnaires. Conclusions/Significance In 69% of the classes, at least three pupils described the sound environment as adverse and in 88% of the classes one or more pupil reported often having difficulties concentrating due to noise. The pupils’ comprehension of speech was strongly influenced by the background noise level (p<0.001) and distance to the loudspeakers (p<0.001). Of the physical classroom features, presence of suspended acoustic panels (p<0.05) and length of the classroom (p<0.01) predicted speech comprehension. Of the pupils’ descriptions of acoustic qualities, clattery significantly (p<0.05) predicted speech comprehension. Clattery was furthermore associated to difficulties understanding each other, while the description noisy was associated to concentration difficulties. The majority of classrooms do not seem to have an optimal sound environment. The pupil’s descriptions of acoustic qualities and listening tests can be one way of predicting sound conditions in the classroom. PMID:25615692

  10. Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 cell surface hydrophobicity and survival of the cells under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakirova, Laisana; Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Auzina, Lilija; Zikmanis, Peteris

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and the survival of these cells were examined in response to varied cultivation conditions and adverse environmental conditions. An inverse linear relationship (P < 0.01) was detected between the CSH of intact L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 and survival of cells subjected to subsequent freezing/thawing, long-term storage or exposure to mineral and bile acids. The observed relationships were supported by significant correlations between the CSH and changes in composition of the cell envelopes (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) of L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 examined using FT-IR spectroscopy and conventional biochemical analysis methods. The results also suggest that the estimates of hydrophobicity, being a generalized characteristic of cell surfaces, are important parameters to predict the ability of intact probiotic bacteria to endure extreme environments and therefore should be monitored during cultivation. A defined balance of cell components, which can be characterized by the reduced CSH values, apparently helps to ensure the resistance, improved viability and hence the overall probiotic properties of bacteria. PMID:23053348

  11. Acoustic characteristics of listener-constrained speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Simone; Cummins, Fred

    2003-04-01

    Relatively little is known about the acoustical modifications speakers employ to meet the various constraints-auditory, linguistic and otherwise-of their listeners. Similarly, the manner by which perceived listener constraints interact with speakers' adoption of specialized speech registers is poorly Hypo (H&H) theory offers a framework for examining the relationship between speech production and output-oriented goals for communication, suggesting that under certain circumstances speakers may attempt to minimize phonetic ambiguity by employing a ``hyperarticulated'' speaking style (Lindblom, 1990). It remains unclear, however, what the acoustic correlates of hyperarticulated speech are, and how, if at all, we might expect phonetic properties to change respective to different listener-constrained conditions. This paper is part of a preliminary investigation concerned with comparing the prosodic characteristics of speech produced across a range of listener constraints. Analyses are drawn from a corpus of read hyperarticulated speech data comprising eight adult, female speakers of English. Specialized registers include speech to foreigners, infant-directed speech, speech produced under noisy conditions, and human-machine interaction. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of the Irish Higher Education Authority, allocated to Fred Cummins for collaborative work with Media Lab Europe.

  12. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non

  13. Listening Instruction: Awareness, Identification and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Judy Glenn

    Three major categories of instruction for a course designed to teach community college students how to effectively listen are functional listening, awareness of auditory disabilities, and interpersonal listening. In functional listening, students learn to listen for the main idea, identify supporting points, summarize accurately, avoid…

  14. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J

    2014-12-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However, this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past-year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed.

  15. A Pilot Investigation regarding Speech-Recognition Performance in Noise for Adults with Hearing Loss in the FM+HA Listening Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, M. Samantha; Gallun, Frederick J.; Gordon, Jane; Lilly, David J.; Crandell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    While the concurrent use of the hearing aid (HA) microphone with frequency modulation (FM) technology can decrease speech-recognition performance, the FM+HA condition is still an important setting for users of both HA and FM technology. The primary goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of attenuating HA gain in the FM+HA listening…

  16. The Role of Paired Listening in L2 Listening Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Toro, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Paired listening was originally developed as a research tool with the aim to understand the strategies used by L2 learners when listening to recorded speech in the target language. It offers researchers a useful combination of direct observation and verbal data, whilst avoiding the common drawbacks of subjective introspection. This paper examines…

  17. Reducing Listening Test Anxiety through Various Forms of Listening Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang; Read, John

    2008-01-01

    Foreign language learners typically experience considerable anxiety about taking listening tests. This study investigated how four forms of listening support (pre-teaching of content and vocabulary, question preview, and repeated input) affect the anxiety levels of college students in Taiwan taking a multiple-choice achievement test, which counts…

  18. High-frequency audibility: benefits for hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Hogan, C A; Turner, C W

    1998-07-01

    The present study was a systematic investigation of the benefit of providing hearing-impaired listeners with audible high-frequency speech information. Five normal-hearing and nine high-frequency hearing-impaired listeners identified nonsense syllables that were low-pass filtered at a number of cutoff frequencies. As a means of quantifying audibility for each condition, Articulation Index (AI) was calculated for each condition for each listener. Most hearing-impaired listeners demonstrated an improvement in speech recognition as additional audible high-frequency information was provided. In some cases for more severely impaired listeners, increasing the audibility of high-frequency speech information resulted in no further improvement in speech recognition, or even decreases in speech recognition. A new measure of how well hearing-impaired listeners used information within specific frequency bands called "efficiency" was devised. This measure compared the benefit of providing a given increase in speech audibility to a hearing-impaired listener to the benefit observed in normal-hearing listeners for the same increase in speech audibility. Efficiencies were calculated using the old AI method and the new AI method (which takes into account the effects of high speech presentation levels). There was a clear pattern in the results suggesting that as the degree of hearing loss at a given frequency increased beyond 55 dB HL, the efficacy of providing additional audibility to that frequency region was diminished, especially when this degree of hearing loss was present at frequencies of 4000 Hz and above. A comparison of analyses from the "old" and "new" AI procedures suggests that some, but not all, of the deficiencies of speech recognition in these listeners was due to high presentation levels.

  19. Listening and Legos[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This simple exercise, performed in teams, gives students practice in listening to instructions, particularly when there are restrictions for the communication. The teams compete in a limited amount of time to build a Lego[TM] structure based on the instructions of one team member. Which team listens the best and is most successful?

  20. An Educational Leadership Listening Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nostrand, Peter F.; Shelly, Richard W.

    The model developed here has been designed to help educators become better listeners and thereby better leaders. The model is broken down into an active and a post-active phase. The active phase covers the period of time during which active verbal intercourse is in progress. Concentrative listening, the first skill in the active phase, is that…

  1. Listening: The Neglected Language Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Peter

    A number of educators have expressed concern over the poor quality of listening skills exhibited by United States public school students. Furthermore, there is concern regarding "automaticity," or "passive" listening, which involves the perception of sounds without understanding. Not until a 1978 amendment to the Elementary and Secondary Education…

  2. Music Listening as Music Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most fundamental, ongoing debates in music education involves scholars who argue for a "performance-based" curriculum and those who promote a curriculum that is fundamentally "aesthetic-listening based." Rather than arguing for the primacy of either performance or listening as a basis for a music education curriculum, the paper attempts…

  3. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  4. SOCIAL CHANGE THROUGH LISTENING GROUPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OHLIGER, JOHN

    A LISTENING GROUP IS A GROUP OF ADULTS MEETING TOGETHER REGULARLY TO DISCUSS RADIO OR TELEVISION PROGRAMS, USUALLY UNDER LAY LEADERSHIP, SOMETIMES ASSISTED BY SUPPLEMENTAL PRINTED MATERIALS, WITH ARRANGEMENTS FOR TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION (FEEDBACK) BETWEEN THE LISTENERS AND BROADCASTERS. GROUPS APPEAL TO CLIENTELE NOT ORDINARILY ATTRACTED TO ADULT…

  5. Listening in the Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2015-01-01

    The process of acquiring language is often depicted as a tiered process of oral development: listening and speaking; and, literacy development: reading, and writing. As infants we first learn language by listening, then speaking. That is, regardless of culture, or dialect we are first immersed in language in this oral context. It is only after one…

  6. Gains to L2 Listeners from Reading while Listening vs. Listening Only in Comprehending Short Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C.-S.

    2009-01-01

    This study builds on the concept that aural-written verification helps L2 learners develop auditory discrimination skills, refine word recognition and gain awareness of form-meaning relationships, by comparing two modes of aural input: reading while listening (R/L) vs. listening only (L/O). Two test tasks (sequencing and gap filling) of 95 items,…

  7. Listening effort and speech intelligibility in listening situations affected by noise and reverberation.

    PubMed

    Rennies, Jan; Schepker, Henning; Holube, Inga; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the combined effect of noise and reverberation on listening effort and speech intelligibility to predictions of the speech transmission index (STI). Listening effort was measured in normal-hearing subjects using a scaling procedure. Speech intelligibility scores were measured in the same subjects and conditions: (a) Speech-shaped noise as the only interfering factor, (b) + (c) fixed signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 0 or 7 dB and reverberation as detrimental factors, and (d) reverberation as the only detrimental factor. In each condition, SNR and reverberation were combined to produce STI values of 0.17, 0.30, 0.43, 0.57, and 0.70, respectively. Listening effort always decreased with increasing STI, thus enabling a rough prediction, but a significant bias was observed indicating that listening effort was lower in reverberation only than in noise only at the same STI for one type of impulse responses. Accordingly, speech intelligibility increased with increasing STI and was significantly better in reverberation only than in noise only at the same STI. Further analyses showed that the broadband reverberation time is not always a good estimate of speech degradation in reverberation and that different speech materials may differ in their robustness toward detrimental effects of reverberation. PMID:25373965

  8. The influence of social situations on music listening.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Grewe, Oliver; Egermann, Hauke; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether listening to music in a group setting influenced the emotion felt by the listeners. We hypothesized that individuals hearing music in a group would experience more intense emotions than the same individuals hearing the same music on their own. The emotional reactions to 10 musical excerpts (previously shown to contain chill-inducing psychoacoustic parameters) were measured in a within-subjects design. We found, contrary to our hypothesis, that the participants (all musicians) did not experience more chills when listening to music in a group than when listening alone. These findings may be explained by a lesser degree of concentration on the music in the group condition.

  9. Listening to music reduces eye movements.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Listening to music can change the way that people visually experience the environment, probably as a result of an inwardly directed shift of attention. We investigated whether this attentional shift can be demonstrated by reduced eye movement activity, and if so, whether that reduction depends on absorption. Participants listened to their preferred music, to unknown neutral music, or to no music while viewing a visual stimulus (a picture or a film clip). Preference and absorption were significantly higher for the preferred music than for the unknown music. Participants exhibited longer fixations, fewer saccades, and more blinks when they listened to music than when they sat in silence. However, no differences emerged between the preferred music condition and the neutral music condition. Thus, music significantly reduces eye movement activity, but an attentional shift from the outer to the inner world (i.e., to the emotions and memories evoked by the music) emerged as only one potential explanation. Other explanations, such as a shift of attention from visual to auditory input, are discussed.

  10. Guess who? Children use prosody to infer intended listeners.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anisha L; Nilsen, Elizabeth S

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the relative influence of prosody and semantic content in children's inferences about intended listeners. Children (n = 72), who ranged in age from 5 to 10 years, heard greetings with prosody and content that was either infant or adult directed and chose the intended listener from amongst an infant or an adult. While content affected all children's choices, the effect of prosody was stronger (at least, for children aged 7-10 years). For conditions in which prosodic cues were suggestive of one listener, and content cues, another, children aged 7-10 years chose the listener according to prosody. In contrast, the youngest age group (5- to 6-year-olds) chose listeners at chance levels in these incongruent conditions. While prosodic cues were most influential in determining children's choices, their ratings of how certain they felt about their choices indicated that content nonetheless influenced their thinking about the intended listener. Results are the first to show the unique influence of prosody in children's thinking about appropriate speech styles. Findings add to work showing children's ability to use prosody to make inferences about speakers' communicative intentions. PMID:26871544

  11. The Power of the Listening Ear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Communicating effectively is a skill that must be taught and practiced--and the act of listening is a large part of this skill. According to the "International Journal of Listening," listening skills are imperative to reading comprehension and are valuable enough for "38 out of the 51 government entities to include listening skills as part of…

  12. Expanding Music Listening Experience through Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yo-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing while listening to music provides an opportunity for students to imagine and associate, leading to holistic listening experience. The personal qualitative listening experience triggered by music can be revealed in their drawings. In the process of representing of the listening experience through drawing, students can also increase their…

  13. Listening to Monotony: All-News Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woal, Michael

    A study analyzed statistically the monotony of all-news radio listening and identified stylistic figures that elicit attention in listeners. Subjects were 30 graduate students whose experience with radio news ranged from occasional listening over several months to regular listening five or seven days per week for several years. Respondents were…

  14. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  15. Listening Habits of iPod Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make…

  16. A Correlation Study between EFL Strategic Listening and Listening Comprehension Skills among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between EFL students strategic listening and their listening comprehension skills. Eighty secondary school students participated in this study. Participants' strategic listening was measured by a Strategic Listening Interview (SLI), a Strategic Listening Questionnaire (SLQ) and a…

  17. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  18. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  19. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N = 13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N = 22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception--temporal resolution--in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties.

  20. Investigating the Role of Working Memory in Speech-in-noise Identification for Listeners with Normal Hearing.

    PubMed

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of cognitive hearing science, increased attention has been given to individual differences in cognitive functioning and their explanatory power in accounting for inter-listener variability in understanding speech in noise (SiN). The psychological construct that has received most interest is working memory (WM), representing the ability to simultaneously store and process information. Common lore and theoretical models assume that WM-based processes subtend speech processing in adverse perceptual conditions, such as those associated with hearing loss or background noise. Empirical evidence confirms the association between WM capacity (WMC) and SiN identification in older hearing-impaired listeners. To assess whether WMC also plays a role when listeners without hearing loss process speech in acoustically adverse conditions, we surveyed published and unpublished studies in which the Reading-Span test (a widely used measure of WMC) was administered in conjunction with a measure of SiN identification. The survey revealed little or no evidence for an association between WMC and SiN performance. We also analysed new data from 132 normal-hearing participants sampled from across the adult lifespan (18-91 years), for a relationship between Reading-Span scores and identification of matrix sentences in noise. Performance on both tasks declined with age, and correlated weakly even after controlling for the effects of age and audibility (r = 0.39, p ≤ 0.001, one-tailed). However, separate analyses for different age groups revealed that the correlation was only significant for middle-aged and older groups but not for the young (< 40 years) participants. PMID:27080643

  1. Investigating the Role of Working Memory in Speech-in-noise Identification for Listeners with Normal Hearing.

    PubMed

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of cognitive hearing science, increased attention has been given to individual differences in cognitive functioning and their explanatory power in accounting for inter-listener variability in understanding speech in noise (SiN). The psychological construct that has received most interest is working memory (WM), representing the ability to simultaneously store and process information. Common lore and theoretical models assume that WM-based processes subtend speech processing in adverse perceptual conditions, such as those associated with hearing loss or background noise. Empirical evidence confirms the association between WM capacity (WMC) and SiN identification in older hearing-impaired listeners. To assess whether WMC also plays a role when listeners without hearing loss process speech in acoustically adverse conditions, we surveyed published and unpublished studies in which the Reading-Span test (a widely used measure of WMC) was administered in conjunction with a measure of SiN identification. The survey revealed little or no evidence for an association between WMC and SiN performance. We also analysed new data from 132 normal-hearing participants sampled from across the adult lifespan (18-91 years), for a relationship between Reading-Span scores and identification of matrix sentences in noise. Performance on both tasks declined with age, and correlated weakly even after controlling for the effects of age and audibility (r = 0.39, p ≤ 0.001, one-tailed). However, separate analyses for different age groups revealed that the correlation was only significant for middle-aged and older groups but not for the young (< 40 years) participants.

  2. Loud music listening.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Nicolae

    2008-07-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.

  3. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  4. Decision strategies of hearing-impaired listeners in spectral shape discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, Jennifer J.; Leek, Marjorie R.

    2002-03-01

    The ability to discriminate between sounds with different spectral shapes was evaluated for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. Listeners detected a 920-Hz tone added in phase to a single component of a standard consisting of the sum of five tones spaced equally on a logarithmic frequency scale ranging from 200 to 4200 Hz. An overall level randomization of 10 dB was either present or absent. In one subset of conditions, the no-perturbation conditions, the standard stimulus was the sum of equal-amplitude tones. In the perturbation conditions, the amplitudes of the components within a stimulus were randomly altered on every presentation. For both perturbation and no-perturbation conditions, thresholds for the detection of the 920-Hz tone were measured to compare sensitivity to changes in spectral shape between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. To assess whether hearing-impaired listeners relied on different regions of the spectrum to discriminate between sounds, spectral weights were estimated from the perturbed standards by correlating the listener's responses with the level differences per component across two intervals of a two-alternative forced-choice task. Results showed that hearing-impaired and normal-hearing listeners had similar sensitivity to changes in spectral shape. On average, across-frequency correlation functions also were similar for both groups of listeners, suggesting that as long as all components are audible and well separated in frequency, hearing-impaired listeners can use information across frequency as well as normal-hearing listeners. Analysis of the individual data revealed, however, that normal-hearing listeners may be better able to adopt optimal weighting schemes. This conclusion is only tentative, as differences in internal noise may need to be considered to interpret the results obtained from weighting studies between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

  5. Active listening impairs visual perception and selectivity: an ERP study of auditory dual-task costs on visual attention.

    PubMed

    Gherri, Elena; Eimer, Martin

    2011-04-01

    The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual-attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1) or feature conjunction (Experiment 2), and simultaneously listened to narrated text passages that had to be recalled later (encoding condition), or heard backward-played speech sounds that could be ignored (control condition). Responses to targets were slower in the encoding condition, and ERPs revealed that the visual processing of search arrays and the attentional selection of target stimuli were less efficient in the encoding relative to the control condition. Results demonstrate that the attentional processing of visual information is impaired when concurrent spoken messages are encoded and maintained, in line with cross-modal links in selective attention, but inconsistent with the view that attentional resources are modality-specific. The distraction of visual attention by active listening could contribute to the adverse effects of cell phone use on driving performance. PMID:20465407

  6. Acoustic vs. Magnetic Coupling for Telephone Listening of Hearing-Impaired Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alice E.

    1985-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of six telephone conditions on discrimination in 19 hearing impaired adults. No significant differences were found among the unaided, acoustically coupled, and magnetically coupled listening modes. Ss understood words significantly better using an amplifier handset, regardless of listening mode. (Author/CL)

  7. Understanding speech in modulated interference: Cochlear implant users and normal-hearing listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy B.; Jin, Su-Hyun; Carney, Arlene Earley; Nelson, David A.

    2003-02-01

    Many competing noises in real environments are modulated or fluctuating in level. Listeners with normal hearing are able to take advantage of temporal gaps in fluctuating maskers. Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss show less benefit from modulated maskers. Cochlear implant users may be more adversely affected by modulated maskers because of their limited spectral resolution and by their reliance on envelope-based signal-processing strategies of implant processors. The current study evaluated cochlear implant users' ability to understand sentences in the presence of modulated speech-shaped noise. Normal-hearing listeners served as a comparison group. Listeners repeated IEEE sentences in quiet, steady noise, and modulated noise maskers. Maskers were presented at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at six modulation rates varying from 1 to 32 Hz. Results suggested that normal-hearing listeners obtain significant release from masking from modulated maskers, especially at 8-Hz masker modulation frequency. In contrast, cochlear implant users experience very little release from masking from modulated maskers. The data suggest, in fact, that they may show negative effects of modulated maskers at syllabic modulation rates (2-4 Hz). Similar patterns of results were obtained from implant listeners using three different devices with different speech-processor strategies. The lack of release from masking occurs in implant listeners independent of their device characteristics, and may be attributable to the nature of implant processing strategies and/or the lack of spectral detail in processed stimuli.

  8. Listening to Authentic Czech. Authentic Listening Proficiency-Based Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Privorotsky-Kabat, Grazyna

    The set of materials for development of listening skills in Czech is designed for students with advanced language proficiency and is intended to be used with cassette tapes (not included here) to supplement other instructional materials. It consists of 20 units grouped into 2 levels (advanced and advanced plus). At each level there are 10 units,…

  9. Engaging Youth with the Power of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Adults who are skilled in Empathic Listening are able to remove the barriers that often position elders and youth in opposing camps. The five components of Empathic Listening in the Nonviolent Crisis Intervention[R] program are highlighted.

  10. How Age, Linguistic Status, and the Nature of the Auditory Scene Alter the Manner in Which Listening Comprehension Is Achieved in Multitalker Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avivi-Reich, Meital; Jakubczyk, Agnes; Daneman, Meredyth; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated how age and linguistic status affected listeners' ability to follow and comprehend 3-talker conversations, and the extent to which individual differences in language proficiency predict speech comprehension under difficult listening conditions. Method: Younger and older L1s as well as young L2s listened to 3-talker…

  11. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  12. Communication Effectiveness: Listening from the Counselor's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Robert J.; Hurt, David J.

