Science.gov

Sample records for adverse living conditions

  1. Reported respiratory symptoms and adverse home conditions after 9/11 among residents living near the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated whether self-reported damage, dust, and odors in homes near the World Trade Center (WTC) after September 11, 2001, were related to increased rates of respiratory symptoms among residents and if multiple sources of exposure were associated with greater health risk. We mailed questionnaires to homes within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and in upper Manhattan (control area). Surveys asked about respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, physician diagnoses, medication use, and conditions in the home after 9/11. Adverse home conditions were associated with new-onset (i.e., began after 9/11) and persistent (i.e., remained 1 year after 9/11) upper and lower respiratory symptoms in the affected area (Cumulative Incidence Ratios [CIRs] 1.20-1.71). Residents reporting longer duration of dust/odors or multiple sources of exposure had greater risk for symptoms compared to those reporting shorter duration and fewer sources. These data suggest that WTC-related contamination in the home after 9/11 was associated with new and persistent respiratory symptoms among residents living near the site. While we cannot eliminate potential biases related to self-reported data, we took strategies to minimize their impact, and the observed effects are biologically plausible. PMID:17530533

  2. HEPA Filter Performance under Adverse Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven; Waggoner, Charles

    2007-07-01

    This study involved challenging nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Energy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled and uncontrolled challenge, and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by traditional differential pressure techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceeded their usable lifetime. Significant findings from this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter housing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of filters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl. (authors)

  3. Living systems in hypomagnetic conditions of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Kirill; Gurieva, Tamara; Dadasheva, Olga; Spassky, Andrey; Lebedev, Viktor; Kruglov, Oleg

    Living Systems in Hypomagnetic Conditions of Space Trukhanov К. A.1, Guryeva T.S.1, Dadasheva О.А.1, Spassky А.V.2, Lebedev V.М.2, Kruglov О.S.1 1 SSC RF - Institute of bio-medical problems RAS, Moscow 2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow When working at a long-term lunar base, at stations in the near-moon space and during interplanetary missions cosmonauts will be continuously exposed to an entirely new environmental factor - hypomagnetic conditions (HMC). Interplanetary magnetic field and the field on the Lunar surface is three-five orders of magnitude below the usual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that exposure to even a slightly decreased GMF adversely affect human and other living systems. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems and blood are considered to be the most sensitive to reduced GMF. There are some data in literature about the significant vulnerability of developing organism to the HMC. In this paper we present the results of further studies on the impact of the HMC on the embryogenesis of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including the works performed as the development of studies reported at the conferences COSPAR 37 and COSPAR 39. Duration of quail embryos exposure to different values of attenuation HMC (till thousandfold and more) came up to 18 days. It is shown that the prolonged exposure to the HMC heightens the adverse effects on embryogenesis. The background of alternating electromagnetic fields of the systems and equipment will exist at the habitable base or on the board of the spacecraft. The results of studies on the combined effects of HMC and weak alternating magnetic fields are also presented.

  4. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress. PMID:26139190

  5. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  6. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  7. Quality of whey powders stored under adverse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein concentrate powder (WPC) is exported by the U.S. and is included in emergency aid foods, but the bags sent overseas are usually stored without refrigeration and under elevated temperature and relative humidity (RH). The shelf life of WPC under adverse conditions must be known to preven...

  8. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  9. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  10. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules-namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  11. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically

  12. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this paper are to: 1) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents; 2) examine the relationships between resident- and facility-characteristics and physical performance; and 3) determine the predictive value of physical performance for adverse outcomes. Design and Methods Data were derived from 1791 residents in 189 RC/AL facilities, participating in the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term Care. At baseline, residents were tested on four performance measures (grip strength, chair rise, balance, and walking speed), and other resident- and facility-level information was collected. Adverse outcomes were measured over one year. Results Average grip strength was 14 ± 7 kg; 61% of residents walked < 0.6 m/second (average 0.41 m/second); 26% could perform five chair rises; and only 19% could perform a tandem stand for a least one second. Multivariable analyses showed that more cognitive and functional impairment, depressive symptoms and comorbid conditions, and for-profit ownership, were associated with poorer physical performance. Controlling for individual characteristics, better performance on the four physical performance measures was associated with a reduced risk of nursing home placement, fracture, and decline in function over one year. Implication Simple performance measures identify modifiable functional deficits, and suggest targeted interventions to prolong independent mobility and aging in place in RC/AL facilities. PMID:18483432

  13. Perceptual Learning of Speech under Optimal and Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable ability to understand spoken language despite the large amount of variability in speech. Previous research has shown that listeners can use lexical information to guide their interpretation of atypical sounds in speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). This kind of lexically induced perceptual learning enables people to adjust to the variations in utterances due to talker-specific characteristics, such as individual identity and dialect. The current study investigated perceptual learning in two optimal conditions: conversational speech (Experiment 1) vs. clear speech (Experiment 2), and three adverse conditions: noise (Experiment 3a) vs. two cognitive loads (Experiments 4a & 4b). Perceptual learning occurred in the two optimal conditions and in the two cognitive load conditions, but not in the noise condition. Furthermore, perceptual learning occurred only in the first of two sessions for each participant, and only for atypical /s/ sounds and not for atypical /f/ sounds. This pattern of learning and non-learning reflects a balance between flexibility and stability that the speech system must have to deal with speech variability in the diverse conditions that speech is encountered. PMID:23815478

  14. [Skin problems associated with poor living conditions].

    PubMed

    Moretti, Francesco; Dory, Élodie; Favrat, Bernard; Winterton, Nina; Berger, Jérôme; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2015-11-25

    People living in poor conditions are at high risk of developing different medical diseases of which dermatological diseases are very common. We present 4 clinical cases of skin diseases, which are the most prevalent amongst the majority of socially and economically vulnerable patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of paramount importance, in order to avoid their spread in close- knit communities where these patients often live. PMID:26742355

  15. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  16. Speech perception with tactile support in adverse listening conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drullman, Rob; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2002-05-01

    Since long, different methods of vibrotactile stimulation have been used as an aid for speech perception by some people with severe hearing impairment. The fact that experiments have shown (limited) benefits proves that tactile information can indeed give some support. In our research program on multimodal interfaces, we wondered if normal hearing listeners could benefit from tactile information when speech was presented in adverse listening conditions. Therefore, we set up a pilot experiment with a male speaker against a background of one, two, four or eight competing male speakers or speech noise. Sound was presented diotically to the subjects and the speech-reception threshold (SRT) for short sentences was measured. The temporal envelope (0-30 Hz) of the speech signal was computed in real time and led to the tactile transducer (MiniVib), which was fixed to the index finger. First results show a significant drop in SRT of about 3 dB when using tactile stimulation in the condition of one competing speaker. In the other conditions no significant effects were found, but there is a trend of a decrease of the SRT when tactile information is given. We will discuss the results of further experiments.

  17. Transport Across Chloroplast Membranes: Optimizing Photosynthesis for Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Chloroplasts are central to solar light harvesting and photosynthesis. Optimal chloroplast functioning is vitally dependent on a very intensive traffic of metabolites and ions between the cytosol and stroma, and should be attuned for adverse environmental conditions. This is achieved by an orchestrated regulation of a variety of transport systems located at chloroplast membranes such as porines, solute channels, ion-specific cation and anion channels, and various primary and secondary active transport systems. In this review we describe the molecular nature and functional properties of the inner and outer envelope and thylakoid membrane channels and transporters. We then discuss how their orchestrated regulation affects thylakoid structure, electron transport and excitation energy transfer, proton-motive force partition, ion homeostasis, stromal pH regulation, and volume regulation. We link the activity of key cation and anion transport systems with stress-specific signaling processes in chloroplasts, and discuss how these signals interact with the signals generated in other organelles to optimize the cell performance, with a special emphasis on Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species signaling. PMID:26597501

  18. APOLLO 10: Improvments in Living Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Living conditions were superior on this flight to any previously. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 10: 'Green Light for a Lunar Landing''. Part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 10: Manned lunar orbital flight with Thomas P Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan to test all aspects of an actual manned lunar landing except the landing. Mission Duration 192hrs 3mins 23 sec

  19. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  20. Rural population growth and living conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Zhu, C

    1991-01-01

    The problem of the effect of population growth on subsistence conditions is addressed by developing generalized premises, principles, and methods for quantifying standards or conditions for growth. This method is applied to 1989 data for Nanzheng Country, China. Background information is provided on an experiment made public in 1985 and implemented in 1986 by the Family Planning (FP) Department of Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province in Hongmiao District in which the following conditions were placed on bearing a second child: 1) income must be 20% higher than the average village income level, and breeders must have an average income of not 400 yuan/year, crop planters not 300 yuan/year, textile weavers not 200 yuan/year, and industrial and subsidiary production workers not 400 yuan/year (generally 4 pigs or 100 chickens or ducks) or 2) 100 income-producing trees must be planted around he residential area/family plot or stony fields must be transformed into arable land under the contract responsibility system, or groves, orchards, or tea plantations must be planted. These conditions must be met one year prior to proposing to have a second child. The approval rate in 1986-88 was 88.7%, and the second parity rate was 78.4%. Deteriorated conditions had not yet occurred in this country when this proposal was made. The premises considered important in preparing assistance conditions were determined. 1) Conditions for population growth should be resolved within the area. 2) Subsistence conditions should be taken care of by the family. 3) There should be a centralized standard, not a family standard, such that living conditions/capita should not decrease because of population growth. Quantification is made expressing the relationship between subsistence and growth. The application of these conditions for households in Hongmiao District is that the average subsistence conditions need to be higher than other households by 12.3% for new population growth. The assumption is

  1. 75 FR 8353 - Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions February 16, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Due to adverse weather conditions, the Federal Communications..., February 11, 2010. In recognition of the numerous closings and disruptions caused by the weather in...

  2. A Ground-Based Array to Observe Geospace Electrodynamics During Adverse Space Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.

    2004-05-01

    Geomagnetic Storms occur with surprising frequency and create adverse space weather conditions. During these periods, our knowledge and ability to specify or forecast in adequate detail for user needs is negligible. Neither experimental observations nor theoretical developments have made a significant new impact on the problem for over two decades. Although we can now map Total Electron Content (TEC) in the ionosphere over a continent with sufficient resolution to see coherent long-lived structures, these do not provide constraints on the geospace electrodynamics that is at the heart of our lack of understanding. We present arguments for the need of a continental deployment of ground-based sensors to stepwise advance our understanding of the geospace electrodynamics when it is most adverse from a space weather perspective and also most frustrating from an understanding of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling. That a continental-scale deployment is more productive at addressing the problem than a realizable global distribution is shown. Each measurement is discussed from the point-of-view of either providing new knowledge or becoming a key for future real-time specification and forecasting for user applications. An example of a storm database from one mid-latitude station for the 31 March 2002 is used as a conceptual point in a ground-based array. The presentation focuses on scientific questions that have eluded a quantitative solution for over three decades and view a ground-based array as an "IGY" type of catalyst for answering these questions.

  3. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  4. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  5. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  6. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  7. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  8. Risk of adverse birth outcomes in populations living near landfill sites

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Paul; Briggs, David; Morris, Sara; de Hoogh, Cornelis; Hurt, Christopher; Jensen, Tina Kold; Maitland, Ian; Richardson, Sylvia; Wakefield, Jon; Jarup, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with residence near landfill sites in Great Britain. Design Geographical study of risks of adverse birth outcomes in populations living within 2 km of 9565 landfill sites operational at some time between 1982 and 1997 (from a total of 19 196 sites) compared with those living further away. Setting Great Britain. Subjects Over 8.2 million live births, 43 471 stillbirths, and 124 597 congenital anomalies (including terminations). Main outcome measures All congenital anomalies combined, some specific anomalies, and prevalence of low and very low birth weight (<2500 g and <1500 g). Results For all anomalies combined, relative risk of residence near landfill sites (all waste types) was 0.92 (99% confidence interval 0.907 to 0.923) unadjusted, and 1.01 (1.005 to 1.023) adjusted for confounders. Adjusted risks were 1.05 (1.01 to 1.10) for neural tube defects, 0.96 (0.93 to 0.99) for cardiovascular defects, 1.07 (1.04 to 1.10) for hypospadias and epispadias (with no excess of surgical correction), 1.08 (1.01 to 1.15) for abdominal wall defects, 1.19 (1.05 to 1.34) for surgical correction of gastroschisis and exomphalos, and 1.05 (1.047 to 1.055) and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.05) for low and very low birth weight respectively. There was no excess risk of stillbirth. Findings for special (hazardous) waste sites did not differ systematically from those for non-special sites. For some specific anomalies, higher risks were found in the period before opening compared with after opening of a landfill site, especially hospital admissions for abdominal wall defects. Conclusions We found small excess risks of congenital anomalies and low and very low birth weight in populations living near landfill sites. No causal mechanisms are available to explain these findings, and alternative explanations include data artefacts and residual confounding. Further studies are needed to help differentiate between the various

  9. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  10. The influence of living conditions on adolescent girls’ health

    PubMed Central

    Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is described by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare as the healthiest period in life. However, adolescent girls differ in that they self-report that their health decreases with age. The aim of this hermeneutical study was to describe the meaning of living conditions in relation to adolescent girls’ health. Guided by principles of reflective lifeworld research, 15 interviews with adolescent girls were analysed. The result section consists of four narratives with their existential interpretations illustrating different ways of approaching living conditions and their meaning for health and well-being. The narratives are: Approaching everyday life in a balanced way—feeling harmonious; approaching everyday life with ambiguity—feeling confused; approaching everyday life as an intellectual project—striving for control; approaching everyday life as a struggle—feeling forlorn. In addition, a comprehensive understanding was developed by using the lifeworld dimensions: lived body, lived room, lived time, and lived relations. These dimensions may deepen the understanding of important parts of those living conditions which are meaningful for the girls’ health and well-being. By using the dimensions, complex living conditions have been explored and the meaning of different parts clarified. The girls’ thoughts and feelings are often ambiguous and sometimes contradictory, depending on the situation. The health of adolescent girls needs to be understood against the background of their experiences of living conditions. One way to support their health and well-being seems to be to supply them with forums where they can talk about their living conditions. PMID:23237626

  11. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers. PMID:27624491

  12. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock...

  13. Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

  14. Adverse Pregnancy Conditions, Infertility, and Future Cardiovascular Risk: Implications for Mother and Child

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki; Wei, Janet; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2016-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy conditions in women are common and have been associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes such as myocardial infarction and stroke. As risk stratification in women is often suboptimal, recognition of non-traditional risk factors such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and premature delivery has become increasingly important. Additionally, such conditions may also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in the children of afflicted women. In this review, we aim to highlight these conditions, along with infertility, and the association between such conditions and various cardiovascular outcomes and related maternal risk along with potential translation of risk to offspring. We will also discuss proposed mechanisms driving these associations as well as potential opportunities for screening and risk modification. PMID:26037616

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Criminality: How Long Must We Live before We Possess Our Own Lives?

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, James A; Looman, Jan; Franco, Kristina A; Rojas, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research associated with the Kaiser Permanente and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study has demonstrated that ACE are associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including physical and mental health disorders and aggressive behavior. Methods: Subjects from 4 different offender groups (N = 151) who were referred for treatment at an outpatient clinic in San Diego, CA, subsequent to conviction in criminal court, completed the ACE Questionnaire. Groups (nonsexual child abusers, domestic violence offenders, sexual offenders, and stalkers) were compared on the incidence of ACE, and comparisons were made between the group offenders and a normative sample. Results: Results indicated that the offender group reported nearly four times as many adverse events in childhood than an adult male normative sample. Eight of ten events were found at significantly higher levels among the criminal population. In addition, convicted sexual offenders and child abusers were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse in childhood than other offender types. Conclusions: On the basis of a review of the literature and current findings, criminal behavior can be added to the host of negative outcomes associated with scores on the ACE Questionnaire. Childhood adversity is associated with adult criminality. We suggest that to decrease criminal recidivism, treatment interventions must focus on the effects of early life experiences. PMID:23704843

  16. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  17. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients. PMID:24872347

  19. Algorithms for contours depicting static electric fields during adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A flexible and functional analytical tool is developed for the study of electric fields during adverse weather conditions. This tool is designed for use by members of the Atmospheric Science Group as part of their overall effort to appraise environmental conditions during these situations. It is also used to illustrate approaches open to those interested in the study of the physics of ambient electric field phenomena. Computer resources of KSC are coordinated with original software to produce contour interpretations of electric field data available from a grid of field mills spanning the region. Three model algorithms are presented and examples are given illustrating the system design, flexibility, and utility.

  20. Evaluation of adaptive dynamic range optimization in adverse listening conditions for cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hussnain; Hazrati, Oldooz; Tobey, Emily A.; Hansen, John H. L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimization (ADRO) on speech identification for cochlear implant (CI) users in adverse listening conditions. In this study, anechoic quiet, noisy, reverberant, noisy reverberant, and reverberant noisy conditions are evaluated. Two scenarios are considered when modeling the combined effects of reverberation and noise: (a) noise is added to the reverberant speech, and (b) noisy speech is reverberated. CI users were tested in different listening environments using IEEE sentences presented at 65 dB sound pressure level. No significant effect of ADRO processing on speech intelligibility was observed. PMID:25190428

  1. Evaluation of adaptive dynamic range optimization in adverse listening conditions for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussnain; Hazrati, Oldooz; Tobey, Emily A; Hansen, John H L

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimization (ADRO) on speech identification for cochlear implant (CI) users in adverse listening conditions. In this study, anechoic quiet, noisy, reverberant, noisy reverberant, and reverberant noisy conditions are evaluated. Two scenarios are considered when modeling the combined effects of reverberation and noise: (a) noise is added to the reverberant speech, and (b) noisy speech is reverberated. CI users were tested in different listening environments using IEEE sentences presented at 65 dB sound pressure level. No significant effect of ADRO processing on speech intelligibility was observed. PMID:25190428

  2. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  3. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM LIVE OAK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Live-oak plants (Quercus virginia) were subjected to various levels of CO2, water stress or photosynthetic photon flux density to test the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis occurred only under conditions of restricted CO2 availability. Isoprene emission increases as the ambie...

  4. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and minor psychiatric disorders among bank workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In most countries, the financial service sector has undergone great organizational changes in the past decades, with potential negative impact on bank workers' mental health. The aim of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among Brazilian bank workers and to investigate whether they are associated with an adverse psychosocial working environment. Methods A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 2,500 workers in a Brazilian state bank in 2008. The presence of MPD was determined by the General Health Questionnaire.(GHQ). Psychosocial work conditions were assessed by means of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The presence and magnitude of the independent associations between MPD and adverse psychosocial working conditions were determined by Prevalence Ratios, obtained by Poisson regression. Results From 2,337 eligible workers, 88% participated. The prevalence of MPD was greater among women (45% vs. 41%; p > 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of MPD was twice as high among bank workers exposed to high psychological demand and low control at work and under high effort and low reward working conditions. The lack of social support at work and the presence of over-commitment were also associated with higher prevalence of MPD. A negative interaction effect was found between over-commitment and effort-reward imbalance. Conclusion The prevalence of MPD is high among bank workers. The results reinforce the association between MPD and adverse psychosocial working conditions, assessed by the JCQ and ERI models. The direction of the interaction observed between over-commitment and ERI was contrary to what was expected. PMID:21062496

  5. Living with limited time: Socioemotional selectivity theory in the context of health adversity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Singh, Sarah J; Stanton, Annette L; Low, Carissa A

    2015-06-01

    The current research was designed to test the applicability of socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Carstensen, 2006), a life span theory that posits that perceived time remaining in life (time perspective) is a critical determinant of motivation, to individuals who face foreshortened futures (limited time perspective) due to life-limiting medical illness. In Study 1, we investigated whether life goals and biases in attention and memory for valenced emotional stimuli differed between women living with metastatic breast cancer (n = 113; theoretically living under greater limited time perspective than peers without cancer) and similarly aged women without a cancer diagnosis (n = 50; theoretically living under greater expansive time perspective than peers with cancer) in accordance with SST. As hypothesized, metastatic group goals reflected greater emphasis on limited versus expansive time perspective relative to comparison group goals. Hypotheses regarding biases in attention and memory were not supported. Study 2 followed metastatic group participants over 3 months and revealed that, consistent with hypotheses, whereas limited time perspective goals predicted decreased intrusive thoughts about cancer, expansive time perspective goals predicted decreased perceived cancer-related benefits. Together, these studies suggest that SST is a useful lens through which to view some components of motivation and psychological adjustment among individuals confronting medically foreshortened futures. PMID:25984789

  6. Living With Limited Time: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory in the Context of Health Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan-Singh, Sarah J.; Stanton, Annette L.; Low, Carissa A.

    2016-01-01

    The current research was designed to test the applicability of socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Carstensen, 2006), a life span theory that posits that perceived time remaining in life (time perspective) is a critical determinant of motivation, to individuals who face foreshortened futures (limited time perspective) due to life-limiting medical illness. In Study 1, we investigated whether life goals and biases in attention and memory for valenced emotional stimuli differed between women living with metastatic breast cancer (n = 113; theoretically living under greater limited time perspective than peers without cancer) and similarly aged women without a cancer diagnosis (n = 50; theoretically living under greater expansive time perspective than peers with cancer) in accordance with SST. As hypothesized, metastatic group goals reflected greater emphasis on limited versus expansive time perspective relative to comparison group goals. Hypotheses regarding biases in attention and memory were not supported. Study 2 followed metastatic group participants over 3 months and revealed that, consistent with hypotheses, whereas limited time perspective goals predicted decreased intrusive thoughts about cancer, expansive time perspective goals predicted decreased perceived cancer-related benefits. Together, these studies suggest that SST is a useful lens through which to view some components of motivation and psychological adjustment among individuals confronting medically foreshortened futures. PMID:25984789

  7. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mosedale, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Robert J.; Maclean, Ilya M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions. PMID:26496127

  8. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  9. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  10. Speech perception under adverse conditions: insights from behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research

    PubMed Central

    Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Specifically, we highlight the potential role of learning algorithms that rely on prediction error signals and discuss specific neural structures that are likely to contribute to such learning. To this end, we review behavioral studies, computational accounts, and neuroimaging findings related to adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Already, a few studies have alluded to a potential role of these mechanisms in adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Furthermore, we consider research topics in neuroscience that offer insight into how perception can be adaptively tuned to short-term deviations while balancing the need to maintain stability in the perception of learned long-term regularities. Consideration of the application and limitations of these algorithms in characterizing flexible speech perception under adverse conditions promises to inform theoretical models of speech. PMID:24427119

  11. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  13. Research on long-range laser active imaging system applied in adverse weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-gang; Liu, Meng-de; Yang, Li; Kabanov, V. V.; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jie; Chu, Shi-bo; Yang, Jun-xian; Zhou, Yang

    2013-09-01

    A low-light level night vision device or thermal infrared imager belonging to passive imaging system is generally used in daily target detection and identification. But in adverse weather conditions of dark of night, poor atmospheric transmission characteristics or strong backscattering (fog, dust, rain, snow, etc.), even the most sensitive low-light level night vision could not provide enough image resolution for detecting and identifying targets, and the thermal infrared imager is also limited by low temperature contrast. A long-range laser active imaging system, in combination with high-power semiconductor pulsed lasers with collimation technology, receiving objective lens of large diameter, long focal length and narrow viewing angle, high-gain image intensifier CCD (ICCD) camera and range-gated synchronization control technology, is developed for long distance target detection and high resolution imaging in adverse weather conditions. The system composition and operating principle are introduced. The extremely powerful and efficient illuminators with collimation technology are able to deliver uniform beams, which are essential for illuminating targets at a distance and generating high-quality images. The particular receiving objective lens, ICCD camera and range-gated synchronization control technology could reduce strong backscattering signal and improve imaging signal-to-noise ratio. The laboratory and outfield experiments have been done to validate imaging effect and imaging quality. The results show that the minimum resolution is about 3-5cm, 10cm, and greater than 20 cm for target far from 1100m, 4700m, and 6700m respectively in dark of night. Furthermore, the minimum resolution could reach to 10cm and 20cm for target far from 2500m and 4800m respectively and the image is too blurred to accurately identify the target when observing the target far from 7200m in rainy condition.

  14. Determination and representation of electric charge distributions associated with adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for determining the size and location of electric charges which model storm systems and lightning strikes. The analysis utilizes readings from a grid of ground level field mills and geometric constraints on parameters to arrive at a representative set of charges. This set is used to generate three dimensional graphical depictions of the set as well as contour maps of the ground level electrical environment over the grid. The composite, analytic and graphic package is demonstrated and evaluated using controlled input data and archived data from a storm system. The results demonstrate the packages utility as: an operational tool in appraising adverse weather conditions; a research tool in studies of topics such as storm structure, storm dynamics, and lightning; and a tool in designing and evaluating grid systems.

  15. Functions of Nitric Oxide (NO) in Roots during Development and under Adverse Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2015-01-01

    The free radical molecule, nitric oxide (NO), is present in the principal organs of plants, where it plays an important role in a wide range of physiological functions. Root growth and development are highly regulated by both internal and external factors such as nutrient availability, hormones, pattern formation, cell polarity and cell cycle control. The presence of NO in roots has opened up new areas of research on the role of NO, including root architecture, nutrient acquisition, microorganism interactions and the response mechanisms to adverse environmental conditions, among others. Additionally, the exogenous application of NO throughout the roots has the potential to counteract specific damages caused by certain stresses. This review aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on NO functions in the roots of higher plants. PMID:27135326

  16. The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several unicellular organisms (prokaryotes and protozoa) can live under permanently anoxic conditions. Although a few metazoans can survive temporarily in the absence of oxygen, it is believed that multi-cellular organisms cannot spend their entire life cycle without free oxygen. Deep seas include some of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth, such as the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the Mediterranean Sea. These are permanently anoxic systems inhabited by a huge and partly unexplored microbial biodiversity. Results During the last ten years three oceanographic expeditions were conducted to search for the presence of living fauna in the sediments of the deep anoxic hypersaline L'Atalante basin (Mediterranean Sea). We report here that the sediments of the L'Atalante basin are inhabited by three species of the animal phylum Loricifera (Spinoloricus nov. sp., Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp.) new to science. Using radioactive tracers, biochemical analyses, quantitative X-ray microanalysis and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations on ultra-sections, we provide evidence that these organisms are metabolically active and show specific adaptations to the extreme conditions of the deep basin, such as the lack of mitochondria, and a large number of hydrogenosome-like organelles, associated with endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Conclusions This is the first evidence of a metazoan life cycle that is spent entirely in permanently anoxic sediments. Our findings allow us also to conclude that these metazoans live under anoxic conditions through an obligate anaerobic metabolism that is similar to that demonstrated so far only for unicellular eukaryotes. The discovery of these life forms opens new perspectives for the study of metazoan life in habitats lacking molecular oxygen. PMID:20370908

  17. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only. PMID:27454867

  18. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  19. Overcoming adverse weather conditions with a common optical path, multiple sensors, and intelligent image fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Joseph; Piacentino, Michael; Caldwell, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Mission success is highly dependent on the ability to accomplish Surveillance, Situation Awareness, Target Detection and Classification, but is challenging under adverse weather conditions. This paper introduces an engineering prototype to address the image collection challenges using a Common Optical Path, Multiple Sensors and an Intelligent Image Fusion System, and provides illustrations and sample fusion images. Panavision's advanced wide spectrum optical design has permitted a suite of imagers to perform observations through a common optical path with a common field of view, thereby aligning images and facilitating optimized downstream image processing. The adaptable design also supports continuous zoom or Galilean lenses for multiple field of views. The Multiple Sensors include: (1) High-definition imaging sensors that are small, have low power consumption and a wide dynamic range; (2) EMCCD sensors that transition from daylight to starlight, even under poor weather conditions, with sensitivity down to 0.00025 Lux; and (3) SWIR sensors that, with the advancement in InGaAs, are able to generate ultra-high sensitivity images from 1-1.7μm reflective light and can achieve imaging through haze and some types of camouflage. The intelligent fusion of multiple sensors provides high-resolution color information with previously impossible sensitivity and contrast. With the integration of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), real-time Image Processing and Fusion Algorithms can facilitate mission success in a small, low power package.

  20. Beyond urban penalty and urban sprawl: back to living conditions as the focus of urban health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-02-01

    Researchers have long studied urban health, both to describe the consequences of urban living and to design interventions to promote the health of people living in cities. Two approaches to understanding the impact of cities on health have been dominant, namely, urban health penalty and urban sprawl. The urban penalty approach posits that cities concentrate poor people and expose them to unhealthy physical and social environments. Urban sprawl focuses on the adverse health and environmental effects of urban growth into outlying areas. We propose a model that integrates these approaches and emphasizes urban living conditions as the primary determinant of health. The aim of the model is to move beyond describing the health-related characteristics of various urban populations towards identifying opportunities for intervention. Such a shift in framework enables meaningful comparisons that can inform public health activities at the appropriate level and evaluate their effectiveness in improving the health of urban populations. The model is illustrated with two examples from current urban public health practice. PMID:15751595

  1. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Sarah; Muldoon, Katherine A; Spaans, Johanna N; Balfour, Louise; Samson, Lindy; Walker, Mark; Cameron, D William

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990-2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990-2010): 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30). Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12-6.24), teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.46), and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30-40.28) were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness. PMID:27528877

  2. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Sarah; Spaans, Johanna N.; Balfour, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990–2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990–2010): 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03–1.30). Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12–6.24), teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04–1.46), and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30–40.28) were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness. PMID:27528877

  3. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  4. A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial of Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Live Donor Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Michael L.; Pattenden, Clare J.; Barlow, Adam D.; Hunter, James P.; Lee, Gwyn; Hosgood, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ischemic conditioning involves the delivery of short cycles of reversible ischemic injury in order to induce protection against subsequent more prolonged ischemia. This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RC) in live donor kidney transplantation. This prospective randomized clinical trial, 80 patients undergoing live donor kidney transplantation were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either RC or to a control group. RC consisted of cycles of lower limb ischemia induced by an arterial tourniquet cuff placed around the patient's thigh. In the RC treatment group, the cuff was inflated to 200 mm Hg or systolic pressure +25 mm Hg for 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia followed by 5 min reperfusion. In the control group, the blood pressure cuff was inflated to 25 mm Hg. Patients and medical staff were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary end-point was renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 and 3 months posttransplant. Donor and recipient demographics were similar in both groups (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in eGFR at 1 month (control 52 ± 14 vs RC 54 ± 17 mL/min; P = 0.686) or 3 months (control 50 ± 14 vs RC 49 ± 18 mL/min; P = 0.678) between the control and RC treatment groups. The RC technique did not cause any serious adverse effects. RC, using the protocol described here, did not improve renal function after live donor kidney transplantation. PMID:26252316

  5. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Patient and living..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION... Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management. Transplant centers must have...

  6. Living conditions of young families in Poland (1991-1992).

    PubMed

    Lisowska, E

    1993-01-01

    "The article presents the results of a survey carried out by [Poland's] Institute of Social Economy in the last quarter of 1991. It included 1,716 women and their families.... The research gathered much information about the functioning of young Polish families at the end of 1991 and at the beginning of 1992; about their material situation as well as their living problems and needs." PMID:12345057

  7. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources..., pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or...

  8. Formation of aerobic granular sludge under adverse conditions: low DO and high ammonia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Lv, Lu; Wang, Qing; Jiang, Qipei

    2013-04-01

    In this study, two adverse environments: low dissolved oxygen (DO) and high ammonia concentration, were employed to investigate the morphology, interspecies quorum sensing, extracellular polymers (EPS) characterization and microbial communities in the formation of aerobic granular sludge. Results showed that low DO could promote filamentous bacterial outgrowth. Under high ammonia concentration aerobic granular sludge (AGS) could still be cultivated, although it was looser and lighter than the control group. During the early stage of the AGS cultivation process, Al-2 activity reached a peak value in all three reactors, and ultrasonic pre-treatment was not beneficial to the release of Al-2. During AGS formation, the production of polysaccharide exhibited increases from 12.2% to 40.3%, 49.6%, and 29.3%. And PS in R2 was the highest as the result of sludge bulking. PS/PN was 1.5 to approximately 8 in the three reactors. Three-dimensional EEM fuorescence spectroscopy variation indicated the change of protein in EPS, and the highest intensity of Peak T1 was obtained. The location shift of Peak T1 was not obvious, and Peaks A, C, and T2 shifted toward longer wavelengths (red shift) of 5 to approximately 60 nm, or shorter wavelengths (blue shift) of 10 to approximately 25 nm on the emission scale and/or excitation scale in all three reactors. This provided spectral information on the chemical structure changes. Bacteria in R3 had the highest species diversity, and all bacteria in beta-Proteobacteria were identified as genus Thauera, which suggested that simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred in R3. The filamentous bacteria in seed sludge and R2 were species-richer. There was a low abundance of filamentous bacteria in R1 and R3, which contributed to the granule structure stability. PMID:24620612

  9. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-10-17

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR. PMID:25218504

  10. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-01-01

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR. PMID:25218504

  11. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  12. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU...: (a) Submit a plan of corrective action to MMS within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse...

  13. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  14. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... corrective action to BOEM within 30 days of the discovery of the adverse effect. (b) Take remedial action...

