Science.gov

Sample records for adverse living conditions

  1. Sheltered Living Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherland's Central Society for Rehabilitation, The Hague.

    Resulting from a study conducted by the Advisory Housing Committee of the Dutch Society for Rehabilitation, the report describes housing conditions and possibilities for the physically handicapped in the Netherlands. Four categories of sheltered living conditions are described and analyzed: residential centers, supervised residential centers,…

  2. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  3. HEPA Filter Performance under Adverse Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven; Waggoner, Charles

    2007-07-01

    This study involved challenging nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Energy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled and uncontrolled challenge, and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by traditional differential pressure techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceeded their usable lifetime. Significant findings from this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter housing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of filters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl. (authors)

  4. Living systems in hypomagnetic conditions of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Kirill; Gurieva, Tamara; Dadasheva, Olga; Spassky, Andrey; Lebedev, Viktor; Kruglov, Oleg

    Living Systems in Hypomagnetic Conditions of Space Trukhanov К. A.1, Guryeva T.S.1, Dadasheva О.А.1, Spassky А.V.2, Lebedev V.М.2, Kruglov О.S.1 1 SSC RF - Institute of bio-medical problems RAS, Moscow 2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow When working at a long-term lunar base, at stations in the near-moon space and during interplanetary missions cosmonauts will be continuously exposed to an entirely new environmental factor - hypomagnetic conditions (HMC). Interplanetary magnetic field and the field on the Lunar surface is three-five orders of magnitude below the usual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that exposure to even a slightly decreased GMF adversely affect human and other living systems. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems and blood are considered to be the most sensitive to reduced GMF. There are some data in literature about the significant vulnerability of developing organism to the HMC. In this paper we present the results of further studies on the impact of the HMC on the embryogenesis of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including the works performed as the development of studies reported at the conferences COSPAR 37 and COSPAR 39. Duration of quail embryos exposure to different values of attenuation HMC (till thousandfold and more) came up to 18 days. It is shown that the prolonged exposure to the HMC heightens the adverse effects on embryogenesis. The background of alternating electromagnetic fields of the systems and equipment will exist at the habitable base or on the board of the spacecraft. The results of studies on the combined effects of HMC and weak alternating magnetic fields are also presented.

  5. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress.

  6. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress. PMID:26139190

  7. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  8. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  9. Quality of whey powders stored under adverse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein concentrate powder (WPC) is exported by the U.S. and is included in emergency aid foods, but the bags sent overseas are usually stored without refrigeration and under elevated temperature and relative humidity (RH). The shelf life of WPC under adverse conditions must be known to preven...

  10. Telling Stories: Sustaining Improvement in Schools Operating under Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2006-01-01

    We know what good schools look like but experience tells us that it is very difficult to create and maintain them, especially when they are operating under adverse conditions-constant change, limited resources, high staff and student turnover, and a concentration of first time leaders and beginning teachers. The "Changing Schools in Changing Times…

  11. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients.

  12. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules-namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  13. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically

  14. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana C; Mestrinho, Heliana D; Stevens, Sophie; van Wijk, Arjen J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young adults, the oral health conditions would have no impact on their quality of life. The participants were 611 new patients aged 16-32 years seeking consultation at the Saint-Luc University Hospital in Brussels in 2010-2011. The patients (56.0% female) were examined for their oral health conditions and answered a validated questionnaire about sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants in addition to questions about their OHRQoL. The abridged Oral Health Impact Profile-14 was used to assess the OHRQoL. Interexaminer reliability for caries was 0.86 (95% CI 0.84-0.89, nonweighted κ). The outcome was a high score on the OHRQoL (median split). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that young adults with clinical absolute D1MFS scores between 9 and 16 (OR = 2.14, p = 0.031) and between 17 and 24 (OR = 3.10, p = 0.003) were significantly more likely to report a high impact on their quality of life than those with lower scores. Also, periodontal conditions compromised significantly (OR = 1.79, p = 0.011) the quality of life of young adults. In conclusion, this study identified oral health conditions with a significant adverse effect on the OHRQoL of young adults. However, the prevalence of young adults reporting impacts on at least 1 performance affected fairly often or very often was limited to 18.7% of the sample. PMID:25832802

  15. Perceptual Learning of Speech under Optimal and Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable ability to understand spoken language despite the large amount of variability in speech. Previous research has shown that listeners can use lexical information to guide their interpretation of atypical sounds in speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). This kind of lexically induced perceptual learning enables people to adjust to the variations in utterances due to talker-specific characteristics, such as individual identity and dialect. The current study investigated perceptual learning in two optimal conditions: conversational speech (Experiment 1) vs. clear speech (Experiment 2), and three adverse conditions: noise (Experiment 3a) vs. two cognitive loads (Experiments 4a & 4b). Perceptual learning occurred in the two optimal conditions and in the two cognitive load conditions, but not in the noise condition. Furthermore, perceptual learning occurred only in the first of two sessions for each participant, and only for atypical /s/ sounds and not for atypical /f/ sounds. This pattern of learning and non-learning reflects a balance between flexibility and stability that the speech system must have to deal with speech variability in the diverse conditions that speech is encountered. PMID:23815478