    Listening is an extremely important dimension of a counselor's vocational life. The counselor is constantly involved in the process of listening. Verbal and nonverbal messages sent by clients must be received, interpreted, and organized. Counselors need to be active in listening to clients and critical in their analysis of the messages being…

  13. Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

  14. Critical Listening--A Neglected Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Richard A.

    Despite the current enthusiasm for teaching critical thinking and the need acknowledged by many educators to improve students' speaking and listening skills, very few schools have actually put critical listening skills into their curricula. One reason listening skills have been so slow in becoming a part of the formal instruction program at most…

  15. Teaching Listening: Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Nikki, Ed.; Tran, Anh, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Listening is the most important of the four language skills and is used most often in everyday communication. Teachers need innovative ways to address the particular listening problems emerging in their own contexts. "Teaching Listening: Voices From the Field" shares successful practices employed by teachers at different levels of education around…

  16. Learners' Perceptions of Listening Comprehension Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Ali S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports a study of listening problems encountered in the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom in the English for Specific Purposes Centre at Damascus University in Syria. Looks particularly at learner strategies, features of the listening text, characteristics of the speaker, attitudes of the listener, the task to be completed as a result of…

  17. Mothers' and Children's Beliefs about Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Teresa M.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 36 mothers and their first and third grade children were questioned regarding their conceptions of listening. Mothers' and children's beliefs revealed dissimilarities in their understandings of the criteria by which listeners should regulate their behavior and their conceptions of the actions listeners should take when confused.…

  18. Balancing Openness and Interpretation in Active Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topornycky, Joseph; Golparian, Shaya

    2016-01-01

    Active listening is an important communication skill in a variety of disciplines and professions, including the profession of Educational Development. In our roles as educational developers, we engage in a variety of processes, all of which rely heavily on the practice of active listening. Emerging strategies of active listening praxis have…

  19. Listening to Language: An Information Processing Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Blaine

    Listening is a crucial element in the communication process. To date, however, research efforts have been unsuccessful in identifying the proper role that listening should play in the building of communication theory. To be a legitimate part of the communication process, listening must be placed in a conceptual framework similar to those found in…

  20. Empirical Validation of Listening Proficiency Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.; Clifford, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Because listening has received little attention and the validation of ability scales describing multidimensional skills is always challenging, this study applied a multistage, criterion-referenced approach that used a framework of aligned audio passages and listening tasks to explore the validity of the ACTFL and related listening proficiency…

  1. Toward an Aristotelian Conception of Good Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Suzanne Rice examines Aristotle's ideas about virtue, character, and education as elements in an Aristotelian conception of good listening. Rice begins by surveying of several different contexts in which listening typically occurs, using this information to introduce the argument that what should count as "good listening" must be…

  2. Strategic Listening for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Jeannine S.; Dunklee, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to communicate effectively with multiple constituencies is recognized as an essential characteristic of effective leaders. Listening strategically is a way of showing parents, students, faculty, staff, and others that their ideas and beliefs are of value. The authors' practitioner-friendly book concentrates on the importance of…

  3. Listening from the Inside Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Elizabeth G.

    1984-01-01

    Examines studies in brain research which are closely related to language learning. Discusses Asher's Total Physical Response and Lozanov's Suggestopedia as approaches which activate the right brain hemisphere and involve it in the language learning process. Discusses practical applications for what is currently known about listening. (SED)

  4. International Radio Broadcasting: Who Listens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Donald R.

    It is difficult to obtain reliable data on the nature of the audience for international broadcast programs in Asia (e.g., those beamed by the Voice of America or Radio Japan). However, analysis of listener mail and some survey research have provided a fairly clear profile of the audience: young (ages 15-34), well educated, urban, male (but with a…

  5. Two Types of Interpersonal Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Although the concept of listening had been neglected by philosophers of education, it has received focused attention since 2003, when Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon addressed it in her presidential address to the Philosophy of Education Society. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: Haroutunian-Gordon offered a…

  6. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  7. Improving Motor Skills through Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to improve a child's motor skills through listening by using three simple steps--recording the auditory model, determining when to use the auditory model, and considering where to use the auditory model. She points out the importance of using a demonstration technique that helps learners understand the…

  8. Improving Listening Skills and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sandra; Rentz, Tina

    This report describes a project for improving students' listening and motivation. The action research took place from September 2001 through January 2002. The targeted first grade reading and eighth grade physical education students live in rural, Midwestern, middle- to high-income communities located in central Illinois. The problem was that…

  9. Listening Walks and Singing Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    The Listening Walk by Paul Showers and illustrated by Aliki, and "It's My City: A Singing Map" by April Pulley Sayre with pictures by Denis Roche, provide two examples of texts that aid in building children's phonological awareness for reading and music. The author describes each narrative and discusses its function as a springboard to composition…

  10. Listeners Remember Music They Like

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalinski, Stephanie M.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a…

  11. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM.

  12. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  13. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  14. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  15. Second Language Listening and Unfamiliar Proper Names: Comprehension Barrier?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeleva, Polina P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether unfamiliar proper names affect English as a second language (ESL) learners' listening comprehension. A total of 110 intermediate to advanced ESL learners participated; comprehension of a short news text was tested under two conditions, Names Known (all proper names pre-taught in advance) and Names Unknown (all proper…

  16. The MOC Reflex during Active Listening to Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garinis, Angela C.; Glattke, Theodore; Cone, Barbara K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that active listening to speech would increase medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent activity for the right vs. the left ear. Method: Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) were evoked by 60-dB p.e. SPL clicks in 13 normally hearing adults in 4 test conditions for each ear: (a) in…

  17. Manipulation of Voice Onset Time during Dichotic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of voice onset time (VOT) during dichotic listening has provided novel insights regarding brain function. To date, the most common design is the utilisation of four VOT conditions: short-long pairs (SL), where a CV syllable with a short VOT is presented to the left ear and a CV syllable with a long VOT is presented to the right…

  18. Listening to a Challenging Perspective: The Role of Interruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Taking up an issue explored by John Dewey, Austin Sarat, and Walter Parker, as well as many others, I continue my study of the conditions under which people choose to listen to a perspective that challenges their own beliefs. Research Question: In my book, "Learning to Teach Through Discussion: The Art of Turning the Soul"…

  19. Regional and Foreign Accent Processing in English: Can Listeners Adapt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Goslin, Jeremy; Ellis, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the first presentation of a foreign accent triggers a delay in word identification, followed by a subsequent adaptation. This study examines under what conditions the delay resumes to baseline level. The delay will be experimentally induced by the presentation of sentences spoken to listeners in a foreign or a regional…

  20. Listening Competence in Initial Interactions I: Distinguishing between What Listening Is and What Listeners Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodie, Graham D.; St. Cyr, Kellie; Pence, Michelle; Rold, Michael; Honeycutt, James

    2012-01-01

    The impressions we form of others during initial interactions are powerful. These impressions are a product of various implicit theories--mental representations of people and actions. This article investigates the structure of implicit theories of listening used when forming impressions of others after an initial encounter. Specifically, three…

  1. Amplitude modulation detection by human listeners in sound fields

    PubMed Central

    Zahorik, Pavel; Kim, Duck O.; Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Anderson, Paul W.; Brandewie, Eugene; Srinivasan, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    The temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) approach allows techniques from linear systems analysis to be used to predict how the auditory system will respond to arbitrary patterns of amplitude modulation (AM). Although this approach forms the basis for a standard method of predicting speech intelligibility based on estimates of the acoustical modulation transfer function (MTF) between source and receiver, human sensitivity to AM as characterized by the TMTF has not been extensively studied under realistic listening conditions, such as in reverberant sound fields. Here, TMTFs (octave bands from 2 – 512 Hz) were obtained in 3 listening conditions simulated using virtual auditory space techniques: diotic, anechoic sound field, reverberant room sound field. TMTFs were then related to acoustical MTFs estimated using two different methods in each of the listening conditions. Both diotic and anechoic data were found to be in good agreement with classic results, but AM thresholds in the reverberant room were lower than predictions based on acoustical MTFs. This result suggests that simple linear systems techniques may not be appropriate for predicting TMTFs from acoustical MTFs in reverberant sound fields, and may be suggestive of mechanisms that functionally enhance modulation during reverberant listening. PMID:22822417

  2. Bridging gaps in common ground: Speakers design their gestures for their listeners.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Caitlin; Cook, Susan Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Communication is shaped both by what we are trying to say and by whom we are saying it to. We examined whether and how shared information influences the gestures speakers produce along with their speech. Unlike prior work examining effects of common ground on speech and gesture, we examined a situation in which some speakers have the same amount of mutually shared experience with their listener but the relevance of the information from shared experience is different for listeners in different conditions. Additionally, speakers and listeners in all conditions shared a visual perspective. Speakers and listeners solved a version of the Tower of Hanoi task together. Speakers then solved a second version of the task without the listener present with the manner of disk movement manipulated; the manner was either the same as or different from the version that had been solved with the listener present. Thus, speakers' knowledge of the relevance of shared knowledge was manipulated. We measured the content of speech along with the physical form and content of the accompanying hand gesture. Although speakers did not modulate their spoken language, speakers who knew their listeners had not previously experienced the appropriate manner of completion gestured higher in space, highlighting manner information, but without altering the physical gesture trajectory. Thus, gesture can be sensitive to the knowledge of listeners even when speech is not. Speakers' gestures can play an independent role in reflecting common ground between speakers and listeners, perhaps by simultaneously incorporating both speaker and listener perspectives. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26120773

  3. The Feasibility and Acceptability of LISTEN for Loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer A.; Barnes, Emily R.; Theeke, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the initial feasibility and acceptability of LISTEN (Loneliness Intervention using Story Theory to Enhance Nursing-sensitive outcomes), a new intervention for loneliness. Loneliness is a significant stressor and known contributor to multiple chronic health conditions in varied populations. In addition, loneliness is reported as predictive of functional decline and mortality in large samples of older adults from multiple cultures. Currently, there are no standard therapies recommended as effective treatments for loneliness. The paucity of interventions has limited the ability of healthcare providers to translate what we know about the problem of loneliness to active planning of clinical care that results in diminished loneliness. LISTEN was developed using the process for complex intervention development suggested by the Medical Research Council (MRC) [1] [2]. Methods Feasibility and acceptability of LISTEN were evaluated as the first objective of a longitudinal randomized trial which was set in a university based family medicine center in a rural southeastern community in Appalachia. Twenty-seven older adults [(24 women and 3 men, mean age: 75 (SD 7.50)] who were lonely, community-dwelling, and experiencing chronic illness, participated. Feasibility was evaluated by tracking recruitment efforts, enrollment, attendance to intervention sessions, attrition, and with feedback evaluations from study personnel. Acceptability was assessed using quantitative and qualitative evaluation data from participants. Results LISTEN was evaluated as feasible to deliver with no attrition and near perfect attendance. Participants ranked LISTEN as highly acceptable for diminishing loneliness with participants requesting a continuation of the program or development of additional sessions. Conclusions LISTEN is feasible to deliver in a primary healthcare setting and has the potential to diminish loneliness which could result in improvement

  4. Acoustic and non-acoustic factors in modeling listener-specific performance of sagittal-plane sound localization

    PubMed Central

    Majdak, Piotr; Baumgartner, Robert; Laback, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The ability of sound-source localization in sagittal planes (along the top-down and front-back dimension) varies considerably across listeners. The directional acoustic spectral features, described by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), also vary considerably across listeners, a consequence of the listener-specific shape of the ears. It is not clear whether the differences in localization ability result from differences in the encoding of directional information provided by the HRTFs, i.e., an acoustic factor, or from differences in auditory processing of those cues (e.g., spectral-shape sensitivity), i.e., non-acoustic factors. We addressed this issue by analyzing the listener-specific localization ability in terms of localization performance. Directional responses to spatially distributed broadband stimuli from 18 listeners were used. A model of sagittal-plane localization was fit individually for each listener by considering the actual localization performance, the listener-specific HRTFs representing the acoustic factor, and an uncertainty parameter representing the non-acoustic factors. The model was configured to simulate the condition of complete calibration of the listener to the tested HRTFs. Listener-specifically calibrated model predictions yielded correlations of, on average, 0.93 with the actual localization performance. Then, the model parameters representing the acoustic and non-acoustic factors were systematically permuted across the listener group. While the permutation of HRTFs affected the localization performance, the permutation of listener-specific uncertainty had a substantially larger impact. Our findings suggest that across-listener variability in sagittal-plane localization ability is only marginally determined by the acoustic factor, i.e., the quality of directional cues found in typical human HRTFs. Rather, the non-acoustic factors, supposed to represent the listeners' efficiency in processing directional cues, appear to be

  5. Effect of order bias on the recognition of dichotic digits in young and elderly listeners.

    PubMed

    Strouse, A; Wilson, R H; Brush, N

    2000-01-01

    Dichotic listening was evaluated in free-recall and directed-recall (pre-cued, post-cued) response conditions using interleaved one-, two-, and three-pair dichotic digit materials. In the free-recall condition, the subjects recalled in any order the digits presented. In the directed-recall condition, a response task was examined where subjects recalled all digits presented to the cued ear (pre- or post-cued) followed by the digits presented to the opposite (non-cued) ear. Thirty 20- to 29-year-old adults with normal hearing and 30 60- to 79-year-old adults with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss were evaluated. In all conditions, performance by the younger listeners was better than performance by the elderly listeners. As the difficulty of the dichotic digit task increased, recognition performance decreased. The recognition performance of elderly listeners was more affected by increases in the difficulty of the stimulus materials as compared to the younger listeners. In the free-recall condition, there was a right-ear advantage for both age groups. When instructional bias was imposed, the results favored the ear of instructed bias. The differences in recognition performance between young and elderly listeners likely reflect differences in the difficulty of the dichotic digit test conditions and variations in the demand on auditory memory. PMID:10882048

  6. Effects of noise reduction on AM perception for hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Ives, D Timothy; Kalluri, Sridhar; Strelcyk, Olaf; Sheft, Stanley; Miermont, Franck; Coez, Arnaud; Bizaguet, Eric; Lorenzi, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Noise reduction (NR) systems are commonplace in modern digital hearing aids. Though not improving speech intelligibility, NR helps the hearing-aid user in terms of lowering noise annoyance, reducing cognitive load and improving ease of listening. Previous psychophysical work has shown that NR does in fact improve the ability of normal-hearing (NH) listeners to discriminate the slow amplitude-modulation (AM) cues representative of those found in speech. The goal of this study was to assess whether this improvement of AM discrimination with NR can also be observed for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. AM discrimination was measured at two audio frequencies of 500 Hz and 2 kHz in a background noise with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12 dB. Discrimination was measured for ten HI and ten NH listeners with and without NR processing. The HI listeners had a moderate sensorineural hearing loss of about 50 dB HL at 2 kHz and normal hearing (≤ 20 dB HL) at 500 Hz. The results showed that most of the HI listeners tended to benefit from NR at 500 Hz but not at 2 kHz. However, statistical analyses showed that HI listeners did not benefit significantly from NR at any frequency region. In comparison, the NH listeners showed a significant benefit from NR at both frequencies. For each condition, the fidelity of AM transmission was quantified by a computational model of early auditory processing. The parameters of the model were adjusted separately for the two groups (NH and HI) of listeners. The AM discrimination performance of the HI group (with and without NR) was best captured by a model simulating the loss of the fast-acting amplitude compression applied by the normal cochlea. This suggests that the lack of benefit from NR for HI listeners results from loudness recruitment.

  7. Effects of noise reduction on AM perception for hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Ives, D Timothy; Kalluri, Sridhar; Strelcyk, Olaf; Sheft, Stanley; Miermont, Franck; Coez, Arnaud; Bizaguet, Eric; Lorenzi, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Noise reduction (NR) systems are commonplace in modern digital hearing aids. Though not improving speech intelligibility, NR helps the hearing-aid user in terms of lowering noise annoyance, reducing cognitive load and improving ease of listening. Previous psychophysical work has shown that NR does in fact improve the ability of normal-hearing (NH) listeners to discriminate the slow amplitude-modulation (AM) cues representative of those found in speech. The goal of this study was to assess whether this improvement of AM discrimination with NR can also be observed for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. AM discrimination was measured at two audio frequencies of 500 Hz and 2 kHz in a background noise with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12 dB. Discrimination was measured for ten HI and ten NH listeners with and without NR processing. The HI listeners had a moderate sensorineural hearing loss of about 50 dB HL at 2 kHz and normal hearing (≤ 20 dB HL) at 500 Hz. The results showed that most of the HI listeners tended to benefit from NR at 500 Hz but not at 2 kHz. However, statistical analyses showed that HI listeners did not benefit significantly from NR at any frequency region. In comparison, the NH listeners showed a significant benefit from NR at both frequencies. For each condition, the fidelity of AM transmission was quantified by a computational model of early auditory processing. The parameters of the model were adjusted separately for the two groups (NH and HI) of listeners. The AM discrimination performance of the HI group (with and without NR) was best captured by a model simulating the loss of the fast-acting amplitude compression applied by the normal cochlea. This suggests that the lack of benefit from NR for HI listeners results from loudness recruitment. PMID:24899379

  8. Listening: important to the stuff of a life.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-04-01

    The author presents ideas from Parse's humanbecoming paradigm, including living quality as the stuff of a life. The following question is explored: In what way could listening be important to living the core knowings of living quality? Three ways of viewing listening as connected to living quality are presented: listening as silence, listening as dialogue, and listening as ethics. PMID:25805378

  9. Can We Teach Effective Listening? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspersz, Donella; Stasinska, Ania

    2015-01-01

    Listening is not the same as hearing. While hearing is a physiological process, listening is a conscious process that requires us to be mentally attentive (Low & Sonntag, 2013). The obvious place for scholarship about listening is in communication studies. While interested in listening, the focus of this study is on effective listening.…

  10. On psychoanalytic listening: language and unconscious communication.

    PubMed

    Makari, G; Shapiro, T

    1993-01-01

    The authors review past and recent perspectives on psychoanalytic listening, then present a synthetic model founded on psycholinguistics and semiotics. They argue that the analytic listening process can be broken down into nonlinguistic communications and--most important--linguistic categories pertaining to narrativity, symbolic reference, form, and interactive conventions. In each of these areas of signification, the authors present the ways in which the technique of psychoanalytic listening attends to unconscious meanings, thereby differing from ordinary listening which "hears," at best, only denotative and connotative meanings.