  15. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. PMID:27542493

  16. Emerging role of angiogenin in stress response and cell survival under adverse conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuping; Hu, Guo-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenin (ANG), also known as ribonuclease (RNASE) 5, is a member of the vertebrate-specific, secreted RNASE superfamily. ANG was originally identified as a tumor angiogenic factor, but its biological activity has been extended from inducing angiogenesis to stimulating cell proliferation and more recently, to promoting cell survival. Under growth conditions, ANG is translocated to nucleus where it accumulates in nucleolus and stimulates ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription, thus facilitating cell growth and proliferation. Under stress conditions, ANG is accumulated in cytoplasmic compartments and modulates the production of tiRNA, a novel class of small RNA that is derived from tRNA and is induced by stress. tiRNA suppress global protein translation by inhibiting both cap-dependent and -independent translation including that mediated by weak IRESes. However, strong IRES-mediated translation, a mechanism often used by genes involved in pro-survival and anti-apoptosis, is not affected. Thus, ANG-mediated tiRNA reprogram protein translation, save anabolic energy, and promote cell survival. This recently uncovered function of ANG presents a novel mechanism of action in regulating cell growth and survival. PMID:22021078

  17. Performance evaluation of laser scanners through the atmosphere with adverse condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespel, L.; Riviere, N.; Huet, T.; Tanguy, B.; Ceolato, R.

    2011-11-01

    Using laser imaging systems to represent 3-D scene becomes a referent prospective technology in the areas of guidance and navigation. Measurements with high spatial resolution for significant range can be achieved, even in degraded visibility conditions such as the Brown-White Out, rain, fog, sandstorms... Moreover, this technology is well suited for assisted perception tasks (access to 3D information) and obstacle detection (telemetry of small objects). For airborne applications, it is very complementary to conventional enhanced vision systems such as Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and millimeter wave radar to provide images of land in environments with limited visibility. It also offers a 3D mapping of land or a single location in relation to the environment, which means alone or coupled with others, can realign and secure real-time database of information used such in a synthetic vision system (SVS). The objective of the work is to assess the impact of degraded visibility conditions on the laser radiometric propagation of a 3D laser scanner as they directly influence the performance of the ladar system [1].

  18. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... donor selection. 482.90 Section 482.90 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection. The transplant center must use written... patient's suitability for transplantation. If a center performs living donor transplants, the center...

  19. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... donor selection. 482.90 Section 482.90 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection. The transplant center must use written... patient's suitability for transplantation. If a center performs living donor transplants, the center...

  20. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... donor selection. 482.90 Section 482.90 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection. The transplant center must use written... patient's suitability for transplantation. If a center performs living donor transplants, the center...

  1. The brain dynamics of rapid perceptual adaptation to adverse listening conditions.

    PubMed

    Erb, Julia; Henry, Molly J; Eisner, Frank; Obleser, Jonas

    2013-06-26

    Listeners show a remarkable ability to quickly adjust to degraded speech input. Here, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms of such short-term perceptual adaptation. In a sparse-sampling, cardiac-gated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition, human listeners heard and repeated back 4-band-vocoded sentences (in which the temporal envelope of the acoustic signal is preserved, while spectral information is highly degraded). Clear-speech trials were included as baseline. An additional fMRI experiment on amplitude modulation rate discrimination quantified the convergence of neural mechanisms that subserve coping with challenging listening conditions for speech and non-speech. First, the degraded speech task revealed an "executive" network (comprising the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex), parts of which were also activated in the non-speech discrimination task. Second, trial-by-trial fluctuations in successful comprehension of degraded speech drove hemodynamic signal change in classic "language" areas (bilateral temporal cortices). Third, as listeners perceptually adapted to degraded speech, downregulation in a cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit was observable. The present data highlight differential upregulation and downregulation in auditory-language and executive networks, respectively, with important subcortical contributions when successfully adapting to a challenging listening situation. PMID:23804092

  2. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J T; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  3. Repeatability of metabolic rate is lower for animals living under field versus laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Bassar, Ronald D; Salin, Karine; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic rate has been linked to several components of fitness and is both heritable and repeatable to a certain extent. However, its repeatability can differ among studies, even after controlling for the time interval between measurements. Some of this variation in repeatability might be due to the relative stability of the environmental conditions in which the animals are living between measurements. We compared published repeatability estimates for basal, resting and maximum metabolic rate from studies of endotherms living in the laboratory with those living in the wild during the interval between measurements. We found that repeatability declines over time, as demonstrated previously, but show for the first time that estimates from free-living animals are also considerably lower than those from animals living under more stable laboratory conditions. PMID:26747898

  4. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection. 482.90 Section 482.90 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty...

  5. Inequalities in health: living conditions and infant mortality in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Renata Alves da Silva; Santos, Victor Santana; de Melo, Cláudia Moura; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation of infant mortality as per condition of life in the urban setting. METHODS Ecological study performed with data regarding registered deaths of children under the age of one who resided in Aracaju, SE, Northeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2010. Infant mortality inequalities were assessed based on the spatial distribution of the Living Conditions Index for each neighborhood, classified into four strata. The average mortality rates of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared using the Student’s t-test. RESULTS Average infant mortality rates decreased from 25.3 during 2001-2005 to 17.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006-2010. Despite the decrease in the rates in all the strata during that decade, inequality of infant mortality risks increased in neighborhoods with worse living conditions compared with that in areas with better living conditions. CONCLUSIONS Infant mortality rates in Aracaju showed a decline, but with important differences among neighborhoods. The assessment based on a living condition perspective can explain the differences in the risks of infant mortality rates in urban areas, highlighting health inequalities in infant mortality as a multidimensional issue. PMID:25741650

  6. Necessary and sufficient liveness condition of GS3PR Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, GaiYun; Barkaoui, Kamel

    2015-05-01

    Structural analysis is one of the most important and efficient methods to investigate the behaviour of Petri nets. Liveness is a significant behavioural property of Petri nets. Siphons, as structural objects of a Petri net, are closely related to its liveness. Many deadlock control policies for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) modelled by Petri nets are implemented via siphon control. Most of the existing methods design liveness-enforcing supervisors by adding control places for siphons based on their controllability conditions. To compute a liveness-enforcing supervisor with as much as permissive behaviour, it is both theoretically and practically significant to find an exact controllability condition for siphons. However, the existing conditions, max, max‧, and max″-controllability of siphons are all overly restrictive and generally sufficient only. This paper develops a new condition called max*-controllability of the siphons in generalised systems of simple sequential processes with resources (GS3PR), which are a net subclass that can model many real-world automated manufacturing systems. We show that a GS3PR is live if all its strict minimal siphons (SMS) are max*-controlled. Compared with the existing conditions, i.e., max-, max‧-, and max″-controllability of siphons, max*-controllability of the SMS is not only sufficient but also necessary. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method.

  7. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  8. Conditions of Living: Queer Youth Suicide, Homonormative Tolerance, and Relative Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing social tolerance accorded nonheterosexual persons in many Western countries, queer youth suicide rates remain high. This opens the need to question not only how broad social conditions continue to make lives unlivable for many queer youth but whether queer community formations and representations that emerge within a…

  9. Amplifying Learning through Sites of Pedagogical Practice: A Possible Effect of Working with Disciplinary Technologies in Schools Operating under Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Schools located within communities experiencing high levels of social dislocation, educational disadvantage and student disengagement from learning are working under "adverse conditions". These schools face particular challenges when it comes to stabilising and sustaining wholeschool change aimed at improving students' learning outcomes. In this…

  10. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center. PMID:26038843

  11. Tuberculosis Mortality and Living Conditions in Bern, Switzerland, 1856-1950

    PubMed Central

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Ballif, Marie; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rieder, Hans L.; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a poverty-related disease that is associated with poor living conditions. We studied TB mortality and living conditions in Bern between 1856 and 1950. Methods We analysed cause-specific mortality based on mortality registers certified by autopsies, and public health reports 1856 to 1950 from the city council of Bern. Results TB mortality was higher in the Black Quarter (550 per 100,000) and in the city centre (327 per 100,000), compared to the outskirts (209 per 100,000 in 1911–1915). TB mortality correlated positively with the number of persons per room (r = 0.69, p = 0.026), the percentage of rooms without sunlight (r = 0.72, p = 0.020), and negatively with the number of windows per apartment (r = -0.79, p = 0.007). TB mortality decreased 10-fold from 330 per 100,000 in 1856 to 33 per 100,000 in 1950, as housing conditions improved, indoor crowding decreased, and open-air schools, sanatoria, systematic tuberculin skin testing of school children and chest radiography screening were introduced. Conclusions Improved living conditions and public health measures may have contributed to the massive decline of the TB epidemic in the city of Bern even before effective antibiotic treatment became finally available in the 1950s. PMID:26881850

  12. Genotype and Neuropsychological Response Inhibition as Resilience Promoters for ADHD, ODD, and CD under Conditions of Psychosocial Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Friderici, Karen; Park, Leeyoung; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas child personality, IQ, and family factors have been identified as enabling a resilient response to psychosocial adversity, more direct biological resilience factors have been less well delineated. This is particularly so for child ADHD, which has received less attention from a resilience perspective than have associated externalizing disorders. Children from two independent samples were classified as resilient if they avoided developing ADHD, ODD, or CD in the face of family adversity. Two protective factors were examined for their potential relevance to prefrontal brain development: neuropsychological response inhibition, as assessed by the Stop task, and a composite catecholamine genotype risk score. Resilient children were characterized in both samples by more effective response inhibition, although the effect in the second sample was very small. Genotype was measured in Sample 1, and a composite high risk genotype index was developed by summing presence of risk across markers on three genes expressed in prefrontal cortex: dopamine transporter, dopamine D4 receptor, and noradrenergic alpha 2 receptor. Genotype was a reliable resilience indicator against development of ADHD and CD, but not ODD, in the face of psychosocial adversity. Results illustrate potential neurobiological protective factors related to development of prefrontal cortex that may enable children to avoid developing ADHD and CD in the presence of psychosocial adversity. PMID:17705902

  13. Adversity-induced relapse of fear: neural mechanisms and implications for relapse prevention from a study on experimentally induced return-of-fear following fear conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Scharfenort, R; Menz, M; Lonsdorf, T B

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders is limited by high relapse rates. Relapse of anxiety disorders and addiction can be triggered by exposure to life adversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Seventy-six healthy adults were a priori selected for the presence or absence of adverse experiences during childhood (CA) and recent past (RA; that is, past 12 months). Participants underwent fear conditioning (day 1) and fear extinction and experimental return-of-fear (ROF) induction through reinstatement (a model for adversity-induced relapse; day 2). Ratings, autonomic (skin conductance response) and neuronal activation measures (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were acquired. Individuals exposed to RA showed a generalized (that is, not CS- specific) fear recall and ROF, whereas unexposed individuals showed differential (that is, CS+ specific) fear recall and ROF on an autonomic level despite no group differences during fear acquisition and extinction learning. These group differences in ROF were accompanied by corresponding activation differences in brain areas known to be involved in fear processing and differentiability/generalization of ROF (that is, hippocampus). In addition, dimensional measures of RA, CA and lifetime adversity were negatively correlated with differential skin conductance responses (SCRs) during ROF and hippocampal activation. As discriminating signals of danger and safety, as well as a tendency for overgeneralization, are core features in clinically anxious populations, these deficits may specifically contribute to relapse risk following exposure to adversity, in particular to recent adversity. Hence, our results may provide first and novel insights into the possible mechanisms mediating enhanced relapse risk following exposure to (recent) adversity, which may guide the development of effective pre- and intervention programs. PMID:27434492

  14. Influence of cell growth conditions and medium composition on EGFP photostability in live cells.

    PubMed

    Mamontova, Anastasia V; Bogdanov, Alexey M; Lukyanov, Konstantin A

    2015-05-01

    Photostability is a key characteristic of fluorescent proteins. It was recently demonstrated that green fluorescent protein (GFP) photobleaching in live cells can be suppressed by changes in medium composition. Here we show that Ham's F12 medium provides very high enhanced GFP (EGFP) photostability during fluorescence microscopy of live cells. This property of Ham's F12 medium is associated with decreased concentrations of riboflavin and pyridoxine, and increased concentrations of FeSO4, cyanocobalamine, lipoic acid, hypoxanthine, and thymidine compared with DMEM. We also found that the rate of EGFP photobleaching strongly depends on cell growth conditions such as cell density and the concentration of serum. We conclude that both imaging medium composition and the physiological state of the cells can strongly affect the photostability of fluorescent proteins. Thus, accurate comparison of the photostabilities of fluorescent proteins should be performed only in side-by-side analysis in identical cell growth conditions and media. PMID:25967905

  15. Conditions for creativity: lessons for lesbians in the lives of Romaine Brooks and Terry Wolverton.

    PubMed

    Walker, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the lives of Terry Wolverton, former lesbian separatist artist at The Women's Building, Los Angeles and now a mythical writer and visionary, and lesbian painter, Romaine Brooks. Whereas superficially their lives appear to have little in common other than that they were both lesbian artists, similarities can be found in stories linking them in ways previously un-examined before. Both came from abusive family backgrounds, Wolverton surviving sexual abuse and alcoholism, while Brooks' life was marred by a frightening mother and a father who deserted her. Using autobiography and biographical sources, Walker analyzes the creative conditions under which lesbian art may thrive. For a time, gay and lesbian art flourished in the United States. Brooks' portraits of "butch" lesbians became synonymous with popular images of twentieth-century lesbians. Wolverton's work with other lesbian artists in The Lesbian Art Project of 1977-1980 documents their engagement with art. The conditions required for creativity of whatever kind involves journeys and Walker uses the concept of "journeying" as a metaphor to describe the internal and external processes that of necessity accompany the creative act. The content of the article examines what can be learned from the lives of Brooks and Wolverton. Historically the "artist story" (Kunstlerroman) has focused on male and female heterosexual artists. The study of more recent autobiographical accounts permits an examination of the development of artists with cultural differences, and makes it possible to ask what conditions need be in place for lesbian artists to create art to "unfetter the self" when the self in question is different. Walker concludes that the early experiences of Wolverton and Brooks had a profound effect on their adult lives, as both made circuitous creative journeys in attempts to overcome the trauma of childhood years. Whereas one succeeded, the other failed due to the different cultural conditions

  16. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  17. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  18. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850228

  19. Dominance rank is associated with body condition in outdoor-living domestic horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Sarah L.; Nicol, Christine J.; Harris, Patricia A.; Rands, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the association between dominance rank and body condition in outdoor group-living domestic horses, Equus caballus. Social interactions were recorded using a video camera during a feeding test, applied to 203 horses in 42 herds. Dominance rank was assigned to 194 individuals. The outcome variable body condition score (BCS) was recorded using a 9-point scale. The variables age and height were recorded and considered as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Results were analysed using multivariable linear and logistic regression techniques, controlling for herd group as a random effect. More dominant (p = 0.001) individuals generally had a higher body condition score (p = 0.001) and this association was entirely independent of age and height. In addition, a greater proportion of dominant individuals fell into the obese category (BCS ≥ 7/9, p = 0.005). There were more displacement encounters and a greater level of interactivity in herds that had less variation in age and height, lending strength to the hypothesis that phenotypic variation may aid cohesion in group-living species. In addition there was a strong quadratic relationship between age and dominance rank (p < 0.001), where middle-aged individuals were most likely to be dominant. These results are the first to link behavioural predictors to body condition and obesity status in horses and should prompt the future consideration of behavioural and social factors when evaluating clinical disease risk in group-living animals. PMID:25937683

  20. [Social support and living conditions in poor elderly people in urban Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Treviño-Siller, Sandra; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze social support and living conditions among poor elderly people in Mexican cities. A qualitative study with eight focus groups was carried out in Guadalajara, Cuernavaca, Chilpancingo, and Culiacan, Mexico, in 2005. Forty men and 63 women participated in the study. The main support for the elderly in daily living came from their immediate family and in some cases from neighbors. Social support was basically material and economic, in addition to providing company and transportation for medical appointments. Daily emotional support, companionship, and social inclusion were minimal or absent. The study identified a significant lack of support from government and religious or civil society organizations. The family is still the main source of support for the elderly. Increased government collaboration is dramatically needed to combat the misconception that the needs of the elderly are the individual family's responsibility rather than a collaborative effort by society. PMID:21519697

  1. Children's experience of living with a craniofacial condition: perspectives of children and parents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Shute, Rosalyn

    2011-07-01

    This is the first study to examine the range of experiences of children living with a wide range of craniofacial anomalies (CFAs), from the perspectives of children and parents. We interviewed 26 young people and 28 parents about both stressors and positive aspects for young people of living with a CFA. Thematic analysis revealed four major stress-related themes (self-acceptance, responses of others, disabilities and impairments, and treatment). Positive themes included personal qualities and support. Psychological theories often applied to those with CFAs relate to attractiveness, stigma and teasing, but the present findings suggest that these are not as useful as the conceptualization of CFAs as chronic conditions which influence adaptive tasks. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20650974

  2. Living organisms influence on environmental conditions: pH modulation by amphibian embryos versus aluminum toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Castañaga, Luis Alberto; D'Eramo, José Luis; Jourani, Victoria Platonova

    2015-11-01

    The LC10, 50 and 90/24h of aluminum for Rhinella arenarum embryos at complete operculum stage were 0.55, 0.75 and 1mgAl(3+)/L respectively. Those values did not change significantly by expanding the exposure period till 168h. The aluminum toxicity was evaluated in different pH conditions by means of a citrate buffer resulting for instance, 1mgAl(3+)/L at pH 4, 4.1, 5 and 6 in 100%, 70%, 35% and 0% of lethality respectively. As an outstanding feature, the embryos changed the pH of the maintaining media both in the case of Al(3+) or citrate buffer treatments toward neutral. 10 embryos in 40mL of AMPHITOX solution were able to increase the pH from 4.2 to 7.05, a fact related with a metabolic shift resulting in an increase in nitrogen loss as ammonia. Our study point out the natural selection of the most resistant amphibian embryos both for pH or aluminum as well as the capacity of living organisms (as a population) to alter their chemical environment toward optimal conditions for their survival. As these facts occur at early life stages, it expand the concept that living organisms at ontogenic stages are biomarker of environmental signatures of the evolutionary process (Herkovits, 2006) to a global Onto-Evo concept which imply also the feedback mechanisms from living organisms to shape environmental conditions in a way that benefits them. PMID:26126231

  3. Data resource profile: The Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD).

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Carin; Agahi, Neda; Hols-Salén, Linda; Kelfve, Susanne; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Lundberg, Olle; Parker, Marti G; Thorslund, Mats

    2014-06-01

    As the number and proportion of very old people in the population increase, there is a need for improved knowledge about their health and living conditions. The SWEOLD interview surveys are based on random samples of the population aged 77+years. The low non-response rates, the inclusion of institutionalized persons and the use of proxy informants for people unable to be interviewed directly ensure a representative portrayal of this age group in Sweden. SWEOLD began in 1992 and has been repeated in 2002, 2004 and 2011. The survey is based on another national survey, the Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU), started in 1968 with 10-year follow-up waves. This longitudinal design provides additional data collected when SWEOLD participants were in middle age and early old age. The SWEOLD interviews cover a wide range of areas including health and health behaviour, work history, family, leisure activities and use of health and social care services. Socio-economic factors include education, previous occupation and available cash margin. Health indicators include symptoms, diseases, mobility and activities of daily living (ADL). In addition to self-reported data, the interview includes objective tests of lung function, physical function, grip strength and cognition. The data have been linked to register data, for example for income and mortality follow-ups. Data are available to the scientific community on request. More information about the study, data access rules and how to apply for data are available at the website (www.sweold.se). PMID:24651397

  4. In-migration and Living Conditions of Young Adolescents in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M.; Norris, Shane A.; Swart, Tanya M.; Ginsburg, Carren

    2007-01-01

    While migration in South Africa has been studied on a broad canvas, there have been few accounts of children's migration and the effects on living conditions and wellbeing. This article compares the access to services, housing and household amenities, and family characteristics of children born in the Greater Johannesburg metropolis with those of in-migrant children. The article also examines other indicators of child wellbeing related to parental care and schooling. In-migrant children, particularly children who have lived previously in rural areas and/or have recently migrated into the city, are significantly disadvantaged in comparison to long-term resident children in terms of parental education and occupation, housing type and ownership, access to electricity, refuse removal, water and sanitation. In-migrant children also live in households that are less likely to have amenities such as a refrigerator, television, washing machine, telephone and motor vehicle. In terms of child indicators, in-migrant children enjoy less frequent parental contact and are twice as likely to start school later than resident children. Whilst urbanisation to South Africa's metropolitan centres is generally associated with several widely recognised benefits, for children, these benefits may be tempered by the disadvantages of in-migrant families known to be associated with child wellbeing. PMID:18273401

  5. Optimizing culture conditions for free-living stages of the nematode parasite Strongyloides ratti.

    PubMed

    Dulovic, Alex; Puller, Vadim; Streit, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    The rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti (S. ratti) has recently emerged as a model system for various aspects of parasite biology and evolution. In addition to parasitic parthenogenetic females, this species can also form facultative free-living generations of sexually reproducing adults. These free-living worms are bacteriovorous and grow very well when cultured in the feces of their host. However, in fecal cultures the worms are rather difficult to find for observation and experimental manipulation. Therefore, it has also been attempted to raise S. ratti on Nematode Growth Media (NGM) plates with Escherichia coli OP50 as food, exactly as described for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whilst worms did grow on these plates, their longevity and reproductive output compared to fecal cultures were dramatically reduced. In order to improve the culture success we tested other plates occasionally used for C. elegans and, starting from the best performing one, systematically varied the plate composition, the temperature and the food in order to further optimize the conditions. Here we present a plate culturing protocol for free-living stages of S. ratti with strongly improved reproductive success and longevity. PMID:27334397

  6. In-migration and Living Conditions of Young Adolescents in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda M; Norris, Shane A; Swart, Tanya M; Ginsburg, Carren

    2006-01-01

    While migration in South Africa has been studied on a broad canvas, there have been few accounts of children's migration and the effects on living conditions and wellbeing. This article compares the access to services, housing and household amenities, and family characteristics of children born in the Greater Johannesburg metropolis with those of in-migrant children. The article also examines other indicators of child wellbeing related to parental care and schooling. In-migrant children, particularly children who have lived previously in rural areas and/or have recently migrated into the city, are significantly disadvantaged in comparison to long-term resident children in terms of parental education and occupation, housing type and ownership, access to electricity, refuse removal, water and sanitation. In-migrant children also live in households that are less likely to have amenities such as a refrigerator, television, washing machine, telephone and motor vehicle. In terms of child indicators, in-migrant children enjoy less frequent parental contact and are twice as likely to start school later than resident children. Whilst urbanisation to South Africa's metropolitan centres is generally associated with several widely recognised benefits, for children, these benefits may be tempered by the disadvantages of in-migrant families known to be associated with child wellbeing. PMID:18273401

  7. [A perspective on living conditions: child and adolescent mortality in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Cruz Neto, Otavio; Sucena, Luiz Fernando Mazzei

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the Mortality Information System, this paper investigates the deaths of children and adolescents in the Manguinhos neighborhood from 1996 to 2000, to determine the main characteristics and associate key mortality aspects with local living conditions. An outlying working-class or "suburban" neighborhood of the city of Rio de Janeiro where the main campus of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is located, Manguinhos consists of 12 "communities" characterized by poverty, social exclusion, drug traffic, and structural violence. In light of these factors and the cultural, social, and economic potential of the Manguinhos population, the authors begin with the theoretical/ practical premise that living conditions played a major role in the deaths of these young citizens. The study of these fatal events may therefore lead to the elucidation of issues and problems that must be included on the agendas and in forums involving both health promotion projects and the Municipal, State, and Federal governments so that they can be appropriately addressed in the scope of public policies. PMID:12700795

  8. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annie E; Dybala, Kristen E; Botsford, Louis W; Eadie, John M; Bradley, Russell W; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment-species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt's cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt's cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities. PMID:26168050

  9. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Annie E.; Dybala, Kristen E.; Botsford, Louis W.; Eadie, John M.; Bradley, Russell W.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment–species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt’s cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt’s cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities. PMID:26168050

  10. Social Resources and Disordered Living Conditions: Evidence from a National Sample of Community-Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Erin York

    2015-01-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement – but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. While socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as co-residential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this paper, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions, as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a co-resident partner, more non-residential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well being in later life. PMID:25651314

  11. Social resources and disordered living conditions: evidence from a national sample of community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    York Cornwell, Erin

    2014-07-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement--but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. Although socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as coresidential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this article, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low-income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a coresident partner, more nonresidential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well-being in later life. PMID:25651314

  12. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  13. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class

    PubMed Central

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Background Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Methods Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). Results SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85–1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92–1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Discussion Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health. PMID:24560257

  14. Climatic conditions cause complex patterns of covariation between demographic traits in a long-lived raptor.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; van de Pol, Martijn; Nielsen, Jan T; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Møller, Anders P

    2015-05-01

    Environmental variation can induce life-history changes that can last over a large part of the lifetime of an organism. If multiple demographic traits are affected, expected changes in climate may influence environmental covariances among traits in a complex manner. Thus, examining the consequences of environmental fluctuations requires that individual information at multiple life stages is available, which is particularly challenging in long-lived species. Here, we analyse how variation in climatic conditions occurring in the year of hatching of female goshawks Accipiter gentilis (L.) affects age-specific variation in demographic traits and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). LRS decreased with increasing temperature in April in the year of hatching, due to lower breeding frequency and shorter reproductive life span. In contrast, the probability for a female to successfully breed was higher in years with a warm April, but lower LRS of the offspring in these years generated a negative covariance among fecundity rates among generations. The mechanism by which climatic conditions generated cohort effects was likely through influencing the quality of the breeding segment of the population in a given year, as the proportion of pigeons in the diet during the breeding period was positively related to annual and LRS, and the diet of adult females that hatched in warm years contained fewer pigeons. Climatic conditions experienced during different stages of individual life histories caused complex patterns of environmental covariance among demographic traits even across generations. Such environmental covariances may either buffer or amplify impacts of climate change on population growth, emphasizing the importance of considering demographic changes during the complete life history of individuals when predicting the effect of climatic change on population dynamics of long-lived species. PMID:25403010

  15. Living with a long-term condition: Understanding well-being for individuals with thrombophilia or asthma.

    PubMed

    Roddis, Jennifer K; Holloway, Immy; Bond, Carol; Galvin, Kathleen T

    2016-01-01

    A range of literature has explored the experience of living with a long-term condition (LTC), and frequently treats such experiences and conditions as problematic. In contrast, other research has demonstrated that it may be possible to adapt and achieve well-being, even when living with such a condition. This tends to focus on meaning and the qualitative experience of living with an LTC, and offers alternative perspectives, often of the same or similar conditions. As a result of these conflicting views, this study chose to consider two conditions which, though they may lead to life-threatening illness on occasion, do not appear to impact significantly the lives of all those affected on a daily basis. The aim of this research was to explore and explain how people make sense of two long-term, potentially life-threatening health conditions, namely, thrombophilia and asthma. In doing so, it specifically considered the contribution made by information about the condition. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted; this enabled the generation of a theory regarding how people make sense of their LTC, whilst acknowledging the social circumstances in which this was situated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants who had given consent to take part in the research. The findings demonstrate that participants undergo a two-stage process-gaining knowledge and living with a long-term condition. The theory based on these findings indicates that those who are knowledgeable about their condition, making informed decisions in relation to it, and accept their condition are able to live with it, whilst those who do not accept their condition do not fully adapt to it or integrate it into their lives. PMID:27534945

  16. Living with a long-term condition: Understanding well-being for individuals with thrombophilia or asthma

    PubMed Central

    Roddis, Jennifer K.; Holloway, Immy; Bond, Carol; Galvin, Kathleen T.

    2016-01-01

    A range of literature has explored the experience of living with a long-term condition (LTC), and frequently treats such experiences and conditions as problematic. In contrast, other research has demonstrated that it may be possible to adapt and achieve well-being, even when living with such a condition. This tends to focus on meaning and the qualitative experience of living with an LTC, and offers alternative perspectives, often of the same or similar conditions. As a result of these conflicting views, this study chose to consider two conditions which, though they may lead to life-threatening illness on occasion, do not appear to impact significantly the lives of all those affected on a daily basis. The aim of this research was to explore and explain how people make sense of two long-term, potentially life-threatening health conditions, namely, thrombophilia and asthma. In doing so, it specifically considered the contribution made by information about the condition. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted; this enabled the generation of a theory regarding how people make sense of their LTC, whilst acknowledging the social circumstances in which this was situated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants who had given consent to take part in the research. The findings demonstrate that participants undergo a two-stage process—gaining knowledge and living with a long-term condition. The theory based on these findings indicates that those who are knowledgeable about their condition, making informed decisions in relation to it, and accept their condition are able to live with it, whilst those who do not accept their condition do not fully adapt to it or integrate it into their lives. PMID:27534945

  17. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  18. [Social living conditions and health among mothers in Germany : findings from a population sample].

    PubMed

    Sperlich, S; Arnhold-Kerri, S; Geyer, S

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports findings from a population sample of mothers with underage children living in Germany (n=3,129). The objective of the study was to analyze whether social and familiar living conditions are associated with enhanced health risks for mothers. The sample is representative with respect to German federal states, school education, marital status, age of mothers, and number of children. Health problems were assessed in terms of physical disabilities and discomforts, anxiety and depression, and self-rated health. About 27% of mothers perceived physical disabilities and discomfort, 21% reported high levels of anxiety, and 22% high levels of depression. About 6% assessed their health as poor or very poor. Particularly single motherhood, unemployment, sole responsibility for household and family as well as low income and low school education increased the risk of poor health. The findings suggest that for specific subgroups of mothers parenting may be a vulnerable phase of life reflecting the need for a life stage orientation in health inequality research. PMID:21626379

  19. Antagonistic Pleiotropy at the Human IL6 Promoter Confers Genetic Resilience to the Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Adverse Social Conditions in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Manu, Kavya; Telzer, Eva H.; Kiang, Lisa; Bower, Julienne E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested the evolutionary genetic hypothesis that the functional form of an asymmetrically risky Gene × Environment interaction will differ as a function of age-related antagonistic pleiotropy (i.e., show opposite effects in young vs. old individuals). Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the human IL6 promoter (rs1800795; IL6 –174 G/C) that interacts with adverse socioenvironmental conditions to promote chronic inflammation in older adults (elevated C-reactive protein). This study identifies a protective effect of the same polymorphism in 17- to 19-year-old adolescents confronting socioeconomic adversity. Over 60% of the environmental risk contribution to the IL6 × Socioeconomic Status interaction could be accounted for by interpersonal stress and adult role burden. Thus, the IL6 –174G allele does not represent an undifferentiated risk factor but instead sensitizes inflammatory biology to socioenvironmental conditions, conferring either genetic vulnerability or resilience depending on the developmental “somatic environment” that interacts with social conditions to influence gene expression. PMID:21639625

  20. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Lalita; Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  1. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  2. Waiting for a Specialist Consultation for a New Condition in Ontario: Impacts on Patients' Lives

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Daniel W.; Wilson, Kathi; Rosenberg, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    As leading barriers to specialist care, wait times are at the forefront of the Canadian healthcare policy agenda. However, knowledge is limited about how wait times affect patients' lives. We utilized the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey to examine the experience of patients requiring a consultation with a medical specialist for a new condition. Multivariate logistic regression predicted the likelihood that a respondent self-reported his or her life was affected. Subsequent cross-tabulations determined the ways in which life was affected. Females, middle-aged respondents, new immigrants and those with low income and poor health status were more likely to report their life was affected. Worry, stress and anxiety were the most frequently reported impacts, followed by pain, stress on family/friends, deterioration of health and loss of work. Our research demonstrates a need to address the impacts of wait times on health and well-being, with a focus on particular subpopulation groups. PMID:24973486

  3. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  4. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  5. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:25048352

  6. American coal miner: a report on community and living conditions in the coalfields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report represents the first major documentation of coalfield community and living conditions since the Boone Report of 1947, ''A Medical Survey of the Bituminous-Coal Industry'' was published by the Coal Mines Administration of the Department of the Interior in 1947 in response to a demand by John L. Lewis for improvements in public health and medical treatment at the mines and in the coal camps. The situation in 1979 is very different from what it was in 1947. Not only do the coal miners enjoy a much more comfortable lifestyle and significantly improved quality of health care, but also a much higher percentage of miners are employed at surface mines, many of which are now in the western States. During the decade of the 1970s, women entered the mining work force, often after successfully seeking legal action under Federal Equal Employment Opportunity statutes. Many problems remain in the coalfields. There is vast room for improvement in the areas of housing and highways. Health care facilities and services are less extensively available than in more urban areas. Coal mining remains the most dangerous of occupations, despite considerable improvements in coal mine health and safety. The progress achieved by coal miners over their counterparts of earlier generations cannot be denied. Thirty years ago, the miner and his family were still living in coal camps, often in conditions of poverty. Today, mining communities are much more diverse, and the modern miner is, more often than not, among the resident middle class. The reality of that vast change is not widely recognized. This book concentrates on employed miners. (LTN)

  7. [Unequal living conditions and health chances in preschool children: support protective factors - limit risk factors].