  16. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  17. Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions and Inflammatory Markers among Middle-Aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Morley, John E.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse housing and neighborhood conditions are independently associated with an increased risk of various diseases and conditions. One possible explanation relates to systemic inflammation, which is associated with these adverse health outcomes. The authors investigated the association between housing and neighborhood conditions with inflammatory markers using data about 352 persons aged 49–65 years from the African American Health study. Participants were identified by a multistage random selection process in 2000 to 2001(response rate, 76%). Blood was analyzed for soluble cytokine receptors (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α), C-reactive protein, and adiponectin. Neighborhood and housing characteristics consisted of five observed block face conditions (external appearance of the block on which the subject lived), four perceived neighborhood conditions, four observed housing conditions (home assessment by the interviewers rating the interior and exterior of the subject’s building), and census-tract level poverty rate from the 2000 census. Differences in some inflammatory markers were found by age, gender, chronic conditions, and body mass index (all Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.0034). There was no association between any of the housing/neighborhood conditions and the pro-inflammatory markers and potential associations between some housing/neighborhood conditions and adiponectin (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-adjusted p > 0.0034). Inflammation does not appear to be a mediator of the association between poor housing/neighborhood conditions and adverse health outcomes in middle-aged African Americans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-009-9426-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20186494

  18. Early Life Conditions, Adverse Life Events, and Chewing Ability at Middle and Later Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard G.; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the extent to which early life conditions and adverse life events impact chewing ability in middle and later adulthood. Methods. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in the years 2006 to 2009 and encompassing information on current chewing ability and the life history of persons aged 50 years or older from 13 European countries. Logistic regression models were estimated with sequential inclusion of explanatory variables representing living conditions in childhood and adverse life events. Results. After controlling for current determinants of chewing ability at age 50 years or older, certain childhood and later life course socioeconomic, behavioral, and cognitive factors became evident as correlates of chewing ability at age 50 years or older. Specifically, childhood financial hardship was identified as an early life predictor of chewing ability at age 50 years or older (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.06). Conclusions. Findings suggest a potential enduring impact of early life conditions and adverse life events on oral health in middle and later adulthood and are relevant for public health decision-makers who design strategies for optimal oral health. PMID:24625140

  19. Living conditions and health promotion strategies.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, P J

    2001-03-01

    The paper assesses the empirical evidence concerning the interface between living conditions and health status provided by a number of case studies of urban regeneration in London, and Brighton and Hove. These studies were carried out in the theoretical framework provided by the Cost-effectiveness in Housing Investment programme that has been seeking since 1993 to identify and measure additional 'exported' costs to services such as health, education and policing which derive from poor living conditions. A chronological study of the 'health gain' associated with the Central Stepney Single Regeneration Budget improvement to two run-down estates indicates that a seven-fold health improvement in the rate of 'illness days' experienced has taken place over a four-year period (1996-2000). This 7:1 differential was identical to that found in the synoptic comparison of illness days, and some health and policing costs, between the Stepney area and an area of improved housing in Paddington carried out in 1996. The paper presents an exploratory attempt to list and categorise in various ways the exported costs associated with poor living conditions and offers some preliminary assessment of their measurability. Finally, a number of health promoting strategies that should be borne in mind when carrying out urban renewal programmes are discussed. It is argued that the provision of satisfactory housing is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to promote good health. Attention must also be paid to community development, especially of 'organic' activities, the quality of services especially in relation to benefits, access to healthy food, crime reduction and, critically, the promotion of jobs and the reduction of poverty.

  20. Ontology-based combinatorial comparative analysis of adverse events associated with killed and live influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Shedden, Kerby A; Markel, Howard; Omenn, Gilbert S; Athey, Brian D; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adverse events (VAEs) are adverse bodily changes occurring after vaccination. Understanding the adverse event (AE) profiles is a crucial step to identify serious AEs. Two different types of seasonal influenza vaccines have been used on the market: trivalent (killed) inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). Different adverse event profiles induced by these two groups of seasonal influenza vaccines were studied based on the data drawn from the CDC Vaccine Adverse Event Report System (VAERS). Extracted from VAERS were 37,621 AE reports for four TIVs (Afluria, Fluarix, Fluvirin, and Fluzone) and 3,707 AE reports for the only LAIV (FluMist). The AE report data were analyzed by a novel combinatorial, ontology-based detection of AE method (CODAE). CODAE detects AEs using Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR), Chi-square significance test, and base level filtration, and groups identified AEs by ontology-based hierarchical classification. In total, 48 TIV-enriched and 68 LAIV-enriched AEs were identified (PRR>2, Chi-square score >4, and the number of cases >0.2% of total reports). These AE terms were classified using the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), MedDRA, and SNOMED-CT. The OAE method provided better classification results than the two other methods. Thirteen out of 48 TIV-enriched AEs were related to neurological and muscular processing such as paralysis, movement disorders, and muscular weakness. In contrast, 15 out of 68 LAIV-enriched AEs were associated with inflammatory response and respiratory system disorders. There were evidences of two severe adverse events (Guillain-Barre Syndrome and paralysis) present in TIV. Although these severe adverse events were at low incidence rate, they were found to be more significantly enriched in TIV-vaccinated patients than LAIV-vaccinated patients. Therefore, our novel combinatorial bioinformatics analysis discovered that LAIV had lower chance of inducing these two