  11. Universality in the brain while listening to music.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H

    2001-01-01

    The human brain, which is one of the most complex organic systems, involves billions of interacting physiological and chemical processes that give rise to experimentally observed neuroelectrical activity, which is called an electroencephalogram (EEG). The presence of non-stationarity and intermittency render standard available methods unsuitable for detecting hidden dynamical patterns in the EEG. In this paper, a method that is suitable for non-stationary signals and preserving the phase characteristics and that combines wavelet and Hilbert transforms was applied to multivariate EEG signals from human subjects at rest as well as in different cognitive states: listening to music, listening to text and performing spatial imagination. It was found that, if suitably rescaled, the gamma band EEG over distributed brain areas while listening to music can be described by a universal and homogeneous scaling, whereas this homogeneity in scale is reduced at resting conditions and also during listening to text and performing spatial imagination. The degree of universality is characterized by a Kullback-Leibler divergence measure. By statistical surrogate analysis, nonlinear phase interaction was found to play an important role in exhibiting universality among multiple cortical regions. PMID:11747560

  12. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    PubMed

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  13. Teaching Listening Skills to Young Learners through "Listen and Do" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevik, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the use of songs to improve the listening skills of young learners. He first provides a theoretical discussion about listening skills and YLs, and about songs and YLs in general; second, he provides a sample lesson for what can be called "Listen and Do" songs for YLs at the beginning level. These are the songs…

  14. The Effect of Training in Listening to Speeded Discourse on Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krall, W. Richard

    A study to investigate the effect of training in listening to speeded discourse on listening comprehension was conducted. Specifically, the study was designed to test the following hypothesis: There is no signifant difference in the amount of gain in listening achievement of the sixth-grade pupils who received speeded discourse speech training…

  15. Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Listening Performance: Conceptualizations and Causal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian

    2013-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to explore the possible causal relations between foreign language (English) listening anxiety and English listening performance. Three hundred participants learning English as a foreign language (FL) completed the foreign language listening anxiety scale (FLLAS) and IELTS test twice with an interval of…

  16. Who's Listening to Victims? Nurses' Listening Styles and Domestic Violence Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John; Froats, Ted, Jr.; Hudspeth, Trey

    2013-01-01

    The current study applies the Listening Styles Profile (LSP16) to nurses and nursing students. Compared to a control group (n = 102), nurses (n = 188) and nursing students (n = 206) show marked differences in listening styles. The majority of participants were people-oriented listeners. People-oriented nurses tend to be more knowledgeable about…

  17. The Role of Task and Listener Characteristics in Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunfaut, Tineke; Révész, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between second language (L2) listening and a range of task and listener characteristics. More specifically, for a group of 93 nonnative English speakers, the researchers examined the extent to which linguistic complexity of the listening task input and response, and speed and explicitness of the input, were…

  18. The Effect of a Listening Education Course on the Listening Behaviors of Prospective Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytan, Talat

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of a listening education course on the listening behaviors of prospective Turkish teachers. The participants of the study are 45 prospective teachers who are studying at a state university in Istanbul and taking a listening education course. The study is an experimental study in the model of "one group…

  19. Listen to Me, Listen to You: Interpersonal Skills Training Manual and Masters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzman, Anne

    This training manual contains material from the book "Listen to Me, Listen to You--A Practical Guide to Improving Self-Esteem, Listening Skills and Assertiveness" set out in the form of exercises and handouts. The manual provides a series of 14 group exercises and 19 related handouts suitable for use in workshops or group training sessions on…

  20. The Effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Listening Sensitivity and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Todd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Music Listening Sensitivity and Music Listening Enjoyment. The type of mindfulness investigated in this study was of the social-psychological type, which shares both commonalities with and distinctions from meditative mindfulness. Enhanced context awareness,…

  1. The Impact of Cooperative Listening Materials Adaptation on Listening Comprehension Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghassemi, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Listening comprehension has gained more prominence in EFL/ESL classes. Due to this prominence, scholars have tried to shed light on different ways of improving learners' listening comprehension. One of these ways is using listening strategies. There is still a controversy over the effective role of these strategies in improving listening…

  2. Complex Listening: Supporting Students to Listen as Mathematical Sense-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Allison; Tyson, Kersti

    2015-01-01

    Participating in reform-oriented mathematical discussion calls on teachers and students to listen to one another in new and different ways. However, listening is an understudied dimension of teaching and learning mathematics. In this analysis, we draw on a sociocultural perspective and a conceptual framing of three types of listening--evaluative,…

  3. The Impact of Mobile Learning on Listening Anxiety and Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Mehrak; Soleymani, Elham

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of mobile learning on EFL learners' listening anxiety and listening comprehension. Fifty students of two intermediate English courses were selected and sampled as the experimental (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups. Students' entry level of listening anxiety was assessed by foreign language listening…

  4. Dichotic listening and allusive thinking.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M S; Blaszczynski, A P; McConaghy, N

    1978-02-01

    Previous work suggests that allusive thinkers have a broader attentional process associated with weak central inhibition. The method of dichotic stimulation was used to investigate this concept. Sixty-three university students completed a battery of tests including 2 dichotic listening tasks. The Object Sorting Test was used as a measure of allusive thinking. Allusive thinkers showed a trend towards impaired shadowing performance. Mislabelling of shadow as distractor words and vice versa, on recall and recognition tasks, showed the strongest correlation with allusive thinking. Such mislabelling was considered to reflect impaired discrimination learning, and provides further support for a hypothesis relating allusive thinking to weak Pavlovaian central inhibition.

  5. Complex-Tone Pitch Discrimination in Listeners With Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Zaar, Johannes; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies have shown that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) enhances the amplitude of envelope coding in auditory-nerve fibers. As pitch coding of unresolved complex tones is assumed to rely on temporal envelope coding mechanisms, this study investigated pitch-discrimination performance in listeners with SNHL. Pitch-discrimination thresholds were obtained for 14 normal-hearing (NH) and 10 hearing-impaired (HI) listeners for sine-phase (SP) and random-phase (RP) complex tones. When all harmonics were unresolved, the HI listeners performed, on average, worse than NH listeners in the RP condition but similarly to NH listeners in the SP condition. The increase in pitch-discrimination performance for the SP relative to the RP condition (F0DL ratio) was significantly larger in the HI as compared with the NH listeners. Cochlear compression and auditory-filter bandwidths were estimated in the same listeners. The estimated reduction of cochlear compression was significantly correlated with the increase in the F0DL ratio, while no correlation was found with filter bandwidth. The effects of degraded frequency selectivity and loss of compression were considered in a simplified peripheral model as potential factors in envelope enhancement. The model revealed that reducing cochlear compression significantly enhanced the envelope of an unresolved SP complex tone, while not affecting the envelope of a RP complex tone. This envelope enhancement in the SP condition was significantly correlated with the increased pitch-discrimination performance for the SP relative to the RP condition in the HI listeners. PMID:27604780

  6. Complex-Tone Pitch Discrimination in Listeners With Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federica; Fereczkowski, Michal; Zaar, Johannes; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies have shown that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) enhances the amplitude of envelope coding in auditory-nerve fibers. As pitch coding of unresolved complex tones is assumed to rely on temporal envelope coding mechanisms, this study investigated pitch-discrimination performance in listeners with SNHL. Pitch-discrimination thresholds were obtained for 14 normal-hearing (NH) and 10 hearing-impaired (HI) listeners for sine-phase (SP) and random-phase (RP) complex tones. When all harmonics were unresolved, the HI listeners performed, on average, worse than NH listeners in the RP condition but similarly to NH listeners in the SP condition. The increase in pitch-discrimination performance for the SP relative to the RP condition (F0DL ratio) was significantly larger in the HI as compared with the NH listeners. Cochlear compression and auditory-filter bandwidths were estimated in the same listeners. The estimated reduction of cochlear compression was significantly correlated with the increase in the F0DL ratio, while no correlation was found with filter bandwidth. The effects of degraded frequency selectivity and loss of compression were considered in a simplified peripheral model as potential factors in envelope enhancement. The model revealed that reducing cochlear compression significantly enhanced the envelope of an unresolved SP complex tone, while not affecting the envelope of a RP complex tone. This envelope enhancement in the SP condition was significantly correlated with the increased pitch-discrimination performance for the SP relative to the RP condition in the HI listeners. PMID:27604780

  7. 78 FR 44922 - Notice of an Education Listening Session Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Notice of an Education Listening Session Meeting SUMMARY: The Education... an Education Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested agricultural education stakeholders. DATES: The Education Listening Session will be held August 1, 2013. The public may file...

  8. Spectral shape discrimination by hearing-impaired and normal-hearing listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, Jennifer J.; Leek, Marjorie R.

    2003-03-01

    The ability to discriminate between sounds with different spectral shapes was evaluated for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. Listeners discriminated between a standard stimulus and a signal stimulus in which half of the standard components were decreased in level and half were increased in level. In one condition, the standard stimulus was the sum of six equal-amplitude tones (equal-SPL), and in another the standard stimulus was the sum of six tones at equal sensation levels re: audiometric thresholds for individual subjects (equal-SL). Spectral weights were estimated in conditions where the amplitudes of the individual tones were perturbed slightly on every presentation. Sensitivity was similar in all conditions for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. The presence of perturbation and equal-SL components increased thresholds for both groups, but only small differences in weighting strategy were measured between the groups depending on whether the equal-SPL or equal-SL condition was tested. The average data suggest that normal-hearing listeners may rely more on the central components of the spectrum whereas hearing-impaired listeners may have been more likely to use the edges. However, individual weighting functions were quite variable, especially for the HI listeners, perhaps reflecting difficulty in processing changes in spectral shape due to hearing loss. Differences in weighting strategy without changes in sensitivity suggest that factors other than spectral weights, such as internal noise or difficulty encoding a reference stimulus, also may dominate performance.

  9. Listeners remember music they like.

    PubMed

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a set of music excerpts and rated how much they liked each one. After a delay, they heard the same excerpts plus an equal number of novel excerpts and made recognition judgments, which were then examined in conjunction with liking ratings. Higher liking ratings were associated with improved recognition performance after a 10-min (Experiment 1) or 24-hr (Experiment 2) delay between the exposure and test phases. The findings were similar when participants made liking ratings after recognition judgments (Experiments 3 and 6), when possible confounding effects of similarity and familiarity were held constant (Experiment 4), and when a deeper level of processing was encouraged for all the excerpts (Experiment 5). Recognition did not vary as a function of liking for previously unheard excerpts (Experiment 6). The results implicate a direct association between liking and recognition. Considered jointly with previous findings, it is now clear that listeners tend to like music that they remember and to remember music that they like.

  10. Listeners remember music they like.

    PubMed

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a set of music excerpts and rated how much they liked each one. After a delay, they heard the same excerpts plus an equal number of novel excerpts and made recognition judgments, which were then examined in conjunction with liking ratings. Higher liking ratings were associated with improved recognition performance after a 10-min (Experiment 1) or 24-hr (Experiment 2) delay between the exposure and test phases. The findings were similar when participants made liking ratings after recognition judgments (Experiments 3 and 6), when possible confounding effects of similarity and familiarity were held constant (Experiment 4), and when a deeper level of processing was encouraged for all the excerpts (Experiment 5). Recognition did not vary as a function of liking for previously unheard excerpts (Experiment 6). The results implicate a direct association between liking and recognition. Considered jointly with previous findings, it is now clear that listeners tend to like music that they remember and to remember music that they like. PMID:22905936

  11. Preferred sound levels of portable music players and listening habits among adults: a field study.

    PubMed

    Kähäri, Kim R; Aslund, T; Olsson, J

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this descriptive field study was to explore music listening habits and preferred listening levels with portable music players (PMPs). We were also interested in seeing whether any exposure differences could be observed between the sexes. Data were collected during 12 hours at Stockholm Central Station, where people passing by were invited to measure their preferred PMP listening level by using a KEMAR manikin. People were also asked to answer a questionnaire about their listening habits. In all, 60 persons (41 men and 19 women) took part in the questionnaire study and 61 preferred PMP levels to be measured. Forty-one of these sound level measurements were valid to be reported after consideration was taken to acceptable measuring conditions. The women (31 years) and the men (33 years) started to use PMPs on a regular basis in their early 20s. Ear canal headphones/ear buds were the preferred headphone types. Fifty-seven percent of the whole study population used their PMP on a daily basis. The measured LAeq60 sec levels corrected for free field ranged between 73 and 102 dB, with a mean value of 83 dB. Sound levels for different types of headphones are also presented. The results of this study indicate that there are two groups of listeners: people who listen less frequently and at lower, safer sound levels, and people with excessive listening habits that may indeed damage their hearing sensory organ in time.

  12. The effects of music listening on pain and stress in the daily life of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Kappert, Mattes B; Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M

    2015-01-01

    Music listening is associated with both pain- and stress-reducing effects. However, the effects of music listening in daily life remain understudied, and the psycho-biological mechanisms underlying the health-beneficial effect of music listening remain unknown. We examined the effects of music listening on pain and stress in daily life in a sample of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS; i.e., a condition characterized by chronic pain) and investigated whether a potentially pain-reducing effect of music listening was mediated by biological stress-responsive systems. Thirty women (mean age: 50.7 ± 9.9 years) with FMS were examined using an ecological momentary assessment design. Participants rated their current pain intensity, perceived control over pain, perceived stress level, and music listening behavior five times per day for 14 consecutive days. At each assessment, participants provided a saliva sample for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase as biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that music listening increased perceived control over pain, especially when the music was positive in valence and when it was listened to for the reason of 'activation' or 'relaxation'. In contrast, no effects on perceived pain intensity were observed. The effects of music listening on perceived control over pain were not mediated by biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Music listening in daily life improved perceived control over pain in female FMS patients. Clinicians using music therapy should become aware of the potential adjuvant role of music listening in daily life, which has the potential to improve symptom control in chronic pain patients. In order to study the role of underlying biological mechanisms, it might be necessary to use more intensive engagement with music (i.e., collective singing or music-making) rather than mere music listening. PMID:26283951

  13. The effects of music listening on pain and stress in the daily life of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Kappert, Mattes B; Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M

    2015-01-01

    Music listening is associated with both pain- and stress-reducing effects. However, the effects of music listening in daily life remain understudied, and the psycho-biological mechanisms underlying the health-beneficial effect of music listening remain unknown. We examined the effects of music listening on pain and stress in daily life in a sample of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS; i.e., a condition characterized by chronic pain) and investigated whether a potentially pain-reducing effect of music listening was mediated by biological stress-responsive systems. Thirty women (mean age: 50.7 ± 9.9 years) with FMS were examined using an ecological momentary assessment design. Participants rated their current pain intensity, perceived control over pain, perceived stress level, and music listening behavior five times per day for 14 consecutive days. At each assessment, participants provided a saliva sample for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase as biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that music listening increased perceived control over pain, especially when the music was positive in valence and when it was listened to for the reason of 'activation' or 'relaxation'. In contrast, no effects on perceived pain intensity were observed. The effects of music listening on perceived control over pain were not mediated by biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Music listening in daily life improved perceived control over pain in female FMS patients. Clinicians using music therapy should become aware of the potential adjuvant role of music listening in daily life, which has the potential to improve symptom control in chronic pain patients. In order to study the role of underlying biological mechanisms, it might be necessary to use more intensive engagement with music (i.e., collective singing or music-making) rather than mere music listening.

  14. The effects of music listening on pain and stress in the daily life of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Kappert, Mattes B.; Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M.; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M.

    2015-01-01

    Music listening is associated with both pain- and stress-reducing effects. However, the effects of music listening in daily life remain understudied, and the psycho-biological mechanisms underlying the health-beneficial effect of music listening remain unknown. We examined the effects of music listening on pain and stress in daily life in a sample of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS; i.e., a condition characterized by chronic pain) and investigated whether a potentially pain-reducing effect of music listening was mediated by biological stress-responsive systems. Thirty women (mean age: 50.7 ± 9.9 years) with FMS were examined using an ecological momentary assessment design. Participants rated their current pain intensity, perceived control over pain, perceived stress level, and music listening behavior five times per day for 14 consecutive days. At each assessment, participants provided a saliva sample for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase as biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that music listening increased perceived control over pain, especially when the music was positive in valence and when it was listened to for the reason of ‘activation’ or ‘relaxation’. In contrast, no effects on perceived pain intensity were observed. The effects of music listening on perceived control over pain were not mediated by biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Music listening in daily life improved perceived control over pain in female FMS patients. Clinicians using music therapy should become aware of the potential adjuvant role of music listening in daily life, which has the potential to improve symptom control in chronic pain patients. In order to study the role of underlying biological mechanisms, it might be necessary to use more intensive engagement with music (i.e., collective singing or music-making) rather than mere music listening. PMID:26283951

  15. One Approach to Teaching Critical Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    This paper provides a format for teaching elementary school students the skills necessary to analyze and evaluate commercial propaganda. Three steps suggested for the teaching of critical listening are setting a standard of highly conscious criteria in the minds of the listener, sifting the evidence and making a critical judgment, and drawing a…

  16. Improving Listening Skills in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kimberly A.; Scruggs, Tisha L.; Szydlowski, Sara L.

    This report focuses on the implementation of strategies to improve student listening skills. The targeted population consisted of primary elementary students located in the suburbs of a large Midwestern city. The lack of students' listening abilities was documented through the use of journals, surveys, checklists, and anecdotal records. Analysis…

  17. Listening for Voice in Narratives of Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Gilligan, Carol

    1991-01-01

    A "Guide to Listening" to the ways people describe their experiences is outlined. The literary, clinical, and feminist dimensions of the method used in the "Guide to Listening" are discussed. A case study of a 12-year-old girl illustrates the method. (LB)

  18. Learning to Show You're Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Nigel G.; Escalante, Rafael; Al Bayyari, Yaffa; Solorio, Thamar

    2007-01-01

    Good listeners generally produce back-channel feedback, that is, short utterances such as "uh-huh" which signal active listening. As the rules governing back-channeling vary from language to language, second-language learners may need help acquiring this skill. This paper is an initial exploration of how to provide this. It presents a training…

  19. Teaching Listening Comprehension: Bottom-Up Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Porchesku, Galina V.

    2016-01-01

    Improving listening comprehension skills is one of the urgent contemporary educational problems in the field of second language acquisition. Understanding how L2 listening comprehension works can have a serious influence on language pedagogy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the practical and methodological value of the notion of the perception…

  20. Listening, Remembering, Writing: Exploring the Dictogloss Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The listening comprehension skill is frequently cited by both teachers and learners of a second language (L2) as perhaps the most difficult to deal with in any systematic way. One possible approach is to use the dictogloss task. This involves learners reconstructing a short text they have listened to. Originally developed to draw learners'…

  1. Listening Ability: Check It or Wreck It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan

    Listening is an integral element of the curricular goals of all modern foreign language classrooms because it is: (1) a motivator and facilitator, (2) a reliable predictor of language learning success, and (3) a skill contributing to success in many endeavors in life. A variety of classroom teaching and testing procedures based on listening skills…

  2. Listening to the River: Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Dawn; Mitchell, Heather; Horsch, Elizabeth; St. John, Mark

    2010-01-01

    "Listening to the River" (LTTR) is a watershed science education project funded by the National Science Foundation. The project aims to deliver watershed education experiences in and around Traverse City, Michigan, and also to develop a model that can be replicated in other locations. Inverness Research was contracted by the "Listening to the…

  3. Listening Skills for the Helping Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Camille C.; And Others

    Listening requires a great awareness of self, words, facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and eye contact. This article examines the importance of these factors in the development of the therapeutic relationship. Among some of the characteristics of effective listening treated here are qualities within the client/therapist…

  4. "Listening Silence" and Its Discursive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    While researchers have studied how white silence protects white innocence and white ignorance, in this essay Barbara Applebaum explores a form of white silence that she refers to as "listening silence" in which silence protects white innocence but does not necessarily promote resistance to learning. White listening silence can appear to…

  5. Development of Listening Proficiency in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Richard M.; Leaver, Betty Lou

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Listening Comprehension Exercise Network, a system that allows for the sharing of listening exercises in Russian via computer networks. The network, which could be emulated in other languages, alleviates the problem of time spent on developing essentially "throw-away" exercises. (21 references) (Author/CB)

  6. Listening Skill Development through Massive Comprehensible Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalivoda, Theodore B.

    Foreign language listening comprehension instruction too often relies on brief selections read aloud or sporadic teacher talk interspersed with native language (NL) utterances, which fail to provide sustained listening practice. NL is overused for grammar-related talk, reducing target language exposure, encouraging translation, and hindering…

  7. An Inventory of Listening Competency Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolvin, Andrew D.; Cohen, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a one-page listening inventory sheet that helps students explore five dimensions of listening competency: cognitive, affective, behavioral, contextual, and ethical. After crafting their own responses, students will have the opportunity to engage in a class discussion about the impact of various dimensions of…

  8. Listening: To Thine Own Self Be True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Michael P.; McLaughlin, David S.; Allison-Roan, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative self-study examines the impact of taking a listening stance in the collegial relationships and practices of three early-career teacher educators within a small, private liberal arts institution. We consider the consequences of a listening stance on students' experiences of our practices and their education program. In…

  9. Into the Mind of the Academic Listener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that we know too little of the mental processes in which a listener engages during an academic lecture; and that a better understanding of these processes would assist EAP instructors on pre-sessional courses to target their teaching more precisely. The account provides insights into listener behaviour from three possible…

  10. Culture and Listeners' Gaze Responses to Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is frequently observed that listeners demonstrate gaze aversion to stuttering. This response may have profound social/communicative implications for both fluent and stuttering individuals. However, there is a lack of empirical examination of listeners' eye gaze responses to stuttering, and it is unclear whether cultural background…

  11. Listening in the General Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolvin, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Research supports the point that listening skills play an important role in 21st century personal, academic, and professional success. This article argues that educators should include listening, a critical communication competency, in the oral communication course in the general education curriculum. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Listeners' Comprehension of Uptalk in Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, John M., Jr.; Tree, Jean E. Fox

    2011-01-01

    Listeners' comprehension of phrase final rising pitch on declarative utterances, or "uptalk", was examined to test the hypothesis that prolongations might differentiate conflicting functions of rising pitch. In Experiment 1 we found that listeners rated prolongations as indicating more speaker uncertainty, but that rising pitch was unrelated to…

  13. Listening in on Monologues and Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tree, Jean E. Fox

    1999-01-01

    Compares the communicative effectiveness of spontaneous monologues and dialogues on nonparticipating addressees overhearing talk. Finds that overhearers were more accurate at following instructions in a referential communication task when listening in on dialogues than when listening in on monologues. Suggests greater number of discourse markers…

  14. "Listen my children, and you shall hear..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Renee

    1984-01-01

    Maintains that massive amounts of authentic input is the only way to approach listening comprehension in a foreign language classroom. Suggests listening exercises designed to enhance students' expectancy and to teach them to extract high-information items from a natural and redundant environment. (SED)

  15. Embodied Communication: Speakers' Gestures Affect Listeners' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular…

  16. On the importance of listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

    2014-06-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities.