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, E; Zimmermann, E

    2008-11-01

    Manifestations of an aggravation of social antagonisms and increased reports about childhood poverty and child abuse have unleashed a broad debate about the situation of children in risk-laden circumstances. More and more children are affected by relative poverty and disadvantage. An increase in the number children under 15 who receive social assistance can also be registered in Bremen, this share even increased to 60% in especially burdened districts. Against this background, the Bremen Health Department used a socio-spatial analysis to determine whether the utilisation of health examinations and the social and cultural participation chances of preschool children differed according to their living conditions. To this end, selected data from the school entrance examinations from 1998 to 2005 were analysed in regard to their relevance for the participation chances in different child-related dimensions of the life situation. Contradictory developments could be found, both in the dimension of the utilisation of health examinations and in the dimension of social and cultural participation chances. Children from disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibited a lower utilisation of health examinations and less chances for social and cultural participation than children from more well-to-do residential areas. Trend calculations for the years 1998 to 2005 show an increasing discrepancy between children from disadvantaged and those from well-to-do neighbourhoods. Disadvantaged life situations - with the danger of increasing exclusion - appear to be establishing themselves in Bremen. The resources of children and families for dealing with risk-laden life situations have to be strengthened. Effective and long-lasting prevention approaches have to be developed and implemented at the local level. Kindergartens and schools could serve as centres for community networking strategies. Integrated concepts for action in the respective social areas are necessary to protect children and

  8. Female infidelity is constrained by El Niño conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Kiere, Lynna Marie; Drummond, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    activity. In addition to increasing general self-maintenance and reproductive costs, warm waters may increase costs specific to EP behaviours including divorce, reduced male parental care, or pathogen exposure. Our results suggest that female boobies strategically refrained from EP behaviours to avoid these or other longer-term costs, rather than being compelled by immediate constraints. This study demonstrates that current environmental conditions affect females' mating decisions, contributing to variation in EP behaviours, even in a long-lived, iteroparous species that can buffer against temporary adversity. PMID:27119773

  9. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must use written donor selection criteria in determining the suitability of candidates for donation. (a... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical records the living donor's suitability for donation, and (3) Document that the living donor has given...

  10. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  11. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  12. Stability of attenuated live virus rabies vaccine in baits targeted to wild foxes under operational conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, K F; Bachmann, P

    2001-01-01

    The viability of an attenuated live virus rabies vaccine in a bait targeted to red foxes was examined under various operational conditions in a series of experiments in Ontario. The virus was relatively stable over a 28-day period in the field, losing a mean 0.5, s = 0.2 log10 of virus titer. The micro-environment into which the bait was placed (open cultivated field, grassy meadow, wooded grove, sun or shade) did not make an appreciable difference in the viability of the virus. There was no significant difference (P < or = 0.05) between mean ambient temperatures and the temperature of fluids in blister packs of baits placed in sun or shade. Sixty-three percent of foxes fed baits exposed to sun and shade conditions for 21 days (titer 10(6.2) tissue culture infective doses per 1 mL) developed rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. Storage of vaccine baits at -30 degrees C prior to bait distribution was important in maintaining virus viability. PMID:11360859

  13. Live Imaging of Endogenous PSD-95 Using ENABLED: A Conditional Strategy to Fluorescently Label Endogenous Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Dale A.; Tillo, Shane E.; Yang, Guang; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Melander, Joshua B.; Bai, Suxia; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Qin, Maozhen; Zemelman, Boris V.; Guo, Caiying

    2014-01-01

    Stoichiometric labeling of endogenous synaptic proteins for high-contrast live-cell imaging in brain tissue remains challenging. Here, we describe a conditional mouse genetic strategy termed endogenous labeling via exon duplication (ENABLED), which can be used to fluorescently label endogenous proteins with near ideal properties in all neurons, a sparse subset of neurons, or specific neuronal subtypes. We used this method to label the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with mVenus without overexpression side effects. We demonstrated that mVenus-tagged PSD-95 is functionally equivalent to wild-type PSD-95 and that PSD-95 is present in nearly all dendritic spines in CA1 neurons. Within spines, while PSD-95 exhibited low mobility under basal conditions, its levels could be regulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Notably, labeled PSD-95 also allowed us to visualize and unambiguously examine otherwise-unidentifiable excitatory shaft synapses in aspiny neurons, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that the ENABLED strategy provides a valuable new approach to study the dynamics of endogenous synaptic proteins in vivo. PMID:25505322

  14. A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

  15. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women. PMID:25314694

  16. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition. PMID:27493966

  17. Environmental living conditions introduced during forced abstinence alter cocaine-seeking behavior and Fos protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Kenneth J.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Peartree, Natalie A.; Painter, Michael R.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) introduced during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is protective in reducing cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine in rats. This study examined neural activation associated with this protective effect of EE using Fos protein expression as a marker. Rats were trained to press a lever reinforced by cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 ml infusion) and light and tone cues across 15 consecutive days during which they were all housed in isolated conditions (IC). Rats were then assigned to either remain in IC, or to live in pair-housed conditions (PC) or EE for 30 days of forced abstinence from cocaine. Subsequently, cocaine-seeking behavior (lever presses without cocaine reinforcement) elicited by response-contingent cue presentations was assessed for 90 min, after which the rats' brains were immediately harvested for Fos protein immunohistochemistry. EE attenuated, whereas IC enhanced, cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior relative to PC. Also, within the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices and basolateral amygdala, IC enhanced, whereas EE reduced, Fos expression relative to PC. Furthermore, EE attenuated Fos expression in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortices, the nucleus accumbens (core and shell), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and ventral tegmental area, evident as a reduction relative to both PC and IC. In contrast, IC enhanced Fos expression in the dorsal caudate putamen, substantia nigra, and central amygdala, evident as an increase relative to both PC and EE. These results suggest that EE blunts neural activation throughout the mesocorticolimbic circuitry involved in cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine, whereas IC enhances activation primarily within the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. These findings have important implications for understanding and treating drug-conditioned craving in humans. PMID:20933585

  18. Environmental living conditions introduced during forced abstinence alter cocaine-seeking behavior and Fos protein expression.

    PubMed

    Thiel, K J; Pentkowski, N S; Peartree, N A; Painter, M R; Neisewander, J L

    2010-12-29

    Environmental enrichment (EE) introduced during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is protective in reducing cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine in rats. This study examined neural activation associated with this protective effect of EE using Fos protein expression as a marker. Rats were trained to press a lever reinforced by cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 mL infusion) and light and tone cues across 15 consecutive days during which they were all housed in isolated conditions (IC). Rats were then assigned to either remain in IC, or to live in pair-housed conditions (PC) or EE for 30 days of forced abstinence from cocaine. Subsequently, cocaine-seeking behavior (lever presses without cocaine reinforcement) elicited by response-contingent cue presentations was assessed for 90 min, after which the rats' brains were immediately harvested for Fos protein immunohistochemistry. EE attenuated, whereas IC enhanced, cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior relative to PC. Also, within the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices and basolateral amygdala, IC enhanced, whereas EE reduced, Fos expression relative to PC. Furthermore, EE attenuated Fos expression in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortices, the nucleus accumbens (core and shell), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and ventral tegmental area, evident as a reduction relative to both PC and IC. In contrast, IC enhanced Fos expression in the dorsal caudate putamen, substantia nigra, and central amygdala, evident as an increase relative to both PC and EE. These results suggest that EE blunts neural activation throughout the mesocorticolimbic circuitry involved in cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine, whereas IC enhances activation primarily within the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. These findings have important implications for understanding and treating drug-conditioned craving in humans. PMID:20933585

  19. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important…

  20. One-against-All Weighted Dynamic Time Warping for Language-Independent and Speaker-Dependent Speech Recognition in Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianglilan; Sun, Jiping; Luo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English) names, language-independent (LI) with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD) automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW). This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI) for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW), as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER) compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions. PMID:24520317

  1. One-against-all weighted dynamic time warping for language-independent and speaker-dependent speech recognition in adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianglilan; Sun, Jiping; Luo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English) names, language-independent (LI) with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD) automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW). This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI) for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW), as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER) compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions. PMID:24520317

  2. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations. PMID:26594267

  3. Detection and manipulation of live antigen-expressing cells using conditionally stable nanobodies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jonathan CY; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Etemad, Behzad; Rudolph, Stephanie; Guo, Binggege; Wang, Sui; Ellis, Emily G; Li, Jonathan Z; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect and/or manipulate specific cell populations based upon the presence of intracellular protein epitopes would enable many types of studies and applications. Protein binders such as nanobodies (Nbs) can target untagged proteins (antigens) in the intracellular environment. However, genetically expressed protein binders are stable regardless of antigen expression, complicating their use for applications that require cell-specificity. Here, we created a conditional system in which the stability of an Nb depends upon an antigen of interest. We identified Nb framework mutations that can be used to rapidly create destabilized Nbs. Fusion of destabilized Nbs to various proteins enabled applications in living cells, such as optogenetic control of neural activity in specific cell types in the mouse brain, and detection of HIV-infected human cells by flow cytometry. These approaches are generalizable to other protein binders, and enable the rapid generation of single-polypeptide sensors and effectors active in cells expressing specific intracellular epitopes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15312.001 PMID:27205882

  4. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; López-López, J. Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host. PMID:26445111

  5. Scour around a submerged cylinder and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device in live-bed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, Maria Laura; Volpe, Michael; Krane, Michael; Fontaine, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are presented to explore how sediment scour around a single Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine varies with flow speed. Three Reynolds numbers, based on support structure diameter were used to induce live-bed scour conditions. Based on results from previous studies on submerged cylinders, differences in scour patterns between a single cylinder and MHK device can be determined. In the case of MHK energy, many devices are submerged in the flow. Thus, it is important to analyze the impact of both the support structure and the addition of the rotating blades. The experiments were performed in the small-scale testing platform in the hydraulic flume facility at Bucknell University. For each test case, bed form topology was measured after a three-hour time interval using a traversing two-dimensional bed profiler. During the experiment, scour depth measurements at the front face of the cylindrical support structure were taken to estimate the scour rate. Measurements of the bed form were taken across the width of the test section. Results show that the scour hole dimensions increase in the presence of the MHK device. These dimensions also increase with increasing Reynolds number.

  6. Comparison of total energy expenditure assessed by two devices in controlled and free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Sylvie; Fardet, Anthony; Lacomme, Philippe; Normand, Sylvie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves; Morio, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of total energy expenditure (TEE) provided by Actiheart and Armband. Normal-weight adult volunteers wore both devices either for 17 hours in a calorimetric chamber (CC, n = 49) or for 10 days in free-living conditions (FLC) outside the laboratory (n = 41). The two devices and indirect calorimetry or doubly labelled water, respectively, were used to estimate TEE in the CC group and FLC group. In the CC, the relative value of TEE error was not significant (p > 0.05) for Actiheart but significantly different from zero for Armband, showing TEE underestimation (-4.9%, p < 0.0001). However, the mean absolute values of errors were significantly different between Actiheart and Armband: 8.6% and 6.7%, respectively (p = 0.05). Armband was more accurate for estimating TEE during sleeping, rest, recovery periods and sitting-standing. Actiheart provided better estimation during step and walking. In FLC, no significant error in relative value was detected. Nevertheless, Armband produced smaller errors in absolute value than Actiheart (8.6% vs. 12.8%). The distributions of differences were more scattered around the means, suggesting a higher inter-individual variability in TEE estimated by Actiheart than by Armband. Our results show that both monitors are appropriate for estimating TEE. Armband is more effective than Actiheart at the individual level for daily light-intensity activities. PMID:25141769

  7. Storage of milk powders under adverse conditions. 2. Influence on the content of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ford, J E; Hurrell, R F; Finot, P A

    1983-05-01

    Storage of milk powder under unfavourable conditions accelerates the normally slow deterioration in nutritional quality. The effects of such storage on the water-soluble vitamin composition were examined. (a) Spray-dried whole milk containing 25 g water/kg was stored at 60 degrees and 70 degrees and sampled weekly to 9 weeks. (b) Spray-dried whole milk and skimmed milk were adjusted to contain 40 and 100 g water/kg and stored at 37 degrees in nitrogen and in oxygen. Samples were taken for analysis at intervals during storage. The samples were analysed for eight B-complex vitamins and ascorbic acid, and also for total lysine, 'reactive lysine' and 'lysine as lactulosyl-lysine'. Storage at 60 degrees caused rapid destruction of folic acid (53% loss at 4 weeks) and slower loss of thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid (18% at 8 weeks). There was no change in the content of riboflavin, biotin, nicotinic acid and vitamin B12. At 70 degrees the rate of destruction of the four labile vitamins was much increased; 18% or less survived at 4 weeks. At 37 degrees and 40 g water/kg there was little change in total and 'reactive' lysine during storage for 57 d. Lactulosyl-lysine was demonstrably present but at low concentration. There was considerable loss of folate (72%) and ascorbate (91%) during storage for 30 d in O2, but no significant loss in N2. Thiamin fell by approximately 12% in 57 d, equally in O2 and N2. The content of the remaining vitamins was unchanged. At 100 g water/kg there were progressive Maillard changes. During 27 d in N2 the colour changed from cream to pale brown, but in O2 there was no perceptible colour change. Total lysine fell by 20% in 27 d, and 'reactive lysine' by 30%. Folate was stable during 16 d in N2, but largely (94%) destroyed in O2. Ascorbic acid was also destroyed in N2 as in O2. Thiamin fell by 41% in 27 d, equally in O2 and N2. Vitamin B6 was more labile, especially in N2, falling by 71% in 16 d. With skimmed-milk powder containing 100

  8. Does childhood adversity account for poorer mental and physical health in second-generation Irish people living in Britain? Birth cohort study from Britain (NCDS)

    PubMed Central

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Clark, Charlotte; Dewey, Michael E; Leavey, Gerard; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Prince, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Worldwide, the Irish diaspora experience elevated mortality and morbidity across generations, not accounted for through socioeconomic position. The main objective of the present study was to assess if childhood disadvantage accounts for poorer mental and physical health in adulthood, in second-generation Irish people. Design Analysis of prospectively collected birth cohort data, with participants followed to midlife. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Approximately 17 000 babies born in a single week in 1958. Six per cent of the cohort were of second-generation Irish descent. Outcomes Primary outcomes were common mental disorders assessed at age 44/45 and self-rated health at age 42. Secondary outcomes were those assessed at ages 23 and 33. Results Relative to the rest of the cohort, second-generation Irish children grew up in marked material and social disadvantage, which tracked into early adulthood. By midlife, parity was reached between second-generation Irish cohort members and the rest of the sample on most disadvantage indicators. At age 23, Irish cohort members were more likely to screen positive for common mental disorders (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.94). This had reduced slightly by midlife (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.69). Although at age 23 second-generation cohort members were just as likely to report poorer self-rated health (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43), by midlife this difference had increased (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.60). Adjustment for childhood and early adulthood adversity fully attenuated differences in adult health disadvantages. Conclusions Social and material disadvantage experienced in childhood continues to have long-range adverse effects on physical and mental health at midlife, in second-generation Irish cohort members. This suggests important mechanisms over the life-course, which may have important policy implications in the settlement of migrant families. PMID:23457320

  9. Rehabilitation of living conditions in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: the ETHOS project.

    PubMed

    Lochard, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The ETHOS Project, supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (EC), was implemented in the mid-1990's with the support of the Belarus authorities as a pilot project to initiate a new approach for the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the Republic. This initiative followed a series of studies performed in the context of the EC Community of Independent States cooperation program to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), which clearly brought to the fore that a salient characteristic of the situation in these territories was the progressive and general loss of control of the population on its daily life. Furthermore, due to the economic difficulties during the years following the breakdown of the USSR, the population was developing private production and, in the absence of know-how and adequate means to control the radiological quality of foodstuffs, the level of internal exposure was rising significantly. The aim of the project was primarily to involve directly the population wishing to stay in the territories in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation with the goal of improving their protection and their living conditions. It was based on clear ethical principles and implemented by an interdisciplinary team of European experts with specific skills in radiation protection, agronomy, social risk management, communication, and cooperation in complex situations, with the support of local authorities and professionals. In a first phase (1996-1999), the ETHOS Project was implemented in a village located in the Stolyn District in the southern part of Belarus. During this phase, a few tens of villagers were involved in a step-by-step evaluation of the local radiological situation to progressively regain control of their daily life. In a second phase (1999-2001), the ETHOS Project was extended to four other localities of the District with the objective to

  10. The Condition and Needs of the Live Professional Theatre in America. Phase I Report: Data Collection and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert J.; And Others

    This report describes the first phase of a two-phase study of the condition and needs of the live professional theatre in America since the mid-1960s. Data contained in the report were collected and analyzed on the following aspects of the theatre: finances, productions, performances, facilities, labor force, and employment. The first chapter…

  11. Rethinking how we understand individual healthcare needs for people living with long-term conditions: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Joanne; Cooper, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that we need to 'Think Differently' about how we organise care for people with long-term conditions. Current approaches prioritise reducing population disease burden, meaning health need is defined predominantly in terms of disease status, or even risk of disease. However, the result is care which overburdens some individuals. The World Health Organisation has described the need to view health as a 'resource for living' and not an end in itself. This study considers whether this view of health offers an alternative view of healthcare need in people living with long-term conditions. We know that chronic disease can be disruptive for some people; but not all. Our research question asked: Why do people experience long-term conditions differently, and what are the implications for understanding healthcare need? Our phenomenographic study involved qualitative interviews with 24 people living with at least one of the three conditions (diabetes, depression and chronic pain) and explored resources for and demands on daily living. Interviews all took place during 2012 and 2013. A narrative form analysis identified three patterns of illness experience (Gliding Swan, Stormy Seas and Stuck Adrift). Narrative content analysis revealed four factors explaining the variation: personalising care, existence of meaningful anchors, partnership and excess demands. We thus propose three new categories of healthcare need described by a consideration of health as a resource for living: Resilient, Vulnerable and Disconnected. We discuss how the emerging findings may offer scope to develop new needs assessment and patient-reported outcome measure tools. And so, offer a different way of thinking about the organisation for care for people with long-term conditions. PMID:25470421

  12. Enhancement of NK Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Long-Term Living in Negatively Charged-Particle Dominant Indoor Air-Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mase, Akinori; Kotani, Muneo; Ami, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Megumi; Shirahama, Takashi; Lee, Suni; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yoshitome, Kei; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of house conditions that promote health revealed that negatively charged-particle dominant indoor air-conditions (NCPDIAC) induced immune stimulation. Negatively charged air-conditions were established using a fine charcoal powder on walls and ceilings and utilizing forced negatively charged particles (approximate diameter: 20 nm) dominant in indoor air-conditions created by applying an electric voltage (72 V) between the backside of the walls and the ground. We reported previously that these conditions induced a slight and significant increase of interleukin-2 during a 2.5-h stay and an increase of NK cell cytotoxicity when examining human subjects after a two-week night stay under these conditions. In the present study, seven healthy volunteers had a device installed to create NCPDIAC in the living or sleeping rooms of their own homes. Every three months the volunteers then turned the NCPDIAC device on or off. A total of 16 ON and 13 OFF trials were conducted and their biological effects were analyzed. NK activity increased during ON trials and decreased during OFF trials, although no other adverse effects were found. In addition, there were slight increases of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during ON trials. Furthermore, a comparison of the cytokine status between ON and OFF trials showed that basic immune status was stimulated slightly during ON trials under NCPIADC. Our overall findings indicate that the NCPDIAC device caused activation of NK activity and stimulated immune status, particularly only on NK activity, and therefore could be set in the home or office buildings. PMID:26173062

  13. Do Residential Conditions Explain the Relationship between Living Arrangements and Adolescent Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Kyle; Teachman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    Persistent effects of childhood living arrangements and family change on adolescent outcomes have often been attributed to differences in socialization and intrafamily processes. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to assess an alternative explanation: that neighborhood context and residential mobility represent a central set of…

  14. The Living Conditions of U.S.-Born Children of Mexican Immigrants in Unmarried Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…

  15. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for organ transplantation. (1) For each patient who receives an evaluation for placement on a center's... patient management policies for the transplant and discharge phases of transplantation. If a transplant... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard:...

  16. Suitability of live yeast addition to alleviate the adverse effects due to the restriction of the time of access to feed in sheep fed only pasture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2013-12-01

    The effect of yeast addition on intake and digestive utilization of pasture was studied in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. Eighteen wethers housed in metabolic cages and fed fresh forage (predominantly Lotus corniculatus) were randomly assigned to three treatments: forage available all day (AD); forage available only 6 h/day (R) and forage available only 6 h/day plus live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (RY). Feed intake and digestibility, feeding behaviour, kinetics of passage, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, nitrogen balance and microbial nitrogen synthesis (MNS) were determined in vivo, and ruminal liquor activity of animals was evaluated in vitro. Restricted animals consumed less than those fed all day but achieved more than 75% of the intake and spent less time ruminating (p = 0.014). Although animals without restriction consumed more feed, they had a lower rate of passage (p = 0.030). The addition of yeast did affect neither intake nor feeding behaviour, but increased digestibility. Organic matter digestibility tended to increase 11% by yeast addition (p = 0.051), mainly by a rise in NDF (27%, p = 0.032) and ADF digestibility (37%, p = 0.051). Ingested and retained N was lower in restricted animals, as MNS (p ≤ 0.045). The use of yeasts did not significantly change the N balance or MNS, but retained N tended to be higher in supplemented animals (p = 0.090). Neither ruminal pH nor ammonia concentrations were affected by the restriction, but restricted animals had a lower ruminal activity evidenced by a lower volume of gas (p = 0.020). The addition of yeast overcame this limitation, noted by a higher volume of gas of inocula from supplemented animals (p = 0.015). Yeast addition emerged as a useful tool to improve digestibility of forage cell walls in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. PMID:23020124

  17. Plasmid load adversely affects growth and gluconic acid secretion ability of mineral phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 under P limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2011-01-20

    Effect of the metabolic load caused by the presence of plasmids on mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) Enterobacter asburiae PSI3, was monitored with four plasmid cloning vectors and one native plasmid, varying in size, nature of the replicon, copy number and antibiotic resistance genes. Except for one plasmid, the presence of all other plasmids in E. asburiae PSI3 resulted in the loss of the MPS phenotype as reflected by the failure to bring about a drop in pH and release soluble P when grown in media containing rock phosphate (RP) as the sole P source. When 100 μM soluble P was supplemented along with RP, the adverse effects of plasmids on MPS phenotype and on growth parameters was reduced for some plasmid bearing derivatives, as monitored in terms of specific growth rates, glucose consumed, gluconic acids yields and P released. When 10 mM of soluble P as the only P source, was added to the medium all transformants showed growth and pH drop comparable with native strain. It may be concluded that different plasmids impose, to varying extents, a metabolic load in the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium E. asburiae PSI3 and results in diminishing its growth and P-solubilizing ability in P deficient conditions. PMID:20171856

  18. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed. PMID:25134042

  19. Fecal Bacterial Composition of the Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoises Living Under Captive and Semi-natural Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoling; Ruan, Rui; McLaughlin, Richard William; Hao, Yujiang; Zheng, Jinsong; Wang, Ding

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal microbiota is essential to the health and physiology of host animals. We undertook the first microbiological study of the fecal bacterial composition from critically endangered (CR) Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis; YFPs) living under captive and semi-natural conditions using both high-throughput sequencing method and 16S rRNA gene clone library method. As determined by high-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, semi-natural samples harbored 30 and 36 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which was more than the 22 and 27 OTUs detected from YFPs living in captivity. In captive YFPs Firmicutes was the predominant phylum, whereas this was Proteobacteria for YFPs living in semi-nature conditions. This suggests habitat-specific fecal bacterial composition of YFPs. Plesiomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp., which are potentially pathogenic, were identified in all the feces. Bacterial diversity from one porpoise living in captivity was also determined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library and only 1 phylum was identified. High-throughput sequencing was more effective at determining the bacterial diversity compared to the 16S rRNA gene clone library. This study provides important information for the management and conservation of the CR YFPs. PMID:26620537

  20. Pathways towards risk: syndemic conditions mediate the effect of adversity on HIV risk behaviors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM).

    PubMed

    Herrick, Amy; Stall, Ron; Egan, James; Schrager, Sheree; Kipke, Michele

    2014-10-01

    Research shows that young men who have sex with men (YMSM) engage in higher rates of health risk behaviors and experience higher rates of negative health outcomes than their peers. The purpose of this study is to determine if the effects of adversity on HIV risk are mediated by syndemics (co-occurring health problems). Participants were 470 ethnically diverse YMSM ages 18 to 24 recruited between 2005 and 2006 and surveyed every 6 months for 24 months. Regression analyses examined the impact of adversity on syndemics (emotional distress, substance use, and problematic alcohol use) and the effects of both adversity and syndemics on HIV risk behaviors over time. Gay-related discrimination and victimization-among other adversity variables-were significantly associated with syndemics and condomless sex (CS). Syndemics mediated the effects of adversity on CS in all models. Adverse events impact HIV risk taking among YMSM through syndemics. These findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing adversity may reduce both the synergistic effect of multiple psychosocial health problems and HIV risk taking. PMID:25146488

  1. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. PMID:25732020

  2. [Numerical Analysis of Particle Trajectories in Living Cells under Uncertainty Conditions].

    PubMed

    Pisarev, A S; Rukolaine, S A; Samsonov, A M; Samsonova, M G

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a numerical method for the analysis of particle trajectories in living cells, where a type of movement is determined by Akaike's information criterion, while model parameters are identified by a weighted least squares method. The method is realized in computer software, written in the Java programming language, that enables us to automatically conduct the analysis of trajectories. The method is tested on synthetic trajectories with known parameters, and applied to the analysis of replication complexes in cells, infected with hepatitis C virus. Results of the analysis are in agreement with available data on the movement of biological objects along microtubules. PMID:26591609

  3. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena. PMID:22279770

  4. Application of the Perovskite Ceramics to Conditioning of the Long-Lived Fraction of HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniavskaya, N. E.; Chizhevskaya, S. V.; Ochkin, A. V.

    2002-02-25

    High level waste (HLW) partitioning concept includes separation of a long-lived fraction following by its immobilization in ceramics. Improved process flow sheet suggested for implementation at PA ''Mayak'' implies production of a long-lived HLW fraction with rare earth elements (REE) as major components, Am and Cm as minor constituents, and only traces of U, Pu, and corrosion products (iron group elements). Because most of the elements occurred are trivalent, one of the most promising host phase is supposed to be REE aluminate or ferrate with perovskite structure. Major advantages of the perovskite are incorporation of trivalent REEs and actinides, simultaneous incorporation of residual corrosion products, flexibility of perovskite structure allowing accommodation of traces of tetravalent actinides (U, Pu), high chemical durability, and high HLW volume reduction. High melting points of the perovskites makes problematic melting route, therefore, cold pressing and sintering method is more preferable. In order to reduce sintering temperature pre-treatment of ceramic batches with high mechanical energy has been studied.

  5. The living conditions of psychiatric patients discharged from half-way houses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mak, K Y; Gow, L

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the living environment of 64 psychiatric patients discharged from half-way houses in Hong Kong. The majority were living in a deprived situation compared to that of their neighbours. They were leading a very monotonous life throughout the year; the walls of their homes were dirty and very plain; and some even ate scraps from a neighbouring bakery. Many did not have any social life at all, and their hobbies were smoking, watching television and gambling. Their neighbours, by comparison, had hobbies such as floriculture, birds and goldfish; decorated their walls with pictures and had newspapers and periodicals in their houses; more often had telephone facilities, wardrobes and sofas; used town gas rather than kerosene stoves; and were more likely to have electrical appliances, especially an iron, refrigerator and shaver. Judged by their income from employment or from public assistance, the 'quality of life' (QOL) of these patients should not have been in such a desperate state. They lacked guidance and instruction in their management of money, and the care of their homes. It is proposed that an aftercare worker might improve the QOL of these discharged psychiatric patients. PMID:1655669

  6. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation (MD). We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor Marlau(TM) cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24 h MD on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition. PMID:26733839

  7. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation (MD). We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor MarlauTM cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24 h MD on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition. PMID:26733839

  8. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system. PMID:24127096

  9. Effects of live-well conditions on mortality and largemouth bass virus prevalence in largemouth bass caught during summer tournaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L., Jr.; Walters, A.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Beck, B.H.; Hanson, L.A.; Rees, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of improved live-well conditions and the interaction of tournament stress and largemouth bass virus (LMBV) on tournament-associated mortality of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides caught during 12 summer tournaments. Improvements in live-well conditions (reduction in water temperature by 2-5??C; addition of NaCl; continuous aeration) significantly reduced initial mortality of largemouth bass from 7% to 3% (F 1,11 = 10.29, P < 0.01). However, postrelease mortality of fish held for 5 d in net-pens or raceways was not reduced by the improved live-well conditions and averaged 76% for all tournament fish (F1,11 = 0.09, P = 0.77). The percentage of angler-caught fish infected with LMBV at the end of tournaments (14%) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) than the percentage infected in the general population (7%). The percentage of LMBV-infected fish increased during the post-tournament retention period to 64% for fish from live wells with improved conditions and 70% for fish from control live wells. Reference fish collected by electrofishing and held with tournament fish for 5 d also had high mortality (59%) and LMBV prevalence (47%), but these variables were significantly lower than those for tournament fish (mortality: F 2,30 = 3.63, P = 0.04; prevalence [Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test]: P < 0.01). Many of the fish also had bacterial diseases during the post-tournament period, so the effect of LMBV on postrelease mortality could not be determined. However, the higher postrelease mortality of tournament and reference fish in our study relative to that observed in previous tournaments on lakes presumed free of LMBV suggests that this newly discovered pathogen influences measurement of post-tournament mortality. Increases in LMBV prevalence after typical fishing tournaments without prolonged post-tournament fish confinement will probably be lower than those we observed, but further research on the effects of LMBV on fish released from tournaments

  10. Numerical Modelling of Airflow and Temperature Distribution in a Living Room with Different Heat Exchange Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendelis, S.; Jakovičs, A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical mathematical modelling of the indoor thermal conditions and of the energy losses for separate rooms is an important part of the analysis of the heat-exchange balance and energy efficiency in buildings. The measurements of heat transfer coefficients for bounding structures, the air-tightness tests and thermographic diagnostics done for a building allow the influence of those factors to be predicted more correctly in developed numerical models. The temperature distribution and airflows in a typical room (along with the heat losses) were calculated for different heater locations and solar radiation (modelled as a heat source) through the window, as well as various pressure differences between the openings in opposite walls. The airflow velocities and indoor temperature, including its gradient, were also analysed as parameters of thermal comfort conditions. The results obtained show that all of the listed factors have an important influence on the formation of thermal comfort conditions and on the heat balance in a room.

  11. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  12. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  13. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera

  14. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk.

    PubMed

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7-7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  15. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  16. Men living with long-term conditions: exploring gender and improving social care.