  17. On the importance of listening comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Alonzo, Crystle

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills: poor comprehenders. Finally it discusses key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

  18. On the importance of listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

    2014-06-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

  19. "I see what you're saying": intrusive images from listening to a traumatic verbal report.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; Näring, Gérard; Holmes, Emily A; Becker, Eni S

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intrusive visual images could develop from listening to a traumatic verbal report. Eighty-six participants listened to a traumatic verbal report under one of three conditions: while shaping plasticine (visuospatial condition), while performing articulatory suppression (verbal condition), or with no extra task (control condition). Results showed that intrusive visual images developed from listening to the traumatic report. In line with the idea that central executive processes guide encoding of information, intrusion frequency was reduced in both the visuospatial and the verbal condition compared to the no task control condition. Overall, this pattern is similar to intrusive images from a traumatic film as found in earlier studies. This study provides a valuable addition to models of posttraumatic stress disorder and autobiographical memory. Additionally, the results have potential implications for therapists working with traumatized individuals. PMID:19864108

  20. Detection of independent functional networks during music listening using electroencephalogram and sLORETA-ICA.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-04-13

    The measurement of brain activation during music listening is a topic that is attracting increased attention from many researchers. Because of their high spatial accuracy, functional MRI measurements are often used for measuring brain activation in the context of music listening. However, this technique faces the issues of contaminating scanner noise and an uncomfortable experimental environment. Electroencephalogram (EEG), however, is a neural registration technique that allows the measurement of neurophysiological activation in silent and more comfortable experimental environments. Thus, it is optimal for recording brain activations during pleasant music stimulation. Using a new mathematical approach to calculate intracortical independent components (sLORETA-IC) on the basis of scalp-recorded EEG, we identified specific intracortical independent components during listening of a musical piece and scales, which differ substantially from intracortical independent components calculated from the resting state EEG. Most intracortical independent components are located bilaterally in perisylvian brain areas known to be involved in auditory processing and specifically in music perception. Some intracortical independent components differ between the music and scale listening conditions. The most prominent difference is found in the anterior part of the perisylvian brain region, with stronger activations seen in the left-sided anterior perisylvian regions during music listening, most likely indicating semantic processing during music listening. A further finding is that the intracortical independent components obtained for the music and scale listening are most prominent in higher frequency bands (e.g. beta-2 and beta-3), whereas the resting state intracortical independent components are active in lower frequency bands (alpha-1 and theta). This new technique for calculating intracortical independent components is able to differentiate independent neural networks associated

  1. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception "could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people" (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader's breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  2. A Survey of the Status of Listening Training in Some Fortune 500 Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolvin, Andrew D.; Coakley, Carolyn Gwynn

    1991-01-01

    Surveys training directors of Fortune 500 corporations to determine the content and nature of listening training offered to employees. Discusses types of listening instruction, personnel receiving listening training, length of listening training, and backgrounds of listening trainers. (KEH)

  3. Second and foreign language listening: unraveling the construct.

    PubMed

    Tafaghodtari, Marzieh H; Vandergrift, Larry

    2008-08-01

    Identifying the variables which contribute to second and foreign language (L2) listening ability can provide a better understanding of the listening construct. This study explored the degree to which first language (L1) listening ability, L2 proficiency, motivation and metacognition contribute to L2 listening comprehension. 115 Persian-speaking English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students completed a motivation questionnaire, the Language Learning Motivation Orientation Scale, a listening questionnaire, the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire, and an English-language proficiency measure, as well as listening tests in English and Persian. Scores from all measures were subjected to descriptive, inferential, and correlational analyses. The results support the hypothesis that variability in L2 listening cannot be explained by either L2 proficiency or L1 listening ability; rather, a cluster of variables including L2 proficiency, L1 listening ability, metacognitive knowledge and motivation orientations can better explain variability in L2 listening ability.

  4. Normal-hearing English-as-a-second-language listeners' recognition of English words in competing signals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2009-05-01

    English-as-a-second-language (ESL) listeners have difficulty perceiving English speech presented in background noise. The current study furthered this line of investigations by including participants who varied widely in their age of English acquisition and length of English learning: 24 native English monolingual (EML), 12 simultaneous bilingual (SBL), 10 early ESL (E-ESL), and 14 late ESL (L-ESL) listeners. Word recognition scores were obtained in quiet and in the presence of speech-weighted noise, multi-talker babble, forward-playing music, and time-reversed music. All words and competing signals were presented at 45 dB HL. EML and SBL listeners' performances were found to be similar across test conditions. ESL, especially L-ESL listeners, performed significantly more poorly in all conditions than EML and SBL listeners. Overall, speech-weighted noise and multi-talker babble showed greater masking effect than music; however, the difference in performance between L-ESL and EML listeners was the largest for the music maskers, indicating that L-ESL listeners are susceptible to weaker maskers. Age of acquisition and length of learning were both shown to be good indicators of SBL and ESL listeners' performance. PMID:19842801

  5. Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire. PMID:22434336

  6. Dichotic listening performance predicts language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Helland, Turid

    2006-05-01

    Dichotic listening performance is considered a reliable and valid procedure for the assessment of language lateralisation in the brain. However, the documentation of a relationship between language functions and dichotic listening performance is sparse, although it is accepted that dichotic listening measures language perception. In particular, language comprehension should show close correspondence to perception of language stimuli. In the present study, we tested samples of reading-impaired and normally achieving children between 10 and 13 years of age with tests of reading skills, language comprehension, and dichotic listening to consonant-vowel (CV) syllables. A high correlation between the language scores and the dichotic listening performance was expected. However, since the left ear score is believed to be an error when assessing language laterality, covariation was expected for the right ear scores only. In addition, directing attention to one ear input was believed to reduce the influence of random factors, and thus show a more concise estimate of left hemisphere language capacity. Thus, a stronger correlation between language comprehension skills and the dichotic listening performance when attending to the right ear was expected. The analyses yielded a positive correlation between the right ear score in DL and language comprehension, an effect that was stronger when attending to the right ear. The present results confirm the assumption that dichotic listening with CV syllables measures an aspect of language perception and language skills that is related to general language comprehension.

  7. Acoustic detail guides attention allocation in a selective listening task.

    PubMed

    Wöstmann, Malte; Schröger, Erich; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-05-01

    The flexible allocation of attention enables us to perceive and behave successfully despite irrelevant distractors. How do acoustic challenges influence this allocation of attention, and to what extent is this ability preserved in normally aging listeners? Younger and healthy older participants performed a masked auditory number comparison while EEG was recorded. To vary selective attention demands, we manipulated perceptual separability of spoken digits from a masking talker by varying acoustic detail (temporal fine structure). Listening conditions were adjusted individually to equalize stimulus audibility as well as the overall level of performance across participants. Accuracy increased, and response times decreased with more acoustic detail. The decrease in response times with more acoustic detail was stronger in the group of older participants. The onset of the distracting speech masker triggered a prominent contingent negative variation (CNV) in the EEG. Notably, CNV magnitude decreased parametrically with increasing acoustic detail in both age groups. Within identical levels of acoustic detail, larger CNV magnitude was associated with improved accuracy. Across age groups, neuropsychological markers further linked early CNV magnitude directly to individual attentional capacity. Results demonstrate for the first time that, in a demanding listening task, instantaneous acoustic conditions guide the allocation of attention. Second, such basic neural mechanisms of preparatory attention allocation seem preserved in healthy aging, despite impending sensory decline.

  8. Effect of synchronized or desynchronized music listening during osteopathic treatment: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Mercadié, Lolita; Caballe, Julie; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    While background music is often used during osteopathic treatment, it remains unclear whether it facilitates treatment, and, if it does, whether it is listening to music or jointly listening to a common stimulus that is most important. We created three experimental situations for a standard osteopathic procedure in which patients and practitioner listened either to silence, to the same music in synchrony, or (unknowingly) to different desynchronized montages of the same material. Music had no effect on heart rate and arterial pressure pre- and posttreatment compared to silence, but EEG measures revealed a clear effect of synchronized versus desynchronized listening: listening to desynchronized music was associated with larger amounts of mu-rhythm event-related desynchronization (ERD), indicating decreased sensorimotor fluency compared to what was gained in the synchronized music listening condition. This result suggests that, if any effect can be attributed to music for osteopathy, it is related to its capacity to modulate empathy between patient and therapist and, further, that music does not systematically create better conditions for empathy than silence.

  9. Zen meditation, reverie, and psychoanalytic listening.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The author reviews the literature on the relation between Buddhist meditation and psychoanalytic listening and argues that the influence of the dynamic unconscious is not addressed in this literature, which engenders a pragmatic overvaluation of attention and an accompanying unexamined devaluation of the analyst's experiences of inattention. The article emphasizes contemporary psychoanalytic theories that are consistent with basic Buddhist principles and their influences on recommendations for psychoanalytic listening. The author also examines the role of intention as a guiding principle in psychoanalytic listening by elaborating the issues at hand in terms of both Zen Buddhist and contemporary psychoanalytic conceptualizations of various fluctuating mind states, such as reverie. PMID:25490076

  10. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Gendler, E

    1987-06-01

    Adverse reactions to cosmetics can be irritant or allergic and are most often caused by fragrances or preservatives. Preservatives include formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and parabens. Other agents that cause allergy are paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes and toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail polishes.

  11. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  12. The Forgotten Aspect of Communication: Principals' Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Jerry; Shoho, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated principals' self-perceptions and teachers' perceptions of principals' listening skills. An instrument measuring perception of listening skills was developed on the basis of four listening factors: attending, empathy, response, and trustworthiness. Factor analysis confirmed the structure of the new listening instrument, and…

  13. Understanding Listening Competency: A Systematic Review of Research Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Peter C.; Cohen, Steven D.; Wolvin, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand what constitutes listening competency, we perform a systematic review of listening scales. Our goal was twofold: to determine the most commonly appearing listening traits and to determine if listening scales are similar to one other. As part of our analysis, we identified 53 relevant scales and analyzed the scales…

  14. John Dewey on Listening and Friendship in School and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Leonard Waks examines John Dewey's account of listening, drawing on Dewey's writings to establish a direct connection in his work between listening and democracy. Waks devotes the first part of the essay to explaining Dewey's distinction between one-way or straight-line listening and transactional listening-in-conversation, and to…

  15. Teaching Listening as a Communicative Skill in Military English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likaj, Manjola

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with teaching listening in English for Specific Purposes and more specifically in Military English. There are presented different approaches on listening and ways on teaching it in ESP. Active listening it is seen as one of the most productive and applicable approach in teaching ESP students how to master the skill of listening.…

  16. A Factor Analysis of Barriers to Effective Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golen, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Conducts a factor analysis to determine listening barriers perceived as most frequently affecting the listening effectiveness among business college students. Finds the presence of six listening barriers, with the barrier "listen primarily for details or facts" as the most frequently encountered barrier perceived by students. (MM)

  17. Engagement beyond Interruption: A Performative Perspective on Listening and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Chris; Nainby, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an understanding of listening as a performative and pedagogical act. Moving beyond existing theories of listening in communication and education studies that frame listening as a selective and incremental act, this article considers listening in terms of a performance studies and critical education studies perspective. An…

  18. Rethinking Conceptual Approaches to the Study of "Listening"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Theory about listening has been strongly affected by methodological orientations and institutional pressures. It would help if researchers spent more time on the objects of study rather than method. Traditional listening research has confused listening with general cognitive abilities, such as IQ. Studying listening as memory is a tempting…

  19. Second Language Learners' Perceptions of Listening Strategy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Much research regarding listening strategies has focused on assembling lists of reported strategies and gaining better understanding of differences in strategy usage between less- and more-skilled listeners. Less attention has been given to how the accumulating knowledge based on listening strategies informs listening strategy instruction as…

  20. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion.

  1. Hypertension—Listen to Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Hypertension —Listen to Your Heart Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... G. Nabel Why should Americans be concerned about high blood pressure? Hypertension—or high blood pressure—is a serious ...

  2. Listen to Data: Video 4 Boom

    NASA Video Gallery

    By listening only to the auditory representation of the data, the study’s participant was able to correctly predict what this would look like on a more traditional graph. He correctly deduced that ...

  3. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion. PMID:24910621

  4. The Relationship between Listening Strategies Used by Egyptian EFL College Sophomores and Their Listening Comprehension and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Hassan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored listening strategy use among a group of Egyptian EFL college sophomores (N = 84). More specifically, it aimed to identify 1) the strategies used more often by participants, 2) the relationship between listening strategy use, and listening comprehension and self-efficacy, and 3) differences in listening comprehension and…

  5. Informational Masking in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners Measured in a Nonspeech Pattern Identification Task

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Kidd, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often experience more difficulty with listening in multisource environments than do normal-hearing (NH) listeners. While the peripheral effects of sensorineural hearing loss certainly contribute to this difficulty, differences in central processing of auditory information may also contribute. To explore this issue, it is important to account for peripheral differences between NH and these hearing-impaired (HI) listeners so that central effects in multisource listening can be examined. In the present study, NH and HI listeners performed a tonal pattern identification task at two distant center frequencies (CFs), 850 and 3500 Hz. In an attempt to control for differences in the peripheral representations of the stimuli, the patterns were presented at the same sensation level (15 dB SL), and the frequency deviation of the tones comprising the patterns was adjusted to obtain equal quiet pattern identification performance across all listeners at both CFs. Tonal sequences were then presented at both CFs simultaneously (informational masking conditions), and listeners were asked either to selectively attend to a source (CF) or to divide attention between CFs and identify the pattern at a CF designated after each trial. There were large differences between groups in the frequency deviations necessary to perform the pattern identification task. After compensating for these differences, there were small differences between NH and HI listeners in the informational masking conditions. HI listeners showed slightly greater performance asymmetry between the low and high CFs than did NH listeners, possibly due to central differences in frequency weighting between groups. PMID:27059627

  6. Measuring listening effort: driving simulator vs. simple dual-task paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The dual-task paradigm has been widely used to measure listening effort. The primary objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the effect of hearing aid amplification and a hearing aid directional technology on listening effort measured by a complicated, more real world dual-task paradigm, and (2) compare the results obtained with this paradigm to a simpler laboratory-style dual-task paradigm. Design The listening effort of adults with hearing impairment was measured using two dual-task paradigms, wherein participants performed a speech recognition task simultaneously with either a driving task in a simulator or a visual reaction-time task in a sound-treated booth. The speech materials and road noises for the speech recognition task were recorded in a van traveling on the highway in three hearing aid conditions: unaided, aided with omni directional processing (OMNI), and aided with directional processing (DIR). The change in the driving task or the visual reaction-time task performance across the conditions quantified the change in listening effort. Results Compared to the driving-only condition, driving performance declined significantly with the addition of the speech recognition task. Although the speech recognition score was higher in the OMNI and DIR conditions than in the unaided condition, driving performance was similar across these three conditions, suggesting that listening effort was not affected by amplification and directional processing. Results from the simple dual-task paradigm showed a similar trend: hearing aid technologies improved speech recognition performance, but did not affect performance in the visual reaction-time task (i.e., reduce listening effort). The correlation between listening effort measured using the driving paradigm and the visual reaction-time task paradigm was significant. The finding showing that our older (56 to 85 years old) participants’ better speech recognition performance did not result in reduced

  7. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dogra, A; Minocha, Y C; Kaur, S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  8. Recognition of accented and unaccented speech in different maskers by younger and older listeners

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Yeni-Komshian, Grace H.; Fitzgibbons, Peter J.; Cohen, Julie I.; Waldroup, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effect of accent of target talkers and background speech maskers on listeners' ability to use cues to separate speech from noise. Differences in accent may create a disparity in the relative timing between signal and background, and such timing cues may be used to separate the target talker from the background speech masker. However, the use of this cue could be reduced for older listeners with temporal processing deficits, especially those with hearing loss. Participants were younger and older listeners with normal hearing and older listeners with hearing loss. Stimuli were IEEE sentences recorded in English by male native speakers of English and Spanish. These sentences were presented in different maskers that included speech-modulated noise and background babbles varying in talker gender and accent. Signal-to-noise ratios corresponding to 50% correct performance were measured. Results indicate that a pronounced Spanish accent limits a listener's ability to take advantage of cues to speech segregation and that a difference in accentedness between the target talker and background masker may be a useful cue for speech segregation. Older hearing-impaired listeners performed poorly in all conditions with the accented talkers. PMID:23862836

  9. The impact of Parkinson's disease on vocal-prosodic communication from the perspective of listeners.

    PubMed

    Pell, Marc D; Cheang, Henry S; Leonard, Carol L

    2006-05-01

    An expressive disturbance of speech prosody has long been associated with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about the impact of dysprosody on vocal-prosodic communication from the perspective of listeners. Recordings of healthy adults (n=12) and adults with mild to moderate PD (n=21) were elicited in four speech contexts in which prosody serves a primary function in linguistic or emotive communication (phonemic stress, contrastive stress, sentence mode, and emotional prosody). Twenty independent listeners naive to the disease status of individual speakers then judged the intended meanings conveyed by prosody for tokens recorded in each condition. Findings indicated that PD speakers were less successful at communicating stress distinctions, especially words produced with contrastive stress, which were identifiable to listeners. Listeners were also significantly less able to detect intended emotional qualities of Parkinsonian speech, especially for anger and disgust. Emotional expressions that were correctly recognized by listeners were consistently rated as less intense for the PD group. Utterances produced by PD speakers were frequently characterized as sounding sad or devoid of emotion entirely (neutral). Results argue that motor limitations on the vocal apparatus in PD produce serious and early negative repercussions on communication through prosody, which diminish the social-linguistic competence of Parkinsonian adults as judged by listeners. PMID:16226803

  10. Across-frequency combination of interaural time difference in bilateral cochlear implant listeners

    PubMed Central

    Ihlefeld, Antje; Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how cochlear implant (CI) listeners combine temporally interleaved envelope-ITD information across two sites of stimulation. When two cochlear sites jointly transmit ITD information, one possibility is that CI listeners can extract the most reliable ITD cues available. As a result, ITD sensitivity would be sustained or enhanced compared to single-site stimulation. Alternatively, mutual interference across multiple sites of ITD stimulation could worsen dual-site performance compared to listening to the better of two electrode pairs. Two experiments used direct stimulation to examine how CI users can integrate ITDs across two pairs of electrodes. Experiment 1 tested ITD discrimination for two stimulation sites using 100-Hz sinusoidally modulated 1000-pps-carrier pulse trains. Experiment 2 used the same stimuli ramped with 100 ms windows, as a control condition with minimized onset cues. For all stimuli, performance improved monotonically with increasing modulation depth. Results show that when CI listeners are stimulated with electrode pairs at two cochlear sites, sensitivity to ITDs was similar to that seen when only the electrode pair with better sensitivity was activated. None of the listeners showed a decrement in performance from the worse electrode pair. This could be achieved either by listening to the better electrode pair or by truly integrating the information across cochlear sites. PMID:24653681

  11. Processing of fast speech by elderly listeners.

    PubMed

    Janse, Esther

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates the relative contributions of auditory and cognitive factors to the common finding that an increase in speech rate affects elderly listeners more than young listeners. Since a direct relation between non-auditory factors, such as age-related cognitive slowing, and fast speech performance has been difficult to demonstrate, the present study took an on-line, rather than off-line, approach and focused on processing time. Elderly and young listeners were presented with speech at two rates of time compression and were asked to detect pre-assigned target words as quickly as possible. A number of auditory and cognitive measures were entered in a statistical model as predictors of elderly participants' fast speech performance: hearing acuity, an information processing rate measure, and two measures of reading speed. The results showed that hearing loss played a primary role in explaining elderly listeners' increased difficulty with fast speech. However, non-auditory factors such as reading speed and the extent to which participants were affected by increased rate of presentation in a visual analog of the listening experiment also predicted fast speech performance differences among the elderly participants. These on-line results confirm that slowed information processing is indeed part of elderly listeners' problem keeping up with fast language.

  12. A patient-initiated voluntary online survey of adverse medical events: the perspective of 696 injured patients and families

    PubMed Central

    Southwick, Frederick S; Cranley, Nicole M; Hallisy, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventable medical errors continue to be a major cause of death in the USA and throughout the world. Many patients have written about their experiences on websites and in published books. Methods As patients and family members who have experienced medical harm, we have created a nationwide voluntary survey in order to more broadly and systematically capture the perspective of patients and patient families experiencing adverse medical events and have used quantitative and qualitative analysis to summarise the responses of 696 patients and their families. Results Harm was most commonly associated with diagnostic and therapeutic errors, followed by surgical or procedural complications, hospital-associated infections and medication errors, and our quantitative results match those of previous provider-initiated patient surveys. Qualitative analysis of 450 narratives revealed a lack of perceived provider and system accountability, deficient and disrespectful communication and a failure of providers to listen as major themes. The consequences of adverse events included death, post-traumatic stress, financial hardship and permanent disability. These conditions and consequences led to a loss of patients’ trust in both the health system and providers. Patients and family members offered suggestions for preventing future adverse events and emphasised the importance of shared decision-making. Conclusions This large voluntary survey of medical harm highlights the potential efficacy of patient-initiated surveys for providing meaningful feedback and for guiding improvements in patient care. PMID:26092166

  13. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  14. Temporal Masking Contributions of Inherent Envelope Fluctuations for Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svec, Adam

    Gaussian noise (GN) simultaneous maskers yield higher masked thresholds for pure tones than low-fluctuation noise (LFN) simultaneous maskers for listeners with normal hearing. This increased residual masking is thought to be due to inherent fluctuations in the temporal envelope of Gaussian noise, but these masking effects using forward maskers have been previously unexamined. Because differences in forward masking due to age and hearing loss are known, the first study measured forward-masked detection thresholds for younger and older adults with normal hearing (NH) and older adults with hearing loss (HI) for a 4000 Hz pure-tone probe at a single masker-probe delay in narrowband noises with maximal (GN) or minimal (LFN) inherent envelope fluctuations. As predicted, results suggested that no effect of age was observed. Surprisingly, forward-masked threshold differences between GN and LFN, an estimate of the magnitude of the effect of inherent masker envelope fluctuations, were not significantly different for older HI listeners compared to younger or older NH listeners. Due to the surprising similarities between listeners with normal and impaired hearing, the second study was designed to assess effects of hearing loss on the slopes and magnitudes of recovery from forward maskers that varied in inherent envelope fluctuations for masker-probe delays of 25, 50, and 75 ms. In addition to measuring these effects centered at 4000 Hz, forward-masked thresholds were also measured at 2000 Hz, a region of better hearing for the HI listeners. As hypothesized, regardless of masker fluctuations, slopes of recovery from forward masking were shallower for HI than NH listeners in all conditions. At 4000 Hz, additional residual masking was greater in HI than NH listeners at the longest masker-probe delays; whereas, no differences in additional residual masking between HI and NH listeners were observed for 2000 Hz. These results suggest that the masking effects from inherent envelope

  15. Effects of Listening to Heavy Metal Music on College Women: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becknell, Milton E.; Firmin, Michael W.; Hwang, Chi-en; Fleetwood, David M.; Tate, Kristie L.; Schwab, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    College students are typically very identified with popular music and spend many hours listening to their music of preference. To investigate the effects of heavy metal music, we compared the responses of 18 female undergraduate college students to a baseline silence condition (A) and a heavy metal music condition (B). Dependent measures included:…

  16. The role of working memory in dichotic-listening studies of auditory laterality.

    PubMed

    Penner, Iris-Katharina; Schläfli, Katrin; Opwis, Klaus; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    We present data related to the role of working memory in dichotic-listening studies of speech lateralization using consonant-vowel syllable stimuli. A working-memory procedure was actually used in the pioneering dichotic-listening studies by Doreen Kimura in 1960, a fact that was forgotten in later dichotic-listening studies, exclusively focusing on the perceptual aspects of speech sound lateralization. Capitalizing on the original Kimura (1961a, 1961b) studies, we hypothesized that an increase in working-memory load leads to an amplified right-ear advantage (REA) in the dichotic-listening task. A total of 30 participants completed a dichotic-listening task including three working-memory load conditions, each consisting of trials of 3, 4, and 5 dichotically presented letter pairs. Results confirmed an enhanced REA as working-memory load increased. This right-ear effect increased significantly from 3 to 4 stimulus pairs and leveled off with the 5th pair. In addition, the assumption was tested that, within a single load condition, the REA appears mainly in late serial input positions. A detailed analysis of the results revealed that only late positions contributed to the overall REA. However, the highest load condition (5 letter pairs) also produced significant ear differences in the early part of the input position curve. The mechanisms likely to be responsible for these results are discussed in terms of top-down and bottom-up processes in hemispheric asymmetry.

  17. Recovery from on- and off-frequency forward masking in listeners with normal and impaired hearing.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Magdalena; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying an effect reported earlier [Wojtczak, M., and Oxenham, A. J. (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 270-281] in normal-hearing listeners, whereby recovery from forward masking can be slower for off-frequency tonal maskers than for on-frequency tonal maskers that produce the same amount of masking at a 0-ms masker-signal delay. To rule out potential effects of confusion between the tonal signal and tonal masker, one condition used a noise-band forward masker. To test whether the effect involved temporal build-up, another condition used a short-duration (30-ms) forward masker. To test whether the effect is dependent on normal cochlear function, conditions were tested in five listeners with sensorineural hearing loss. For the 150-ms noise maskers, the data from normal-hearing listeners replicated the findings from the previous study that used tonal maskers. In contrast, no significant difference in recovery from on- and off-frequency masking was observed for the 30-ms tonal maskers in normal-hearing listeners, or for the 150-ms tonal maskers in hearing-impaired listeners. Overall, the results are consistent with a mechanism based on efferent feedback that affects the recovery from forward masking in the normal auditory system. PMID:20649220

  18. Learning to Listen and Listening to Learn: One Student's Experience of Small Group Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Louisa; Clarke, David; Hawthorne, Lesleyanne

    2012-01-01

    The dialogic nature of small group collaborative learning requires verbal contributions from students to progress individual and group learning. Speaking can become privileged over listening as a collaborative act, and an imbalance in these values can become embedded in the classroom culture to the degree that the core value of listening can be…

  19. Relationship among Iranian EFL Students' Foreign Language Anxiety, Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Their Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…

  20. Subjective Listening Effort and Electrodermal Activity in Listening Situations with Reverberation and Noise

    PubMed Central

    Haeder, Kristina; Imbery, Christina; Weber, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Disturbing factors like reverberation or ambient noise can impair speech recognition and raise the listening effort needed for successful communication in daily life. Situations with high listening effort are thought to result in increased stress for the listener. The aim of this study was to explore possible measures to determine listening effort in situations with varying background noise and reverberation. For this purpose, subjective ratings of listening effort, speech recognition, and stress level, together with the electrodermal activity as a measure of the autonomic stress reaction, were investigated. It was expected that the electrodermal activity would show different stress levels in different acoustic situations and might serve as an alternative to subjective ratings. Ten young normal-hearing and 17 elderly hearing-impaired subjects listened to sentences from the Oldenburg sentence test either with stationary background noise or with reverberation. Four listening situations were generated, an easy and a hard one for each of the two disturbing factors, which were related to each other by the Speech Transmission Index. The easy situation resulted in 100% and the hard situation resulted in 30 to 80% speech recognition. The results of the subjective ratings showed significant differences between the easy and the hard listening situations in both subject groups. Two methods of analyzing the electrodermal activity values revealed similar, but nonsignificant trends. Significant correlations between subjective ratings and physiological electrodermal activity data were observed for normal-hearing subjects in the noise situation. PMID:27698257

  1. "Hello...Hello? Is Anybody Listening?": Teacher as Listener in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Teresa Y.

    Lectures have a place in educational history and even a place in today's classroom, but students must be exposed to more than one style of teaching. After 20 minutes of listening to a lecture, most students reach a saturation point. To realize their maximum potential, students must do more than just listen in the classroom. They must engage in…

  2. Listening, Language, and Learning: Skills of Highly Qualified Listening and Spoken Language Specialists in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Ellen L.

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge base required of Listening and Spoken Language Specialists (LSLS) has been outlined in AG Bell Academy for Listening and Spoken Language publications and is available to applicants through these publications and the Academy website (www.agbellacademy.org). The LSLS certification exam serves to evaluate the applicant's breadth of…

  3. "Listening Is an Act of Love": Learning Listening through StoryCorps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nathaniel; Tenzek, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of listening continues to be reinforced within professional, personal, and popular cultural contexts. Despite the attention employers, teachers, scholars, and various popular outlets attend to listening, engaging students in activities that practice such skills remain challenging. Understanding that interpersonal competence requires…

  4. The Effects of Listening to Expository Text on First Graders' Listening Comprehension and Book Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of listening to expository text on first graders' listening comprehension and book choice. The participants for this study included 77 first grade students from four heterogeneous classes at a suburban elementary school in the New York City metropolitan area. During the pretest and…

  5. Listen to Me Listen to You: A Step-By-Step Guide to Communication Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…

  6. Active Listening in Peer Interviews: The Influence of Message Paraphrasing on Perceptions of Listening Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Harry, Jr.; Castle, Gina R.; Emmett, Melissa C.

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps no communication skill is identified as regularly as active listening in training programs across a variety of disciplines and activities. Yet little empirical research has examined specific elements of active listening responses in terms of their effectiveness in achieving desired interpersonal outcomes. This study reports an experiment…

  7. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  8. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  9. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  10. An envisioning about the caring in listening.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to make visible further dimensions and uncover an envisioning about the caring in listening in the field of caring science, which may improve the care for the suffering human being, the patient. Eriksson's caritative theory of caring constitutes the starting point for this search for knowledge, while the research method is realised by a hermeneutic reading based on the philosopher of hermeneutics, Gadamer's thought. The research is realised by a reading of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's literary works. The literary characters Sonia in Crime and Punishment and Alyosha in The Brothers Karamazov, uncovers patterns of meaning-bearing units towards the caring and the interpretation of a more profound envisioning about the caring in listening. The uncovering and interpretation show that patients in their suffering long to meet a caregiver who listens without the least condemnation in their eyes and demeanour. Patients need a listening caregiver who shows compassion and who has the courage to remain in the struggle of suffering and to carry the patients through insupportable pain, guilt and shame. Through listening, it is possible to reawaken a numb heart, to take individuals who have gone through a good deal of suffering, from darkness, degradation, unendurable pain to the light and to awaken their zest for life and joy to live. Listening renews, delivers and transforms human beings so that they can begin to find a new direction in life and start living a life in accordance with their own fundamental order, purpose, essential decision and individuality. Listening takes patients out of their loneliness and unbearable suffering into communion and a life worth living.

  11. Impact of Awareness Raising about Listening Micro-Skills on the Listening Comprehension Enhancement: An Exploration of the Listening Micro-Skills in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Amir; Hashim, Fatimah

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice in the classes that teachers focus on the outcome of listening rather than the listening process itself. Based on the interventionist view of language teaching, one of the ways proposed for teaching listening is to break it into smaller micro-skills and give learners awareness about them. But before giving awareness, it is…

  12. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  13. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  14. Listener deficits in hypokinetic dysarthria: Which cues are most important in speech segmentation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Carolyn Ann

    Listeners use prosodic cues to help them quickly process running speech. In English, listeners effortlessly use strong syllables to help them to find words in the continuous stream of speech produced by neurologically-intact individuals. However, listeners are not always presented with speech under such ideal circumstances. This thesis explores the question of word segmentation of English speech under one of these less ideal conditions; specifically, when the speaker may be impaired in his/her production of strong syllables, as in the case of hypokinetic dysarthria. Further, we attempt to discern which acoustic cue(s) are most degraded in hypokinetic dysarthria and the effect that this degradation has on listeners' segmentation when no additional semantic or pragmatic cues are present. Two individuals with Parkinson's disease, one with a rate disturbance and one with articulatory disruption, along with a typically aging control, were recorded repeating a series of nonsense syllables. Young adult listeners were then presented with recordings from one of these three speakers producing non-words (imprecise consonant articulation, rate disturbance, and control). After familiarization, the listeners were asked to rate the familiarity of the non-words produced by a second typically aging speaker. Results indicated speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria were able to modulate their intensity and duration for stressed and unstressed syllables in a way similar to that of control speakers. In addition, their mean and peak fundamental frequency for both stressed and unstressed syllables were significantly higher than that of the normally aging controls. ANOVA results revealed a marginal main effect of frequency in normal and consonant conditions for word versus nonwords listener ratings.

  15. Is listening to Mozart the only way to enhance spatial reasoning?

    PubMed

    Lints, Amanda; Gadbois, Shannon

    2003-12-01

    Since 1993, controversy has surrounded the Mozart Effect that refers to enhanced spatial processing following listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos. Some researchers have replicated the effect while others have not. The present study represents an attempt to replicate and generalize the Mozart Effect and to examine the role of participants' expectations. Experimental groups were matched for musical experience and preference, and a Verbal and a Spatial Reasoning condition were used as control groups. Contrary to our hypotheses, the analyses showed that participants' expectations did not enhance performance on a spatial reasoning task. Further, enhanced spatial reasoning occurred following a variety of conditions, not just after listening to Mozart.

  16. Integration of partial information for spoken and written sentence recognition by older listeners.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly G; Fogerty, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Older adults have difficulty understanding speech in challenging listening environments. Combining multisensory signals may facilitate speech recognition. This study measured recognition of interrupted spoken and written sentences by older adults for different preserved stimulus proportions. Unimodal performance was first examined when only interrupted text or speech stimuli were presented. Multimodal performance with concurrently presented text and speech stimuli was tested with delayed and simultaneous participant responses. Older listeners performed better in unimodal speech-only compared to text-only conditions across all proportions preserved. Performance was also better in delayed multimodal conditions. Comparison to a younger sample suggests age-related amodal processing declines.

  17. Contribution of monaural and binaural cues to sound localization in listeners with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss: improved directional hearing with a bone-conduction device.

    PubMed

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Snik, Ad F M; Hol, Myrthe K S; Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Van Opstal, A John

    2012-04-01

    Sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) plane relies mainly on interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs). Both are distorted in listeners with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL), reducing their ability to localize sound. Several studies demonstrated that UCHL listeners had some ability to localize sound in azimuth. To test whether listeners with acquired UCHL use strongly perturbed binaural difference cues, we measured localization while they listened with a sound-attenuating earmuff over their impaired ear. We also tested the potential use of monaural pinna-induced spectral-shape cues for localization in azimuth and elevation, by filling the cavities of the pinna of their better-hearing ear with a mould. These conditions were tested while a bone-conduction device (BCD), fitted to all UCHL listeners in order to provide hearing from the impaired side, was turned off. We varied stimulus presentation levels to investigate whether UCHL listeners were using sound level as an azimuth cue. Furthermore, we examined whether horizontal sound-localization abilities improved when listeners used their BCD. Ten control listeners without hearing loss demonstrated a significant decrease in their localization abilities when they listened with a monaural plug and muff. In 4/13 UCHL listeners we observed good horizontal localization of 65 dB SPL broadband noises with their BCD turned off. Localization was strongly impaired when the impaired ear was covered with the muff. The mould in the good ear of listeners with UCHL deteriorated the localization of broadband sounds presented at 45 dB SPL. This demonstrates that they used pinna cues to localize sounds presented at low levels. Our data demonstrate that UCHL listeners have learned to adapt their localization strategies under a wide variety of hearing conditions and that sound-localization abilities improved with their BCD turned on.

  18. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  19. The psychological functions of music listening

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter; Städtler, Christine; Huron, David

    2013-01-01

    Why do people listen to music? Over the past several decades, scholars have proposed numerous functions that listening to music might fulfill. However, different theoretical approaches, different methods, and different samples have left a heterogeneous picture regarding the number and nature of musical functions. Moreover, there remains no agreement about the underlying dimensions of these functions. Part one of the paper reviews the research contributions that have explicitly referred to musical functions. It is concluded that a comprehensive investigation addressing the basic dimensions underlying the plethora of functions of music listening is warranted. Part two of the paper presents an empirical investigation of hundreds of functions that could be extracted from the reviewed contributions. These functions were distilled to 129 non-redundant functions that were then rated by 834 respondents. Principal component analysis suggested three distinct underlying dimensions: People listen to music to regulate arousal and mood, to achieve self-awareness, and as an expression of social relatedness. The first and second dimensions were judged to be much more important than the third—a result that contrasts with the idea that music has evolved primarily as a means for social cohesion and communication. The implications of these results are discussed in light of theories on the origin and the functionality of music listening and also for the application of musical stimuli in all areas of psychology and for research in music cognition. PMID:23964257

  20. Listeners retune phoneme categories across languages.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-02-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch listeners were exposed to unusual pronunciation variants in which word-final /f/ or /s/ was replaced by an ambiguous sound. At test, listeners categorized Dutch minimal word pairs ending in sounds along an /f/-/s/ continuum. Dutch L1 and German L2 listeners showed boundary shifts of a similar magnitude. Moreover, following exposure to Dutch-accented English, Dutch listeners also showed comparable effects of category retuning when they heard the same speaker speak her native language (Dutch) during the test. The former result suggests that lexical representations in a second language are specific enough to support lexically guided retuning, and the latter implies that production patterns in a second language are deemed a stable speaker characteristic likely to transfer to the native language; thus retuning of phoneme categories applies across languages.

  1. Nontraditional 'aids' to hearing: assistive listening devices.

    PubMed

    Rupp, R R; Vaughn, G R; Lightfoot, R K

    1984-03-01

    Unresolved hearing loss and its associated sense of isolation burden the hearing-impaired elderly. The plight of both listeners and talkers justifies every effort to encourage and enhance communication. Assistive listening devices can benefit many family practice patients. The following service welcomes questions or comments about implementing these devices: Audiology-Speech Pathology Service, VA Medical Center, 700 South 19th Street, Birmingham, AL 35203; (205)933-8101, ext. 6701 and 6702. In addition, local professional audiologists certified by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association will provide information on traditional hearing aids and assistive listening devices. To obtain the names of local audiological resources in your area, contact: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852; (800)638-6868. PMID:6698401

  2. Embodied communication: speakers' gestures affect listeners' actions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2009-10-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular objects and the actions that they had previously used to solve the task. Speakers who solved the problem with real objects used more grasping handshapes and produced more curved trajectories during the explanation. Listeners who observed explanations from speakers who had previously solved the problem with real objects subsequently treated computer objects more like real objects; their mouse trajectories revealed that they lifted the objects in conjunction with moving them sideways, and this behavior was related to the particular gestures that were observed. These findings demonstrate that hand gestures are a reliable source of perceptual-motor information during human communication. PMID:19682672

  3. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  4. Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

  5. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode

    PubMed Central

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception “could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people” (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener–reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener–speaker coupling. PMID:24367344

  6. Contribution of consonant versus vowel information to sentence intelligibility for young normal-hearing and elderly hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Kewley-Port, Diane; Burkle, T Zachary; Lee, Jae Hee

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of information provided by vowels versus consonants to sentence intelligibility in young normal-hearing (YNH) and typical elderly hearing-impaired (EHI) listeners. Sentences were presented in three conditions, unaltered or with either the vowels or the consonants replaced with speech shaped noise. Sentences from male and female talkers in the TIMIT database were selected. Baseline performance was established at a 70 dB SPL level using YNH listeners. Subsequently EHI and YNH participants listened at 95 dB SPL. Participants listened to each sentence twice and were asked to repeat the entire sentence after each presentation. Words were scored correct if identified exactly. Average performance for unaltered sentences was greater than 94%. Overall, EHI listeners performed more poorly than YNH listeners. However, vowel-only sentences were always significantly more intelligible than consonant-only sentences, usually by a ratio of 2:1 across groups. In contrast to written English or words spoken in isolation, these results demonstrated that for spoken sentences, vowels carry more information about sentence intelligibility than consonants for both young normal-hearing and elderly hearing-impaired listeners.

  7. Dopamine and epistemic curiosity in music listening.

    PubMed

    Omigie, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the cognitive, affective, and reward processes that take place during music listening is the aim of a growing number of researchers. Several authors have used the Bayesian brain framework and existing models of reward to interpret neural activity observed during musical listening. The claims from Friston and colleagues regarding the role of dopamine, as well as the demonstration that salience-seeking behavior naturally emerges from minimizing free energy, will be of potential interest to those seeking to understand the general principles underlying our motivation to hear music. PMID:26073880

  8. Listening and Literacy: Audiobooks in the Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casbergue, Renee Michelet; Harris, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of listening to literature; the benefits of listening to literature beyond the primary years at both school and home; potential audiences for audiobooks; selection considerations; and utilization of audiotapes. (RS)

  9. Attentive Listening Is the Key to Effective Oral Business Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    The author states that effective listening is vital to oral communications in business and a leading contributor to good human relations. He lists major barriers to listening comprehension as distractions, preconceptions, dullness, note-taking, and fatigue. (MF)

  10. 76 FR 42112 - Specialty Crop Committee Stakeholder Listening Sessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Economics Advisory Board Office, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Room 3901, South Building, 1400...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Specialty Crop Committee Stakeholder Listening Sessions AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder listening...

  11. Contribution of consonant versus vowel information to sentence intelligibility by normal and hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkle, T. Zachary; Kewley-Port, Diane; Humes, Larry; Lee, Jae Hee

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of information provided by vowels versus consonants to sentence intelligibility in young normal-hearing (YNH) and elderly hearing-impaired (EHI) listeners. Sentences were presented in three conditions, with either the vowels or the consonants replaced with speech shaped noise, or unaltered. Sentences from male and female talkers in the TIMIT database were selected. EHI subjects listened at 95 dB SPL, and YNH subjects at both 95 and 70 dB SPL. Subjects listened to each sentence twice and were asked to repeat the entire sentence after each presentation. Words were scored correct if identified exactly. Average performance for unaltered sentences was greater than 94%. Vowel-present conditions were always significantly more intelligible than consonant-present conditions, similar to data reported by Cole and colleagues [Proceedings of ICASSP, 1996]. Across groups, performance in the vowel-present conditions exceeded that in the consonant-present conditions by 14% to 40%, although EHI subjects performed more poorly than YNH subjects. In contrast to written English, vowels in spoken language carry more information about sentences than consonants for both normal and hearing-impaired listeners. [Work supported by NIDCD-02229.