    PubMed

    Abbott, David; Jepson, Marcus; Hastie, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Disabled men have traditionally been seen as incomplete men or as entirely gender-less. Research which has looked at the intersection of disability and male gender has largely treated disabled men as a homogeneous group with little reference to, for example, impairment-related differences. The ongoing move towards self-directed, personalised social care in England suggests that support needs relating to gender may be taken more seriously. A qualitative study with 20 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in England in 2013 explored the men's experiences of the organisation and delivery of social care as it pertained to their sense of being men. Our main finding was that social care in its broadest sense did little to support a positive sense of masculinity or male gender. More often than not the organisation and delivery of social care people de-gendered or emasculated many of the men who took part in the study. Our paper speaks to the need to explore impairment-specific issues for disabled men; to deliver a more person-centred approach to social care which recognises the importance of the social and sexual lives of disabled men; and to create ways in which men can support and empower each other to assert essential human rights relating to independence, dignity and liberty. PMID:25816903

  17. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  18. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  19. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda; Feng, Zhanchun

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036-1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037-1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981-2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  20. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed previously. Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in test cast-iron pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to be focused on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported previously.) Several design issues were identified which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter repair

  1. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  2. [Living conditions and gastroenteritis in the low income population of Tijuana, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Olaiz Fernández, G; Barragán de Olaiz, C

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the low income population of certain areas of the city of Tijuana, Mexico. Data collected showed that these suburban areas are inhabited by people from rural areas of Mexico, with minimum education, that basically work at the "maquiladoras". General hygienic conditions were poor and the services insufficient. The prevalence of diarrheas among the population was extremely high in the two weeks previous to the study, being highest for children less than one year old, in which the proportion with at least one episode of diarrhea was 47 per cent. PMID:2785292

  3. Palliative Care, Hospice, and Advance Care Planning: Views of People Living with HIV and Other Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Jacquelyn; Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Webel, Allison; Daly, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) who survive to older adulthood risk developing multiple chronic medical conditions. Health policymakers recognize the role of early palliative care and advance care planning in improving health quality for at-risk populations, but misperceptions about palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning are common. Before testing a program of early palliative care for PLWH and other chronic conditions, we conducted focus groups to elicit perceptions of palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning in our target population. Overall, participants were unfamiliar with the term palliative care, confused concepts of palliative care and hospice, and/or associated hospice care with dying. Participants misunderstood advance care planning, but valued communication about health care preferences. Accepting palliative care was contingent on distinguishing it from hospice and historical memories of HIV and dying. Provision of high-quality, comprehensive care will require changing public perceptions and individuals' views in this high-risk population. PMID:27053406

  4. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast-iron test pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported last quarter.) These tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small- and large

  5. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-11-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each as well as field testing of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. The field tests were conducted August 23-26, 2004 in Oradell, New Jersey. The field tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small

  6. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2--Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a

  7. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-06-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1-Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2-Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3-Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a wide

  8. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Results Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Conclusions Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955 PMID:23638799

  9. Adverse Socioeconomic Conditions and Oocyst-Related Factors Are Associated with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Population-Based Study in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carellos, Ericka Viana Machado; de Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; da Silva, Fabiana Maria; Loures, Ivy Rosa Coelho; de Andrade, Juliana Queiroz; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Objective Congenital toxoplasmosis is a public health problem in Brazil. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais which is the second largest Brazilian State based on number of inhabitants, and its territorial extension is larger than that of France. Methods: Population-based case-control study to assess the association between congenital toxoplasmosis and maternal exposure to infection risk factors. The study included mothers/children participating in the Minas Gerais Newborn Screening Program. The cases consisted of 175 mothers of infected children, and the controls consisted of 278 mothers of children without suspected infection. The associations were assessed through binomial logistic regression with p≤0.05. Results The variables associated with lower probability of toxoplasmosis were: older mother age (OR = 0.89; CI95% = 0.85–0.93), higher level of education (OR = 0.85; CI95% = 0.78–0.92), access to potable water (OR = 0.21; CI95% = 0.08–0.51), and home with flush toilet (OR = 0.18; CI95% = 0.04–078). The variables associated with higher probability of infection were: cats in the neighborhood (OR = 2.27; CI95% = 1.27–4.06), owning or visiting homes with domestic cats (OR = 1.90; CI95% = 1.09–3.31), handling the soil (OR = 2.29; CI95% = 1.32–3.96), and eating fresh meat not previously frozen (OR = 3.97; CI95% = 2.17–7.25). After stratification according region of residence (rural or urban/peri-urban), home with flush toilet and consumption of treated water were protective against the disease only in the rural stratum. Conclusions In Minas Gerais, congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with poor socioeconomic conditions. Considering maternal exposure to sources of Toxoplasma gondii, the predominating risk factors were those related to the ingestion of oocysts. It is expected that these results will contribute to

  10. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. PMID:25617465

  11. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. PMID:25617465

  12. [Effect of timber moisture content and terrain conditions on the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-yong; Wang, Li-hai; Hou, Jie-jian; Ge, Xiao-wen

    2015-02-01

    Vast loss of timber resources can be reduced by preventing and controlling the decay of standing trees in forest management. Therefore, research concerning the effect of site conditions on decay of standing trees is particularly important for decay prevention and cure. A relevant study was carried out in Xiaoxing'anling Mountains on October, 2013, and thirty decayed and ten normal mature or postmature Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) live standing trees were selected as sample trees, respectively. Two increment core samples were selected from the basal trunk of each sample tree to measure the mass loss ratio of rotted increment core samples. Meanwhile, moisture content of the soil near sample trees' roots and the gradient, exposure, slope position and elevation of the site where sample trees located were tested or measured. Analysis was made upon the relationship between factors such as sapwood and heartwood moisture contents and the decay of sample trees by correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The results indicated that moisture content of the sapwood negatively correlated with the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees at a very significant level, so did the heartwood moisture content. Soil moisture content had a positive correlation with the decay degree at a highly significant level. Significant differences in the moisture contents of sapwood, heartwood and soils were observed between decayed and normal sample trees. Slope position was the only factor that had a significant effect on the decay degree among all the three slope factors. The decay degree of live standing trees on the middle part of slopes was significantly higher than that on the upper part of slope, mainly due to the significantly higher soil moisture content on the middle part of slope. Elevation of the site where sample trees located had no significant correlation with the decay degree of Korean pine. PMID:26094446

  13. An examination of the living conditions of urban American Indian children in unmarried families: increasing cultural competence in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Limb, Gordon E; Garza, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The past 50 years have revealed dramatically shifting trends in the familial structure of American society. When examining these trends, and family research in general, the American Indian family unit has received little to no attention. This study utilized data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the living conditions of urban American Indian children in unmarried families. Results showed that while these children appear to have a strong start, concerns are raised regarding American Indian mothers' low educational achievement and high incidence of poverty. These concerns can lead to potential issues regarding sustained development that can arise as the children grow. Therefore, child welfare workers must understand these issues and work to ameliorate them in order to provide culturally competent services to urban American Indian families and children. PMID:23444795

  14. Validity of activity monitors worn at multiple nontraditional locations under controlled and free-living conditions in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kumahara, Hideaki; Ayabe, Makoto; Ichibakase, Misato; Tashima, Akari; Chiwata, Maiko; Takashi, Tomomi

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of counting steps and computing indices of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using miniature activity monitors with 3-D technology worn at various locations under controlled (CON) and free-living conditions (FL). Kenz e-style2, Tanita Calorism Smart, and Omron Calori Scan HJA-306 activity monitors were assessed. Nine and 31 young adult women were assigned to the CON and FL studies, respectively. While walking or jogging on a treadmill at 5 different speeds, the subjects simultaneously carried the 3 different monitors in a pants pocket (PP), a chest shirt pocket, and a shoulder bag (B). Under the FL condition, the 3 monitors were placed only at the PP and B locations for practical reasons. Significant effects of monitor location and walking/jogging speed on the step count measured by the 3 monitors were evaluated under the CON condition. Monitors placed at both PP and B tended to underestimate the number of steps; however, there were no significant differences between the values obtained with the Kenz monitor and those obtained with a criterion accelerometer under the FL condition. Moreover, strong correlations were observed between steps measured by monitors placed at PP and steps measured by the criterion accelerometer. The amount of MVPA for the PP location and the non-carrying duration of the bag for the B location were considered to be important determinants of the accuracy of step counting under the FL condition. In conclusion, monitors placed at the PP location, especially the Kenz monitor, showed acceptable accuracy for young adult women in real-life settings. In contrast, MVPA indices assessed using these monitors showed limited validity. PMID:25832964

  15. Microclimatic conditions and their effects on sheep behavior during a live export shipment from Australia to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Pines, M K; Phillips, C J C

    2013-09-01

    The microclimate can potentially impact the health and welfare of livestock exported by ship. Within-pen microclimatic conditions were recorded and the effects of ammonia on sheep behavior investigated on a voyage from Australia to the Middle East. Ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide as well as wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and dew-point temperature and air speed were mapped in 20 open-deck focal pens, with the focus on the behavior and location of a marked sheep in each pen. Air speed was highly variable in most pens, with pockets of high but transient concentrations of ammonia (30.7 to 44.2 mg/m(3)) in 20% of pens that had no or minimal air flow. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied in some pens, but overall concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were low. Sheep in pens previously identified to have high ammonia concentrations, high wet-bulb temperatures, and low wind speed stood longer (P = 0.003) and spent less time feeding (P = 0.01) and ruminating (P = 0.004) than those in pens previously identified with low ammonia, low wet-bulb temperature, and high wind speed. Moreover, sheep exposed to increased ammonia concentrations held their head higher (P = 0.004) to avoid the greater ammonia concentrations at lower heights, and these sheep had more conjunctivitis (P < 0.001). Sheep movement around the pen was limited. Increased time spent lying down (P = 0.04) and more rhythmical behavior in the second half of the voyage indicated that the sheep adjusted to shipboard conditions over time. It is concluded that high, transient concentrations of ammonia existed in some pens, which adversely affected the behavior of sheep. PMID:23825334

  16. [The relationship between gingival condition and socio-demographic factors of adolescents living in a Brazilian region].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Emilio Prado; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to correlate the gingival condition and sociodemographic status of adolescents living in an economically disadvantaged Brazilian region. The survey was conducted with a random sample of 450 adolescents in 13 cities selected in the Jequitinhonha Valley (State of Minas Gerais). The gingival condition was evaluated using a calibrated examiner (Kappa ≥ 0.85). The oral exam was based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The frequencies of individuals were calculated and sextants subsequently assessed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR) to reveal the relationship between CPI and sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that: 16 (3.6%) were healthy; 235 (52.2%) had gingival bleeding; 36 (8%) had dental calculus and 163 (36.2%) had both bleeding and calculus. ANACOR identified two groups with similarities in relation to periodontal disease. Group one featured 19-year-olds with healthy CPI who work and have higher family income. Group two included 15- and 16-year-olds of both sexes with CPI and gingival bleeding in elementary school with lower family income, who declared themselves to be of mixed or Afro-descendant race. The presence of gingivitis was related to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescents in the region. PMID:26602715

  17. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  18. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with

  19. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  20. Influence of socioeconomic conditions on air pollution adverse health effects in elderly people: an analysis of six regions in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M; Fatigati, F; Vespoli, T; Martins, L; Pereira, L; Martins, M; Saldiva, P; Braga, A

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To evaluate if the effects of particulate matter (PM10) on respiratory mortality of elderly people are affected by socioeconomic status. Design: Time series studies. The daily number of elderly respiratory deaths were modelled in generalised linear Poisson regression models controlling for long term trend, weather, and day of the week, from January 1997 to December 1999, in six different regions of São Paulo City, Brazil. The regions were defined according to the proximity of air pollution monitoring stations. Three socioeconomic indicators were used: college education, monthly income, and housing. Main results: For a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, the percentage increase in respiratory mortality varied from 1.4% (95% CI 5.9 to 8.7) to 14.2% (95% CI 0.4 to 28.0). The overall percentage increase in the six regions was 5.4% (95% CI 2.3 to 8.6). The effect of PM10 was negatively correlated with both percentage of people with college education and high family income, and it was positively associated with the percentage of people living in slums. Conclusions: These results suggest that socioeconomic deprivation represents an effect modifier of the association between air pollution and respiratory deaths. PMID:14684725

  1. Impact of socioeconomic status and living condition on latent tuberculosis diagnosis among the tribal population of Melghat: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajpal S; Nayak, Amit R; Husain, Aliabbas A; Shekhawat, Seema D; Satav, Ashish R; Jain, Ruchika K; Raje, Dhananjay V; Daginawala, Hatim F; Taori, Girdhar M

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study socioeconomic status (SES) and living conditions (LC) as risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and their impact on QuantiFERON-TB gold (QFT-G) and tuberculin skin test (TST) outcome for determining a better diagnostic test for LTBI in the malnourished tribal population of Melghat. Settings and Design: Six hundred sixty nine participants matching the inclusion criteria were recruited from 10 tribal villages of Melghat region, India. Subjects and Methods: Complete information related to various risk factors and test outcome was obtained on 398 participants, which was analyzed as per predefined conceptual framework. Factors were classified based on their relevance either at individual or household level, and subsequently based on the possibility of intervention. Data were partitioned into concordant and discordant sets depending on test agreement. Results: In concordant set, the two tests revealed that LTBI was significantly associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–6.79]), tobacco usage (aOR: 2.74 [95% CI: 1.50–4.99]), and malnourishment (aOR: 1.97 [95% CI: 1.12–3.48]) after basic adjustment. Inclusion of latent variable SES and LC in the model has mediating effect on the association of above factors with LTBI. Further, the association of SES and LC with LTBI in concordant set was unaltered in presence of other cofactors. From discordant set, results of QFT-G corroborated with that of concordant set. Conclusions: Poor SES and LC can be considered as strong risk factors linked with LTBI as compared to malnourishment, which is often targeted in such communities. Further, our study showed QFT-G test as a reliable tool in screening of LTBI in the tribal population of Melghat, India. PMID:27578928

  2. Wear of surface-engineered metal-on-metal bearings for hip prostheses under adverse conditions with the head loading on the rim of the cup.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Ian; Williams, Sophie; Isaac, Graham; Hatto, Peter; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2013-04-01

    Clinical studies have found high wear rates, elevated ion levels and high revision rates of large-diameter metal-on-metal surface replacement bearings in some patients, which have been associated with edge loading of the head on the rim of the cup. We have simulated increased wear and ion levels in metal-on-metal bearings in vitro by introducing variations in translational and rotational positioning of the components, which reproduces stripe wear on the femoral head, cup rim wear and clinically relevant large as well as small wear particles. There is interest in technologies such as surface engineering, which might reduce metal wear and the release of wear particles and ions. Reduced wear with surface-engineered surface replacements compared to metal-on-metal controls has been reported under standard walking conditions with correctly aligned and concentric components. In this in vitro study, the wear of chromium nitride surface-engineered metal-on-metal bearings under conditions of microseparation associated with translational and rotational malpositioning of the components was investigated and the results were compared with a previously reported study of metal-on-metal bearings under the same conditions. Simulations were conducted using our unique hip simulation microseparation methodologies, which reproduce accelerated wear in metal-on-metal bearings and have previously been clinically validated with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings. Four of the six surface-engineered bearings had evidence of head contact on the rim of the cup, which produced stripe wear on the femoral head. Four of the six surface-engineered bearings (two without stripe and two with stripe wear) had lower wear than the previously reported high wearing metal-on-metal bearings. At 2 million cycles, two of the surface-engineered bearings had substantially increased wear rates, four times higher than the high wear rates previously reported for metal-on-metal bearings under the same conditions. There was

  3. ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR. PMID:19967009

  4. Impact of Federal Programs to Improve the Living Conditions of Migrant and Other Seasonal Farmworkers. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Federal programs, designed to improve the living conditions of migrant and other seasonal farmworkers in 6 agricultural areas in California, Florida, Michigan, New York, Texas, and Washington, were assessed by the General Accounting Office. In fiscal years 1966-70, the government provided about $400 million in grants and loans to assist these…

  5. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.03. Living Conditions in the U.S.: New York. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides the participant with an overview of living conditions of the Puerto Rican in New York, so that as a teacher he may better understand the conflicts and emerging values of both parents and children on the mainland. Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to list and describe the advantages and disadvantages…

  6. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  7. No Longer Children: Case Studies of the Living and Working Conditions of the Youth Who Harvest America's Crops. Executive Summary. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre International, San Mateo, CA.

    This report examines the living and working conditions of adolescent migrant farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 216 youth working during peak harvest time in six states, as well as with adult farmworkers, family members of working youth, and farm labor contractors. Most of the youth were 14-17 years old, although a few had begun work as…

  8. Pre-Emergency-Department Care-Seeking Patterns Are Associated with the Severity of Presenting Condition for Emergency Department Visit and Subsequent Adverse Events: A Timeframe Episode Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nan-Ping; Lai, K. Robert; Huang, Hsin-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients treated in Emergency Department (ED) visits can be treated at primary or urgent care sectors, despite the fact that a number of ED visitors seek other forms of care prior to an ED visit. However, little is known regarding how the pre-ED activity episodes affect ED visits. Objectives We investigated whether care-seeking patterns involve the use of health care services of various types prior to ED visits and examined the associations of these patterns with the severity of the presenting condition for the ED visit (EDVS) and subsequent events. Methods This retrospective observational study used administrative data on beneficiaries of the universal health care insurance program in Taiwan. The service type, treatment capacity, and relative diagnosis were used to classify pre-ED visits into 8 care types. Frequent pattern analysis was used to identify sequential care-seeking patterns and to classify 667,183 eligible pre-ED episodes into patterns. Generalized linear models were developed using generalized estimating equations to examine the associations of these patterns with EDVS and subsequent events. Results The results revealed 17 care-seeking patterns. The EDVS and likelihood of subsequent events significantly differed among patterns. The ED severity index of patterns differ from patterns seeking directly ED care (coefficients ranged from -0.05 to 0.13), and the odds-ratios for the likelihood of subsequent ED visits and hospitalization ranged from 1.18 to 1.86 and 1.16 to 2.84, respectively. Conclusions The pre-ED care-seeking patterns differ in severity of presenting condition and subsequent events that may represent different causes of ED visit. Future health policy maker may adopt different intervention strategies for targeted population to reduce unnecessary ED visit effectively. PMID:26030278

  9. H. pylori CagL-Y58/E59 Prime Higher Integrin α5β1 in Adverse pH Condition to Enhance Hypochlorhydria Vicious Cycle for Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Chang, Wei-Lun; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims H. pylori CagL amino acid polymorphisms such as Y58/E59 can increase integrin α5β1 expression and gastric cancer risk. Hypochlorhydria during chronic H. pylori infection promotes gastric carcinogenesis. The study test whether CagL-Y58/E59 isolates may regulate integrin α5β1 to translocate CagA via the type IV secretory system even under adverse pH conditions, and whether the integrin α5β1 expression primed by H. pylori is a pH-dependent process involving hypochlorhydria in a vicious cycle to promote gastric carcinogenesis. Methods The expressions of integrin α5 and β1, CagA phosphorylation, IL-8, FAK, EGFR, and AKT activation of AGS cells exposed to CagL-Y58/E59 H. pylori, isogenic mutants, and different H. pylori CagL amino acid replacement mutants under different pH values were determined. Differences in the pepsinogen I/II ratio (indirectly indicating gastric acidity) and gastric integrin α5β1 expression were compared among the 172 H. pylori-infected patients with different cancer risks. Results Even under adversely low pH condition, H. pylori CagL-Y58/E59 still keep active integrin β1 with stronger binding affinity, CagA translocation, IL-8, FAK, EGFR, and AKT activation than the other mutants (p<0.05). The in vitro assay revealed higher priming of integrin α5β1 by H. pylori under elevated pH as hypochlorhydria (p<0.05). In the H. pylori-infected patients, the gastric integrin α5β1 expressions were higher in those with pepsinogen I/II ratio <6 than in those without (p<0.05). Conclusions H. pylori CagL-Y58/E59 prime higher integrin under adverse pH and may involve to enhance hypochlorhydria vicious cycle for gastric carcinogenesis, and thus require an early eradication. PMID:24009701

  10. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-02-01

    Only 60-70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to 'live-birth bias') that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children as an example. PFAS are persistent organic pollutants that may impact human fecundity and be toxic for neurodevelopment. We simulated several hypothetical scenarios based on characteristics from the Danish National Birth Cohort and found that a weak inverse association may appear even if PFAS do not cause ADHD but have a considerable effect on fetal survival. The magnitude of the negative bias was generally small, and adjusting for common causes of the outcome and fetal loss can reduce the bias. Our example highlights the need to identify the determinants of pregnancy loss and the importance of quantifying bias arising from conditioning on live birth in observational studies. PMID:25604449

  11. Childhood adversities and adolescent depression: a matter of both risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-11-01

    Childhood adversities have been proposed to modify later stress sensitivity and risk of depressive disorder in several ways: by stress sensitization, stress amplification, and stress inoculation. Combining these models, we hypothesized that childhood adversities would increase risk of early, but not later, onsets of depression (Hypothesis 1). In those without an early onset, childhood adversities were hypothesized to predict a relatively low risk of depression in high-stress conditions (Hypothesis 2a) and a relatively high risk of depression in low-stress conditions (Hypothesis 2b), compared to no childhood adversities. These hypotheses were tested in 1,584 participants of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a prospective cohort study of adolescents. Childhood adversities were assessed retrospectively at ages 11 and 13.5, using self-reports and parent reports. Lifetime DSM-IV major depressive episodes were assessed at age 19, by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Stressful life events during adolescence were established using interview-based contextual ratings of personal and network events. The results provided support for all hypotheses, regardless of the informant and timeframe used to assess childhood adversities and regardless of the nature (personal vs. network, dependent vs. independent) of recent stressful events. These findings suggest that age at first onset of depression may be an effective marker to distinguish between various types of reaction patterns. PMID:24933401

  12. The association of living conditions and lifestyle factors with burden of cysts among neurocysticercosis patients in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Yung, Janette; Fong, Man Wah; Carpio, Arturo; Bagiella, Emilia; Leslie, Denise; Leon, Pietro; Andrews, Howard; Allen Hauser, W

    2012-12-01

    We used baseline data on 154 symptomatic neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients in Ecuador to identify predictors of the burden of cysts. We ran logistic regression models with the burden of cysts as the outcome, defined as the number of cysts in the brain (1 vs >1), and having cysts in all 3 phases of evolution (active, transitional and calcifications) vs <3. These two outcomes are thought to be indicators of exposure dose and/or repeated exposure over time. The predictors examined were: living in a rural area, living on a dirt road, living in an adobe or wood house (vs brick/cement), no running water in the house, no bathroom in the house, having a domestic employee cook in the home, eating most meals at restaurants or street vendors, working in a manual labour job. We found that the odds of having multiple NCC cysts was higher among those working in manual labour (OR=3.5, p=0.004), and those who ate most meals outside the home had higher odds of having cysts in all 3 phases (OR=5.0, p=0.007). Burden of cysts may be a useful outcome when looking to identify exposure risk factors in the absence of an uninfected control group. PMID:23102867

  13. Gene Expression and Physiological Changes of Different Populations of the Long-Lived Bivalve Arctica islandica under Low Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Eva E. R.; Wessels, Wiebke; Gruber, Heike; Strahl, Julia; Wagner, Anika E.; Ernst, Insa M. A.; Rimbach, Gerald; Kraemer, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Abele, Doris; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years) and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP) from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD) during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years) German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti-) aging genes. Expression changes of a) antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b) oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c) anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa) and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation, temperature

  14. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  15. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  16. The pre-transplant anemic condition is independent of long-term outcome in living-related kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Song, Turun; Wang, Li; He, Shaofeng; Fu, Lei; Huang, Zhongli; Wei, Qiang; Lin, Tao

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between pre-transplant Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and long-term outcome of living-related kidney transplantation is far from well addressed. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by reviewing the medical profile of the patients who received living-related kidney transplantations at our center from January 2006 to January 2013. Patients were divided into two groups: high Hb group (≥10 g/dL) and low Hb group (<10 g/dL). Cox regression model was utilized to analyze the effect of pre-transplant hemoglobin concentration on the patient and graft survival. About 422 patients were of Hb level <10 g/dL (78.30 ± 14.18 g/dL), 280 were >10 g/dL (116.2 ± 14.43 g/dL) (p < 0.001). In a follow-up of 35.34 ± 18.12 months, we did not find any difference in serum creatinine between the two groups. Low Hb concentration is not associated with increased risk of developing DGF (HR = 1.186, 95% CI: 0.53-2.654), acute rejection (HR = 1.338, 95% CI: 0.919-1.947), overall infection (HR = 1.263, 95% CI: 0.847-1.885) nor perioperational infection (HR = 1.019, 95% CI: 0.513-2.026). Though we detected a trend that low Hb level group were of higher incidence of patient death and graft failure, the two groups did not differ significantly (2.38% vs. 0.71%, p = 0.096; and 4.04% vs. 2.14%, p = 0.165, respectively). Cox regression model revealed that pre-transplant Hb level <10 g/dL was independent of increased overall mortality (HR = 3.379; 95% CI: 0.706-17.172) and increased death censored allograft failure risk (HR = 1.556; 95% CI: 0.595-4.069). Pre-transplant Hb concentration <10 g/dL is independent of poor long-term outcome of living-related kidney transplantation. PMID:24512314

  17. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Odd; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Strender, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP), comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing >3 weeks. Methods One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P < 0.05). The results are shown as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR) 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6). Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2); Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3); Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4); Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2); and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8). Conclusions As most of the living conditions have previously been insufficiently studied, our findings might contribute a wider knowledge of risk factors for long-term sick-listing for NSP. As the cross-sectional design makes causal conclusions impossible, our study

  18. A new species of sea anemone ( Saccactis coliumensis n. sp.) living under hypoxic conditions on the central Chilean shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann-Zürneck, Karin; Gallardo, Victor A.

    1990-09-01

    The new species Saccactis coliumensis is described with an emendation of genus Saccactis lager, 1911 (family Actiniidae). The taxonomic relations of the genus are discussed giving additional information on Isoulactis chilensis Carlgren, 1959 and Isocradactis magna sensu Carlgren, 1924. The terms “verrucae”, “vesicles” and “acrorhagi” are discussed and taxonomically valuated. The anemone S. coliumensis lives in eutrophicated sediments on the central Chilean shelf that is at least temporarily under the impact of deoxygenated waters from the Peru-Chile-Subsurface-Current. The most conspicuous features of the new species (the ruff of delicate, gill-like vesicles beneath the tentacles and its thick pedal disc ectoderm with small, fragile spirocysts and cilia-like structures) may be considered adaptive in this peculiar habitat.

  19. Examination of food reward and energy intake under laboratory and free-living conditions in a trait binge eating subtype of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham S.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Trait binge eating has been proposed as a “hedonic subtype” of obesity characterized by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behavior under laboratory and free-living conditions over a 48-h period. Methods: In a matched pairs design, 24 overweight or obese females (BMI: 30.30 ± 2.60 kg/m2; Age: 25.42 ± 3.65 years) with high or low scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BSE) were divided into one of two groups; Obese Binge (O-B) and Obese Non-binge (O-NB). Energy intake was assessed using combined laboratory energy intake measures and 24-h dietary recall procedures. Liking and wanting were assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). Results: There was a significant association between overall energy consumed, and energy consumed from snack foods under laboratory and free-living conditions. O-B exhibited a greater preference for sweet snack foods in their laboratory and free-living eating behavior. These findings were supported by greater laboratory-based measures of wanting and craving for this food type in O-B. In addition, O-B consumed significantly more energy than their estimated daily energy requirements in the laboratory suggesting that they over-consumed compared to O-NB. Conclusions: The measurement concordance between laboratory and free-living based energy intake supports the validity of laboratory-based test meal methodologies Variation in trait binge eating was associated with increased craving and wanting for high-fat sweet foods and overconsumption in the laboratory. These findings support the use of trait binge eating as a common hedonic subtype of obesity and extend the relevance of this subtype to habitual patterns of energy intake. PMID:24155732

  20. Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices.

    PubMed

    Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

    While an adverse event involving a medical device is often ascribed to either user error or device failure, the causes are typically multifactorial. A number of incidents involving medical devices are explored using this approach to investigate the various causes of the incident and the protective barriers that minimised or prevented adverse consequences. User factors, including mistakes, omissions and lack of training, conspired with background factors--device controls and device design, storage conditions, hidden device damage and physical layout of equipment when in use--to cause the adverse events. Protective barriers that prevented or minimised the consequences included staff vigilance, operating procedures and alarms. PMID:12715578

  1. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  2. Disease-related adverse events following non-live vaccines: investigation of a newly described reporting bias through the analysis of the WHO Global ICSR Database, VigiBase.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Giuseppe; Zanoni, Giovanna

    2014-05-30

    Due to a vaccine-specific reporting bias, it has been recently suggested that some non-live vaccines may be preferentially reported as the suspected cause of the disease or symptoms/signs related to the disease they should prevent. The aim of this study was to analyse the WHO Global Individual Case Safety Report (ICSR) Database, VigiBase, in order to explore this newly described reporting bias in greater detail and to verify whether it can generate potentially misleading signals of disproportionate reporting (SDRs). Vaccines reports entered into VigiBase between 1990 and 2011 were extracted. Twelve non-combined non-live vaccines were chosen for analysis. Two distinct groups of MedDRA preferred terms (PTs) per vaccine were selected on the basis of the disease-specificity. Twenty-four vaccine-events pairs were obtained and referred as "misleading combinations". A descriptive analysis of the reports retrieved was performed. To verify whether a specific group of selected PTs was disproportionally reported in association with the vaccine representing the respective "misleading combination", the reporting odds ratio (ROR) was calculated for each of the 24 vaccine-event pairs retrieved considering all the other vaccines as the background. A total of 627,165 reports were analysed. Among ICSRs containing a "misleading combination", healthcare professionals were the most frequently noted (17%), though reporter type was unknown in 72% of the remaining reports. The reporting rate distribution of the 24 groups of PTs per vaccine included in the study showed that in 16 cases the highest rate was reached by the vaccine representing the respective "misleading combination". The application of the ROR yielded 21 SDRs out of 24 combinations tested. Findings from this study support the existence of a vaccine-specific reporting bias. Since this phenomenon may result in potentially misleading SDRs, professionals involved in vaccine safety surveillance should also consider this bias

  3. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725

  4. Minority Health and Small Numbers Epidemiology: A Case Study of Living Conditions and the Health of Children in 5 Foreign Romá Camps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J.; Cockcroft, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. We sought to test methods for generating epidemiological evidence on health conditions of small, dispersed minority communities. Methods. We used community-based mixed methods including a cross-sectional survey in 5 purposely selected settlements of Khorakané Romá (Gypsies of Muslim culture) in Italy to study the living conditions and health status of children aged from birth to 5 years. Results. In the 15 days prior to the survey, 32% of the children had suffered diarrhea and 55% had had a cough. Some 17% had experienced respiratory difficulties during the past year. Risk factors associated with these outcomes included years spent living at the camp, overcrowding, housing conditions, use of wood-burning stoves, presence of rats, and issues related to quality of sanitation and drains. Qualitative information helped define the approach and the design, and in the interpretation and consolidation of quantitative results. Conclusions. Guided by the priorities expressed by dispersed minority communities, small studies with little resources can provide a solid base to advocate for evidence-based participatory planning. Exact intervals appeared to be robust and conservative enough compared with other intervals, conferring solidity to the results. PMID:18799769

  5. Caring for a Living: A Study on Wages and Working Conditions in Canadian Child Care. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Between November 1990 and August 1992, a study examined wages and working conditions of child care staff in both licensed group centers and family day care homes in Canada. Three instruments were developed for the study, a short telephone interview for center directors, a follow-up director's questionnaire, and a staff questionnaire. The study…

  6. Early life events carry over to influence pre-migratory condition in a free-living songbird.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Greg W; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Conditions experienced during development can have long-term consequences for individual success. In migratory songbirds, the proximate mechanisms linking early life events and survival are not well understood because tracking individuals across stages of the annual cycle can be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first use a 13 year dataset to demonstrate a positive relationship between 1(st) year survival and nestling mass in migratory Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). We also use a brood manipulation experiment to show that nestlings from smaller broods have higher mass in the nest relative to individuals from larger broods. Having established these relationships, we then use three years of field data involving multiple captures of individuals throughout the pre-migratory period and a multi-level path model to examine the hypothesis that conditions during development limit survival during migration by affecting an individual's ability to accumulate sufficient lean tissue and fat mass prior to migration. We found a positive relationship between fat mass during the pre-migratory period (Sept-Oct) and nestling mass and a negative indirect relationship between pre-migratory fat mass and fledging date. Our results provide the first evidence that conditions during development limit survival during migration through their effect on fat stores. These results are particularly important given recent evidence showing that body condition of songbirds at fledging is affected by climate change and anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. PMID:22194925

  7. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E.; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age. PMID:26689455

  8. The interaction between reproductive cost and individual quality is mediated by oceanic conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Paiva, Vitor H; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2012-08-01

    Environmental variability, costs of reproduction, and heterogeneity in individual quality are three important sources of the temporal and interindividual variations in vital rates of wild populations. Based on an 18-year monitoring of an endangered, recently described, long-lived seabird, Monteiro's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma monteiroi), we designed multistate survival models to separate the effects of the reproductive cost (breeders vs. nonbreeders) and individual quality (successful vs. unsuccessful breeders) in relation to temporally variable demographic and oceanographic properties. The analysis revealed a gradient of individual quality from nonbreeders, to unsuccessful breeders, to successful breeders. The survival rates of unsuccessful breeders (0.90 +/- 0.023, mean +/- SE) tended to decrease in years of high average breeding success and were more sensitive to oceanographic variation than those of both (high-quality) successful breeders (0.97 +/- 0.015) and (low-quality) nonbreeders (0.83 +/- 0.028). Overall, our results indicate that reproductive costs act on individuals of intermediate quality and are mediated by environmental harshness. PMID:22928422

  9. Improving Personal Characterization of Meaningful Activity in Adults with Chronic Conditions Living in a Low-Income Housing Community

    PubMed Central

    Ciro, Carrie A.; Smith, Patsy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To understand how adults living in a low-income, public housing community characterize meaningful activity (activity that gives life purpose) and if through short-term intervention, could overcome identified individual and environmental barriers to activity engagement. Methods: We used a mixed methods design where Phase 1 (qualitative) informed the development of Phase 2 (quantitative). Focus groups were conducted with residents of two low-income, public housing communities to understand their characterization of meaningful activity and health. From these results, we developed a theory-based group intervention for overcoming barriers to engagement in meaningful activity. Finally, we examined change in self-report scores from the Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA) and the Engagement in Meaningful Activity Survey (EMAS). Results: Health literacy appeared to impact understanding of the questions in Phase 1. Activity availability, transportation, income and functional limitations were reported as barriers to meaningful activity. Phase 2 within group analysis revealed a significant difference in MAPA pre-post scores (p =0.007), but not EMAS (p =0.33). Discussion: Health literacy should be assessed and addressed in this population prior to intervention. After a group intervention, participants had a change in characterization of what is considered healthy, meaningful activity but reported fewer changes to how their activities aligned with their values. PMID:26378559

  10. Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a congenital disorder characterized by triplication of Chromosome 21 components. Patients with T21 have an increased risk of acquiring periodontal disease due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene. Consequently, it is important to determine an approach for disease prevention in this population. Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal health, through the prevalence of gingivitis and plaque, among children with T21 living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and method This study included 93 children with T21 and 99 age- and gender-matched children without T21 between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Parents were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Trained examiners using standardized tools assessed the prevalence rates of gingivitis and plaque in all children. Results Gingivitis prevalence was elevated among T21 children (46.9%) compared to controls (34%) in all arch sextants except the mandibular middle (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups, the prevalence of plaque was higher in the maxillary right sextant of the T21 group and the mandibular middle sextant of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children. PMID:26644759

  11. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. PMID:26629647

  12. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  13. Resilience in Youth and Families Living With Pediatric Health and Developmental Conditions: Introduction to the Special Issue on Resilience.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Marisa E; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Nabors, Laura; Hood, Korey K

    2015-10-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology showcases a growing area of research with a collection of 16 contemporary studies of resilience in youth with chronic medical or developmental conditions and their families. The research reported in this special issue covers a broad range of pediatric populations, including cancer, type 1 diabetes, and chronic pain, among others, ranging in age from early childhood through early adulthood. This introduction to the special issue reviews the various ways the articles' authors conceptualize and define risk and resilience; most analyze protective processes in relation to resilient outcomes, including both achievement of explicitly positive experiences and avoidance of dysfunction or disruption. Challenges with measurement of resilience-related constructs is reviewed. Finally, the special issue editors offer a definition of resilience in the context of pediatric and health psychology. PMID:26275974

  14. Living With, Managing and Minimising Treatment Burden in Long Term Conditions: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Sara; Gonçalves, Ana-Carolina; Areia, Carlos; Oliveira, Rúben; Marcos, Ana Jorge; Marques, Alda; Parmar, Ranj; Hunt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Treatment burden’, defined as both the workload and impact of treatment regimens on function and well-being, has been associated with poor adherence and unfavourable outcomes. Previous research focused on treatment workload but our understanding of treatment impact is limited. This research aimed to systematically review qualitative research to identify: 1) what are the treatment generated disruptions experienced by patients across all chronic conditions and treatments? 2) what strategies do patients employ to minimise these treatment generated disruptions? Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: treatment burden and qualitative methods. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched electronically from inception to Dec 2013. No language limitations were set. Teams of two reviewers independently conducted paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis informed by Cumulative Complexity Model. Eleven papers reporting data from 294 patients, across a range of conditions, age groups and nationalities were included. Treatment burdens were experienced as a series of disruptions: biographical disruptions involved loss of freedom and independence, restriction of meaningful activities, negative emotions and stigma; relational disruptions included strained family and social relationships and feeling isolated; and, biological disruptions involved physical side-effects. Patients employed “adaptive treatment work” and “rationalised non-adherence” to minimise treatment disruptions. Rationalised non-adherence was sanctioned by health professionals at end of life; at other times it was a “secret-act” which generated feelings of guilt and impacted on family and clinical relationships. Conclusions Treatments generate negative emotions and physical side effects, strain relationships and affect identity. Patients minimise these disruptions through additional adaptive work and/or by non

  15. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a

  16. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    PubMed

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  17. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Enrico; Piciucchi, Sara; Feletti, Francesco; Barone, Domenico; Piraccini, Antonella; Minghetti, Caterina; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Poletti, Venerino; Bertocco, Mauro; Traversari, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines. Methods From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT). Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded. Results Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death. Conclusions Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and

  18. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  19. Optimized Ultrasound Conditions for Enhanced Sensitivity of Molecular Beacons in the Detection of MDR1 mRNA in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiumei; Ma, Yi; Wang, Zhaohui; Wang, Ke; Liu, Ruonan; Han, Zhihao; Zhang, Min; Li, Siwen; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), aprognostic indicator for chemotherapy failure, is encoded by multidrug resistance gene (MDR1). MDR1 mRNA expression could serve as a guidance for personalized medicine. However, the traditional PCR process for mRNA measurement is complicated and cannot realize the real-time detection of mRNA in living single cells. In this work, optimized gold nanoparticle-based molecular beacons were employed to determine MDR1 mRNA levels in living cancer cells. To improve detection sensitivity, ultrasound (US) irradiation was applied to facilitate and enhance cellular uptake of hairpin DNA-coated gold nanoparticle (hDAuNP). The US conditions including irradiation power, exposure time, duty cycle, and incubation time were optimized. The slight difference in MDR1 expression manipulated by siRNA silence could be recognized by US assisted hDAuNP beacons; a 10-fold increase of detection sensitivity was achieved compared with the nonultrasound assistance. Meanwhile, the detection cycle could be shortened from 12 to 2 h. Furthermore, this hDAuNP beacon can serve as an antisense agent to down-regulate P-gp expression and to reverse drug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells to doxorubicin. Our results demonstrated that the MDR1 hDAuNP beacon assisted by US irradiation had great potential to predict chemotherapy sensitivity and to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells and was thus a promising tool for individualized medicine. PMID:26821347

  20. [Production of knowledge and an inter-sectoral approach vis-à-vis living and health conditions of workers in the sugarcane sector].