  12. The neural processing of foreign-accented speech and its relationship to listener bias

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Smiljanic, Rajka; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2014-01-01

    Foreign-accented speech often presents a challenging listening condition. In addition to deviations from the target speech norms related to the inexperience of the nonnative speaker, listener characteristics may play a role in determining intelligibility levels. We have previously shown that an implicit visual bias for associating East Asian faces and foreignness predicts the listeners' perceptual ability to process Korean-accented English audiovisual speech (Yi et al., 2013). Here, we examine the neural mechanism underlying the influence of listener bias to foreign faces on speech perception. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, native English speakers listened to native- and Korean-accented English sentences, with or without faces. The participants' Asian-foreign association was measured using an implicit association test (IAT), conducted outside the scanner. We found that foreign-accented speech evoked greater activity in the bilateral primary auditory cortices and the inferior frontal gyri, potentially reflecting greater computational demand. Higher IAT scores, indicating greater bias, were associated with increased BOLD response to foreign-accented speech with faces in the primary auditory cortex, the early node for spectrotemporal analysis. We conclude the following: (1) foreign-accented speech perception places greater demand on the neural systems underlying speech perception; (2) face of the talker can exaggerate the perceived foreignness of foreign-accented speech; (3) implicit Asian-foreign association is associated with decreased neural efficiency in early spectrotemporal processing. PMID:25339883

  13. Using speech sounds to test functional spectral resolution in listeners with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Matthew B.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spectral properties of speech sounds were used to test functional spectral resolution in people who use cochlear implants (CIs). Specifically, perception of the /ba/-/da/ contrast was tested using two spectral cues: Formant transitions (a fine-resolution cue) and spectral tilt (a coarse-resolution cue). Higher weighting of the formant cues was used as an index of better spectral cue perception. Participants included 19 CI listeners and 10 listeners with normal hearing (NH), for whom spectral resolution was explicitly controlled using a noise vocoder with variable carrier filter widths to simulate electrical current spread. Perceptual weighting of the two cues was modeled with mixed-effects logistic regression, and was found to systematically vary with spectral resolution. The use of formant cues was greatest for NH listeners for unprocessed speech, and declined in the two vocoded conditions. Compared to NH listeners, CI listeners relied less on formant transitions, and more on spectral tilt. Cue-weighting results showed moderately good correspondence with word recognition scores. The current approach to testing functional spectral resolution uses auditory cues that are known to be important for speech categorization, and can thus potentially serve as the basis upon which CI processing strategies and innovations are tested. PMID:25786954

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Listening Style and Need for Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Debra

    2008-01-01

    To further our understanding of listening as a cognitive process, a greater understanding of the relationship between listening and other personality and cognitive constructs is needed. To that end, this study explores the relationship between need for cognition and listening style preference. Results indicate that need for cognition is moderately…

  15. Listeners' Responses in Interaction through Videoconferencing for Presentation Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iino, Atsushi; Yabuta, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change of listeners' responses of Japanese learners of English over a semester of presentation training sessions. We were also concerned with the relationship between speaking ability and perceived use of listeners' responses. In this paper, the listeners' responses we focused on were: acknowledging signals, repetition…

  16. A Comparative Examination and Analysis of Three Listening Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rebecca B.; Roberts, Charles V.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the conceptual and methodological similarities and differences of three listening measures--the Watson-Barker Listening Test, Kentucky Comprehensive Listening Test, and the Communication Competency Assessment Instrument. Provides information on the concepts being assessed in each and illuminates major methodological issues for listening…

  17. Listening to French and the Serial Position Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    This study sought to determine the extent of the serial position effect in listening to French and to specify the relationship between problem areas in listening to French and the position effect. The study addressed three hypotheses relative to the serial position effect and listening to French: (1) Was there a significant difference between the…

  18. Compassionate, Spiritual, and Creative Listening in Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Listening is largely overlooked in cultures constituted on the basis of the freedom of speech, such as we find in the United States and elsewhere. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The article explores compassionate listening as a creative spiritual activity. Such listening recognizes the suffering of others…

  19. Active Listening Strategies of Academically Successful University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canpolat, Murat; Kuzu, Sekvan; Yildirim, Bilal; Canpolat, Sevilay

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: In formal educational environments, the quality of student listening affects learning considerably. Students who are uninterested in a lesson listen reluctantly, wanting time to pass quickly and the class to end as soon as possible. In such situations, students become passive and, though appearing to be listening, will not use…

  20. Mirroring, Mentalizing, and the Social Neuroscience of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spunt, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Listening to another speak is a basic process in social cognition. In the social neurosciences, there are relatively few studies that directly bear on listening; however, numerous studies have investigated the neural bases of some of the likely constituents of successful listening. In this article, I review some of this work as it relates to…

  1. Listening Skills Training: Application to Crisis Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonfield, Ted J.; And Others

    A review of the literature in listening behavior reveals an increasing interest in the importance of listening in the communication process and the therapeutic situation. Since crisis workers are continually confronted with feeling-laden messages in which the implicit, unspoken, and covert content is vital, empathic listening is a necessity. The…

  2. Morality, Relationality, and Listening Pedagogy in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Listening pedagogy in language education treats listening proficiency almost exclusively as a function or skill, the purpose of which is to generate products or outcomes desired by language users. Though listening is rhetorically acknowledged to be an active and complex process of making meanings within contexts and relationships, in practice…

  3. Listening: You've Got to Be Carefully Taught

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Listening is arguably the most important skill required for obtaining comprehensible input in one's first and any subsequent languages. Given the importance of listening, the natural assumption is that listening skills are actively taught to both first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. However, this is not necessarily so in L1 instruction…

  4. Open Listening: Creative Evolution in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article sketches out a philosophy and practice of open listening, linking open listening to Bergson's (1998) concept of creative evolution. I draw on examples of small children at play from a variety of sources, including Reggio-Emilia-inspired preschools in Sweden. The article offers a challenge to early childhood educators to listen and to…

  5. Listening and Questioning: The "Apophatic/Cataphatic" Distinction Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    In an earlier article I drew a distinction between two general types of listening. In one the listener brings pre-determined categories to bear in extracting useful information from the speaker's utterance. In the other the listener suspends such categories to hear as much as possible in the utterance. This distinction has been challenged by…

  6. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting ACTION: Notice of a Plant Breeding... Agriculture (USDA) announces a Plant Breeding Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested plant breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be...

  7. An Investigation of Metacognitive Strategies Used by EFL Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Huei-Chun; Chan, Chi-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    The main intent of the present study is to find out what metacognitive strategies Taiwanese college students employ in EFL listening process. Four research questions explored in the study include: (1) What are the metacognitive strategies adopted by EFL listeners when they listen? (2) What are the differences of metacognitive strategies between…

  8. Peer Listening in the Middle School: Training Activities for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazouri, Sandra Peyser; Smith, Miriam Frey

    This workbook presents activities for training middle school student peer listeners. The first of the workbook's 10 chapters contains an introduction to peer listening. Activities include a pretest on a series of true-false statements called the "Peer Listening Inventory," defining the meaning of the words that describe the qualities of a peer…

  9. Video/Computer, the Students' Partner for Listening Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Jeanne L.

    Notes for a conference presentation outline and illustrate an experimental technique to develop foreign language listening skills using video and computer. Materials are drawn from a pilot project entitled "Allo Allo," designed to teach students how to listen in French. The approach expands the definition of listening to include both aural and…

  10. The Importance of Teaching Listening in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Yun Kul

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of listening comprehension in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) and argues that more emphasis should be given to listening comprehension. It cites significant research findings in second language acquisition and reviews the relationship between listening comprehension and language learning. Research…

  11. A study of listening habits in adolescents: Correlating stated loudness preferences with actual listening levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Laura; Warren, Jean; Cheenne, Dominique

    2001-05-01

    Evidence suggests that children are damaging their hearing in substantial numbers [Niskar et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1998)]. Conventional thinking would suggest that cultural norms and attitudes contribute to a desire in children to model what they have seen in the media, thus implying that they would be listening to music at levels that are considered harmful. Our study focused on a gender-balanced group of 316 elementary-age students and aimed at assessing a correlation between an attitudinal survey related to loud music and the children's own listening levels. The study was broader in scope and in sample size than previous work [Fucci, 138th ASA Meeting, 11/99]. Findings were both surprising and encouraging, citing that a majority of children who expressed favoritism towards loud music listened to the presented samples at lower levels than expected. The study also proposes a set of listening level distribution curves that may prove useful for future studies with older participants.

  12. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  13. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  14. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  15. The Listening Log: Motivating Autonomous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    When learners spend a period of time in the L2 community, as students on exchange programmes, as immigrants, or even on holiday, they are surrounded by listening opportunities that are far more varied and numerous than those of the classroom. Drawing on learner data from Erasmus and Study Abroad students on placement at a UK university, this paper…

  16. Extending the Conceptualization of Listening Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.; O'Brien, Kelley; Hanson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    An exploration of variables potentially related to Listening Fidelity (LF) was conducted through two separate studies. Study 1 indicated that when the potential fidelity of the stimulus message was varied as a function of the number of words and time length, the message with lowest potential fidelity produced significantly lower LF than either the…

  17. Hearing and Listening in a Typical Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Catherine V.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses factors that affect how well students with hearing loss and typical students can hear in classrooms. Soundfield equalization is discussed as a way to create an environment where each child is at a favorable speaker-listener distance by routing the teacher's voice to loudspeakers around the classroom. (CR)

  18. Does the ventriloquist illusion assist selective listening?

    PubMed

    Jack, Bradley N; O'Shea, Robert P; Cottrell, David; Ritter, Walter

    2013-10-01

    Driver (1996) reported that the ventriloquist illusion can enhance selective listening of speech. Participants in his study listened to target and distractor words from a single loudspeaker while watching lip movements of the target words on a video monitor either above the loudspeaker or displaced to the left or right. He found that participants were more accurate in repeating the target words when the video was displaced from the loudspeaker than when the video was directly above the loudspeaker. Driver proposed that the ventriloquist illusion dragged the target sounds toward the location of the lip movements, freeing them from interference from the distractor words. However, successful attempts at replicating this finding are rare (we know of only three successful replications from 19 attempts). In five experiments, we found a weak advantage for selective listening from displaced lip movements only when there was a convincing ventriloquist illusion. We conclude that the ventriloquist illusion is necessary to confer the advantage for selective listening from displaced lip movements but that the phenomenon is a fleeting one at best.

  19. Authentic Listening Materials for Business English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    Authentic listening materials are appropriate and desirable for instruction in English as a second language (ESL) for business purposes for several reasons: they have high interest, leading to enhanced motivation and increased opportunity for learning; they contain many natural redundancies and repetitions that facilitate comprehension; and they…

  20. A Linguistic Model of Psychotherapeutic Listening

    PubMed Central

    MAKARI, GEORGE J.; SHAPIRO, THEODORE

    1994-01-01

    Linguistic principles can be employed to formalize the ways in which we register unconscious communication in the psychodynamic psychotherapeutic process. The authors describe this process of gathering unconscious data as one of attention to narrativity, idiosyncratic semanticity, form, and interactive discursive elements. Based on this framework, the authors propose some fundamental tenets of psychodynamic listening. PMID:22700172

  1. Speaking and Listening in Content Area Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.

  2. Listen in: Audiobooks about Childhood Struggles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, T. Gail; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Hawkins, Amy; Moore, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jaime Snider

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how audiobooks can be used in the classroom; different settings where audiobooks can be used; and the advantages of listening to audiobooks instead of silent reading. Provides a list of eight audiobooks that can be used for a social studies unit to find a creative solution to childhood struggles. (CMK)

  3. Listeners Retune Phoneme Categories across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch…

  4. How Phonological Reductions Sometimes Help the Listener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitterer, Holger; Russell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    In speech production, high-frequency words are more likely than low-frequency words to be phonologically reduced. We tested in an eye-tracking experiment whether listeners can make use of this correlation between lexical frequency and phonological realization of words. Participants heard prefixed verbs in which the prefix was either fully produced…

  5. Dichotic Listening and School Performance in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Asbjornsen, Arve E.; Hushovd, Aud Ellen; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between school performance and performance on a dichotic listening (DL) task in dyslexic children. Dyslexia is associated with impaired phonological processing, related to functions in the left temporal lobe. DL is a frequently used task to assess functions of the left temporal lobe. Due to the predominance…

  6. Music Listening Preferences of Macau Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Wanfong Viny

    2009-01-01

    This is a pioneer study of Macau's music education focusing on music listening preference. Adopting models from Western cultures, the study, launched in 2006, aimed to explore the factors of age and gender in regard to music preference. The subjects ranged from fourth-graders to university students (N=2495) (15 missing). Participants rated their…

  7. Rethinking Classroom Participation: Listening to Silent Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Many educators understand how to gauge learning by paying close attention to student talk. Few know how to interpret and attend to student silence as a form of participation. In her new book, Katherine Schultz examines the complex role student silence can play in teaching and learning. Urging teachers to listen to student silence in new ways, this…

  8. Designing Lessons for EFL Listening Comprehension Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Justine

    2007-01-01

    To keep students motivated, the author outlines several principles for developing listening comprehension lessons. When learners focus on a clear learning objective, retention improves. Other recommendations include keeping the same topic and objective for several activities and selecting relevant, authentic material with a clear layout and…

  9. Speaking and Listening through Drama 7 - 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendiville, Francis; Toye, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Showing teachers how to use drama to promote speaking and listening for pupils, including those who find learning difficult, this book describes, analyses and teaches how to use role play effectively and looks at how to generate a productive dialogue between teachers and pupils that is both powerful and enabling. The authors present innovative…

  10. Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Second Language Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guiling

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation research investigates the cognitive mechanisms underlying second language (L2) listening comprehension. I use three types of sentential contexts, congruent, neutral and incongruent, to look at how L2 learners construct meaning in spoken sentence comprehension. The three types of contexts differ in their context predictability.…

  11. Dichotic Listening Deficits in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncrieff, Deborah W.; Black, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Several auditory processing deficits have been reported in children with dyslexia. In order to assess for the presence of a binaural integration type of auditory processing deficit, dichotic listening tests with digits, words and consonant-vowel (CV) pairs were administered to two groups of right-handed 11-year-old children, one group diagnosed…

  12. Dichotic Listening and Left-Right Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirnstein, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between individual differences in dichotic listening (DL) and the susceptibility to left-right confusion (LRC). Thirty-six men and 59 women completed a consonant-vowel DL test, a behavioral LRC task, and an LRC self-rating questionnaire. Significant negative correlations between overall DL accuracy and…

  13. Reflective Practice: Look, Listen, Wonder, and Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherston, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the reflective components of observation, listening, wondering, and response. Together, these components invite parents to discover who their babies are as well as to understand the importance of nurturing relationships, past and present, to development, growth, and change. Of equal interest, reflective practice offers Infant…

  14. Listening Comprehension: Process, Problems, and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Liliana

    An analysis of the skills involved in listening comprehension and techniques for developing them in students looks first at elements of the general process of interpretation, showing the essential importance of the interpretative functions as contrasted with simple comprehension of sounds and decoding of meaning. The first section looks at…

  15. Bonnie's Problem: Using Effective Listening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rester, Carolyn H.

    2012-01-01

    This classroom activity allows students to observe how a troubled friend reacts to seven listening responses that are unhelpful in therapeutic contexts (interrupting, unrelated comments, focusing on self, discounting, blaming, evaluating, and giving advice). Students also have the opportunity to experience how probing, feeling responses, and…

  16. Practical Tips for Increasing Listening Practice Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughey, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Learning a language--like learning to dance ballet, weaving carpets, or playing the saxophone--takes time and practice. In general, it is safe to say that the more practice one gets, the better one will become. This article will help teachers of English reconsider how to think about listening tasks. It will provide guidance for increasing…

  17. The NASA bus communications listening device software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the bus listener is presented. Special software was developed to control the 'bus interface units' (BIU) connecting each of these devices to a communications cable to form the bus communication network. The code used in the BTU is described.

  18. Listening to Estuary English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deterding, David

    2005-01-01

    In Singapore, many people are not familiar with Estuary English (EE), the variety of English becoming popular in much of southern England. In the current study, when students listened to interviews with EE speakers and were asked to transcribe orthographically what they heard, most of them had severe problems. Features of pronunciation that…

  19. The Rhetorical Question: Its Perception by Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Robert L.

    A rhetorical question is an interrogative statement made under circumstances indicating that the speaker or writer does not seek a reply. It is used as a persuasive device or occasionally as a transitional phrase, but there has been little attention paid to the manner in which listeners perceive or categorize rhetorical questions. In an…

  20. Healthcare and Listening: A Relationship for Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Janis; Foley, Amy; Crigger, Nancy; Brannigan, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The optimal relationship between healthcare provider and patient is one of trust. This therapeutic relationship is dependent on the ability of the healthcare provider to communicate effectively with the patient. Research indicates that when healthcare providers listen to patients, there is more compliance with medical regimens, patient…

  1. A Critical Ethnography of Democratic Music Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this critical ethnography was to investigate how music educators can approach the development of students' music listening abilities democratically in order to deepen students' musical understandings and, by teaching through music, create pathways for student-teacher transactions that are inclusive, educative, ethical and…

  2. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  3. The Mechanics of Listening to Electronic Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, David

    1977-01-01

    The author, a composer and the director of an electronic music lab, is concerned with developing an "aesthetic" in listening to electronic music. Describes an approach he has found to be successful with his students--one that provides "a mode of understanding, a vehicle for making aesthetic decisions". (Editor/RK)

  4. Communicative Activities for Teaching Listening and Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Lois Kleinhenn, Ed.

    A collection of classroom activities for teaching listening and speaking skills in English as a Second Language (ESL) is presented. They are designed to be accompanied by a tape (not included here). All were developed by teachers and have been used successfully in ESL classrooms. Topics and skill areas addressed in the games and exercises include:…

  5. OJJDP Family Listening Sessions. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2013

    2013-01-01

    From March through July 2011, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), in collaboration with the Campaign for Youth Justice and the Education Development Center, convened four listening sessions with families and youth who had direct experiences with the juvenile justice system at the local and state levels. The…

  6. Implications of Discourse Strategy for Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaume, William A.; Cegala, Donald J.