    PubMed

    Minayo-Gomez, Carlos

    2011-08-01

    This article presents some dimensions of inter-sectoral action aimed at improving working and living conditions of workers in the sugarcane and alcohol industry. The dynamics of the implementation of certain forms of given intersectoral practices established in a region of the State of São Paulo are analyzed. The important role played by sectors of the Labor Prosecution Office and the Legislative Authority in the articulation of institutional actors and civil society is stressed. They give greater impetus to the work of each public sector responsible for addressing the issues of workers'healthcare. This study was produced from analysis of documents and material provided by institutions and discussion forums with proposals for intervention. The results show that the appropriation of strategic knowledge produced by researchers of the sugarcane industry in the instrumental resources used in legal actions, monitoring and surveillance generates important advances in the health of workers and the environment. PMID:21860934

  1. A job description for the effective self-management of a long-term condition: experiences of living with difficult asthma.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Maureen; Rickards, Emma

    2013-04-01

    This paper concerns a study exploring the salience of a 'job description' for the effective self-management of a long-term condition to the experiences of a group of women living with difficult asthma. This is a life-threatening disease. It has been claimed that sufferers are a marginalised, misunderstood, mistreated and vulnerable group. The method involved secondary analysis of focus group data. The job description has been developed as a tool to enable nurses to facilitate and support effective self-management. This study was designed to examine the application of this tool to a particular case. Long-term conditions are a growing feature of the developed world and are strongly implicated in health inequalities. They are more prevalent in socially and economically disadvantaged populations and therefore add further burden to already vulnerable people. Effective self-management is critical to adapting and adjusting to the experience of a long-term condition and nurses have a responsibility to promote this process. PMID:23721390

  2. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  3. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

  4. Adverse antibiotic drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bint, A J; Burtt, I

    1980-07-01

    There is enormous potential for drug interactions in patients who, today, often receive many drugs. Antibiotics are prominent amongst the groups of drugs commonly prescribed. Many interactions take place at the absorption stage. Antacids and antidiarrhoeal preparations, in particular, can delay and reduce the absorption of antibiotics such as tetracyclines and clindamycin, by combining with them in the gastrointestinal tract to form chelates or complexes. Other drugs can affect gastric motility, which in turn often controls the rate at which antibiotics are absorbed. Some broad spectrum antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora of the gut which may be related to malabsorption states. The potentiation of toxic side effects of one drug by another is a common type of interaction. Antibiotics which are implicated in this type of interaction are those which themselves possess some toxicity such as aminoglycosides, some cephalosporins, tetracyclines and colistin. Some of the most important adverse interactions with antibiotics are those which involve other drugs which have a low toxicity/efficacy ratio. These include anticoagulants such as warfarin, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin and phenobarbitone and oral antidiabetic drugs like tolbutamide. Risk of interaction arises when the metabolism of these drugs is inhibited by liver microsomal enzyme inhibitors such as some sulphonamides and chloramphenicol, or is enhanced by enzyme inducers such as rifampicin. PMID:6995091

  5. [31P-NMR analysis of high energy phosphorous compounds (ATP and phosphocreatine) in the living rat brain--effects of halothane anesthesia and a hypoxic condition].

    PubMed

    Yuasa, T; Miyatake, T; Kuwabara, T; Umeda, M; Eguchi, K

    1983-11-01

    31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) measurements have provided new and valuable insights for studying the metabolism of living systems. The aim of this paper is to introduce a technique of application of 31P-NMR measurements using a surface coil method, and to discuss the effects of halothane anesthesia and hypoxic hypoxia on the energetic metabolism of intact rat brains. All measurements were made using a JEOL FX 270 spectrometer with a super conducting magnet of 54-mm bore diameter. The magnetic field intensity of this machine is 6.3 tesla, and the resonance frequency used for 31P was 109.14 MHz. We remodelled an ordinary probe to take a live rat, and the animals were made to inhale anesthetic halothane or mixture of oxygen and nitrogen at various concentrations controlled by a flow regulator. The best conditions for measurements with our surface coil method were determined in this study as follows: (1) 90 degrees pulse width and selectivity, Fig. 1 shows signal selectivity in depthwise direction changed with 90 degrees pulse width, which was set to 20 microseconds. (2) Sensitivity and resolution; To obtain a spectrum of 31P-NMR from a rat brain 500 accumulations of free induction decays were considered suitable for both time and space resolution. Fig. 2 shows variations of signal intensity with pulse repetition time, which was set to 2 sec. It took about 17 min for averaging to get a spectrogram. (3) Quantitative accuracy and qualification; As shown in Fig. 3, a linear relationship was found between the signal intensity of beta-phosphate of ATP and the concentration of ATP solutions, thus proving the quantitative accuracy of our systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6661335

  6. Socio-demographic transformations and living conditions among two indigenous and black populations in Northern Cauca during the period of 1993-2005

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Diego Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. Methods: This paper presents a descriptive study that analyzes several socio-demographic indicators from the census of 1993 and 2005, the specific data include: rate of juvenile dependency; total masculinity index; average size of the household; specific global and local birth rates, and infant mortality rates; life expectancy at birth; average years of schooling; health cover age status; and percentage of the population with unmet basic needs (UBN). In this way, it is possible to note differences in the course of socio-demographic evolution and in the standard of living trends in the differing populations under study. Results: The Guambiana Indian population in the municipality of Silvia presents lower birth rates than the Nasa population, characterized by their seasonal birth rates. Differing from the pattern of the indigenous people of Northern Cauca, the Afro-Colombian population both from this region and from the population residing in the urban zones of Cali's tend to show similar socio-demographic patterns. Conclusions: Although there have been profound changes recorded during this period among these populations under study, the ethnic-racial inequalities and those of social class seem to persist. From this first diagnosis, attention is called to the need for a more adequate reproductive health policy to attend the specific needs presented by the indigenous population. PMID:24893053

  7. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  8. A revised inventory of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    This study examines whether the items from the original Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale can be improved in their prediction of health outcomes by adding some additional widely recognized childhood adversities. The analyses come from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence 2014, a telephone survey conducted from August 2013 through April 2014 with a nationally representative sample of 1,949 children and adolescents aged 10-17 and their caregivers who were asked about adversities, physical health conditions and mental health symptoms. The addition of measures of peer victimization, peer isolation/rejection, and community violence exposure added significantly to the prediction of mental health symptoms, and the addition of a measure of low socioeconomic status (SES) added significantly to the prediction of physical health problems. A revised version of the ACES scale is proposed. PMID:26259971

  9. β-Decay half-lives and nuclear structure of exotic proton-rich waiting point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Böyükata, Mahmut

    2016-03-01

    We investigate even-even nuclei in the A ∼ 70 mass region within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1). Our work includes calculation of the energy spectra and the potential energy surfaces V (β , γ) of Zn, Ge, Se, Kr and Sr nuclei with the same proton and neutron number, N = Z. The parametrization of the IBM-1 Hamiltonian was performed for the calculation of the energy levels in the ground state bands. Geometric shape of the nuclei was predicted by plotting the potential energy surfaces V (β , γ) obtained from the IBM-1 Hamiltonian in the classical limit. The pn-QRPA model was later used to compute half-lives of the neutron-deficient nuclei which were found to be in very good agreement with the measured ones. The pn-QRPA model was also used to calculate the Gamow-Teller strength distributions and was found to be in decent agreement with the measured data. We further calculate the electron capture and positron decay rates for these N = Z waiting point (WP) nuclei in the stellar environment employing the pn-QRPA model. For the rp-process conditions, our total weak rates are within a factor two compared with the Skyrme HF +BCS +QRPA calculation. All calculated electron capture rates are comparable to the competing positron decay rates under rp-process conditions. Our study confirms the finding that electron capture rates form an integral part of the weak rates under rp-process conditions and should not be neglected in the nuclear network calculations.

  10. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  11. Sleep and the Housing and Neighborhood Environment of Urban Latino Adults Living in Low-Income Housing: The AHOME Study.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Earle C; Pichardo, Margaret S; Rosenbaum, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in the risk of many chronic diseases; however, little is known about the living conditions that influence sleep. In this study of 371 low-income Latino residents, household crowding was associated with reduced odds of long sleep duration relative to average and short sleep duration. Neighborhood disorder and perceived building problems were associated with more sleep disturbances and poor sleep quality. Building problems were associated with prolonged sleep latency. There was a significant cumulative effect of adverse housing and neighborhood conditions on sleep outcomes. These results show that adverse conditions of both the housing and neighborhood environments are associated with poor sleep outcomes. PMID:25386692

  12. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Bygren, L. O.; Konlaan, B. B.; Johansson, S. E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. DESIGN: A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. SETTING: Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. SUBJECTS: 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. RESULTS: 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). CONCLUSION: Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start. PMID:8990990

  13. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 °C in relation to microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with SPME-GC-MS technique. Through multivariate chemometric method, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson's correlations, the CSIs: trimethylamine (TMA), ethanol (EtOH), 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Met-1But), acetoin and acetic acid (C2) were selected from the group of 28 detected VOCs. At the moment of microbiological shelf life established at total viable count (TVC) of 7.0 log CFU/g, the CSIs achieved levels of 11.5, 38.3, 0.3, 24.0 and 90.7 μg/g of salmon for TMA, EtOH, 3M-1But, acetoin and C2, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. was found as major specific spoilage organism (SSOs), suitable for shelf life prediction using modified Gompertz model at the cut-off level of 6.5 log CFU/g. H2S producing bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were considered as important spoilage microorganisms; however, they were not suitable for shelf life estimation. Partial least square (PLS) regression revealed possible associations between microorganisms and synthetized VOCs, showing correlations between Pseudomonas spp. and 3Met-1But and aldehydes synthesis, lactic acid bacteria were linked with EtOH, C2 and esters, and B. thermosphacta with acetoin formation. PMID:26678146

  14. Investigation of health effects of current levels of environmental sanitation and hygienic living conditions of rural population in the municipality of Zenica.

    PubMed

    Tandir, Salih; Huseinagic, Senad; Sivic, Suad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate and identify all the relevant ways of epidemiology significance for transmitting infectious diseases in the existing unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in rural areas of the municipality of Zenica, which are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal diseases. The study was conducted in seven rural localities of Zenica municipality where the dominant livestock are sheep and cows, and the population is mostly dealing with individual production of cheese and milk. This research aimed to examine and identify the conditions favoring life as the primary issues that affect the increase in the risk of and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases such as: the level of environmental sanitation in investigated villages, sanitary and hygiene habits of families living in the villages studied, ratio of population to personal hygiene, health safety of water supply, hygienic disposal of fecal waste and waste generated in the breeding of animals. The study included the monitoring and statistical analysis of the epidemiological situation in the values of average prevalence rates of the intestinal infectious diseases in the 1000 inhabitants of each village studied. The study identified five major negative epidemiological indicators that have a major impact on the appearance and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases. The leading indicator is a negative relationship and personal hygiene attitude in the broader sense, the pending state of water supply, sanitary toilets and unresolved rubbish dump with a negative attitude and stance toward general hygiene. Identified are all the relevant ways of epidemiology importance that are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal disease. Investigations of the epidemiological situation regarding the occurrence of intestinal infectious disease in the study population showed that intestinal infectious diseases in the

  15. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  16. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  17. Living with Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... live longer and enjoy a good quality of life. Many people who have Marfan syndrome and are ... tears and leaks blood. Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition. The main symptom of aortic dissection ...

  18. The sociodemographic pattern of tobacco cessation in the 1980s: results from a panel study of living condition surveys in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Tillgren, P; Haglund, B J; Lundberg, M; Romelsjö, A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To analyse the factors that determined whether or not people were successful in quitting tobacco during the 1980s in Sweden. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was used for the analyses and included: education, marital status, socioeconomic group, social network, physical activities, cigarette consumption, and years spent smoking as independent variables. Men and women were analysed separately for smoking. A specific univariate analysis was also performed for men who used snuff. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: A panel of 5104 randomised people aged 16-84 years was interviewed in 1980-81 and followed up in 1988-89 in the survey of living conditions undertaken by Statistics Sweden. The participation rate was 86%. The panel included 1546 men and women who were daily smokers. There were 418 daily users of snuff among the men, and 129 men both smoked and used snuff. MAIN RESULTS: Together 26% of women and 23% of men had quit smoking. Five percent in both groups were new smokers. Among men, 26% had quit using snuff and 5% had begun smoking. New snuff users among men were 5%. In the multivariate analysis, unmarried men kept smoking at significantly higher rates (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2,3.6), as did those men who smoked 11-20 cigarettes/day (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5, 3.4), or more than 20 cigarettes/day (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.4,5.7). Among women, smoking 11-20 cigarettes/day was also a significant factor (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.1,5.0). Men and women aged 25-44 were significantly more likely to continue smoking (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.1,3.7, and 2.2; 95% CI 1.2,4.4) as were those who had smoked for 20 years or more (OR 4.7; 95% CI 2.0,10.8 and OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1,5.5, respectively). For women, low education (up to grade 9) was also a significant factor (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.2,5.1). Among men who had quit using snuff we did not find any values of significance. CONCLUSIONS: One in four smokers had quit during the 1980s and a few started smoking (5%). Some men quit smoking and started

  19. Concentrations of 222Rn, Its Short-Lived Daughters And 212Pb And Their Ratios Under Complex Atmospheric Conditions And Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Toshio; Yunoki, Eiji; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Mori, Tadashige; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Fudeyasu, Hironori; Ohashi, Yukitaka; Sahashi, Ken; Maitani, Toshihiko; Miyashita, Koh'ichi; Iwata, Toru; Sasaki, Takayuki; Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira; Shaw, Roger H.

    Atmospheric activity concentrations of 212Pb and short-lived 222Rndaughters, together with meteorological elements, have been observed continuously atthree sites at Kamisaibara Village in Japan. In addition, atmospheric activity concentrationof 222Rn, equilibrium-equivalent concentration of 222Rn and conditionsof the lower atmosphere were observed for three intensive observation periods at Akawase,one of the three sites in Kamisaibara Village. The equilibrium-equivalent concentration of222Rn is almost the same as the atmospheric activity concentration of short-lived222Rn daughters.The activity concentrations of 212Pb and the short-lived 222Rn daughtersand their ratio were low in the daytime owing to convective mixing, and high at nightowing to the surface-based inversion during periods of no precipitation. Their variationshave several patterns corresponding to the scale of the drainage wind or weak mixing.

  20. Biologics in dermatology: adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2015-12-01

    Biologics are a group of drugs that precisely affect certain specific steps in the immune response and are an extremely useful group when used in an appropriate setting. However, their use can often be a double-edged sword. Careful patient selection and thorough knowledge of adverse effects is a key to their successful use in various disorders. The initial enthusiasm has gradually given way to a more cautious approach wherein a balance is sought between clinical usefulness and expected side effects. The adverse effects of the biologics most commonly used in dermatology have been carefully listed for ready reference. The plausible causes of the adverse reactions are succinctly outlined along with their incriminating factor(s). Besides, in brief, the attention has been focused on their management. The content should provide an essential didactic content for educating the practitioner. PMID:26147909

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  2. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  3. Adversity and advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Reed, Pamela G

    2008-04-01

    This column reports the theme of adversity addressed in reference to theoretical and metatheoretical considerations for advancing nursing knowledge. The development and content of three classic nursing theories are presented by Neuman representatives, and by theorists King and Roy. Topics for continued dialogue are identified as derived from the interface between philosophy of science issues and these theories. PMID:18378823

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  5. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  6. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  7. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home care, it is still ... of services an older person chooses, the price costs can range from less than $25,000 a ...

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Smoking, Nebraska, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Mannino, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among Nebraskans. Methods We analyzed 2011 Nebraska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Adverse Childhood Experience module) data, defining adverse childhood experience exposures as physical, sexual, and verbal abuse (ie, direct exposures), and household dysfunction associated with mental illness, substance abuse, divorce, domestic violence, and living with persons with incarceration histories (ie, environmental exposures). We estimated prevalence of exposures, taking into account the complex survey design. We used logistic regression with predicted margins to estimate adjusted relative risk for smoking by direct or environmental exposure. Results Approximately 51% of Nebraskans experienced 1 or more adverse childhood events; 7% experienced 5 or more. Prevalence of environmental exposures (42%) was significantly higher than that of direct exposures (31%). Prevalence of individual exposures ranged from 6% (incarceration of a household member) to 25% (verbal abuse). Adjusted relative risks of smoking for direct and environmental exposures were 1.5 and 1.8, respectively. Conclusion We present a new method of evaluating adverse childhood experience data. Prevalence of adverse childhood experiences is high among Nebraskans, and these exposures are associated with smoking. State-specific strategies to monitor adverse events among children and provide interventions might help to decrease the smoking rate in this population. PMID:24050529

  9. Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-01-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  10. Effects of Childhood Adversity on Bullying and Cruelty to Animals in the United States: Findings From a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; Beaver, Kevin M.; DeLisi, Matt; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined effects of type of and cumulative burden of childhood adversities on bullying and cruelty to animals in the United States. Data were derived from Waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001–2002 and 2003–2004. Although the effects of childhood adversity diminished with the inclusion of confounding variables, several adversities remained significant. For bullying, these included being made to do chores that were too difficult or dangerous, threatening to hit or throw something, pushing, shoving, slapping, or hitting, and hitting that left bruises, marks, or injuries. With respect to cruelty to animals, swearing and saying hurtful things, having a parent or other adult living within the home that went to jail or prison, and adult/other person fondling/touching in a sexual way were significant. The final models indicated that the cumulative burden of childhood adversities had strong effects on the increased likelihood of bullying behavior but not cruelty to animals. PMID:21602208

  11. Effects of childhood adversity on bullying and cruelty to animals in the United States: findings from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Fu, Qiang; Beaver, Kevin M; Delisi, Matt; Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O

    2011-11-01

    This study examined effects of type of and cumulative burden of childhood adversities on bullying and cruelty to animals in the United States. Data were derived from Waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001-2002 and 2003-2004. Although the effects of childhood adversity diminished with the inclusion of confounding variables, several adversities remained significant. For bullying, these included being made to do chores that were too difficult or dangerous, threatening to hit or throw something, pushing, shoving, slapping, or hitting, and hitting that left bruises, marks, or injuries. With respect to cruelty to animals, swearing and saying hurtful things, having a parent or other adult living within the home that went to jail or prison, and adult/other person fondling/touching in a sexual way were significant. The final models indicated that the cumulative burden of childhood adversities had strong effects on the increased likelihood of bullying behavior but not cruelty to animals. PMID:21602208

  12. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  13. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  14. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as ... the facility provide a written statement of its philosophy of care? Visit each facility more than once, ...

  15. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... premises. Adult foster care has the advantages of maintaining frail older adults in a more home-like ... pay to live in these communities, though some facilities have beds for skilled care that are funded ...

  16. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  17. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  18. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... are part of retirement communities. Others are near nursing homes, so a person can move easily if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people ...

  19. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  20. [Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

  1. Sqstm1–GFP knock-in mice reveal dynamic actions of Sqstm1 during autophagy and under stress conditions in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Eino, Atsushi; Kageyama, Shun; Uemura, Takefumi; Annoh, Hiromichi; Saito, Tetsuya; Narita, Ichiei; Waguri, Satoshi; Komatsu, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sqstm1 serves as a signaling hub and receptor for selective autophagy. Consequently, dysregulation of Sqstm1 causes imbalances in signaling pathways and disrupts proteostasis, thereby contributing to the development of human diseases. Environmental stresses influence the level of Sqstm1 by altering its expression and/or autophagic degradation, and also changes the localization of Sqstm1, making it difficult to elucidate the actions and roles of this protein. In this study, we developed knock-in mice expressing Sqstm1 fused to GFP (Sqstm1-GFPKI/+). Using these Sqstm1-GFPKI/+ mice, we revealed for the first time the dynamics of endogenous Sqstm1 in living cells. Sqstm1–GFP was translocated to a restricted area of LC3-positive structures, which primarily correspond to the inside of autophagosomes, and then degraded. Moreover, exposure to arsenite induced expression of Sqstm1–GFP, followed by accumulation of the fusion protein in large aggregates that were degraded by autophagy. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy in Sqstm1-GFPKI/+ mouse livers caused accumulation of Sqstm1–GFP and formation of GFP-positive aggregate structures, leading to severe hepatic failure. These results indicate that Sqstm1-GFPKI/+ mice are a useful tool for analyzing Sqstm1 in living cells and intact animals. PMID:26483381

  2. Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Frida; San Sebastian, Miguel; Strömsten, Lotta M. J.; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low) in adolescence (age 16) were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/non-manual) was measured using the participant’s own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068) which was partially explained by people’s own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an unfavorable

  3. If we build it, we will come: a model for community-led change to transform neighborhood conditions to support healthy eating and active living.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Vedette R; Seeholzer, Eileen L; Leon, Janeen B; Chappelle, Sandra Byrd; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2015-06-01

    Neighborhoods affect health. In 3 adjoining inner-city Cleveland, Ohio, neighborhoods, residents have an average life expectancy 15 years less than that of a nearby suburb. To address this disparity, a local health funder created the 2010 to 2013 Francis H. Beam Community Health Fellowship to develop a strategic community engagement process to establish a Healthy Eating & Active Living (HEAL) culture and lifestyle in the neighborhoods. The fellow developed and advanced a model, engaging the community in establishing HEAL options and culture. Residents used the model to identify a shared vision for HEAL and collaborated with community partners to create and sustain innovative HEAL opportunities. This community-led, collaborative model produced high engagement levels (15% of targeted 12 000 residents) and tangible improvements in the neighborhood's physical, resource, and social environments. PMID:25880943

  4. If We Build It, We Will Come: A Model for Community-Led Change to Transform Neighborhood Conditions to Support Healthy Eating and Active Living

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Vedette R.; Seeholzer, Eileen L.; Leon, Janeen B.; Chappelle, Sandra Byrd; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhoods impact health. In three adjoining inner-city Cleveland neighborhoods, residents have an average life expectancy 15 years less than that of a nearby suburb.1 To address this disparity a local health funder created a Fellowship to develop a strategic community engagement process to establish a Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) culture and lifestyle in the neighborhoods. The Fellow developed and advanced a model, engaging the community in establishing HEAL options and culture. Using the model, residents identified a shared vision for HEAL and collaborated with community partners to create and sustain innovative HEAL opportunities. This community-led, collaborative model produced high engagement levels (15% of targeted 12,000 residents) and tangible improvements in the neighborhood's physical, resource, and social environments. PMID:25880943

  5. Detecting Adverse Events Using Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Bates, David W.; Evans, R. Scott; Murff, Harvey; Stetson, Peter D.; Pizziferri, Lisa; Hripcsak, George

    2003-01-01

    Context: Although patient safety is a major problem, most health care organizations rely on spontaneous reporting, which detects only a small minority of adverse events. As a result, problems with safety have remained hidden. Chart review can detect adverse events in research settings, but it is too expensive for routine use. Information technology techniques can detect some adverse events in a timely and cost-effective way, in some cases early enough to prevent patient harm. Objective: To review methodologies of detecting adverse events using information technology, reports of studies that used these techniques to detect adverse events, and study results for specific types of adverse events. Design: Structured review. Methodology: English-language studies that reported using information technology to detect adverse events were identified using standard techniques. Only studies that contained original data were included. Main Outcome Measures: Adverse events, with specific focus on nosocomial infections, adverse drug events, and injurious falls. Results: Tools such as event monitoring and natural language processing can inexpensively detect certain types of adverse events in clinical databases. These approaches already work well for some types of adverse events, including adverse drug events and nosocomial infections, and are in routine use in a few hospitals. In addition, it appears likely that these techniques will be adaptable in ways that allow detection of a broad array of adverse events, especially as more medical information becomes computerized. Conclusion: Computerized detection of adverse events will soon be practical on a widespread basis. PMID:12595401

  6. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. PMID:27357302

  7. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  8. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  9. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal's housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  10. [Preliminary ergonomic assessment of the work sites and living conditions for the crew on board the new t/h Ignacy Daszyński series of merchant ships].

    PubMed

    Weclawik, Z

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the new merchant ship series B545-OT, built at the Szczecin shipyard. The preliminary appraisal of this vessel was made during the trial trip in November 1987. The experimented ship is a universal and very modern cargo boat, type B545-OT, which meets the requirements of the international conventions with respect to the prevention of sea pollution by ships. As regards its construction and equipment, the vessel complies with all conditions and international conventions on safety, as well as on health and environment protection. A control and actuation system centralized in the engine-room assures the functioning without a direct supervision. The automatic functioning of mechanisms is followed-up by means of a computed alarm system. The living-rooms, the recreation spaces, the cabins, which secure to the crew comfortable conditions on the ship, are built in a modern style. Less successfully was solved the placement of the kitchen, the dining-room and the larder on the upper deck, near the entrance to the engine-room, entailing thus the danger of steam penetration from the latter. The conditioned air assures in the cabins and living-rooms a temperature of +20 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40-60 per cent. The designers and builders have not used all the possibilities of lowering the intensity of noise. PMID:2749439

  11. Adverse drug reactions in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ferner, R E

    2015-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) - that is, unintended and harmful responses to medicines - are important to dermatologists because many present with cutaneous signs and because dermatological treatments can cause serious ADRs. The detection of ADRs to new drugs is often delayed because they have a long latency or are rare or unexpected. This means that ADRs to newer agents emerge only slowly after marketing. ADRs are part of the differential diagnosis of unusual rashes. A good drug history that includes details of drug dose, time-course of the reaction and factors that may make the patient more susceptible, will help. For example, Stevens-Johnson syndrome with abacavir is much commoner in patients with HLA-B*5701, and has a characteristic time course. Newer agents have brought newer reactions; for example, acneiform rashes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors such as erlotinib. Older systemic agents used to treat skin disease, including corticosteroids and methotrexate, cause important ADRs. The adverse effects of newer biological agents used in dermatology are becoming clearer; for example, hypersensitivity reactions or loss of efficacy from antibody formation and progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy due to reactivation of latent JC (John Cunningham) virus infections during efalizumab treatment. Unusual or serious harm from medicines, including ADRs, medication errors and overdose, should be reported. The UK Yellow Card scheme is online, and patients can report their own ADRs. PMID:25622648

  12. [Recipients adverse reactions: guidance supports].

    PubMed

    Bazin, A

    2010-12-01

    Since 1994, adverse effects of transfusion transmitted to the French haemovigilance network are registered on "e-fit", the database of the French agency for the safety of health products (Afssaps). In order to improve their analysis, guidance supports have been made by Afssaps working groups. Each support deals with a blood transfusion side effect and is composed of five parts including pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, management recommendations, etiologic investigations and rules of filing the notification form on e-fit. The major characteristics of sheets published or soon-to-be published are presented: transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection, non-haemolytic febrile reaction, allergic reaction, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, hypotensive transfusion reaction, alloimmunization, erythrocyte incompatibility reaction and hemosiderosis. These new supports give relevant guidelines allowing a better analysis and evaluation of recipients' adverse reactions, particularly their diagnosis, gravity and accountability. They could also initiate studies in European and international haemovigilance and transfusion networks. PMID:21051267

  13. Adverse effects of plasma transfusion.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N

    2012-05-01

    Plasma utilization has increased over the past two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions after infusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: 1) transfusion-related acute lung injury, 2) transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and 3) allergic and/or anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include 1) transmission of infections, 2) febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, 3) red blood cell alloimmunization, and 4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The effects of pathogen inactivation or reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

  14. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  15. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  16. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  17. Learn & Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burness, Patty, Ed.; Snider, William, Ed.

    Along with a companion documentary video, "Learn & Live," this resource manual focuses on innovative schools around the country that are integrating technology and involving parents, business, and the community. Ten chapters are divided into four sections. In Section 1, "Students," two chapters look at learning and assessment. The two chapters in…

  18. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  19. Health state of the population living at eastern border of the European Union and its conditioning (based on the example of the south-eastern borderland of Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses modern health problems of population at the eastern border of the European Union and the factors that condition the health state of the population in this area. Spatial-temporal reasoning was conducted with regard to such indicators reflecting the health state of population as death rates due to basic reasons: circulatory system diseases, malignant neoplasm, respiratory system diseases, external causes and infant mortality rate. The above-mentioned elements were analysed with division into counties in Podkarpackie and Lubelskie voivodeships in 2002-2009. The article also analyses selected conditions of health state, such as population wealth and healthcare quality. It was noticed that some parameters of health state in the region deteriorated, especially in Lubelskie voivodeship, which results from synergy effects of socio-economic, medical and organizational nature.

  20. Untold Stories of Fieldworkers Working Amid Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serekoane, Motsaathebe; Sharp, Carla; Skinner, Donald; Marais, Lochner

    2014-01-01

    Working in unfamiliar contexts and often alone, fieldworkers may face challenges for which their training and previous experience has not prepared them. While there is literature about the technical, ethical and moral aspects of fieldwork, there is little focusing on fieldworkers' actual experiences. Additionally, there is little constructive…

  1. ‘You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you’: gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life

    PubMed Central

    CLARKE, LAURA HURD; BENNETT, ERICA

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women ‘learn to live’ with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults’ experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men’s stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies’ altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses. PMID:24976658

  2. Environmental victims: environmental injustice issues that threaten the health of children living in poverty.

    PubMed

    Cureton, Shava

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty are disproportionately at risk from and affected by environmental hazards. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, 13 million children in America live in poverty. Thus, not only are millions of children living in poverty but are also living in environments that are hazardous to their health. Impoverished children are more likely to live in environments with heavily polluting industries, hazardous waste sites, contaminated water and soil, in old housing with deteriorating lead-based paint, in areas with limited access to healthy food, and more. Poor children residing in these toxic environments are either at risk or suffer from a myriad of health disparities, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, obesity, and hyperactivity. This unfortunate reality is better known as environmental injustice. Environmental injustice recognizes that economically disadvantaged groups are adversely affected by environmental hazards more than other groups. To remedy this dilemma, environmental justice seeks to address these unfair burdens of environmental health hazards on poor communities. The purpose of this article is to (a) examine the environmental living conditions of children living in poverty, (b) examine the environmental health disparities of children living in poverty, (c) discuss environmental justice legislation, (d) describe government initiatives to improve environmental health, and (e) propose recommendations that executes measures to protect the health of children. PMID:22206190

  3. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations.

  4. Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outcomes. However, their accounts and lived experiences of the impact of poverty on maternal outcomes underscore dynamics other than those typically stressed in the extant literature. To them, poverty primarily generates adverse maternal outcomes by exposing women to exceedingly hard and heavy workloads during pregnancy and the period surrounding it; to intimate partner violence; as well as to inhospitable and unpleasant treatment by service providers. Conclusions Poverty has wider and more intricate implications for maternal outcomes than are acknowledged in extant research. To deliver their expected impact, current efforts to promote better maternal outcomes must be guided by a more thorough perspective of the link between women's livelihoods and their health and wellbeing. PMID:21122118

  5. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  6. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  7. An approach to death as an adverse event following immunization.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael S; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Amarasinghe, Ananda; MacDonald, Noni E

    2016-01-01

    Co-incidental death occurring proximate to vaccination may be reported as an adverse event following immunization. Such events are particularly concerning because they may raise community and health provider concerns about the safety of the specific vaccine and often the immunization programme in general. Coincidental events need to be differentiated from vaccine reactions, such as anaphylaxis, which may very rarely result in death. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated manual for the Causality Assessment of an AEFI. The purpose of this review is to apply the WHO causality methodology to death when this is reported as an AEFI. The causality assessment scheme recommends a four step process to enable classification of the AEFI and to differentiate events which are causally consistent from those that are inconsistent with immunization. However, for some events causality maybe indeterminate. Consistent causal reactions that may result in death are very rare and maybe related to the vaccine product (e.g. anaphylaxis, viscerotrophic disease), vaccine quality defect (e.g. an incompletely attenuated live vaccine agent) or an immunization error (e.g. vaccine vial contamination). Events that are inconsistent with immunizations are due to co-incidental conditions that may account for infant and childhood mortality. In countries with a high infant mortality rate the coincidental occurrence of death and immunization may occur not infrequently and a robust mechanism to obtain information from autopsy and perform an AEFI investigation and causality assessment is essential. Communication with the community and all stakeholders to maintain confidence in the immunization programme is critical. PMID:26608326

  8. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Strategy for Self-Management Support for Underserved Populations Living With Chronic Conditions, British Columbia, August 2013–June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Methods Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Results Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. Conclusion The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS. PMID:26447550

  9. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety. PMID:25078411

  10. Linking family hardship to children's lives.

    PubMed

    Elder, G H; Nguyen, T V; Caspi, A

    1985-04-01

    The impact of drastic income loss on children is mediated by a number of family adaptations, including the shift toward more labor-intensive households and altered relationships. Using newly developed codes on parenting behavior during the Great Depression, this study investigates the role of parental behavior (rejecting, nonsupportive) in linking economic hardship to children's lives in the Oakland Growth Study. The results extend beyond those reported in Children of the Great Depression by showing that economic hardship adversely influenced the psychosocial well-being of girls, but not boys, by increasing the rejecting behavior of fathers. The parenting behavior of mothers did not vary significantly by income loss. In addition, the rejecting influence of hard-pressed fathers was more pronounced in relation to less attractive daughters, as judged by physical features. Attractive daughters were not likely to be maltreated by their fathers, no matter how severe the economic pressure. These outcomes on family mediation and conditional effects underscore the importance of viewing economic decline in relation to both the child's characteristics and parenting behavior. An understanding of the effects of economic decline in children's lives requires knowledge of parent and child behavior within the family and life course. PMID:3987413

  11. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  12. Dermatological Adverse Events Associated with Topical Brimonidine Gel 0.33% in Subjects with Erythema of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Anna D.; Waite, Kimberly A.; Chen, Michael C.; Palaniswamy, Kiruthi; Wiser, Thomas H.; Draelos, Zoe D.; Rafal, Elyse S.; Werschler, W. Philip; Harvey, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The topical α2 adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine gel 0.33% is an effective and safe pharmacological treatment for the facial erythema of rosacea. However, adverse events of worsened redness have occasionally been reported with its use. Objective: A detailed analysis of adverse events is needed to accurately define worsening erythema and the adverse-events profile associated with brimonidine gel treatment. Methods and measurements: A retrospective review of related dermatological adverse events occurring in subjects enrolled in the two pivotal four-week Phase 3 studies and the 52-week long-term safety study for brimonidine gel was conducted. Measurements included total adverse-event incidences; number of subjects experiencing adverse events; study discontinuation due to adverse events, severity, onset, episodic duration period; and correlation of adverse events to subject disposition, and rosacea profile. Results: Flushing and erythema were the most commonly reported adverse events, occurring in a total of 5.4 percent of subjects in the Phase 3 studies and in 15.4 percent in the long-term study. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity, transient, and intermittent. Adverse events occurred early in treatment, and duration was short-lived in the majority of cases. Adverse-event patterns were not remarkably altered with regard to subject disposition in the long-term study. Conclusion: Adverse events of worsening redness are not frequent, are transient in nature, and occur early in the course of treatment with brimonidine gel. PMID:26345379

  13. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in four free-living bird species exposed to different levels of lead under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the δALAD activity and δALAD ratio in blood of four free-living bird species (Griffon vulture, Eagle owl, Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull); (2) and to investigate the correlations between δALAD activity/ratio and Pb concentrations in blood samples. A decrease was observed in δALAD activity in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls exposed to Pb. In addition, negative relationships were found between δALAD ratio or δALAD activity and Log blood Pb levels in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls, and these relationships were stronger in areas with the highest Pb exposure. We provide equations that may be helpful to estimate δALAD activity and δALAD ratio using blood Pb concentrations. Regarding gull species, δALAD activity found in the present study may be considered the normal activity in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull species, since very low blood Pb concentrations and no correlations were found in these species. Although both δALAD activity and δALAD ratio are sensitive biomarkers of Pb exposure and effect in birds, the use of δALAD ratio may improve the results. Besides, this study provides blood threshold concentrations at which Pb bears effects on δALAD enzyme (5µg/dl in Eagle owl; 8µg/dl in Griffon vulture; and probably >2µg/dl in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull). Our findings show that Eagle owl seems to be more sensitive to δALAD enzymatic inhibition by Pb than Griffon vultures. Eagle owls and Griffon vultures exhibited up to 79% and 94% decrease in δALAD activity when blood Pb concentrations exceeded 19 and 30µg/dl, respectively. Regarding the effects related with δALAD inhibition, significant negative correlations were found between δALAD activity and hematocrit in Eagle owls and Griffon vultures, which may be related to compensatory response associated with a decrease in δALAD activity. In addition, an effect on creatine kinase activity and total proteins in plasma was found

  14. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  15. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  16. Evolution of a Planar Wake in Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, David M.; Mateer, George G.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of improving the predictability of high-lift systems at maximum lift conditions, a series of fundamental experiments were conducted to study the effects of adverse pressure gradient on a wake flow. Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter. Data were obtained for several cases of adverse pressure gradient, producing flows ranging from no reversed flow to massively reversed flow. While the turbulent Reynolds stresses increase with increasing size of the reversed flow region, the gradient of Reynolds stress does not. Computations using various turbulence models were unable to reproduce the reversed flow.

  17. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and other adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Mary C

    2011-01-01

    Amiodarone is a class III antiarrhythmic agent that is frequently prescribed today for the treatment of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. Amiodarone has many adverse effects, and one of them is thyroid dysfunction. Advanced practice and staff nurses need to be vigilant, recognizing early signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction to prevent adverse drug reactions. Often, the signs and symptoms of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism are overlooked because of the complexity of the patient's condition. The purpose of this article was to review a case study, present differential diagnoses and testing, discuss risk factors associated with amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, discuss its pathogenesis, and review clinical management. PMID:21307683

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood from Pregnant Hispanic Women Living in Brownsville, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Venous blood was drawn from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, and matched cord blood was collected at birth. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure concentrations of 55 individual PAHs or groups of PAHs. Results indicate that these women and their fetuses were regularly exposed to multiple PAHs at comparatively low concentrations, with levels in cord blood generally exceeding levels in paired maternal blood. While the possibility of related adverse effects on the fetus is uncertain, these exposures in combination with socioeconomically-disadvantaged and environmentally-challenging living conditions raise legitimate public health concerns. PMID:21909312

  19. What Online User Innovation Communities Can Teach Us about Capturing the Experiences of Patients Living with Chronic Health Conditions. A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Julia; Zanini, Claudia; Rubinelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to adapt to societal changes, healthcare systems need to switch from a disease orientation to a patient-centered approach. Virtual patient networks are a promising tool to favor this switch and much can be learned from the open and user innovation literature where the involvement of online user communities in the innovation process is well-documented. Objectives The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the use of online communities as a tool to capture and harness innovative ideas of end users or consumers; and 2) to point to the potential value and challenges of these virtual platforms to function as a tool to inform and promote patient-centered care in the context of chronic health conditions. Methods A scoping review was conducted. A total of seven databases were searched for scientific articles published in English between 1995 and 2014. The search strategy was refined through an iterative process. Results A total of 144 studies were included in the review. Studies were coded inductively according to their research focus to identify groupings of papers. The first set of studies focused on the interplay of factors related to user roles, motivations, and behaviors that shape the innovation process within online communities. Studies of the second set examined the role of firms in online user innovation initiatives, identifying different organizational strategies and challenges. The third set of studies focused on the idea selection process and measures of success with respect to online user innovation initiatives. Finally, the findings from the review are presented in the light of the particularities and challenges discussed in current healthcare research. Conclusion The present paper highlights the potential of virtual patient communities to inform and promote patient-centered care, describes the key challenges involved in this process, and makes recommendations on how to address them. PMID:27272912

  20. Alteration of the exopolysaccharide production and the transcriptional profile of free-living Frankia strain CcI3 under nitrogen-fixing conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-In; Donati, Andrew J; Hahn, Dittmar; Tisa, Louis S; Chang, Woo-Suk

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of different nitrogen (N) sources on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and composition by Frankia strain CcI3, a N2-fixing actinomycete that forms root nodules with Casuarina species. Frankia cells grown in the absence of NH4Cl (i.e., under N2-fixing conditions) produced 1.7-fold more EPS, with lower galactose (45.1 vs. 54.7 mol%) and higher mannose (17.3 vs. 9.7 mol%) contents than those grown in the presence of NH4Cl as a combined N-source. In the absence of the combined N-source, terminally linked and branched residue contents were nearly twice as high with 32.8 vs. 15.1 mol% and 15.1 vs. 8.7 mol%, respectively, than in its presence, while the content of linearly linked residues was lower with 52.1 mol% compared to 76.2 mol%. To find out clues for the altered EPS production at the transcriptional level, we performed whole-gene expression profiling using quantitative reverse transcription PCR and microarray technology. The transcription profiles of Frankia strain CcI3 grown in the absence of NH4Cl revealed up to 2 orders of magnitude higher transcription of nitrogen fixation-related genes compared to those of CcI3 cells grown in the presence of NH4Cl. Unexpectedly, microarray data did not provide evidence for transcriptional regulation as a mechanism for differences in EPS production. These findings indicate effects of nitrogen fixation on the production and composition of EPS in Frankia strain CcI3 and suggest posttranscriptional regulation of enhanced EPS production in the absence of the combined N-source. PMID:24097014

  1. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  2. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  3. Live a Full Life with Fibro

    MedlinePlus

    ... Live a Full Life with Fibro Page Content Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition that affects 10 ... family, you can live an active life with fibromyalgia. Talking with Your Physician Take the first step ...

  4. Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

  5. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Interferon-α

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Demetrashvili, Marina; Capuron, Lucile; Miller, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant preparations of the cytokine interferon (IFN)-α are increasingly used to treat a number of medical conditions, including chronic viral hepatitis and several malignancies. Although frequently effective, IFNα induces a variety of neuropsychiatric adverse effects, including an acute confusional state that develops rapidly after initiation of high-dose IFNα, a depressive syndrome that develops more slowly over weeks to months of treatment, and manic conditions most often characterised by extreme irritability and agitation, but also occasionally by euphoria. Acute IFNα-induced confusional states are typically characterised by disorientation, lethargy, somnolence, psychomotor retardation, difficulties with speaking and writing, parkinsonism and psychotic symptoms. Strategies for managing delirium should be employed, including treatment of contributing medical conditions, use of either typical or atypical antipsychotic agents and avoidance of medications likely to worsen mental status. Significant depressive symptoms occur in 21–58% of patients receiving IFNα, with symptoms typically manifesting over the first several months of treatment. The most replicated risk factor for developing depression is the presence of mood and anxiety symptoms prior to treatment. Other potential, but less frequently replicated, risk factors include a past history of major depression, being female and increasing IFNα dosage and treatment duration. The available data support two approaches to the pharmacological management of IFNα-induced depression: antidepressant pretreatment or symptomatic treatment once IFNα has been initiated. Pretreatment might be best reserved for patients already receiving antidepressants or for patients who endorse depression or anxiety symptoms of mild or greater severity prior to therapy. Several recent studies demonstrate that antidepressants effectively treat IFNα-induced depression once it has developed, allowing the vast majority of

  6. Dependence of the effects of dietary cholesterol and experimental conditions on serum lipids in man. III. The effect on serum cholesterol of removal of eggs from the diet of free-living habitually egg-eating people.

    PubMed

    Bronsgeest-Schoute, D C; Hermus, R J; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Hautvast, J G

    1979-11-01

    Forty-four healthy free living volunteers were used to study the effect of the removal of eggs from a habitual egg-rich diet. The subjects, recruited by advertising, normally consumed at least 1 egg per day. During the 3-week experimental period they were not allowed to eat any eggs or products containing large amounts of eggs, except cakes and tarts. Elimination of eggs from a habitual egg-rich diet did result in a small but significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels in all subjects. No correlation could be demonstrated between changes in serum cholesterol levels and the age of the subjects and between changes in serum cholesterol levels and the numbers of eggs eaten per week before the experimental period. A significant negative correlation was found between changes in serum cholesterol levels and the Quételet index for obesity and between changes in serum cholesterol levels and the serum cholesterol levels before the experimental period. The results indicate that a very variable response is present in a human population toward dietary cholesterol. More research seems to be necessary to describe and select the population of hyperresponders, the subjects who are more sensitive to changes in dietary cholesterol, and the hyporesponders. The results moreover indicate that effects of dietary changes in a free-living population are much smaller than can be accomplished in populations under controlled conditions. PMID:495535

  7. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Hung; Wang, Chuang-Wei; Dao, Ro-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The clinical manifestations of drug eruptions can range from mild maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) which are rare but occasionally fatal. Some pathogens may induce skin reactions mimicking SCAR. There are several models to explain the interaction of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), drug and T-cell receptor (TCR): (i) the "hapten/prohapten" theory; (ii) the "p-i concept"; (iii) the "altered peptide repertoire"; and (iv) the "altered TCR repertoire". The checkpoints of molecular mechanisms of SCAR include specific drug antigens interacting with the specific HLA loci (e.g. HLA-B*15:02 for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN and HLA-B*58:01 for allopurinol-induced SCAR), involvement of specific TCR, induction of T-cell-mediated responses (e.g. granulysin, Fas ligand, perforin/granzyme B and T-helper 1/2-associated cytokines) and cell death mechanism (e.g. miR-18a-5p-induced apoptosis; annexin A1 and formyl peptide receptor 1-induced necroptosis in keratinocytes). In addition to immune mechanism, metabolism has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of SCAR, such as recent findings of strong association of CYP2C9*3 with phenytoin-induced SCAR and impaired renal function with allopurinol SCAR. With a better understanding of the mechanisms, effective therapeutics and prevention for SCAR can be improved. PMID:27154258

  8. [Acute adverse effects of dialysis].

    PubMed

    Opatrný, K

    2003-02-01

    Adverse reactions to dialyzers are a not very frequent, but because of the serious, sometimes fatal course, a dreaded complication of haemodialysis treatment. Most important among these reactions are hypersensitive reactions (anaphylactoid, reaction type A to dialyzer), which develop as a rule within the 10th minute of the procedure, and the reaction caused by the action of perfluorohydrocarbon which develop hours after onset or even completion of haemodialysis. Explanation of the development of hypersensitive reactions (HSR) by complement activation and formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a during contact of blood with the bioincompatible dialysis membrane has been abandoned. Evidence of the etiological role of ethylene oxide (ETO) in the development of HSR influenced the selection of materials for the production of dialyzers and sterilization during manufacture, it emphasized the importance of rinsing of the dialyzer in the dialysis centre and led to the wide application of alternative methods of sterilization by gamma radiation and steam. HSR may be also caused by overproduction of bradykinin and inhibition of its degradation or degradation of its metabolites. Excessive bradykinin production caused by dialysis membranes with a negative charge is potentiated e.g. by a lower pH and increased plasma dilution in the initial stage of haemodialysis. Inhibition of bradykinin degradation develops during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). In prevention of HSR associated with bradykinin in addition to elimination of a combination of a negatively charged dialysis membrane and ACEI treatment a part is played also by rinsing of the dialyzer before haemodialysis with a bicarbonate solution and the modification of the membrane surface (implemented by the manufacturer) which reduces its negative charge. The first reaction to the dialyzer in conjunction with perfluorohydrocarbon (PF-5070), used in production of some dialyzers for testing the

  9. Predicting Fatigue Lives Under Complex Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Nelson, R. S.; Janitor, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) computer program performs high-temperature, low-cycle-fatigue life prediction for materials analysis. Designed to account for effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loadings involving such factors as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, wave-shapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. Several features practical for application to actual component analysis using modern finite-element or boundary-element methods. Although developed for use in predicting crack-initiation lifetimes of gas-turbine-engine materials, also applied to other materials as well. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  11. Adverse Drug Reactions in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions may occur with any of the medications prescribed or administered in dental practice. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are less common and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review the most common adverse reactions that are unrelated to drug allergy. PMID:24697823

  12. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  13. Nurses must report adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    There is renewed determination throughout the European Union (EU) to reduce the economic cost and high death rate associated with adverse drug reactions through better pharmacovigilance. Timely reporting and sharing of information concerning adverse drug reactions is vital to the success of this initiative. In the UK, the reporting of serious adverse drug reactions is facilitated by the Yellow Card Scheme, yet despite being well placed to monitor the effect of medicines on patients, nurses do not make full use of the scheme. This article sets out the impact of adverse drug reactions in the EU and argues that it is essential that nurses must be at the vanguard of adverse reaction reporting if the EU's pharmacovigilance initiative is to be a success. PMID:23905231

  14. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  15. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  16. Placental Features of Late-Onset Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Lucy E.; Wareing, Mark; Greenwood, Susan L.; Jones, Rebecca L.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Heazell, Alexander E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Currently, no investigations reliably identify placental dysfunction in late pregnancy. To facilitate the development of such investigations we aimed to identify placental features that differ between normal and adverse outcome in late pregnancy in a group of pregnancies with reduced fetal movement. Methods Following third trimester presentation with reduced fetal movement (N = 100), placental structure ex vivo was measured. Placental function was then assessed in terms of (i) chorionic plate artery agonist responses and length-tension characteristics using wire myography and (ii) production and release of placentally derived hormones (by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay of villous tissue and explant conditioned culture medium). Results Placentas from pregnancies ending in adverse outcome (N = 23) were ~25% smaller in weight, volume, length, width and disc area (all p<0.0001) compared with those from normal outcome pregnancies. Villous and trophoblast areas were unchanged, but villous vascularity was reduced (median (interquartile range): adverse outcome 10 (10–12) vessels/mm2 vs. normal outcome 13 (12–15), p = 0.002). Adverse outcome pregnancy placental arteries were relatively insensitive to nitric oxide donated by sodium nitroprusside compared to normal outcome pregnancy placental arteries (50% Effective Concentration 30 (19–50) nM vs. 12 (6–24), p = 0.02). Adverse outcome pregnancy placental tissue contained less human chorionic gonadotrophin (20 (11–50) vs. 55 (24–102) mIU/mg, p = 0.007) and human placental lactogen (11 (6–14) vs. 27 (9–50) mg/mg, p = 0.006) and released more soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (21 (13–29) vs. 5 (2–15) ng/mg, p = 0.01) compared with normal outcome pregnancy placental tissue. Conclusion These data provide a description of the placental phenotype of adverse outcome in late pregnancy. Antenatal tests that accurately reflect elements of this phenotype may

  17. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.

    PubMed

    Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and

  18. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  19. Live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions. PMID:25482523

  20. Adverse reproductive events and electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R.

    1991-07-31

    In 1989 approximately 42,000 questionnaires were mailed to female physical therapists to assess the risk of adverse reproductive effects among those exposed to electromagnetic radiation at radiofrequencies. From the resulting data, the risk of early recognized fetal loss was assessed using a nested case-control design. The cases (1753 miscarriages) were matched to controls (1753 other pregnancies except ectopics) on mothers age at conception and the number of years elapsed between conception and interview. The results of the study indicate that female physical therapists who work with microwave diathermy 6 months prior to the pregnancy and/or during the first trimester were at increased risk of experiencing a recognized early fetal loss, but female physical therapists who work with shortwave diathermy were not at an increased risk. This association was shown to hold even when the mother's age at conception, the number of years elapsed between conception and interview, the number of prior early fetal losses, mother's conditions ever diagnosed, and use of other modalities were controlled. The data also suggest a possible association between exposure to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with an elevated risk of early recognized fetal loss.

  1. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  2. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  3. Asymmetric Information in Iranian’s Health Insurance Market: Testing of Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Farhad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Hadian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asymmetric information is one of the most important issues in insurance market which occurred due to inherent characteristics of one of the agents involved in insurance contracts; hence its management requires designing appropriate policies. This phenomenon can lead to the failure of insurance market via its two consequences, namely, adverse selection and moral hazard. Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the status of asymmetric information in Iran’s health insurance market with respect to the demand for outpatient services. Materials/sPatients and Methods: This research is a cross sectional study conducted on households living in Iran. The data of the research was extracted from the information on household’s budget survey collected by the Statistical Center of Iran in 2012. In this study, the Generalized Method of Moment model was used and the status of adverse selection and moral hazard was evaluated through calculating the latent health status of individuals in each insurance category. To analyze the data, Excel, Eviews and stata11 software were used. Results: The estimation of parameters of the utility function of the demand for outpatient services (visit, medicine, and Para-clinical services) showed that households were more risk averse in the use of outpatient care than other goods and services. After estimating the health status of households based on their health insurance categories, the results showed that rural-insured people had the best health status and people with supplementary insurance had the worst health status. In addition, the comparison of the conditional distribution of latent health status approved the phenomenon of adverse selection in all insurance groups, with the exception of rural insurance. Moreover, calculation of the elasticity of medical expenses to reimbursement rate confirmed the existence of moral hazard phenomenon. Conclusions: Due to the existence of the phenomena of adverse selection and moral hazard

  4. Adverse event recording post hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Doody, K; Mohamed, K M S; Butler, A; Street, J; Lenehan, B

    2013-01-01

    Accurate recording of adverse events post hip fracture surgery is vital for planning and allocating resources. The purpose of this study was to compare adverse events recorded prospectively at point of care with adverse recorded by the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) System. The study examined a two month period from August to September 2011 at University Hospital Limerick. Out of a sample size of 39, there were 7 males (17.9%) and 32 females (82.1%) with an age range of between 53 and 98 years. The mean age was 80.5 years. 55 adverse events were recorded, in contrast to the HIPE record of 13 (23.6%) adverse events. The most common complications included constipation 10 (18.2%), anaemia 8 (14.5%), urinary retention 8 (14.50%), pneumonia 5 (9.1%) and delirium 5 (9.1%). Of the female cohort, 24 (68.8%) suffered an adverse event, while only 4 (57%) males suffered an adverse event. PMID:24579408

  5. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  6. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI) predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI), this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL). Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI) with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life. PMID:26246968

  7. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  8. Maternal Serum Screening Markers and Adverse Outcome: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, David; Hallahan, Terrence; Janik, David; Carmichael, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    There have been a number of studies evaluating the association of aneuploidy serum markers with adverse pregnancy outcome. More recently, the development of potential treatments for these adverse outcomes as well as the introduction of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening for aneuploidy necessitates a re-evaluation of the benefit of serum markers in the identification of adverse outcomes. Analysis of the literature indicates that the serum markers tend to perform better in identifying pregnancies at risk for the more severe but less frequent form of individual pregnancy complications rather than the more frequent but milder forms of the condition. As a result, studies which evaluate the association of biomarkers with a broad definition of a given condition may underestimate the ability of such markers to identify pregnancies that are destined to develop the more severe form of the condition. Consideration of general population screening using cffDNA solely must be weighed against the fact that traditional screening using serum markers enables detection of severe pregnancy complications, not detectable with cffDNA, of which many may be amenable to treatment options. PMID:26237472

  9. Maternal Serum Screening Markers and Adverse Outcome: A New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Krantz, David; Hallahan, Terrence; Janik, David; Carmichael, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    There have been a number of studies evaluating the association of aneuploidy serum markers with adverse pregnancy outcome. More recently, the development of potential treatments for these adverse outcomes as well as the introduction of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening for aneuploidy necessitates a re-evaluation of the benefit of serum markers in the identification of adverse outcomes. Analysis of the literature indicates that the serum markers tend to perform better in identifying pregnancies at risk for the more severe but less frequent form of individual pregnancy complications rather than the more frequent but milder forms of the condition. As a result, studies which evaluate the association of biomarkers with a broad definition of a given condition may underestimate the ability of such markers to identify pregnancies that are destined to develop the more severe form of the condition. Consideration of general population screening using cffDNA solely must be weighed against the fact that traditional screening using serum markers enables detection of severe pregnancy complications, not detectable with cffDNA, of which many may be amenable to treatment options. PMID:26237472

  10. Race, gender, and chains of disadvantage: childhood adversity, social relationships, and health.

    PubMed

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-03-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans' Changing Lives, N = 3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity's enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

  11. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  12. Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Hoetzenecker, W; Nägeli, M; Mehra, E T; Jensen, A N; Saulite, I; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Guenova, E; Cozzio, A; French, L E

    2016-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous drug reactions are recognized as being major health problems worldwide causing considerable costs for health care systems. Most adverse cutaneous drug reactions follow a benign course; however, up to 2% of all adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are severe and life-threatening. These include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Physicians should be aware of specific red flags to rapidly identify these severe cutaneous drug eruptions and initiate appropriate treatment. Besides significant progress in clinical classification and treatment, recent studies have greatly enhanced our understanding in the pathophysiology of adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Genetic susceptibilities to certain drugs have been identified in SJS/TEN patients, viral reactivation in DRESS has been elucidated, and the discovery of tissue resident memory T cells helps to better understand the recurrent site-specific inflammation in patients with fixed drug eruption. PMID:26553194

  13. Childhood adversities and psychosis: evidence, challenges, implications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Gayer‐Anderson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities – particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat – do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. PMID:27265690

  14. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  15. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet. PMID:26606684

  16. Organ-specific systemic lupus erythematosus activity during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Sara K; Guan, Hongshu; Fine, Alexander; Costenbader, Karen H; Bermas, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of reproductive-age women, and thus questions regarding how disease influences pregnancy outcomes arise. We investigated whether five specific types of SLE activity during the 6 months before conception or during pregnancy (nephritis, cytopenias, skin disease, arthritis, serositis) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcomes among women with SLE at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Lupus Center. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, elective termination due to SLE, spontaneous miscarriage at weeks 12-20, and stillbirth. SLE and obstetric history, laboratories, and medications were obtained from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to identify predictors of any adverse pregnancy outcome. Most pregnancies resulted in a live term delivery (76.5 %). After adjustment for Hispanic ethnicity, prior adverse pregnancy outcome and medication use 6 months before conception, nephritis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-12.8), cytopenias during pregnancy (OR 3.9, 95 % CI 1.3-11.4), and serositis during pregnancy (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 1.0-34.0) were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Specific types of SLE disease activity during pregnancy were related to adverse pregnancy outcome. Nephritis, cytopenias, and serositis carried a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, suggesting that these abnormalities should be carefully monitored during pregnancy. PMID:27166627

  17. The worm that lived

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hwei-yen; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    Organisms age because of the “selection shadow”—the decline of the force of natural selection with age. Seemingly straightforward corollary of this theory is the Medawar-Williams prediction, which maintains that increased extrinsic (non-aging) mortality will result in the evolution of accelerated aging and decreased longevity. Despite its centrality to modern thinking about the ultimate causes of aging, this prediction ignores the fact that mortality is often a non-random process depending on individual condition. Increased condition-dependent mortality inescapably results in increased selection for resistance against the agent of mortality. Provided that resistance to various stressors is commonly associated with increased longevity, the evolutionary outcome is no longer certain. We recently documented this experimentally by showing that populations of Caenorhabditis remanei evolved to live shorter under high extrinsic mortality, but only when mortality was applied haphazardly. On the contrary, when extrinsic mortality was caused by heat-shock, populations experiencing the same rate of increased mortality evolved greater longevities, notwithstanding increased “selection shadow.” Intriguingly, stress-resistant and long-lived worms were also more fecund. We discuss these results in the light of recent theoretical developments, such as condition-environment interactions and hyperfunction theory of aging. PMID:24778930

  18. Fathers’ intelligence measured at age 18–20 years is associated with offspring smoking: linking the Swedish 1969 conscription cohort to the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Background An association between lower IQ of parents, measured early in life, and smoking among their offspring has been reported. The extent to which other background factors account for this association is unknown. Methods Data on IQ, smoking, mental health, social class, parental divorce and social problems in a cohort of men born during 1949–1951 and conscripted for military service in 1969 were linked to smoking data on 682 offspring interviewed in the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions 1984–2009. Results In an age-adjusted model, a one-step decrease on a stanine scale was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.35) for offspring smoking. Adjusting for father's socioeconomic background and smoking, mental illness and social problems in youth only marginally lowered the OR's. Conclusions Lower IQ among fathers measured at ages 18–20 years was associated with smoking in their offspring. The association was not explained by father's social class in childhood or a higher prevalence of mental illness, social problems or smoking measured among the fathers in their late adolescence. PMID:26515987

  19. Is cumulative exposure to economic hardships more hazardous to women's health than men's? A 16‐year follow‐up study of the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ahnquist, Johanna; Fredlund, Peeter; Wamala, Sarah P

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown an association between cumulative economic hardships and various health outcomes. However, the cumulative effects of economic hardships in regard to gender differences have not been given enough attention. Methods 1981 women and 1799 men were followed up over a period of 16 years (1981–1997), using data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions panel study. The temporal association between economic hardships and self‐rated health, psychological distress and musculoskeletal disorders was analysed. Results A dose–response effect on women's health was observed with increasing scores of cumulative exposure to financial stress but not with low income. Women exposed to financial stress at both T1 and T2 had an increased risk of 1.4–1.6 for all health measures compared with those who were not exposed. A similar consistent dose–response effect was not observed among men. Conclusions There is a temporal relationship between cumulative economic hardships and health outcomes, and health effects differ by gender. Financial stress seems to be a stronger predictor of poor health outcomes than low income, particularly among women. Policies geared towards reducing health inequalities should recognise that long‐term exposure to economic hardships damages health, and actions need to be taken with a gender perspective. PMID:17372294

  20. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  1. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  2. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  3. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  4. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  5. Living with endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis ... counter pain relievers can reduce the pain of endometriosis. These include: Ibuprofen (Advil) Naproxen (Aleve) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) ...

  6. Living with an Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With an Arrhythmia Many arrhythmias are harmless. It's common to have an occasional ... heartbeat or mild palpitations . People who have harmless arrhythmias can live healthy lives. They usually don't ...

  7. Living Gluten Free

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Living Gluten Free Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Allowed ... to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 Number 1 Page ...