    Recognizing the lack of research delineating what personality traits might predispose a person to poor listening, this paper contrasts two lines of research assessing how the cognitive and affective characteristics of speakers impact on their recall of conversation. The first section of the paper considers the theoretical perspective arguing that…

  7. Listening to Limericks: A Pupillometry Investigation of Perceivers’ Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, Christoph; Mohr, Sibylle; Fischer, Martin H.; Roberts, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    What features of a poem make it captivating, and which cognitive mechanisms are sensitive to these features? We addressed these questions experimentally by measuring pupillary responses of 40 participants who listened to a series of Limericks. The Limericks ended with either a semantic, syntactic, rhyme or metric violation. Compared to a control condition without violations, only the rhyme violation condition induced a reliable pupillary response. An anomaly-rating study on the same stimuli showed that all violations were reliably detectable relative to the control condition, but the anomaly induced by rhyme violations was perceived as most severe. Together, our data suggest that rhyme violations in Limericks may induce an emotional response beyond mere anomaly detection. PMID:24086417

  8. Listening Effort and Fatigue in School-Age Children with and without Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Candace Bourland; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2002-01-01

    Two studies compared either physiological signs of fatigue or evidence of effort expended by 20 school-age children with or without mild-to-moderate hearing loss under difficult hearing conditions. Although the first study found no differences in fatigue, the second study found that children with hearing loss expend more effort in listening than…

  9. Next Steps in the Journey: Learning to Listen to Student Voices: Teaching with Our Mouths Shut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    According to Wilhelm, a teacher's power lies in learning to work "with" students, starting with listening. He recommends setting up conditions and mechanisms that help you learn from your students what they are learning, what challenges they are facing, and how best to teach them. Through inquiry, the classroom can become a vital and engaging…

  10. The Effect of Repetition Types on Listening Tests in an EFL Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horness, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study was an investigation into the effects of repetition on a listening comprehension test for second language learners. Repetition has been previously examined in a cursory way, usually as a secondary question to a primary treatment. Additionally, the method of repetition was limited to one way and to one treatment condition; therefore, it…

  11. The Effects of Advance Organizers and Subtitles on EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The present research reports the findings of three experiments which explore how subtitles and advance organizers affect EFL learners' listening comprehension of authentic videos. EFL learners are randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group receives no treatment and the experimental group receives the experimental conditions of…

  12. Cued Dichotic Listening with Right-Handed, Left-Handed, Bilingual and Learning-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; And Others

    This study used cued dichotic listening to investigate differences in language lateralization among right-handed (control), left handed, bilingual, and learning disabled children. Subjects (N=60) ranging in age from 7-13 years were administered a consonant-vowel-consonant dichotic paradigm with three experimental conditions (free recall, directed…

  13. The effect of listening to music on human transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Raijas, Pirre; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K; Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Järvelä, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Although brain imaging studies have demonstrated that listening to music alters human brain structure and function, the molecular mechanisms mediating those effects remain unknown. With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics approaches, these effects of music can now be studied in a more detailed fashion. To verify whether listening to classical music has any effect on human transcriptome, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling from the peripheral blood of participants after listening to classical music (n = 48), and after a control study without music exposure (n = 15). As musical experience is known to influence the responses to music, we compared the transcriptional responses of musically experienced and inexperienced participants separately with those of the controls. Comparisons were made based on two subphenotypes of musical experience: musical aptitude and music education. In musically experiencd participants, we observed the differential expression of 45 genes (27 up- and 18 down-regulated) and 97 genes (75 up- and 22 down-regulated) respectively based on subphenotype comparisons (rank product non-parametric statistics, pfp 0.05, >1.2-fold change over time across conditions). Gene ontological overrepresentation analysis (hypergeometric test, FDR < 0.05) revealed that the up-regulated genes are primarily known to be involved in the secretion and transport of dopamine, neuron projection, protein sumoylation, long-term potentiation and dephosphorylation. Down-regulated genes are known to be involved in ATP synthase-coupled proton transport, cytolysis, and positive regulation of caspase, peptidase and endopeptidase activities. One of the most up-regulated genes, alpha-synuclein (SNCA), is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude on chromosome 4q22.1 and is regulated by GATA2, which is known to be associated with musical aptitude. Several genes reported to regulate song perception and production in songbirds displayed altered

  14. The effect of listening to music on human transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Raijas, Pirre; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K.; Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Although brain imaging studies have demonstrated that listening to music alters human brain structure and function, the molecular mechanisms mediating those effects remain unknown. With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics approaches, these effects of music can now be studied in a more detailed fashion. To verify whether listening to classical music has any effect on human transcriptome, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling from the peripheral blood of participants after listening to classical music (n = 48), and after a control study without music exposure (n = 15). As musical experience is known to influence the responses to music, we compared the transcriptional responses of musically experienced and inexperienced participants separately with those of the controls. Comparisons were made based on two subphenotypes of musical experience: musical aptitude and music education. In musically experiencd participants, we observed the differential expression of 45 genes (27 up- and 18 down-regulated) and 97 genes (75 up- and 22 down-regulated) respectively based on subphenotype comparisons (rank product non-parametric statistics, pfp 0.05, >1.2-fold change over time across conditions). Gene ontological overrepresentation analysis (hypergeometric test, FDR < 0.05) revealed that the up-regulated genes are primarily known to be involved in the secretion and transport of dopamine, neuron projection, protein sumoylation, long-term potentiation and dephosphorylation. Down-regulated genes are known to be involved in ATP synthase-coupled proton transport, cytolysis, and positive regulation of caspase, peptidase and endopeptidase activities. One of the most up-regulated genes, alpha-synuclein (SNCA), is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude on chromosome 4q22.1 and is regulated by GATA2, which is known to be associated with musical aptitude. Several genes reported to regulate song perception and production in songbirds displayed altered

  15. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence.

  16. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850228

  17. Comparing two methods to measure preferred listening levels of personal listening devices.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Darrin A; Siegel, Jonathan H; Wilber, Laura Ann; Faber, Benjamin M; Dunckley, Kathleen T; Garstecki, Dean C; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2009-06-01

    The potential risk to hearing that mass-storage personal listening devices (PLDs) pose remains unclear. Previous research in this area has either focused on maximum outputs of these devices or on ear-canal measurements of listening levels that could not be compared to standards of occupational noise exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare two standard measurement protocols [ISO 11904-1 (2002), Switzerland; ISO 11904-2 (2004), Switzerland] for the measurement of preferred listening levels of PLD. Noise measurements, behavioral thresholds, and oral interviews were obtained from 30 (18-30 years) PLD users. Preferred listening levels for self-selected music were determined in quiet and background noise using a probe microphone, as well as in the DB-100 ear simulator mounted in KEMAR. The ear-canal measurements were compensated for diffuse-field. Only one of the subjects was found to be listening at hazardous levels once their reported daily usage was accounted for using industrial workplace standards. The variance across subjects was the smallest in the ear-canal measurements that were compensated for diffuse-field equivalence [ISO 11904-1 (2002), Switzerland]. Seven subjects were found to be listening at levels above 85 dBA based on measurements obtained in the KEMAR and then compensated for diffuse-field equivalence. PMID:19507955

  18. The Impact of Listening Strategy Training on the Meta-Cognitive Listening Strategies Awareness of Different Learner Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrabi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of listening strategy instruction on the metacognitive listening strategies awareness of different EFL learner types (LTs). To achieve this goal, 150 EFL students took part in the study and were taught based on a guided lesson plan regarding listening strategies and a pre-test/post-test design was…

  19. Narrow Listening: An Alternative Way To Develop and Enhance Listening Comprehension in Students of French as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuy, B. C.

    1999-01-01

    Conducted a survey of college French as a foreign language students' reactions to narrow listening, the repeated listening of tape-recorded interviews of proficient speakers discussing a topic both familiar and interesting to the acquirers, and their assessment of its impact on their language development. Students found narrow listening to be…

  20. Investigation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility metrics for normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzic, Nikolina

    The effectiveness of in-vehicle speech communication can be a good indicator of the perception of the overall vehicle quality and customer satisfaction. Currently available speech intelligibility metrics do not account in their procedures for essential parameters needed for a complete and accurate evaluation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility. These include the directivity and the distance of the talker with respect to the listener, binaural listening, hearing profile of the listener, vocal effort, and multisensory hearing. In the first part of this research the effectiveness of in-vehicle application of these metrics is investigated in a series of studies to reveal their shortcomings, including a wide range of scores resulting from each of the metrics for a given measurement configuration and vehicle operating condition. In addition, the nature of a possible correlation between the scores obtained from each metric is unknown. The metrics and the subjective perception of speech intelligibility using, for example, the same speech material have not been compared in literature. As a result, in the second part of this research, an alternative method for speech intelligibility evaluation is proposed for use in the automotive industry by utilizing a virtual reality driving environment for ultimately setting targets, including the associated statistical variability, for future in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) was evaluated at the sentence Speech Receptions Threshold (sSRT) for various listening situations and hearing profiles using acoustic perception jury testing and a variety of talker and listener configurations and background noise. In addition, the effect of individual sources and transfer paths of sound in an operating vehicle to the vehicle interior sound, specifically their effect on speech intelligibility was quantified, in the framework of the newly developed speech intelligibility evaluation method. Lastly

  1. Listening effort and perceived clarity for normal hearing children with the use of digital noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Samantha; McCreery, Ryan; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy G; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate how digital noise reduction (DNR) impacts listening effort and judgment of sound clarity in children with normal hearing. It was hypothesized that, when two DNR algorithms differing in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output are compared, the algorithm which provides the greatest improvement in overall output SNR will reduce listening effort and receive a better clarity rating from child listeners. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relation between the inversion method measurements and listening effort with DNR processing. Design Twenty-four children with normal hearing (ages 7-12 years) participated in a speech recognition task in which consonant-vowel-consonant nonwords were presented in broadband background noise. Test stimuli were recorded through two hearing aids with DNR-off and DNR-on at 0 dB and +5 dB input SNR. Stimuli were presented to listeners and verbal response time (VRT) and phoneme recognition scores were measured. The underlying assumption was that an increase in VRT reflects an in increase in listening effort. Children rated the sound clarity for each condition. The two commercially available HAs were chosen based on: 1) an inversion technique which was used to quantify the magnitude of change in SNR with the activation of DNR, and 2) a measure of magnitude-squared coherence which was used to ensure that DNR in both devices preserved the spectrum. Results One device provided a greater improvement in overall output SNR than the other. Both DNR algorithms resulted in minimal spectral distortion as measured using coherence. For both devices, VRT decreased for the DNR-on condition suggesting that listening effort decreased with DNR in both devices. Clarity ratings were also better in the DNR-on condition for both devices. The device showing the greatest improvement in output SNR with DNR engaged improved phoneme recognition scores. The magnitude of this improved phoneme recognition was not accurately

  2. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN THE ORAL CAVITY.

    PubMed

    Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Brailo, Vlaho; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Gabrić, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-06-01

    Every medication may lead to adverse effects, even when used in standard doses and mode of application. In the oral cavity, adverse effects may affect every part of oral mucosa and are the result of medications taken either locally or systemically. Oral adverse reactions to drugs are not typical and therefore sometimes not easy to recognize. On diagnosing adverse side effects in the oral cavity, experienced clinician will usually diagnose the condition on the basis of detailed medical history and clinical finding. However, the only objective evidence for the offending drug is 're-challenge', i.e. exposure to the drug after its discontinuation. It carries a huge risk of anaphylactic reaction; therefore it has to be performed in a controlled hospital setting. Therapy is based on immediate exclusion of the offending drug and, if lesions are present in the oral cavity, topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy is prescribed. This article gives a review of patients with oral adverse drug reactions referred to the Department of Oral Medicine in Zagreb.

  3. Relationship between listeners' nonnative speech recognition and categorization abilities

    PubMed Central

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the perceptual encoding of talker characteristics (indexical information) in speech can facilitate listeners' recognition of linguistic content. The present study explored this indexical-linguistic relationship in nonnative speech processing by examining listeners' performance on two tasks: nonnative accent categorization and nonnative speech-in-noise recognition. Results indicated substantial variability across listeners in their performance on both the accent categorization and nonnative speech recognition tasks. Moreover, listeners' accent categorization performance correlated with their nonnative speech-in-noise recognition performance. These results suggest that having more robust indexical representations for nonnative accents may allow listeners to more accurately recognize the linguistic content of nonnative speech. PMID:25618098

  4. Perception of a Japanese vowel length contrast by Japanese and American English listeners: behavioral and electrophysiological measures.

    PubMed

    Hisagi, Miwako; Shafer, Valerie L; Strange, Winifred; Sussman, Elyse S

    2010-11-11

    This study examined the role of automatic selective perceptual processes in native and non-native listeners' perception of a Japanese vowel length contrast (tado vs. taado), using multiple, natural-speech tokens of each category as stimuli in a "categorial oddball" design. Mismatch negativity (MMN) was used to index discrimination of the temporally-cued vowel contrast by naïve adult American listeners and by a native Japanese-speaking control group in two experiments in which attention to the auditory input was manipulated: in Exp 1 (Visual-Attend), listeners silently counted deviants in a simultaneously-presented visual categorial oddball shape discrimination task; in Exp 2 (Auditory-Attend), listeners attended to the auditory input and implicitly counted target deviants. MMN results showed effects of language experience and attentional focus: MMN amplitudes were smaller for American compared to Japanese listeners in the Visual-Attend Condition and for the American listeners in the Visual compared to Auditory-Attend Condition. Subtle differences in topography were also seen, specifically in that the Japanese group showed more robust responses than the American listeners at left hemisphere scalp sites that probably index activity from the superior temporal gyrus. Follow-up behavioral discrimination tests showed that Americans discriminated the contrast well above chance, but more poorly than did Japanese listeners. This pattern of electrophysiological and behavioral results supports the conclusion that early experience with phonetic contrasts of a language results in changes in neural representations in the auditory cortex that allow for more robust automatic, phonetic processing of native-language speech input. PMID:20816759

  5. Perception of a Japanese Vowel Length Contrast by Japanese and American English listeners: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hisagi, Miwako; Shafer, Valerie L.; Strange, Winifred; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of automatic selective perceptual processes in native and non-native listeners' perception of a Japanese vowel length contrast (tado vs. taado), using multiple, natural-speech tokens of each category as stimuli in a “categorial oddball” design. Mismatch Negativity (MMN) was used to index discrimination of the temporally-cued vowel contrast by naïve adult American listeners and by a native Japanese-speaking control group in two experiments in which attention to the auditory input was manipulated: in Exp 1 (Visual-Attend), listeners silently counted deviants in a simultaneously-presented visual categorial oddball shape discrimination task; in Exp 2 (Auditory-Attend), listeners attended to the auditory input and implicitly counted target deviants. MMN results showed effects of language experience and attentional focus: MMN amplitudes were smaller for American compared to Japanese listeners in the Visual-Attend Condition and for the American listeners in the Visual compared to Auditory-Attend condition. Subtle differences in topography were also seen, specifically in that the Japanese group showed more robust responses than the American listener's at left hemisphere scalp sites that probably index activity from the superior temporal gyrus. Follow-up behavioral discrimination tests showed that Americans discriminated the contrast well above chance, but more poorly than did Japanese listeners. This pattern of electrophysiological and behavioral results supports the conclusion that early experience with phonetic contrasts of a language results in changes in neural representations in auditory cortex that allow for more robust automatic, phonetic processing of native-language speech input. PMID:20816759

  6. Continuous multiword recognition performance of young and elderly listeners in ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    Hearing threshold shift due to aging is known as a dominant factor to degrade speech recognition performance in noisy conditions. On the other hand, cognitive factors of aging-relating speech recognition performance in various speech-to-noise conditions are not well established. In this study, two kinds of speech test were performed to examine how working memory load relates to speech recognition performance. One is word recognition test with high-familiarity, four-syllable Japanese words (single-word test). In this test, each word was presented to listeners; the listeners were asked to write the word down on paper with enough time to answer. In the other test, five continuous word were presented to listeners and listeners were asked to write the word down after just five words were presented (multiword test). Both tests were done in various speech-to-noise ratios under 50-dBA Hoth spectrum noise with more than 50 young and elderly subjects. The results of two experiments suggest that (1) Hearing level is related to scores of both tests. (2) Scores of single-word test are well correlated with those of multiword test. (3) Scores of multiword test are not improved as speech-to-noise ratio improves in the condition where scores of single-word test reach their ceiling.

  7. Classroom listening assessment: strategies for speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cheryl DeConde

    2012-11-01

    Emphasis on classroom listening has gained importance for all children and especially for those with hearing loss and special listening needs. The rationale can be supported from trends in educational placements, the Response to Intervention initiative, student performance and accountability, the role of audition in reading, and improvement in hearing technologies. Speech-language pathologists have an instrumental role advocating for the accommodations that are necessary for effective listening for these children in school. To identify individual listening needs and make relevant recommendations for accommodations, a classroom listening assessment is suggested. Components of the classroom listening assessment include observation, behavioral assessment, self-assessment, and classroom acoustics measurements. Together, with a strong rationale, the results can be used to implement a plan that results in effective classroom listening for these children. PMID:23081792

  8. Listeners modulate temporally selective attention during natural speech processing

    PubMed Central

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Sanders, Lisa D.

    2009-01-01

    Spatially selective attention allows for the preferential processing of relevant stimuli when more information than can be processed in detail is presented simultaneously at distinct locations. Temporally selective attention may serve a similar function during speech perception by allowing listeners to allocate attentional resources to time windows that contain highly relevant acoustic information. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials were compared in response to attention probes presented in six conditions during a narrative: concurrently with word onsets, beginning 50 and 100 ms before and after word onsets, and at random control intervals. Times for probe presentation were selected such that the acoustic environments of the narrative were matched for all conditions. Linguistic attention probes presented at and immediately following word onsets elicited larger amplitude N1s than control probes over medial and anterior regions. These results indicate that native speakers selectively process sounds presented at specific times during normal speech perception. PMID:18395316

  9. Binaural interference in bilateral cochlear-implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Best, Virginia; Laback, Bernhard; Majdak, Piotr

    2011-11-01

    This work was aimed at determining whether binaural interference occurs in electric hearing, and if so, whether it occurs as a consequence of perceptual grouping (central explanation) or if it is related to the spread of excitation in the cochlea (peripheral explanation). Six bilateral cochlear-implant listeners completed a series of experiments in which they judged the lateral position of a target pulse train, lateralized via interaural time or level differences, in the presence of an interfering diotic pulse train. The target and interferer were presented at widely separated electrode pairs (one basal and one apical). The results are broadly similar to those reported for acoustic hearing. All listeners but one showed significant binaural interference in at least one of the stimulus conditions. In all cases of interference, a robust recovery was observed when the interferer was presented as part of an ongoing stream of identical pulse trains, suggesting that the interference was at least partly centrally mediated. Overall, the results suggest that both simultaneous and sequential grouping mechanisms operate in electric hearing, at least for stimuli with a wide tonotopic separation. PMID:22087922

  10. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  11. Shaping pseudoneglect with transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation and music listening

    PubMed Central

    Picazio, Silvia; Granata, Chiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation modulates cortical excitability depending on the initial activation state of the structure being stimulated. Combination of cognitive with neurophysiological stimulations has been successfully employed to modulate responses of specific brain regions. The present research combined a neurophysiological pre-conditioning with a cognitive conditioning stimulation to modulate behavior. We applied this new state-dependency approach to investigate the cerebellar role in musical and spatial information processing, given that a link between musical perception and visuo-spatial abilities and a clear cerebellar involvement in music perception and visuo-spatial tasks have been reported. Cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial cerebellar Direct Current Stimulation (tcDCS) pre-conditioning was applied on the left cerebellar hemisphere followed by conditioning stimulation through music or white noise listening in a sample of healthy subjects performing a Line Bisection Task (LBT). The combination of the cathodal stimulation with music listening resulted in a marked attentional shift toward the right hemispace, compensating thus the natural leftward bias of the baseline condition (pseudoneglect). Conversely, the anodal or sham pre-conditioning stimulations combined with either music and white noise conditioning listening did not modulate spatial attention. The efficacy of the combined stimulation (cathodal pre-conditioning and music conditioning) and the absence of any effect of the single stimulations provide a strong support to the state-dependency theory. They propose that tcDCS in combination with music listening could act as a rehabilitative tool to improve cognitive functions in the presence of neglect or other spatial disorders. PMID:25859206

  12. Shaping pseudoneglect with transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation and music listening.

    PubMed

    Picazio, Silvia; Granata, Chiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation modulates cortical excitability depending on the initial activation state of the structure being stimulated. Combination of cognitive with neurophysiological stimulations has been successfully employed to modulate responses of specific brain regions. The present research combined a neurophysiological pre-conditioning with a cognitive conditioning stimulation to modulate behavior. We applied this new state-dependency approach to investigate the cerebellar role in musical and spatial information processing, given that a link between musical perception and visuo-spatial abilities and a clear cerebellar involvement in music perception and visuo-spatial tasks have been reported. Cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial cerebellar Direct Current Stimulation (tcDCS) pre-conditioning was applied on the left cerebellar hemisphere followed by conditioning stimulation through music or white noise listening in a sample of healthy subjects performing a Line Bisection Task (LBT). The combination of the cathodal stimulation with music listening resulted in a marked attentional shift toward the right hemispace, compensating thus the natural leftward bias of the baseline condition (pseudoneglect). Conversely, the anodal or sham pre-conditioning stimulations combined with either music and white noise conditioning listening did not modulate spatial attention. The efficacy of the combined stimulation (cathodal pre-conditioning and music conditioning) and the absence of any effect of the single stimulations provide a strong support to the state-dependency theory. They propose that tcDCS in combination with music listening could act as a rehabilitative tool to improve cognitive functions in the presence of neglect or other spatial disorders.