  8. Adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, A; Alain, L; Pless, R; Robert, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of severe adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines administered as part of a mass vaccination program. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of events reported to a passive provincial surveillance system. SETTING: The province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: The 1,198,751 individuals aged 6 months to 20 years who were vaccinated against meningococcal disease between Dec. 27, 1992, and Mar. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Total numbers and rates of severe adverse events, including allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions, neurological events (other than abnormal crying and screaming) and other serious or unusual events. RESULTS: A total of 118 reports of severe adverse events were selected from the surveillance system. The most frequent were allergic reactions (9.2 per 100,000 doses). Few anaphylactic or neurologic reactions were reported (0.1 and 0.5 per 100,000 doses respectively). There were no reports of sequelae or of encephalopathy, meningitis or encephalitis. CONCLUSION: Meningococcal vaccines seem to be associated with fewer adverse events than have previously been reported. Existing surveillance programs are useful for determining the incidence of adverse events temporally associated with vaccines. PMID:8630839

  9. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  10. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning

    PubMed Central

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events. PMID:24955289

  11. Standardizing drug adverse event reporting data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Normalizing data in the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), an FDA database, would improve the mining capacity of AERS for drug safety signal detection. In this study, we aim to normalize AERS and build a publicly available normalized Adverse drug events (ADE) data source.he drug information in AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Adverse drug events (ADE) are aggregated through mapping with the PT (Preferred Term) and SOC (System Organ Class) codes of MedDRA. Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). The AERS-DM could provide more perspectives to mine AERS database for drug safety signal detection and could be used by research community in the data mining field. PMID:23920875

  12. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

  13. Adverse events related to blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided. PMID:25535415

  14. Paternal employment in solvent related occupations and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Daniell, W E; Vaughan, T L

    1988-03-01

    Washington State birth certificates were examined for associations between adverse pregnancy outcomes and paternal employment in solvent exposed occupations. Four cohorts defined by live, singleton births to fathers usually employed as auto body shop workers, painters (construction and maintenance), printers, or fibreglass workers were compared retrospectively with both a systematically selected control cohort and a low solvent exposed, occupationally defined control cohort (paternal electricians). The effects of maternal race and medical illness were controlled by sample restriction; maternal age and gravidity by stratified analysis. There was evidence of increased risk of low birth weight for infants born to fathers employed as body shop workers (relative risk = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.4) or painters (RR = 1.4; CI = 0.9-2.1) when compared with the systematically selected controls but not with the electrician controls. The excess risk appeared stronger when only term infants were analysed suggesting a mechanism of growth retardation rather than prematurity. There was no evidence of increased risk among the other exposed cohorts or for other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several design features limit the interpretation of the findings and confirmation by other studies is needed. PMID:3348995

  15. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) measures of live fuel moisture and fuel condition in a shrubland ecosystem in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Dennison, P. E.; Peterson, S.; Sweeney, S.; Rechel, J.

    2006-12-01

    Dynamic changes in live fuel moisture (LFM) and fuel condition modify fire danger in shrublands. We investigated the empirical relationship between field-measured LFM and remotely sensed greenness and moisture measures from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Key goals were to assess the nature of these relationships as they varied between sensors, across sites, and across years. Most AVIRIS-derived measures were highly correlated with LFM. Visible atmospherically resistant index (VARI) and visible green index (VIg) outperformed all moisture measures. The water index (WI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) had the highest correlations of the moisture measures. All relationships were nonlinear, and a linear relationship only applied above a 60% LFM. Changes in the fraction of green vegetation (GV) and nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV) were good indicators of changes in fuels below the 60% LFM threshold. AVIRIS- and MODIS-derived measures were highly correlated but lacked a 1:1 relationship. MODIS-derived greenness and moisture measures were also highly correlated to LFM but generally had lower correlations than AVIRIS and varied between sites. LFM relationships improved when data were pooled by functional type. LFM interannual variability impacted relationships, producing higher correlations in wetter years, with VARI and VIg showing the highest correlations across years. Lowest correlations were observed for sites that included two different functional types or multiple land cover classes (i.e., urban and roads) within a MODIS footprint. Higher correlations for uniform sites and improved relationships for functional types suggest that MODIS can map LFM effectively in shrublands.

  16. Adverse Drug Reactions of the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Adigun, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a common cause of dermatologic consultation, involving 2 to 3 per 100 medical inpatients in the United States. Female patients are 1.3 to 1.5 times more likely to develop ADRs, except in children less than 3 years of age, among whom boys are more often affected. Certain drugs are more frequent causes, including aminopenicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Chemotherapeutic agents commonly cause adverse reactions to the skin and nails, with certain agents causing particular patterns of reactions. ADRs can involve any area of the skin; the appendages, including hair and nails; as well as mucosa. PMID:27215159

  17. Adverse drug reactions and safety considerations of NSAIDs: clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Shiv; Keshri, Lav; Pathak, Kamla

    2011-11-01

    NSAIDs are the most frequently used drugs for treatment, in Europe and the United States, accounting for approximately 5% of all prescriptions. Moreover, the use of NSAIDs is increasing because these constitute the first-line drug therapy for a wide range of rheumatic conditions. This increase is in part the result of the increasing population of elderly patients, who constitute the group of patients with greatest demand for these agents. There are many types of NSAIDs that vary in potency, action and potential side effects. Thus various efforts have been made to determine the safety considerations including adverse drug effects, duration of drug therapy, drug interactions, precautions and other drugs applied to reduce side effects. Researchers have introduced some novel techniques to diagnose NSAIDs related adverse effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa. The researchers dealing with the development of drug delivery system for these drugs should aim at designing a therapeutically efficacious dosage form with reduced side/adverse effects. Thus an effort has been made in this review to deal with the safety parameters of various NSAIDs with a special emphasis on preclinical and clinical safety analysis and various attempts to minimize the side effects by structural modification or by drug delivery system. PMID:22424538

  18. Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Bryan D; Kelman, Bruce J; Saxon, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    Molds are common and important allergens. About 5% of individuals are predicted to have some allergic airway symptoms from molds over their lifetime. However, it should be remembered that molds are not dominant allergens and that the outdoor molds, rather than indoor ones, are the most important. For almost all allergic individuals, the reactions will be limited to rhinitis or asthma; sinusitis may occur secondarily due to obstruction. Rarely do sensitized individuals develop uncommon conditions such as ABPA or AFS. To reduce the risk of developing or exacerbating allergies, mold should not be allowed to grow unchecked indoors. When mold colonization is discovered in the home, school, or office, it should be remediated after the source of the moisture that supports its growth is identified and eliminated. Authoritative guidelines for mold remediation are available. Fungi are rarely significant pathogens for humans. Superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails are relatively common in normal individuals, but those infections are readily treated and generally resolve without complication. Fungal infections of deeper tissues are rare and in general are limited to persons with severely impaired immune systems. The leading pathogenic fungi for persons with nonimpaired immune function, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma, may find their way indoors with outdoor air but normally do not grow or propagate indoors. Due to the ubiquity of fungi in the environment, it is not possible to prevent immunecompromised individuals from being exposed to molds and fungi outside the confines of hospital isolation units. Some molds that propagate indoors may under some conditions produce mycotoxins that can adversely affect living cells and organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Adverse effects of molds and mycotoxins have been recognized for centuries following ingestion of contaminated foods. Occupational diseases are also recognized in association with

  19. The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

  20. Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Medications on Sleep.

    PubMed

    Doghramji, Karl; Jangro, William C

    2016-09-01

    Psychotropic medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and benzodiazepines are widely prescribed. Most of these medications are thought to exert their effects through modulation of various monoamines as well as interactions with receptors such as histamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Through these interactions, psychotropics can also have a significant impact on sleep physiology, resulting in both beneficial and adverse effects on sleep. PMID:27514301

  1. Resilience in the Face of Adversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    "Resilience" is the capacity for moving ahead under adverse circumstances. School superintendents are advised to stay upbeat and mindful of "both-and" opportunities; stay focused on what they care about; remain flexible and tolerant of ambiguity; be proactive, not reactive; and apply resilience-conserving strategies during tough times. (MLH)

  2. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  3. Helping Student Teachers Avoid Adverse Legal Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five areas of the school environment lending themselves to the possibility of teacher and student teacher liability: negligence, malpractice, rights to privacy, field trips, and search of students and school property. Suggests specific guidelines for decreasing the possibility of adverse legal action. (NEC)

  4. Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

  5. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues. PMID:27040337

  6. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development and evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway provides a construct for assembling mechanistic information at different levels of biological organization in a form designed to support regulatory decision making. In particular, it frames the link between molecular and cellular events that can be mea...

  7. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  8. Antidepressants and cardiovascular adverse events: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Vojdanparast, Mohammad; Nezafati, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Major depression or deterioration of previous mood disorders is a common adverse consequence of coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiac revascularization procedures. Therefore, treatment of depression is expected to result in improvement of mood condition in these patients. Despite demonstrated effects of anti-depressive treatment in heart disease patients, the use of some antidepressants have shown to be associated with some adverse cardiac and non-cardiac events. In this narrative review, the authors aimed to first assess the findings of published studies on beneficial and also harmful effects of different types of antidepressants used in patients with heart diseases. Finally, a new categorization for selecting antidepressants according to their cardiovascular effects was described. METHODS Using PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Index Copernicus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database, we identified studies designed to evaluate the effects of depression and also using antidepressants on cardiovascular outcome. A 40 studies were finally assessed systematically. Among those eligible studies, 14 were cohort or historical cohort studies, 15 were randomized clinical trial, 4 were retrospective were case-control studies, 3 were meta-analyses and 2 animal studies, and 2 case studies. RESULTS According to the current review, we recommend to divide antidepressants into three categories based on the severity of cardiovascular adverse consequences including (1) the safest drugs including those drugs with cardio-protective effects on ventricular function, as well as cardiac conductive system including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, (2) neutralized drugs with no evidenced effects on cardiovascular system including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and (3) harmful drugs with adverse effects on cardiac function, hemodynamic stability, and heart rate variability including tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors

  9. Vitex agnus castus: a systematic review of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Claudia; Thompson Coon, Joanna; Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2005-01-01

    Vitex agnus castus L. (VAC) [Verbenaceae] is a deciduous shrub that is native to Mediterranean Europe and Central Asia. Traditionally, VAC fruit extract has been used in the treatment of many female conditions, including menstrual disorders (amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), corpus luteum insufficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, infertility, acne, menopause and disrupted lactation. The German Commission E has approved the use of VAC for irregularities of the menstrual cycle, premenstrual disturbances and mastodynia. Clinical reviews are available for the efficacy of VAC in PMS, cycle disorders, hyperprolactinaemia and mastalgia, but so far no systematic review has been published on adverse events or drug interactions associated with VAC. Therefore, this review was conducted to evaluate all the available human safety data of VAC monopreparations. Literature searches were conducted in six electronic databases, in references lists of all identified papers and in departmental files. Data from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national drug safety bodies were also included. Twelve manufacturers of VAC-containing preparations and five herbalist organisations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Combination preparations including VAC or homeopathic preparations of VAC were excluded. Data extraction of key data from all articles reporting adverse events or interactions was performed independently by at least two reviewers, regardless of study design. Data from clinical trials, postmarketing surveillance studies, surveys, spontaneous reporting schemes, manufacturers and herbalist organisations indicate that the adverse events following VAC treatment are mild and reversible. The most frequent adverse events are nausea, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, menstrual disorders, acne, pruritus and erythematous rash. No drug interactions were reported. Use of VAC should be avoided during pregnancy or

  10. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Nourian, Manijeh; Nourozi Tabrizi, Kian; Rassouli, Maryam; Biglarrian, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience. PMID:26942909

  11. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  12. Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-01-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity’s enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

  13. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  14. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  15. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  16. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  17. Living with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is among the most common of the allergic disorders, with a prevalence of 6-8 per cent in children up to the age of three. However, many people self-diagnose, putting their children at risk of malnutrition, possibly as a result of lack of awareness by health professionals of food allergy as a potential cause of conditions such as infantile eczema, chronic diarrhoea, faltering growth and gastrooesophageal reflux. NICE (The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) recently published guidelines, which they hope will help to improve the diagnosis of food allergies within the community. If food allergy or lactose intolerance is suspected, the mainstay of a diagnostic work up should comprise of a detailed allergy-focused clinical history, part of which will involve determining whether the adverse reaction is typically an immediate (IgE mediated) or more delayed-type (non-IgE mediated) allergic reaction, or whether it may be lactose intolerance; a form of non-allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:21980692

  18. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

  19. Glaucoma eye drops adverse skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Ambrifi, Marina; Frascani, Federica; Fazia, Gilda; Paolino, Giovanni; Lisi, Roberto; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open-angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

  20. Anaphylactoid and adverse reactions to radiocontrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hagan, John B

    2004-08-01

    Over the past 75 years, radiocontrast agents have provided numerous diagnostic and therapeutic advances. The benefits of these agents must be weighed against the potential risks for each individual undergoing radiologic tests. This summary is intended to be a guide for the allergy and immunology specialist to direct him or her to the current literature regarding adverse reactions to traditional and less commonly used radiologic contrast agents. PMID:15242724

  1. An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

  2. Adverse effects of human immunoglobulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-07-01

    Human immunoglobulin (IG) is used for IgG replacement therapy in primary and secondary immunodeficiency, for prevention and treatment of certain infections, and as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. IG has a wide spectrum of antibodies to microbial and human antigens. Several high-titered IGs are also available enriched in antibodies to specific viruses or bacterial toxins. IG can be given intravenously (IGIV), intramuscularly (IGIM) or by subcutaneous infusions (SCIG). Local adverse reactions such as persistent pain, bruising, swelling and erythema are rare with IGIV infusions but common (75%) with SCIG infusions. By contrast, adverse systemic reactions are rare with SCIG infusions but common with IGIV infusions, occurring as often as 20% to 50% of patients and 5% to 15% of all IGIV infusions. Systemic adverse reactions can be immediate (60% of reactions) occurring within 6 hours of an infusion, delayed (40% of reactions) occurring 6 hours-1 week after an infusion, and late (less than 1% of reactions), occurring weeks and months after an infusion. Immediate systemic reactions such as head and body aches, chills and fever are usually mild and readily treatable. Immediate anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are uncommon. The most common delayed systemic reaction is persistent headache. Less common but more serious delayed reactions include aseptic meningitis, renal failure, thromboembolism, and hemolytic reactions. Late reactions are uncommon but often severe, and include lung disease, enteritis, dermatologic disorders and infectious diseases. The types, incidence, causes, prevention, and management of these reactions are discussed. PMID:23835249

  3. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors. PMID:26070758

  4. Prenatal Adversities and Latino Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Trajectories from 6 Months to 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G.; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers’ adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13–14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father’s absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers’ prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring’s parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring’s heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring’s sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p = .05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the

  5. The Independent Living Behavior Checklist: Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    The document describes independent living skills, and provides information on how they can be measured. It is explained in an introductory chapter that the checklist is an extensive list of 343 independent living skill objectives specified in terms of conditions (antecedents or givens), behaviors, and standards. Objectives are classified and…

  6. Adverse effects in wild fish living downstream from pharmaceutical manufacture discharges.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Wilfried; Sremski, William; Piccini, Benjamin; Palluel, Olivier; Maillot-Maréchal, Emmanuelle; Betoulle, Stéphane; Jaffal, Ali; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Brion, François; Thybaud, Eric; Hinfray, Nathalie; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2011-11-01

    A set of biochemical and histological responses was measured in wild gudgeon collected upstream and downstream of urban and pharmaceutical manufacture effluents. These individual end-points were associated to fish assemblage characterisation. Responses of biotransformation enzymes, neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption biomarkers revealed contamination of investigated stream by a mixture of pollutants. Fish from sampled sites downstream of the industrial effluent exhibited also strong signs of endocrine disruption including vitellogenin induction, intersex and male-biased sex-ratio. These individual effects were associated to a decrease of density and a lack of sensitive fish species. This evidence supports the hypothesis that pharmaceutical compounds discharged in stream are involved in recorded endocrine disruption effects and fish population disturbances and threaten disappearance of resident fish species. Overall, this study gives argument for the utilisation of an effect-based monitoring approach to assess impacts of pharmaceutical manufacture discharges on wild fish populations. PMID:21722962

  7. Live imaging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Looney, Mark R; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  8. Live Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  9. ASSESSING EXPOSURES TO MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FOR POPULATIONS LIVING NEAR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing number of epidemiological studies have identified an increase in occurrence of adverse health effects for populations living near major roads. However, the biological mechanism(s) leading to the adverse effects have not been identified. Limitations in exposure assessm...

  10. Living with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  11. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  12. Living with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the website provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Spina bifida affects the entire ...

  13. Living with Atrial Fibrillation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics » Atrial Fibrillation » Living With Atrial Fibrillation Explore Atrial Fibrillation What Is... Types Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia ...

  14. Adversity in Preschool-Aged Children: Effects on Salivary Interleukin-1β

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Valentine, Thomas R.; Eslinger, Nicole M.; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to early life adversity is linked to impaired affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning and increases risk for various psychiatric and medical conditions. Stress-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a biological mechanism of these effects. Few studies have examined cytokine levels in children experiencing early life adversity, and very little research has investigated cytokines or other markers of inflammation in saliva. In the present study, we examined salivary IL-1β and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in relation to stress exposure in 40 children aged 3 to 5 years who were enrolled in a larger study of early life adversity. Childhood maltreatment status was assessed via review of child welfare records, and contextual stress exposure, traumatic life event history, and symptoms of psychopathology were assessed via caregiver interviews at a home visit. In a subsequent visit, salivary IL-1β and CRP were obtained before and after participation in four emotion-eliciting tasks. Number of past month contextual stressors, lifetime contextual stressors, and traumatic life events each demonstrated a significant main effect on IL-1β. Baseline IL-1β was positively associated with each of the significant main-effect adversities. Post-challenge IL-1β displayed positive associations with each adversity variable, but were not significant. CRP was not significantly associated with any of the adversity variables. Given evidence suggesting involvement of IL-1β in the neuropathology of psychiatric conditions, these results may have important implications for developmental outcomes. PMID:25997772

  15. Early adversity, hypocortisolism, and behavior problems at school entry: A study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Koss, Kalsea J; Mliner, Shanna B; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children's cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  16. Childhood Adversity, Timing of Puberty and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Chung-Ying; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity contributes to depressive symptoms in adolescence, but far less research has focused on an Asian context. This study aims to identify the long-term impact of childhood adversity on adolescents' depressive symptoms and whether this association is moderated by gender and early pubertal timing in Taiwan. Data in this study are from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a longitudinal study that surveyed and followed 4261 junior high school students in year 2001 (at age 13) and three more waves (at ages 15, 17, and 18). Conditional latent growth model results show that having adversity is positively associated with the intercept, but negatively associated with the linear trend of changes of depressive symptoms in adolescence (p < .01). Early pubertal timing is only positively associated with baseline levels for boys (p < .01). Both adversity and early pubertal timing contributes to depressive symptoms when adolescents start junior high school. PMID:26206735

  17. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Development I: Strategies and Principles

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organization of regulatory relevance. Systematic organization of information into AOP frameworks has potential to improve regulatory decision-making through greater integration and more meaningful use of mechanistic data. However, for the scientific community to collectively develop a useful AOP knowledgebase that encompasses toxicological contexts of concern to human health and ecological risk assessment, it is critical that AOPs be developed in accordance with a consistent set of core principles. Based on the experiences and scientific discourse among a group of AOP practitioners, we propose a set of five fundamental principles that guide AOP development: (1) AOPs are not chemical specific; (2) AOPs are modular and composed of reusable components—notably key events (KEs) and key event relationships (KERs); (3) an individual AOP, composed of a single sequence of KEs and KERs, is a pragmatic unit of AOP development and evaluation; (4) networks composed of multiple AOPs that share common KEs and KERs are likely to be the functional unit of prediction for most real-world scenarios; and (5) AOPs are living documents that will evolve over time as new knowledge is generated. The goal of the present article was to introduce some strategies for AOP development and detail the rationale behind these 5 key principles. Consideration of these principles addresses many of the current uncertainties regarding the AOP framework and its application and is intended to foster greater consistency in AOP development. PMID:25466378

  18. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development I: strategies and principles.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H; LaLone, Carlie A; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-12-01

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organization of regulatory relevance. Systematic organization of information into AOP frameworks has potential to improve regulatory decision-making through greater integration and more meaningful use of mechanistic data. However, for the scientific community to collectively develop a useful AOP knowledgebase that encompasses toxicological contexts of concern to human health and ecological risk assessment, it is critical that AOPs be developed in accordance with a consistent set of core principles. Based on the experiences and scientific discourse among a group of AOP practitioners, we propose a set of five fundamental principles that guide AOP development: (1) AOPs are not chemical specific; (2) AOPs are modular and composed of reusable components-notably key events (KEs) and key event relationships (KERs); (3) an individual AOP, composed of a single sequence of KEs and KERs, is a pragmatic unit of AOP development and evaluation; (4) networks composed of multiple AOPs that share common KEs and KERs are likely to be the functional unit of prediction for most real-world scenarios; and (5) AOPs are living documents that will evolve over time as new knowledge is generated. The goal of the present article was to introduce some strategies for AOP development and detail the rationale behind these 5 key principles. Consideration of these principles addresses many of the current uncertainties regarding the AOP framework and its application and is intended to foster greater consistency in AOP development. PMID:25466378

  19. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  20. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  1. Pharmacogenetics of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of well-characterized samples from patients with such reactions. This is now beginning to be solved through the formation of international consortia, including developing novel ways of identifying and recruiting patients affected by these reactions, both prospectively and retrospectively. This has been led by the research on abacavir hypersensitivity - its association with HLA-B*5701 forms the gold standard of how we need to identify associations and implement them in clinical practice. Strong genetic predisposing factors have also been identified for hypersensitivity reactions such as are associated with carbamazepine, allopurinol, flucloxacillin, and statin-induced myopathy. However, for most other idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, the genetic effect sizes have been low to moderate, although this may partly be due to the fact that only small numbers have been investigated and limited genotyping strategies have been utilized. It may also indicate that genetic predisposition will be dependent on multiple genes, with complex interactions with environmental factors. Irrespective of the strength of the genetic associations identified with individual idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, it is important to undertake functional investigations to provide insights into the mechanism(s) of how the drug interacts with the gene variant to lead to a phenotype, which can take a multitude of clinical forms with variable severity. Such investigations will be essential in preventing the burden caused by idiosyncratic reactions, both in healthcare and in industry

  2. Determinants of Adverse Events in Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; McDonald, Kathryn; Morton, John; Dalman, Ron L; Bech, Fritz R

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety is a national priority. Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) monitor potential adverse events during hospital stays. Surgical specialty PSI benchmarks do not exist, which are needed to account for differences in the range of procedures performed, reasons for the procedure, and differences in patient characteristics. A comprehensive profile of adverse events in vascular surgery was created. Study Design The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for 8 vascular procedures using ICD-9-CM codes from 2005–2009. Factors associated with PSI development were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 1,412,703 patients underwent a vascular procedure and 5.2% developed a PSI. PSIs were more frequent in female, non-white patients with public payers (p<.01). Patients at mid and low volume hospitals had greater odds of developing a PSI (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.10–1.23 and OR, 1.69; CI, 1.53–1.87). Amputations had highest PSI risk-adjusted rate (RAR) and carotid endarterectomy and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair had lower RAR (p<.0001). PSI RAR increased linearly by severity of patient indication: claudicants (OR, 0.40, CI, 0.35–0.46), rest pain patients (OR, 0.78, CI 0.69–0.90), ulcer (OR: 1.20, CI: 1.07–1.34) and gangrene patients (OR:1.85, CI: 1.66–2.06). Conclusions Patient safety events in vascular surgery were high and varied by procedure, with amputations and open AAA having substantially more potential adverse events. PSIs were associated with black race, public payer, and procedure indication. It is important to note the overall higher rates of PSIs occurring in vascular patients and appropriately adjust benchmarks for this surgical specialty. PMID:22425449

  3. Adverse blood transfusion outcomes: establishing causation.

    PubMed

    Isbister, James P; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Erhard, Jochen; Farmer, Shannon L; Hofmann, Axel

    2011-04-01

    The transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) and other blood components is ingrained in modern medical practice. The rationale for administering transfusions is based on key assumptions that efficacy is established and risks are acceptable and minimized. Despite the cliché that, "the blood supply is safer than ever," data about risks and lack of efficacy of RBC transfusions in several clinical settings have steadily accumulated. Frequentist statisticians and clinicians demand evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs); however, causation for the recognized serious hazards of allogeneic transfusion has never been established in this manner. On the other hand, the preponderance of evidence implicating RBC transfusions in adverse clinical outcomes related to immunomodulation and the storage lesion comes from observational studies, and a broad and critical analysis to evaluate causation is overdue. It is suggested in several circumstances that this cannot wait for the design, execution, and conduct of rigorous RCTs. We begin by examining the nature and definition of causation with relevant examples from transfusion medicine. Deductive deterministic methods may be applied to most of the well-accepted and understood serious hazards of transfusion, with modified Koch's postulates being fulfilled in most circumstances. On the other hand, when several possible interacting risk factors exist and RBC transfusions are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, establishing causation requires inferential probabilistic methodology. In the latter circumstances, the case for RBC transfusions being causal for adverse clinical outcomes can be strengthened by applying modified Bradford Hill criteria to the plethora of existing observational studies. This being the case, a greater precautionary approach to RBC transfusion is necessary and equipoise that justifying RCTs may become problematic. PMID:21345639

  4. Standardizing adverse drug event reporting data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an FDA database providing rich information on voluntary reports of adverse drug events (ADEs). Normalizing data in the AERS would improve the mining capacity of the AERS for drug safety signal detection and promote semantic interoperability between the AERS and other data sources. In this study, we normalize the AERS and build a publicly available normalized ADE data source. The drug information in the AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication, using a natural language processing medication extraction tool, MedEx. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) using a greedy algorithm. Adverse events are aggregated through mapping with the Preferred Term (PT) and System Organ Class (SOC) codes of Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). The performance of MedEx-based annotation was evaluated and case studies were performed to demonstrate the usefulness of our approaches. Results Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). In total, the AERS-DM contains 37,029,228 Drug-ADE records. Seventy-one percent (10,221/14,490) of normalized drug concepts in the AERS were classified to 9 classes in NDF-RT. The number of unique pairs is 4,639,613 between RxNorm concepts and MedDRA Preferred Term (PT) codes and 205,725 between RxNorm concepts and SOC codes after ADE aggregation. Conclusions We have built an open-source Drug-ADE knowledge resource with data being normalized and aggregated using standard biomedical ontologies. The data resource has the potential to assist the mining of ADE from AERS for the data mining research community. PMID:25157320

  5. [Haematological adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    PubMed

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2008-01-01

    Almost all clases of psychiatric drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines) have been reported as possible causes of haematological toxicity. This is a review of the literature in which different clinical situations involving red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and impaired coagulation are detailed and the drugs more frequently involved are listed. The haematological adverse reactions detailed here include: aplastic anemia, haemolitic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, disordered platelet function and impaired coagulation. The haematologic toxicity profile of the drugs more frequently involved: lithium, clozapine, carbamazepine, valproic acid and SSRI antidepressants is mentioned. PMID:19424521

  6. [Adverse drug effects in the community pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Arnet, Isabelle; Seidling, Hanna M; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2015-12-01

    Community pharmacists represent an important pillar for the identification and the reporting of adverse drug effects (ADE}. Thanks to their broad view on the pharmacotherapy, over-the-counter medication included, they contribute greatly to the improvement of drug safety. In principle, the community pharmacy will face three groups of ADE which require specific attention. This article deals with these specific ADE groups and presents some illustrative examples from daily practice. Furthermore, we suggest some solutions to identify potential relevant interactions - including herbal-drug interactions - and give tips for daily practice, along with some often overseen cutaneous ADE. PMID:26654812

  7. [Injectable fillers: adverse reactions and their management].

    PubMed

    Rzany, B; Bachmann, F; Nast, A

    2013-02-01

    Injectable fillers are one of the corner stones of aesthetic medicine. In general they are safe to use. However, adverse reactions may occur. These reactions may be acute, subacute or delayed, e.g. after decades. It is important to know these reactions and to be prepared so that they can be adequately treated, in view of the clinical symptoms, the injected material and if applicable other diseases/treatments that might trigger these reactions. Last but not least, all reactions should be reported either to specialized registries or regulatory agencies. Only then we are able to learn more about these reactions and their best possible treatment. PMID:23407758

  8. Environmental Perchlorate Exposure: Potential Adverse Thyroid Effects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Recent findings Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant IQ in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recent proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. Summary The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants. PMID:25106002

  9. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Following Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Poole, Charles; Casteel, Carri; Menard, M. Kathryn; Weiss, Harold B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of serious trauma during pregnancy, but little is known about their relationships with pregnancy outcomes. Purpose To estimate the association between motor vehicle crashes and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 878,546 pregnant women, aged 16–46 years, who delivered a singleton infant in North Carolina (NC) from 2001 to 2008. Pregnant drivers in crashes were identified by probabilistic linkage of vital records and crash reports. Poisson regression modeled the association among crashes, vehicle safety features, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In 2001–2008, 2.9% of pregnant NC women were drivers in one or more crashes. After a single crash, compared to not being in a crash, pregnant drivers had slightly elevated rates of preterm birth (adjusted rate ratio, aRR=1.23, 95% CI=1.19, 1.28); placental abruption (aRR=1.34, 95% CI=1.15, 1.56); and premature rupture of the membranes (PROM; aRR=1.32, 95% CI=1.21, 1.43). Following a second or subsequent crash, pregnant drivers had more highly elevated rates of preterm birth (aRR=1.54, 95% CI=1.24, 1.90); stillbirth (aRR=4.82, 95% CI=2.85, 8.14); placental abruption (aRR=2.97, 95% CI=1.60, 5.53); and PROM (aRR=1.95, 95% CI=1.27, 2.99). Stillbirth rates were elevated following crashes involving unbelted pregnant drivers (aRR=2.77, 95% CI=1.22, 6.28) compared to belted pregnant drivers. Conclusions Crashes while driving during pregnancy were associated with elevated rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and multiple crashes were associated with even higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crashes were especially harmful if drivers were unbelted. PMID:24139777

  10. Ultrafast nanolaser device for detecting cancer in a single live cell.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, Paul Lee; McDonald, Anthony Eugene

    2007-11-01

    Emerging BioMicroNanotechnologies have the potential to provide accurate, realtime, high throughput screening of live tumor cells without invasive chemical reagents when coupled with ultrafast laser methods. These optically based methods are critical to advancing early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. The first year goals of this project are to develop a laser-based imaging system integrated with an in- vitro, live-cell, micro-culture to study mammalian cells under controlled conditions. In the second year, the system will be used to elucidate the morphology and distribution of mitochondria in the normal cell respiration state and in the disease state for normal and disease states of the cell. In this work we designed and built an in-vitro, live-cell culture microsystem to study mammalian cells under controlled conditions of pH, temp, CO2, Ox, humidity, on engineered material surfaces. We demonstrated viability of cell culture in the microsystem by showing that cells retain healthy growth rates, exhibit normal morphology, and grow to confluence without blebbing or other adverse influences of the material surfaces. We also demonstrated the feasibility of integrating the culture microsystem with laser-imaging and performed nanolaser flow spectrocytometry to carry out analysis of the cells isolated mitochondria.

  11. Possible adverse events in children treated by manual therapy: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pediatric manual therapy is controversial within the medical community particularly with respect to adverse events. Pediatric manual therapy (Ped MT) is commonly used by a number of professions such as chiropractors, osteopaths and naturopaths for a variety of treatments in children. Ped MT interventions range from advice, light touch, massage, through to mobilisation and high velocity spinal manipulation. However, current evidence related to adverse events associated with Ped MT is not well understood. Objective To update the clinical research literature from the 2007 report by Vohra, Johnston, Cramer and Humphreys on possible adverse events in children treated by spinal manipulation. Methods A review of the clinical research literature from June 2004 until January 2010 as reported in MEDLINE, PubMed and PubMed Central for adverse events specifically related to the treatment of pediatric cases by manual therapy. Results Only three new clinical studies, one systematic review with meta-analysis and one evidence report were identified. Two clinical studies reported on chiropractic care and one on osteopathic spinal manipulation in children. The systematic review investigated all studies of adverse events and manual therapy and was not specific for pediatric patients. The evidence review focused on effectiveness of spinal manipulation in a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. No serious or catastrophic adverse events were reported in the clinical studies or systematic review. However for adults, it has been estimated that between 0.003% and 0.13% of manual therapy treatments may result in a serious adverse event. Although mild to moderate adverse events are common in adults, an accurate estimate from high quality pediatric studies is currently not available. Conclusions There is currently insufficient research evidence related to adverse events and manual therapy. However, clinical studies and systematic reviews from adult patients undergoing manual

  12. Emergency Department Discharge Diagnosis and Adverse Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, S. Nicole; Whitson, Heather E.; Purser, Jama L.; Sloane, Richard J.; Johnson, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the relationship between the reason for an emergency department (ED) visit and subsequent risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Setting ED. Participants One thousand eight hundred fifty-one community-dwelling Medicare fee-for-service enrollees aged 65 and older discharged from the ED between January 2000 and September 2002. Measurements Independent variables were ED discharge diagnosis groups: injury or musculoskeletal (MSK) (e.g., fracture, open wound), chronic condition (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure), infection, non-MSK symptom (e.g., chest pain, abdominal pain), and unclassified. Adverse health outcomes were hospitalization or death within 30 days of the index ED visit. Results Injury or MSK was the largest ED diagnosis group (31.4%), followed by non-MSK symptom (22.2%), chronic condition (20.9%), and infection (7.8%); 338 (17.8%) had ED discharge diagnoses that were unclassified. In adjusted analyses, a discharge diagnosis of injury or MSK condition was associated with lower risk of subsequent adverse health outcomes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50–0.96) than for all other diagnosis groups. Patients seen in the ED for chronic conditions were at greater risk of adverse outcomes (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.37–2.52) than all others. There were no significant differences in risk between patients with infections, those with non-MSK symptoms, and the unclassified group. Conclusion Adverse health outcomes were common in older patients with an ED discharge diagnosis classified as a chronic condition. ED discharge diagnosis may improve risk assessment and inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. PMID:19694872

  13. Adverse Effects of Common Drugs: Adults.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Peter R; Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Felix, Todd Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Although drugs can be an essential and lifesaving component of the care of adult patients, their use frequently is accompanied by adverse effects and life-threatening adverse drug reactions that can result in significant disability and mortality. The potential for drug-related severe morbidity and mortality is compounded during periods of hospitalization, when high-risk drugs such as anticoagulants or insulin are used, and when care in an intensive care unit is required. Patient factors in adults that can increase the risk of drug harms include immunosuppression, cognitive impairment, depression, alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders, chronic kidney disease, hepatic dysfunction, coagulopathies, limited English proficiency, institutional/nursing home care, and underinsurance or lack of insurance. Physician factors that can increase the risk of drug harms include inappropriate prescribing of drugs (including to pregnant and breastfeeding women), failure to appropriately discontinue/deprescribe drugs, insufficient drug reconciliation, failure to coordinate care among multiple prescribing clinicians, and failure to elicit and incorporate into health histories and clinical decision-making the widespread use of nonprescription drugs, herbal products, and dietary supplements. PMID:26375995

  14. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  15. Fingolimod-Associated Peripheral Vascular Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Russo, Margherita; Guarneri, Claudio; Mazzon, Emanuela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The drug is usually well tolerated, and common adverse effects include bradycardia, headache, influenza, diarrhea, back pain, increased liver enzyme levels, and cough. Fingolimod is thought to provide therapeutic benefit by preventing normal lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thus reducing the infiltration of autoaggressive lymphocytes into the central nervous system. However, because the drug acts on different sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, it may induce several biological effects by influencing endothelial cell-cell adhesion, angiogenesis, vascular development, and cardiovascular function. We describe a patient with multiple sclerosis who, after 3 weeks of fingolimod administration, developed purplish blotches over the dorsal surface of the distal phalanges of the second and fifth digits and the middle phalanx of the fourth ray, itching, and edema on his left hand, without other evident clinical manifestations. When fingolimod therapy was discontinued, the clinical picture regressed within a few days but reappeared after a rechallenge test. Physicians should be aware of unexpected peripheral vascular adverse effects due to fingolimod use, and patients with vascular-based acropathies should be carefully screened and monitored when taking this drug. PMID:26349949

  16. Adverse Effects of Common Drugs: General Concepts.

    PubMed

    Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Lewis, Peter R; Felix, Todd Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality and add to rising health care costs. Many ADRs are preventable with appropriate prescribing and monitoring because they often occur as an extension of a drug's mechanism of action or known drug interactions. Patients at higher risk of ADRs include those at the extremes of age, those with multiple comorbidities, those taking multiple drugs, and patients admitted to intensive care units or experiencing transitions of care. Because the risk of ADRs becomes greater as the number of drugs and dietary supplements taken increases, it is imperative that prescribers be vigilant about the prescribing cascade and take steps to discontinue drugs that are likely to be more harmful than helpful. Pharmacists serve as important partners in clinical care environments by conducting comprehensive drug reviews, aiding in drug/dosage selection, and developing therapeutic monitoring plans. Although the potential exists for clinicians to use electronic health record systems to aid in clinical decision making through drug safety decision support tools, computer systems should never replace clinical judgment. Clinicians also are encouraged to report ADRs to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. PMID:26375993

  17. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  18. [The undesirable, psychologically adverse effects of screening].