  13. Objective Quality and Intelligibility Prediction for Users of Assistive Listening Devices

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Tiago H.; Parsa, Vijay; Santos, João F.; Arehart, Kathryn; Hazrati, Oldooz; Huber, Rainer; Kates, James M.; Scollie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of twelve existing objective speech quality and intelligibility prediction tools. Two classes of algorithms are presented, namely intrusive and non-intrusive, with the former requiring the use of a reference signal, while the latter does not. Investigated metrics include both those developed for normal hearing listeners, as well as those tailored particularly for hearing impaired (HI) listeners who are users of assistive listening devices (i.e., hearing aids, HAs, and cochlear implants, CIs). Representative examples of those optimized for HI listeners include the speech-to-reverberation modulation energy ratio, tailored to hearing aids (SRMR-HA) and to cochlear implants (SRMR-CI); the modulation spectrum area (ModA); the hearing aid speech quality (HASQI) and perception indices (HASPI); and the PErception MOdel - hearing impairment quality (PEMO-Q-HI). The objective metrics are tested on three subjectively-rated speech datasets covering reverberation-alone, noise-alone, and reverberation-plus-noise degradation conditions, as well as degradations resultant from nonlinear frequency compression and different speech enhancement strategies. The advantages and limitations of each measure are highlighted and recommendations are given for suggested uses of the different tools under specific environmental and processing conditions. PMID:26052190

  14. How phonological reductions sometimes help the listener.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Russell, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    In speech production, high-frequency words are more likely than low-frequency words to be phonologically reduced. We tested in an eye-tracking experiment whether listeners can make use of this correlation between lexical frequency and phonological realization of words. Participants heard prefixed verbs in which the prefix was either fully produced or reduced. Simultaneously, they saw a high-frequency verb and a low-frequency verb with this prefix-plus 2 distractors-on a computer screen. Participants were more likely to look at the high-frequency verb when they heard a reduced prefix than when they heard a fully produced prefix. Listeners hence exploit the correlation of lexical frequency and phonological reduction and assume that a reduced prefix is more likely to belong to a high-frequency word. This shows that reductions do not necessarily burden the listener but may in fact have a communicative function, in line with functional theories of phonology. PMID:22799281

  15. Autonomic Nervous System Responses During Perception of Masked Speech may Reflect Constructs other than Subjective Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Francis, Alexander L; MacPherson, Megan K; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Alvar, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking), and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct), and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1) Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked byspeech-shaped noise and (3) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance) response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners' subjective perception of task demand were comparable across the three

  16. "Listen and Understand What I Am Saying": Church-Listening as a Challenge for Non-Native Listeners of English in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmström, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This article uses computer-assisted analysis to study the listening environment provided by Bible readings and preaching during church services. It focuses on the vocabulary size needed to comprehend 95% and 98% of the running words of the input (lexical coverage levels indicating comprehension in connection with listening) and on the place of…

  17. Unilateral spectral and temporal compression reduces binaural fusion for normal hearing listeners with cochlear implant simulations.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, Justin M; Shayman, Corey; Prasad, Akila; Suneel, Deepa; Stelmach, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Patients with single sided deafness have recently begun receiving cochlear implants in their deaf ear. These patients gain a significant benefit from having a cochlear implant. However, despite this benefit, they are considerably slower to develop binaural abilities such as summation compared to bilateral cochlear implant patients. This suggests that these patients have difficulty fusing electric and acoustic signals. Although this may reflect inherent differences between electric and acoustic stimulation, it may also reflect properties of the processor and fitting system, which result in spectral and temporal compression. To examine the possibility that unilateral spectral and temporal compression can adversely affect binaural fusion, this study tested normal hearing listeners' binaural fusion through the use of vocoded speech with unilateral spectral and temporal compression. The results indicate that unilateral spectral and temporal compression can each hinder binaural fusion and thus may adversely affect binaural abilities in patients with single sided deafness who use a cochlear implant in their deaf ear. PMID:25549574

  18. Music and the brain: disorders of musical listening.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lauren; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Warren, Jason D; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2006-10-01

    The study of the brain bases for normal musical listening has advanced greatly in the last 30 years. The evidence from basic and clinical neuroscience suggests that listening to music involves many cognitive components with distinct brain substrates. Using patient cases reported in the literature, we develop an approach for understanding disordered musical listening that is based on the systematic assessment of the perceptual and cognitive analysis of music and its emotional effect. This approach can be applied both to acquired and congenital deficits of musical listening, and to aberrant listening in patients with musical hallucinations. Both the bases for normal musical listening and the clinical assessment of disorders now have a solid grounding in systems neuroscience.

  19. Academic Listening in the 21st Century: Reviewing a Decade of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This review article extends the conventional notion of academic listening to include reciprocal (two-way) listening events in academic settings, as well as (one-way) listening to lectures. The introductory section highlights the comparatively low profile of listening in EAP research, due in part to the inherent complexity of listening and its…

  20. Learners' Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2016-01-01

    Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…

  1. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Hickson, R C; Ball, K L; Falduto, M T

    1989-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are used therapeutically for various disorders and as ergogenic aids by athletes to augment strength, muscular development, and to enhance performance. There is a wide range of concomitant temporary and permanent adverse effects with steroid administration. Several well-documented adverse actions of these hormones may develop rapidly within several weeks or less (i.e. altered reproductive function) or require up to several years of steroid intake (i.e. liver carcinoma). More recent studies indicate that glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiovascular disease risk profiles, cerebral dangers, musculoskeletal injuries, prostate cancer, psychosis and schizophrenic episodes, among others, accompany anabolic steroid intake. There is, at present, no evidence to support the claim that athletes are less susceptible to adverse effects than those individuals receiving hormone treatment in a clinical setting. Based on the available information which has accumulated primarily from cross-sectional, short term longitudinal, and case studies, there is a need: (a) to develop a comprehensive battery of specific and sensitive markers of adverse effects, particularly those that would be able to detect the onset of adverse actions; and (b) to conduct controlled long term longitudinal studies in order to fully understand the extensiveness and mechanisms involved in the occurrence of adverse effects.

  2. [Survey on the harmfulness of listening to music with headphones].

    PubMed

    Buffe, P; Cudennec, Y F; Ben Azzouz, M; Bassoumi, T; Ferron, J J

    1986-01-01

    A survey conducted in 52,000 young male subjects evaluated the influence of listening to music with stereophonic headphones on perception hypacusis leading to exemption from National Service. Also investigated were noise level output from promenaders as well as temporary auditory loss two minutes after listening for one hour. Findings suggested relative innocuity of listening at moderate intensity for less than seven hours weekly. Users exceeding these optimal factors develop professional type deafness for which similar preventive measures are required. Particular mention is made of the effect of strolling listeners on vigilance and on sound pollution of industrialized countries.

  3. Better-ear glimpsing in hearing-impaired listeners

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald; Iyer, Nandini; Brungart, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    When competing speech sounds are spatially separated, listeners can make use of the ear with the better target-to-masker ratio. Recent studies showed that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently make use of this “better-ear,” even when it alternates between left and right ears at different times in different frequency bands, which may contribute to the ability to listen in spatialized speech mixtures. In the present study, better-ear glimpsing in listeners with bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, who perform poorly in spatialized speech mixtures, was investigated. The results suggest that this deficit is not related to better-ear glimpsing. PMID:25698053

  4. Listenability as a tool for advancing health literacy.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Donald L

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy research and practice has focused mainly on the readability of written documents. Yet oral communication plays at least as important a role in the interpersonal ecology in which people make real decisions about their health. Moreover, the single-minded quest for short sentences and simple vocabulary inherent in the readability paradigm can subvert the effort to engage in patient- or consumer-centered communication. Listenability is the quality of discourse that eases the cognitive burden that aural processing imposes. Listenability is a function of oral-based language plus "considerate" rhetorical structures. The Listenability Style Guide presented in this article offers evidence-based recommendations for producing listenable discourse. A study testing the applicability of the Listenability Style Guide to postsurgical discharge instructions was conducted. College students either heard or read discharge instructions composed in either high or moderate listenability. Comprehension was higher for this population in reading than in listening. Across modalities, the high listenability version was easiest to comprehend. Incorporating listenability concerns in research and practice is consistent with emerging, broad conceptions of health literacy and with the dictates of the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy. PMID:23030569

  5. Phonetic context effects in adult listeners with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravamudhan, Radhika; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    From previous studies it is known that normal-hearing (NH) listeners have the ability to compensate for the acoustic variability present in speech through context-dependent perception of speech sounds. One question of practical and theoretical interest is whether listeners with cochlear implants (CI) also show context-dependent speech perception. Because of the lack of spectral resolution in the input, the representation of speech for CI listeners may differ from NH listeners, which may interfere with perceptual compensation. In a test of this prediction, adult postlingually deafened CI listeners did not demonstrate the contrastive context effects elicited from NH listeners for either /da/-/ga/ targets and /al/-/ar/ contexts or V targets and /b-b/-/d-d/ contexts. In contrast, as predicted by the good temporal resolution of the CI signal, CI listeners showed normal effects of vowel length on preceding glide-stop categorization. CI simulations with NH listeners were also performed for some of these context effects. The results support the view that spectral content of contexts largely determines their effect on target sounds, and that phonetic content does not play an essential role. In addition, the findings predict that CI listeners will have particular difficulty with heavily coarticulated speech. [Work sponsored by NIH and NSF.

  6. Signal-to-background ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Jillian Gallant

    The purpose of this study was to identify listeners' signal-to-background-ratio (SBR) preference levels for vocal music and to investigate whether or not SBR differences existed for different music genres. The ``signal'' was the singer's voice, and the ``background'' was the accompanying music. Three songs were each produced in two different genres (total of 6 genres represented). Each song was performed by three male and three female singers. Analyses addressed influences of musical genre, singing style, and singer timbre on listener's SBR choices. Fifty-three normal-hearing California State University of Northridge students ranging in age from 20-52 years participated as subjects. Subjects adjusted the overall music loudness to a comfortable listening level, and manipulated a second gain control which affected only the singer's voice. Subjects listened to 72 stimuli and adjusted the singer's voice to the level they felt sounded appropriate in comparison to the background music. Singer and Genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in subject's SBR preferences, although the results clearly indicate Genre, Style and Singer interact in different combinations under different conditions. SBR differences for each song, each singer, and each subject did not occur in a predictable manner, and support the hypothesis that SBR preferences are neither fixed nor dependent merely upon music application or setting. Further investigations regarding psychoacoustical bases responsible for differences in SBR preferences are warranted.

  7. Vowel formant discrimination in high-fidelity speech by hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewley-Port, Diane; Liu, Chang; Burkle, T. Zachary

    2003-10-01

    The ability to discriminate differences in vowel formant frequency under a more ordinary listening condition has been reported recently by Kewley-Port and Zheng (1999) for synthetic speech and Liu and Kewley-Port (2003) for high-fidelity speech. Results for normal-hearing (YNH) listeners showed that a longer phonetic context (sentences versus words) degraded formant discrimination while adding a sentence identification task did not. The present study used the same high-fidelity stimuli but employed listeners with moderate hearing impairment (YHI). Experimental factors manipulated included phonetic context (isolated vowels, words and sentences), level [70-dB SPL (partially audible) and 95-dB SPL (fully audible)], and task (discrimination with and without the sentence identification task). Thresholds for F1 and F2 of the vowels /I, ɛ, æ invv/ were estimated using adaptive tracking for 71% correct discrimination. The anticipated degrading effects of higher formant frequency and longer phonetic context were obtained. Unexpectedly formant thresholds for high-fidelity vowels at the higher (95-dB SPL) were slightly elevated compared to the 70-dB SPL level, the opposite of results for synthetic vowels. No effect of the added sentence task was seen, similar to the YNH listeners. Details of the differences in vowel processing attributable to moderate hearing impairment will be discussed. [Research supported by NIH-NIDCD.

  8. An algorithm to improve speech recognition in noise for hearing-impaired listeners

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Eric W.; Yoho, Sarah E.; Wang, Yuxuan; Wang, DeLiang

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable effort, monaural (single-microphone) algorithms capable of increasing the intelligibility of speech in noise have remained elusive. Successful development of such an algorithm is especially important for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, given their particular difficulty in noisy backgrounds. In the current study, an algorithm based on binary masking was developed to separate speech from noise. Unlike the ideal binary mask, which requires prior knowledge of the premixed signals, the masks used to segregate speech from noise in the current study were estimated by training the algorithm on speech not used during testing. Sentences were mixed with speech-shaped noise and with babble at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Testing using normal-hearing and HI listeners indicated that intelligibility increased following processing in all conditions. These increases were larger for HI listeners, for the modulated background, and for the least-favorable SNRs. They were also often substantial, allowing several HI listeners to improve intelligibility from scores near zero to values above 70%. PMID:24116438

  9. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    PubMed

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  10. Listening Cloze Meets Info-Gap: A Hybrid Activity to Exploit Listening Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Juan Pablo Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    In twenty-first-century language teaching, the class should be student-centered and provide learners with skills that empower them in real-life situations. In this regard, it is commonly said that practice makes perfect. It therefore makes sense for teachers to ask themselves how much their listening activities demand from students and to evaluate…

  11. Exploring Juror's Listening Processes: The Effect of Listening Style Preference on Juror Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Debra L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between listening style preference and jurors' assignment of negligence and damages. Notes that 90 men and 84 women drawn from introductory communication courses viewed videotaped attorney presentations and the judge's instructions from an actual court case. Indicates that participants with a people-oriented listening…

  12. Effects of Listening Instructions and Severity of Cleft Palate Speech on Listeners. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shames, George H.; And Others

    Mothers of cleft and noncleft palate children (C- and non C-mothers) listened to a reading by a cleft palate child of a passage containing specified combinations of nasality and intelligibility. Groups were either uninstructed or instructed to listed to the content or the manner of speech; they assessed the nasality and intelligibility of the…

  13. E-Priming the Listener: Sensitizing Students to Listening for Verbal Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Sally O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the concept of E-Prime (E') holds practical benefits to effective listening for students of interpersonal communication. In advancing this argument, the paper includes a concise review of relevant literature on E-Prime, defensiveness, and conflict, with particular emphasis on verbal aggression. The literature demonstrates…

  14. The Effects of YouTube Listening/Viewing Activities on Taiwanese EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Li-Li

    2009-01-01

    Declared the year of YouTube, 2007 was hailed as bringing a technological revolution in relation to pedagogy, one that may provide more convenient access to materials for language input, such as auditory, visual, and other types of authentic resources in order to promote advancement in all four language learning skills--listening, speaking,…

  15. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    PubMed

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  16. Using ILD or ITD Cues for Sound Source Localization and Speech Understanding in a Complex Listening Environment by Listeners with Bilateral and with Hearing-Preservation Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiselle, Louise H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Yost, William A.; Cook, Sarah J.; Gifford, Rene H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of interaural time differences and interaural level differences in (a) sound-source localization, and (b) speech understanding in a cocktail party listening environment for listeners with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) and for listeners with hearing-preservation CIs. Methods: Eleven bilateral listeners with MED-EL…

  17. An Evaluation of the BKB-SIN, HINT, QuickSIN, and WIN Materials on Listeners with Normal Hearing and Listeners with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; McArdle, Rachel A.; Smith, Sherri L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine in listeners with normal hearing and listeners with sensorineural hearing loss the within- and between-group differences obtained with 4 commonly available speech-in-noise protocols. Method: Recognition performances by 24 listeners with normal hearing and 72 listeners with sensorineural hearing…

  18. The "Watson-Barker Listening Test" for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halay, Kathryn; Roberts, Charles V.

    The high school version of the Watson-Barker Listening Test was developed in response to the need for a listening test appropriate for high school students. The test was comprised of conversations that would normally occur in either the high school setting or in the home and was developed in two different versions. The test consists of five…

  19. Listener's Preference for Music of Other Cultures: Comparing Response Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the preferences of university and middle school students for non-western music as communicated through a Likert-type scale, manipulation of one dial on a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) during music listening, and manipulation of two dials on a CRDI during music listening. (MJP)

  20. Ugly Music: Lessons in Learning to Listen Respectfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Listening to music from a variety of national, ethnic, and historical traditions may help adolescents develop respect for individual differences, particularly when they are challenged to confront music that has little immediate musical appeal for them. This article outlines strategies for two sample listening lessons, using Serbo-Croatian gusle…

  1. Use of Video and Audio Texts in EFL Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basal, Ahmet; Gülözer, Kaine; Demir, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to discover whether audio or video modality in a listening test is more beneficial to test takers. In this study, the posttest-only control group design was utilized and quantitative data were collected in order to measure participant performances concerning two types of modality (audio or video) in a listening test. The…

  2. Listeners' Response to Music as a Function of Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara E.; Schmidt, Charles P.

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of research concerning the relationship between listener response to music and personality variables. Reports that correlations were found among undergraduate music appreciation students between the Music Listener Response Scale and sensing intuition for the entire group and between judgment perception and the scale among…

  3. Listening Instruction in Texas Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cureton, Judy C.

    To obtain feedback regarding listening instruction at the universities, colleges, and junior colleges in the state of Texas, this study surveyed 100 schools listed in the 1982 Speech Communication Directory. Department chairpersons of each school received a listening checklist and, as a follow-up procedure, registrars of the schools were sent a…

  4. Listening Strategies of L2 Learners with Varied Test Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the strategies that EFL students used and how they adjusted these strategies in response to various listening test tasks. The test tasks involved four forms of listening support: previewing questions, repeated input, background information preparation, and vocabulary instruction. Twenty-two participants were enlisted and…

  5. Mindful Music Listening as a Potential Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Kristen J.; Dinsmore, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental health issues. Although drug therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy remain popular and effective treatments, alternative interventions such as the use of music listening and mindfulness practice as interventions during therapy have gained ground. Research on the use of music listening and mindfulness…

  6. Moved by Music: A Typology of Music Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Mulder, Juul; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2011-01-01

    A typology of music listeners was constructed on the basis of importance attributed to music and four types of music use: mood enhancement; coping with problems; defining personal identity; and marking social identity. Three Listener Groups were identified through Latent Class Analysis of internet survey data of 997 Dutch respondents, aged 12-29.…

  7. School Leaders and the Strategic Impact of Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Jeannine S.

    A study was conducted to explore the ways effective elementary school principals use their listening skills in conversations with their teachers to better understand them, make decisions, and make sense of the day-to-day operations of their schools. Additionally, teachers' perceptions of their effective principals' listening skills were…

  8. Listening Comprehension in Primary Level Grades Two, Four and Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Juhani E.; Anttila, Minttu

    2003-01-01

    Studied aspects of listening comprehension skills in 107 second, fourth, and sixth graders in Finland using the Sentence Verification technique. Findings, comparable with previous research, show age-related improvement in listening comprehension for narrative, but not expository, passages. Cluster analysis produced four comprehension strategies.…

  9. Enhancing Student Achievement through the Improvement of Listening Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Lori; Dittmar, Maureen; Roberts, Emily; Sheraden, Marie

    This report describes a program for the improvement of listening skills in order to increase academic performance. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in a middle class community located in western Illinois. The problem of ineffective listening skills was documented through data revealing the number of students whose lowered…

  10. Listening between the Lines: Social Assumptions around Foreign Accents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Catriona; Kelly, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of listener attitudes on the ability to understand a foreign (non-Australian) accent. The research focuses on individual listener characteristics, such as attitude and frequency of contact with accented speakers, rather than speech production. Data was collected through a web-based survey and analysis employed…

  11. Their Success is Your Success: Teach Them to Listen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Charles H.

    The techniques for effective listening can be identified by the acronym PAT, which stands for three sets of techniques--physical, attitude, and thinking. Four kinds of physical techniques promote effective listening: appropriate eye contact and normal blinking rate, facial feedback, appropriate body language, and appropriate verbal feedback. Two…

  12. Listen to Me! I Want to Tell You Something!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Jane G.; McGrath, Mary R.

    Acknowledging children's need for informal conversation, the staff of an eastern elementary school began a reading incentive program to encourage children to read for fun and to increase their leisure by providing a listening ear while they told someone about the books they had read. Adult volunteers were recruited to listen to children's…

  13. Music Listening, Coping, Peer Affiliation and Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…

  14. Listening as Embracing the Other: Martin Buber's Philosophy of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Mordechai Gordon interprets Martin Buber's ideas on dialogue, presence, and especially his notion of embracing in an attempt to shed some light on Buber's understanding of listening. Gordon argues that in order to understand Buber's conception of listening, one needs to examine this concept in the context of his philosophy of…

  15. Classroom Activities in Listening and Speaking. Bulletin No. 91337.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Ellen; DeMuth, Robert J.

    This guide contains classroom activities designed to encourage effective listening and speaking instruction at all developmental levels. Called the Comprehensive Listening and Speaking Sequence (CLASS), the activities are developed in three parts. The pre-kindergarten through grade three sequence provides learning activities that may be used by…

  16. Listening in Early Childhood: An Interdisciplinary Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2010-01-01

    Three general purposes of research in human development are to explain, predict, and modify behavior. Studies of listening during early childhood (birth through age eight) are of particular significance to the field because they enable researchers to describe listening processes from their very origins (explain), they demonstrate the effects of…

  17. Understanding How Teachers Listen in a Reading Enrichment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Cindy M.; Little, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Asking questions that invite students to access advanced thinking skills during classroom discourse is a key strategy for challenging and supporting high-ability middle school readers. This critical teaching practice requires careful teacher listening. However, empirical research around teachers' "listening orientations," or how teachers…

  18. Developing Listening Bodies in the Dance Technique Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enghauser, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a practical framework for infusing a body-listening or somatic approach into the dance class. Although the concept of body listening is not revolutionary or ground breaking, it has been underemphasized in the dance technique class and needs revisiting. From reflection on current research, as well as from several years of…

  19. Listeners' Behaviors That Increase the Effectiveness of Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiroglu, Selim

    2015-01-01

    The attention and interest of listener increase the motivation and performance of the lecturer. Thus, the lecturer becomes more lively, energetic and productive during his/her presentation. Especially in the educational environments, the students, who are the listener in the classroom atmosphere, have some influences over the teachers. The aim of…

  20. The Impact of (In)effective Listening on Interpersonal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2015-01-01

    On average, people spend between 45% and 70% of their day listening to others (Johnson, 1996). Despite the frequency with which people engage in this activity, its importance in interpersonal interactions may go overlooked. Individuals can typically identify that listening is a valued communication skill (Bambacas & Patrickson, 2008; Papa,…