    PubMed

    Döbrössy, Bence; Kovács, Attila; Budai, András; Cornides, Agnes; Döbrössy, Lajos

    2007-09-01

    The psychological adverse effects might play an important role in the non-compliance with the offered screening examination. The possible sources of them are three-fold: 1. The general human attitude, such as the rejection of health interventions, particularly those aiming at the prevention of eventual future health problems instead of handling existing complaints and symptoms at present; the screening can be seen as a "future-oriented" intervention. 2. The cultural image of cancer and the disbelief of its curability. 3. The subjective experiences in relation to the screening process. The providers have to do their best to eliminate these causes: by means of a) health education addressing people of various ages, social classes and cultural levels, promoting the understanding of the importance of disease prevention, and, changing their negative, defeatist attitude towards cancer; b) minimizing the psychological adverse effects of all kinds. This can be done by proper organisation of the screening process; optimizing the quality of work, and, provision of good quality of information and advice to the screenees before, during and after the screening. PMID:17766222

  19. Adverse Outcome Pathway Development II: Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Organization of existing and emerging toxicological knowledge into adverse outcome pathway (AOP) descriptions can facilitate greater application of mechanistic data, including those derived through high-throughput in vitro, high content omics and imaging, and biomarker approaches, in risk-based decision making. The previously ad hoc process of AOP development is being formalized through development of internationally harmonized guidance and principles. The goal of this article was to outline the information content desired for formal AOP description and some rules of thumb and best practices intended to facilitate reuse and connectivity of elements of an AOP description in a knowledgebase and network context. For example, key events (KEs) are measurements of change in biological state that are indicative of progression of a perturbation toward a specified adverse outcome. Best practices for KE description suggest that each KE should be defined as an independent measurement made at a particular level of biological organization. The concept of “functional equivalence” can help guide both decisions about how many KEs to include in an AOP and the specificity with which they are defined. Likewise, in describing both KEs and evidence that supports a causal linkage or statistical association between them (ie, a key event relationship; KER), best practice is to build from and contribute to existing KE or KER descriptions in the AOP knowledgebase rather than creating redundant descriptions. The best practices proposed address many of the challenges and uncertainties related to AOP development and help promote a consistent and reliable, yet flexible approach. PMID:25466379

  20. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making. PMID:25800813

  1. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Franklin J

    2010-08-15

    Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

  2. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization

    PubMed Central

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (P <0.001), most commonly for children aged less than 7 years. Consumer reports were 5% more likely to describe serious AEFI than HCP (P = 0.018) and 10% more likely to result in specialist clinic attendance (P <0.001). Although online reporting increased to 32% of all report since its introduction in 2010, 85% of consumers continued to report by phone. Consumer reporting of AEFI is a valuable component of vaccine safety surveillance in addition to HCP reporting. Changes are required to AEFI reporting systems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity. PMID:25483686

  3. Early origins of inflammation: an examination of prenatal and childhood social adversity in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Loucks, Eric B.; Appleton, Allison A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Non, Amy L.; Buka, Stephen; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children exposed to social adversity carry a greater risk of poor physical and mental health into adulthood. This increased risk is thought to be due, in part, to inflammatory processes associated with early adversity that contribute to the etiology of many adult illnesses. The current study asks whether aspects of the prenatal social environment are associated with levels of inflammation in adulthood, and whether prenatal and childhood adversity both contribute to adult inflammation. Methods We examined associations of prenatal and childhood adversity assessed through direct interviews of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959–1974 with blood levels of C-reactive protein in 355 offspring interviewed in adulthood (mean age=42.2 years). Linear and quantile regression models were used to estimate the effects of prenatal adversity and childhood adversity on adult inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, and race and other potential confounders. Results In separate linear regression models, high levels of prenatal and childhood adversity were associated with higher CRP in adulthood. When prenatal and childhood adversity were analyzed together, our results support the presence of an effect of prenatal adversity on (log) CRP level in adulthood (β=0.73, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.20) that is independent of childhood adversity and potential confounding factors including maternal health conditions reported during pregnancy. Supplemental analyses revealed similar findings using quantile regression models and logistic regression models that used a clinically-relevant CRP threshold (>3 mg/L). In a fully-adjusted model that included childhood adversity, high prenatal adversity was associated with a 3-fold elevated odds (95% CI: 1.15, 8.02) of having a CRP level in adulthood that indicates high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Social adversity during the prenatal period is a risk factor for elevated inflammation in adulthood independent of

  4. 19 CFR 181.116 - Petition regarding adverse marking decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for NAFTA Review of Adverse Marking Decision” and shall be signed by the exporter, producer or his... other than the principal. (c) Content. The Petition for NAFTA Review of Adverse Marking Decision...

  5. Adverse Outcome Pathways – Tailoring Development to Support Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) represent an ideal framework for connecting high-throughput screening (HTS) data and other toxicity testing results to adverse outcomes of regulatory importance. The AOP Knowledgebase (AOP-KB) captures AOP information to facilitate the development,...

  6. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for Fatty Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk re...

  7. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development I: Strategies and principles

    EPA Science Inventory

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically-supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organizatio...

  8. Baby on board: do responses to stress in the maternal brain mediate adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    Stress and adverse environmental surroundings result in suboptimal conditions in a pregnant mother such that she may experience poor pregnancy outcome including complete pregnancy failure and preterm labor. Furthermore her developing baby is at risk of adverse programming, which confers susceptibility to long term ill health. While some mechanisms at the feto-maternal interface underlying these conditions are understood, the underlying cause for their adverse adaptation is often not clear. Progesterone plays a key role at many levels, including control of neuroendocrine responses to stress, procuring the required immune balance and controlling placental and decidual function, and lack of progesterone can explain many of the unwanted consequences of stress. How stress that is perceived by the mother inhibits progesterone secretion and action is beginning to be investigated. This overview of maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress throughout pregnancy analyses how they interact to compromise progesterone secretion and precipitate undesirable effects in mother and offspring. PMID:20546772

  9. Early adversity disrupts the adult use of aversive prediction errors to reduce fear in uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kristina M.; DiLeo, Alyssa; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity increases anxiety in adult rodents and primates, and increases the risk for developing post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) in humans. We hypothesized that early adversity impairs the use of learning signals -negative, aversive prediction errors–to reduce fear in uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, we gave adolescent rats a battery of adverse experiences then assessed adult performance in probabilistic Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction. Rats were confronted with three cues associated with different probabilities of foot shock: one cue never predicted shock, another cue predicted shock with uncertainty, and a final cue always predicted shock. Control rats initially acquired fear to all cues, but rapidly reduced fear to the non-predictive and uncertain cues. Early adversity rats were slower to reduce fear to the non-predictive cue and never fully reduced fear to the uncertain cue. In extinction, all cues were presented in the absence of shock. Fear to the uncertain cue in discrimination, but not early adversity itself, predicted the reduction of fear in extinction. These results demonstrate early adversity impairs the use of negative aversive prediction errors to reduce fear, especially in situations of uncertainty. PMID:26379520

  10. Gambling and Adverse Life Events Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace P.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the cross sectional association between adverse life events and gambling in a sample of 515 urban adolescents (average age 17, 55% male, 88% African American). Approximately half of the sample had gambled in the past year (51%); 78% of the gamblers gambled monthly and 39% had a gambling-related problem. On the other hand, 88% of the sample had experienced at least one life event in the past year, and those experiencing events tended to live in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. The mere acknowledgement of experiencing a stressful life event in the past year (yes/no) was not associated with an increase in odds of being a gambler, with gambling more frequently, or with having a gambling problem. However, when the context of the event was considered, an association was found between directly experiencing threatening and deviant/violent types of events and frequent gambling (OR > 2). Additionally, the probability of being a gambler increased as the number of events experienced increased (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.13, P = 0.013), but problems among gamblers were not associated with the number of events experienced (aOR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.92, 1.11, P = 0.876). During adolescence, life events appear to be connected more with the frequency of gambling rather than with problems related to gambling. PMID:21614529

  11. Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Extrapyramidal Adverse Effects

    PubMed Central

    Jakovcevski, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects are well recognized in the context of first-generation antipsychotic drugs. However, the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, with atypical mechanism of action, especially lower dopamine receptors affinity, was met with great expectations among clinicians regarding their potentially lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal syndrome. This review gives a brief summary of the recent literature relevant to second-generation antipsychotics and extrapyramidal syndrome. Numerous studies have examined the incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome with first- and second-generation antipsychotics. The majority of these studies clearly indicate that extrapyramidal syndrome does occur with second-generation agents, though in lower rates in comparison with first generation. Risk factors are the choice of a particular second-generation agent (with clozapine carrying the lowest risk and risperidone the highest), high doses, history of previous extrapyramidal symptoms, and comorbidity. Also, in comparative studies, the choice of a first-generation comparator significantly influences the results. Extrapyramidal syndrome remains clinically important even in the era of second-generation antipsychotics. The incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome differ amongst these antipsychotics, but the fact is that these drugs have not lived up to the expectation regarding their tolerability. PMID:24995318

  12. Discounting human lives

    SciTech Connect

    Cropper, M.L. ); Portney, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    The future costs of regulatory programs to protect human health are routinely discounted, but the lives they save in the future are not. To shed light on the public's attitude toward the discounting of human lives, researchers at Resources for the Future asked 2,600 individuals to choose between one hypothetical program that would save lives immediately and another that would save lives in 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 years. From the responses, they inferred the number of lives that must be saved in the future to make people as content as saving one life today, compared this implicit discount rate to the respondents' discount rate for money, and identified several factors that affect discount rates for human lives.

  13. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  14. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170 Food... reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions regarding... investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of the investigation of...

  15. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 18, Jan. 3, 2012. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions regarding each unit of blood or blood...

  16. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adverse effect rate (computed pursuant to 20 CFR 655.207(b)(1), 43 FR 10317; March 10, 1978) by the... at 20 CFR 655.207(b)(2) (1985). (c) In no event shall an adverse effect rate for any year be lower... listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and for Florida sugarcane work, the adverse effect rate...

  17. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adverse effect rate (computed pursuant to 20 CFR 655.207(b)(1), 43 FR 10317; March 10, 1978) by the... at 20 CFR 655.207(b)(2) (1985). (c) In no event shall an adverse effect rate for any year be lower... listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and for Florida sugarcane work, the adverse effect rate...

  18. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adverse effect rate (computed pursuant to 20 CFR 655.207(b)(1), 43 FR 10317; March 10, 1978) by the... at 20 CFR 655.207(b)(2) (1985). (c) In no event shall an adverse effect rate for any year be lower... listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and for Florida sugarcane work, the adverse effect rate...

  19. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adverse effect rate (computed pursuant to 20 CFR 655.207(b)(1), 43 FR 10317; March 10, 1978) by the... at 20 CFR 655.207(b)(2) (1985). (c) In no event shall an adverse effect rate for any year be lower... listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and for Florida sugarcane work, the adverse effect rate...

  20. 36 CFR 800.6 - Resolution of adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resolution of adverse effects... PROTECTION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.6 Resolution of adverse effects. (a) Continue... the undertaking that could avoid, minimize, or mitigate adverse effects on historic properties....

  1. 36 CFR 800.6 - Resolution of adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resolution of adverse effects... PROTECTION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.6 Resolution of adverse effects. (a) Continue... the undertaking that could avoid, minimize, or mitigate adverse effects on historic properties....

  2. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  3. Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

  4. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  5. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. 600.80 Section 600.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80 Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences....

  6. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. 600.80 Section 600.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80 Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences....

  7. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. 600.80 Section 600.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80 Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences....

  8. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. 600.80 Section 600.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80 Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences....

  9. Is any job better than no job? Labor market experiences and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Sergio; Smith, Peter; Bekele, Tsegaye; O'Brien, Kelly; Husbands, Winston; Li, Alan; Jose-Boerbridge, Murray; Mittmann, Nicole; Rachlis, Anita; Conyers, Liza; Boomer, K B; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and labor market experiences (including unemployment) on mental health among adults living with HIV. We used data provided by 538 participants at clinical and community sites across Ontario, Canada. Generalized estimating equation models showed that employment was associated with lower depressive symptoms. For employed participants, adverse psychosocial work conditions, specifically job insecurity, psychological demands, and decision authority were associated with depressive symptoms. For the entire sample, the number of adverse psychosocial work conditions was associated with higher depressive symptoms while participants working in poor quality jobs reported similar levels of depressive symptoms than those who were unemployed or not in the labor force. This study showed that poor quality employment (as assessed by having a high number of adverse psychosocial work exposures) was associated with a similar level of depressive symptoms as unemployment, suggesting that "bad jobs" may not offer the same mental health benefits as "good jobs." Policies to improve employment outcomes should take the quality of employment into account to maximize mental health benefits as better employment may lead to better mental health. PMID:25738528

  10. Adulthood Stressors, History of Childhood Adversity, and Risk of Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Conron, Kerith J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over half a million U.S. women and more than 100,000 men are treated for injuries from intimate partner violence (IPV) annually, making IPV perpetration a major public health problem. However, little is known about causes of perpetration across the life course. Purpose This paper examines the role of “stress sensitization,” whereby adult stressors increase risk for IPV perpetration most strongly in people with a history of childhood adversity. Methods The study investigated a possible interaction effect between adulthood stressors and childhood adversities in risk of IPV perpetration, specifically, whether the difference in risk of IPV perpetration associated with past-year stressors varied by history of exposure to childhood adversity. Analyses were conducted in 2010 using de-identified data from 34,653 U.S. adults from the 2004–2005 follow-up wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results There was a significant stress sensitization effect. For men with high-level childhood adversity, past-year stressors were associated with an 8.8% increased risk of perpetrating compared to a 2.3% increased risk among men with low-level adversity. Women with high-level childhood adversity had a 14.3% increased risk compared with a 2.5% increased risk in the low-level adversity group. Conclusions Individuals with recent stressors and histories of childhood adversity are at particularly elevated risk of IPV perpetration; therefore, prevention efforts should target this population. Treatment programs for IPV perpetrators, which have not been effective in reducing risk of perpetrating, may benefit from further investigating the role of stress and stress reactivity in perpetration. PMID:21238860

  11. An Adverse Reaction in the Pediatric Sleep Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Reppucci, Diana; Medin, Debra; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Smith, Mary Jane; Barter, Jill; Amin, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 15-month-old boy with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (NIPBL gene mutation). On a PSG, central sleep apnea (central apnea-hypopnea index of 19/hour) and nocturnal hypoventilation (transcutaneous CO2 > 50 mmHg for 53% of the night) were found. A positive pressure initiation study was aborted because the patient developed a serious adverse reaction. The differential diagnosis included a skin fragility condition versus an allergic contact dermatitis to the interface; this could be from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface or from the plastic of the interface itself. A skin biopsy was performed which was normal. The reaction was likely secondary to an allergic contact dermatitis from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface. The patient is currently tolerating NiPPV. PMID:27445573

  12. An Adverse Reaction in the Pediatric Sleep Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Reppucci, Diana; Medin, Debra; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Smith, Mary Jane; Barter, Jill; Amin, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 15-month-old boy with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (NIPBL gene mutation). On a PSG, central sleep apnea (central apnea-hypopnea index of 19/hour) and nocturnal hypoventilation (transcutaneous CO2 > 50 mmHg for 53% of the night) were found. A positive pressure initiation study was aborted because the patient developed a serious adverse reaction. The differential diagnosis included a skin fragility condition versus an allergic contact dermatitis to the interface; this could be from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface or from the plastic of the interface itself. A skin biopsy was performed which was normal. The reaction was likely secondary to an allergic contact dermatitis from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface. The patient is currently tolerating NiPPV. PMID:27445573

  13. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    PubMed

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  14. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  15. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  16. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan V; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A

    2016-04-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers' delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  17. Adverse reactions to the sulphite additives

    PubMed Central

    Misso, Neil LA

    2012-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. Most studies report a prevalence of sulphite sensitivity of 3 to 10% among asthmatic subjects who ingest these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. Although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed, the precise mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear. PMID:24834193

  18. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management. PMID:26084665

  19. Adverse drug reactions: classification, susceptibility and reporting.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Gerri

    2016-08-10

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are increasingly common and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Historically, ADRs have been classified as type A or type B. Type A reactions are predictable from the known pharmacology of a drug and are associated with high morbidity and low mortality. Type B reactions are idiosyncratic, bizarre or novel responses that cannot be predicted from the known pharmacology of a drug and are associated with low morbidity and high mortality. Not all ADRs fit into type A and type B categories; therefore, additional categories have been developed. These include type C (continuing), type D (delayed use), and type E (end of use) reactions. Susceptibility to ADRs is influenced by age, gender, disease states, pregnancy, ethnicity and polypharmacy. Drug safety is reliant on nurses and other healthcare professionals being alert to the possibility of ADRs, working with patients to optimise medicine use and exercising vigilance in the reporting of ADRs through the Yellow Card Scheme. PMID:27507394

  20. Managing Adverse Events With Immune Checkpoint Agents.

    PubMed

    Dadu, Ramona; Zobniw, Chrystia; Diab, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand antibodies) have shown impressive clinical activity in multiple cancer types. Despite achieving great clinical success, challenges and limitations of these drugs as monotherapy or various combinational strategies include the development of a unique set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can be severe and even fatal. Therefore, identification of patients at risk, prevention, consistent communication between patients and medical team, rapid recognition, and treatment of irAEs are critical in optimizing treatment outcomes. This review focuses on the description of more common irAEs and provides a suggested approach for management of specific irAEs. PMID:27111908

  1. Adverse reactions to injectable aesthetic microimplants.

    PubMed

    Requena, C; Izquierdo, M J; Navarro, M; Martínez, A; Vilata, J J; Botella, R; Amorrortu, J; Sabater, V; Aliaga, A; Requena, L

    2001-06-01

    New inert materials such as polymerized silicones, Bioplastique, Artecoll, and Dermalive are now being used as injectable aesthetic microimplants. These substances are better than the old ones because they tend not to migrate and do not usually produce much of a host immune response. Adverse reactions after injection of these materials are rare, although there are a few reported cases as a result of bad technique or anomalous granulomatous reactions. We report on four patients with unsightly results after cosmetic microimplants, including one of Artecoll, one of Dermalive (to the best of our knowledge, the latter is the first such case reported), and two of silicone. This report describes the histopathologic features of cutaneous reactions to these injectable aesthetic materials. PMID:11391099

  2. CLUSTERING OF DEPRESSION AND INFLAMMATION IN ADOLESCENTS PREVIOUSLY EXPOSED TO CHILDHOOD ADVERSITY

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Cole, Steve W.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is mounting interest in the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of depression, and underlies depressed patients’ vulnerability to comorbid medical conditions. However, research on depression and inflammation has yielded conflicting findings, fostering speculation that these conditions associate only in certain subgroups, like patients exposed to childhood adversity. Methods We studied 147 adolescent females. All were in good health at baseline, but at high risk for depression by virtue of family history and/or cognitive vulnerability. Subjects were assessed every six months for 2.5 years, undergoing diagnostic interviews and venipuncture for measurement of two inflammatory biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Childhood adversity was indexed by parental separation, low socioeconomic status, and familial psychopathology. Results Multilevel models indicated that childhood adversity promotes clustering of depression and inflammation. Among subjects exposed to high childhood adversity, the transition to depression was accompanied by increases in both CRP and IL-6. The higher CRP remained evident six months later, even after depressive symptoms had abated. These lingering effects were bi-directional, such that among subjects with childhood adversity, high IL-6 forecasted depression six months later, even after concurrent inflammation was considered. This coupling of depression and inflammation was not apparent in subjects without childhood adversity. Conclusions These findings suggest that childhood adversity promotes the formation of a neuroimmune pipeline, wherein inflammatory signaling between the brain and periphery is amplified. Once established, this pipeline leads to a coupling of depression and inflammation, which may contribute to later affective difficulties and biomedical complications. PMID:22494534

  3. Living with Bowel Control Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Living with Bowel Control Problems Resources Bowel Control Awareness Campaign Home Resources for Health Care Providers ... Living with Bowel Control Problems Living with Bowel Control Problems Living with a bowel control problem can ...

  4. The NAS Perchlorate Review: Adverse Effects?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Richard; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    To the editor: Drs. Ginsberg and Rice argue that the reference dose for perchlorate of 0.0007 mg/kg per day recommended by the National Academies’ Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion is not adequately protective. As members of the committee, we disagree. Ginsberg and Rice base their conclusion on three points. The first involves the designation of the point of departure as a NOEL (no-observed-effect level) versus a LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse- effect level). The committee chose as its point of departure a dose of perchlorate (0.007 mg/kg per day) that when given for 14 days to 7 normal subjects did not cause a significant decrease in the group mean thyroid iodide uptake (Greer et al. 2002). Accordingly, the committee considered it a NOEL. Ginsberg and Rice focus on the fact that only 7 subjects were given that dose, and they 1seem to say that attention should be paid only to the results in those subjects in whom there was a 1fall in thyroid iodide uptake, and that the results in those in whom there was no fall or an increase should be ignored. They consider the dose to be a LOAEL because of the fall in uptake in those few subjects. It is important to note that a statistically significant decrease of, for example, 5% or even 10%, would not be biologically important and, more important, would not be sustained. For example, in another study (Braverman et al. 2004), administration of 0.04 mg/kg per day to normal subjects for 6 months had no effect on thyroid iodide uptake when measured at 3 and 6 months, and no effect on serum thyroid hormone or thyrotropin concentrations measured monthly (inspection of Figure 5A in the paper by Greer et al. suggests that this dose would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake by about 25% if measured at 2 weeks). The second issue involves database uncertainty. In clinical studies, perchlorate has been administered prospectively to 68 normal subjects for 2 weeks to 6 months. In one study (Brabant et al. 1992

  5. Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  7. How Live Performance Moves the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Shoda, Haruka; Adachi, Mayumi; Umeda, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how the audience member’s physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts). Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists’ performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy). Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists’ via speakers. We recorded the audience members’ electrocardiograms in listening to the performances in both conditions, and analyzed their heart rates and the spectral features of the heart-rate variability (i.e., HF/TF, LF/HF). Results showed that the audience’s heart rate was higher for the faster than the slower piece only in the live condition. As compared with the recorded condition, the audience’s sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was less while their vagal nervous system (HF/TF) was activated more in the live condition, which appears to suggest that sharing the ongoing musical moments with the pianist reduces the audience’s physiological stress. The results are discussed in terms of the audience’s superior attention and temporal entrainment to live performance. PMID:27104377

  8. How Live Performance Moves the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Haruka; Adachi, Mayumi; Umeda, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how the audience member's physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts). Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists' performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy). Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists' via speakers. We recorded the audience members' electrocardiograms in listening to the performances in both conditions, and analyzed their heart rates and the spectral features of the heart-rate variability (i.e., HF/TF, LF/HF). Results showed that the audience's heart rate was higher for the faster than the slower piece only in the live condition. As compared with the recorded condition, the audience's sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was less while their vagal nervous system (HF/TF) was activated more in the live condition, which appears to suggest that sharing the ongoing musical moments with the pianist reduces the audience's physiological stress. The results are discussed in terms of the audience's superior attention and temporal entrainment to live performance. PMID:27104377

  9. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  10. Families and Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to AL are relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL…

  11. Is It Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

  12. Nanobiomechanics of living cells: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinju

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiomechanics of living cells is very important to understand cell–materials interactions. This would potentially help to optimize the surface design of the implanted materials and scaffold materials for tissue engineering. The nanoindentation techniques enable quantifying nanobiomechanics of living cells, with flexibility of using indenters of different geometries. However, the data interpretation for nanoindentation of living cells is often difficult. Despite abundant experimental data reported on nanobiomechanics of living cells, there is a lack of comprehensive discussion on testing with different tip geometries, and the associated mechanical models that enable extracting the mechanical properties of living cells. Therefore, this paper discusses the strategy of selecting the right type of indenter tips and the corresponding mechanical models at given test conditions. PMID:24748952

  13. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are

  14. Adverse reactions to new anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Wong, I C; Lhatoo, S D

    2000-07-01

    A lack of systematic pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to anticonvulsants makes it difficult to assess accurately the incidence of anticonvulsant-related ADRs. Most of the available information in this regard stems from clinical trial experience, case reports and postmarketing surveillance, sources that are not, by any means, structured to provide precise data on adverse event epidemiology. For various ethical, statistical and logistical reasons, the organisation of structured clinical trials that are likely to provide substantial data on ADRs is extremely difficult. This review concentrates on current literature concerning serious and life-threatening ADRs. As with the older anticonvulsants, the majority of ADRs to newer anticonvulsants are CNS-related, although there are several that are apparently unique to some of these new drugs. Gabapentin has been reported to cause aggravation of seizures, movement disorders and psychiatric disturbances. Felbamate should only be prescribed under close medical supervision because of aplastic anaemia and hepatotoxicity. Lamotrigine causes hypersensitivity reactions that range from simple morbilliform rashes to multi-organ failure. Psychiatric ADRs and deterioration of seizure control have also been reported with lamotrigine treatment. Oxcarbazepine has a safety profile similar to that of carbamazepine. Hyponatraemia associated with oxcarbazepine is also a problem; however, it is less likely to cause rash than carbamazepine. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has been reported frequently with tiagabine, although there are insufficient data at present to identify risk factors for this ADR. Topiramate frequently causes cognitive ADRs and, in addition, also appears to cause word-finding difficulties, renal calculi and bodyweight loss. Vigabatrin has been reported to cause seizure aggravation, especially in myoclonic seizures. There have been rare reports of other neurological ADRs to

  15. The Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT): A unique facility for propulsion system and adverse weather testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.

    1985-01-01

    A need has arisen for a new wind tunnel facility with unique capabilities for testing propulsion systems and for conducting research in adverse weather conditions. New propulsion system concepts, new aircraft configurations with an unprecedented degree of propulsion system/aircraft integration, and requirements for aircraft operation in adverse weather dictate the need for a new test facility. Required capabilities include simulation of both altitude pressure and temperature, large size, full subsonic speed range, propulsion system operation, and weather simulation (i.e., icing, heavy rain). A cost effective rehabilitation of the NASA Lewis Research Center's Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) will provide a facility with all these capabilities.

  16. Adverse immunologic effects of antithyroid drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S S; Fantus, I G

    1987-01-01

    Propylthiouracil and methimazole are frequently used in the management of hyperthyroidism. Two patients in whom adverse immunologic effects other than isolated agranulocytosis developed during treatment with propylthiouracil are described. A review of the literature revealed 53 similar cases over a 35-year period. Rash, fever, arthralgias and granulocytopenia were the most common manifestations. Vasculitis, particularly with cutaneous manifestations, occurs and may be fatal. The clinical evidence suggests that an immunologic mechanism is involved. A number of different autoantibodies were reported, but antinuclear antibodies were infrequent, and none of the cases met the criteria for a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, the reactions do not represent a true drug-induced lupus syndrome. Current hypotheses and experimental data regarding the cause of the reactions are reviewed. No specific clinical subgroup at high risk can be identified, and manifestations may occur at any dosage and at any time during therapy. Cross-reactivity between the two antithyroid drugs can be expected. Except for minor symptoms (e.g., mild arthralgias or transient rash), such reactions are an indication for withdrawal of the drug and the use of alternative methods to control the hyperthyroidism. In rare cases of severe vasculitis a short course of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy may be helpful. PMID:3539299

  17. Adverse effects of IgG therapy.

    PubMed

    Berger, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    IgG is widely used for patients with immune deficiencies and in a broad range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Up to 40% of intravenous infusions of IgG may be associated with adverse effects (AEs), which are mostly uncomfortable or unpleasant but often are not serious. The most common infusion-related AE is headache. More serious reactions, including true anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, occur less frequently. Most reactions are related to the rate of infusion and can be prevented or treated just by slowing the infusion rate. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, or corticosteroids also may be helpful in preventing or treating these common AEs. IgA deficiency with the potential of IgG or IgE antibodies against IgA increases the risk of some AEs but should not be viewed as a contraindication if IgG therapy is needed. Potentially serious AEs include renal dysfunction and/or failure, thromboembolic events, and acute hemolysis. These events usually are multifactorial, related to combinations of constituents in the IgG product as well as risk factors for the recipient. Awareness of these factors should allow minimization of the risks and consequences of these AEs. Subcutaneous IgG is absorbed more slowly into the circulation and has a lower incidence of AEs, but awareness and diligence are necessary whenever IgG is administered. PMID:24565701

  18. Idiosyncratic Adverse Drug Reactions: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Naisbitt, Dean J.

    2013-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug reactions are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for patients; they also markedly increase the uncertainty of drug development. The major targets are skin, liver, and bone marrow. Clinical characteristics suggest that IDRs are immune mediated, and there is substantive evidence that most, but not all, IDRs are caused by chemically reactive species. However, rigorous mechanistic studies are very difficult to perform, especially in the absence of valid animal models. Models to explain how drugs or reactive metabolites interact with the MHC/T-cell receptor complex include the hapten and P-I models, and most recently it was found that abacavir can interact reversibly with MHC to alter the endogenous peptides that are presented to T cells. The discovery of HLA molecules as important risk factors for some IDRs has also significantly contributed to our understanding of these adverse reactions, but it is not yet clear what fraction of IDRs have a strong HLA dependence. In addition, with the exception of abacavir, most patients who have the HLA that confers a higher IDR risk with a specific drug will not have an IDR when treated with that drug. Interindividual differences in T-cell receptors and other factors also presumably play a role in determining which patients will have an IDR. The immune response represents a delicate balance, and immune tolerance may be the dominant response to a drug that can cause IDRs. PMID:23476052

  19. Sequential analysis of uncommon adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Morton, A; Mengersen, K; Waterhouse, M; Steiner, S; Looke, D

    2010-10-01

    Sequential analysis of uncommon adverse outcomes (AEs) such as surgical site infections (SSIs) is desirable. Short postoperative lengths of stay (LOS) result in many SSIs occurring after discharge and they are often superficial. Deep and organ space (complex) SSIs occur less frequently but are detected more reliably and are suitable for monitoring wound care. Those occurring post-discharge usually require readmissison and can be counted accurately. Sequential analysis of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is also needed. The key to prevention is to implement systems based on evidence, e.g. using 'bundles' and checklists. Regular mortality and morbidity audit meetings are required and these may need to be followed by independent audits. Sequential statistical analysis is desirable for data presentation, to detect changes, and to discourage tampering with processes when occasional AEs occur in a reliable system. Tabulations and cumulative observed minus expected (O-E) charts and funnel plots are valuable, supplemented in the presence of apparent 'runs' of AEs by cumulative sum analysis. Used prospectively, they may enable staff to visualise and detect patterns or shifts in rates and counts that might not otherwise be apparent. PMID:20656377

  20. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace. PMID:26754766