  1. APOLLO 10: Improvments in Living Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Living conditions were superior on this flight to any previously. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 10: 'Green Light for a Lunar Landing''. Part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 10: Manned lunar orbital flight with Thomas P Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan to test all aspects of an actual manned lunar landing except the landing. Mission Duration 192hrs 3mins 23 sec

  2. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  3. 75 FR 8353 - Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions February 16, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Due to adverse weather conditions, the Federal Communications..., February 11, 2010. In recognition of the numerous closings and disruptions caused by the weather in...

  4. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  5. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  6. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  7. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  8. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  9. Adversity as opportunity: living with schizophrenia and developing a resilient self.

    PubMed

    Geanellos, Rene

    2005-03-01

    Approximately 1% of the population is diagnosed with schizophrenia, and despite longstanding critiques of the (bio)medical model, understanding of the disorder still arises primarily through (bio)medical explanations. In turn, causation, symptoms and treatments are increasingly sophisticated and well known while understanding of other aspects of the disorder, especially the intersubjective experience of people living with schizophrenia, remains fragmented. For this reason, the present study sought to understand how people experience schizophrenia. To do this, the stories of 19 people diagnosed with the disorder were hermeneutically interpreted. These stories appeared in The Schizophrenia Bulletin--a journal which publishes 'first person accounts', sometimes anonymously, of people's experience of mental illness. Within the study context, the findings indicate that facing the adversity of schizophrenia means living: (i) wisely--understanding the nature of self-with-schizophrenia and of life-with-schizophrenia; (ii) mindfully--keeping understandings in conscious thought; and (iii) purposefully--acting deliberately. Doing this results in a stable and meaningful life and in a different, more resilient self.

  10. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  11. Life course adversity in the lives of formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness: context and meaning.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Deborah K; Smith, Bikki Tran; Henwood, Benjamin F; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study assessed the frequency and subjective meaning of adverse experiences using case study analyses of interviews with 38 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) and substance abuse histories. Adverse life events were inventoried using an adaptation of Lloyd and Turner's (2008) 41-item checklist. Participants averaged 8.8 adverse events, with approximately one-third having experienced incarceration (37%), suicidality (32%), abandonment by one or both parents (30%), and death of their mother (34%). Cross-case analyses yielded 3 themes: social losses because of death and estrangement; the significance of chronic stressors as well as acute events; and the cumulative lifetime nature of adversity. Findings suggest that life course experiences of trauma and loss have a cumulative influence in the lives of this population in addition and in relation to SMI, substance abuse, and homelessness. In this context, the mental health recovery movement should address prior adverse experiences beyond comorbid diagnoses in this population.

  12. The role of adverse weather conditions in acute releases of hazardous substances, Texas, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Borders, Julie; Villanacci, John; Harris, Richard; Samples-Ruiz, Melissa

    2004-11-11

    High winds, flooding, lightning, and other phenomena associated with adverse weather can cause power failures, equipment damage, and process upsets resulting in chemical releases. Of the 5000 events in Texas that were reported to the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system during 2000-2001, adverse weather conditions contributed to 110 (2%) events. Rain was the most frequent adverse weather condition. Most events to which adverse weather conditions contributed occurred during June or September; these months correspond with the high temperature and hurricane season in Texas. Most events occurred in coastal counties with large numbers of industrial facilities. Three industries reported the majority of events: industrial and miscellaneous chemicals manufacturing; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resin manufacturing. Power failures were associated more often with adverse weather-related events than with nonweather-related events. Releases occurred most commonly from ancillary process equipment and process vessels. Events associated with adverse weather-related conditions involved nine victims. System and process design improvements, such as improved backup power generation and redesigned secondary containment systems, could be explored to reduce the potential negative effects of severe weather.

  13. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  14. Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause specific adult mortality: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, George Davey; Hart, Carole; Blane, David; Hole, David

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between social circumstances in childhood and mortality from various causes of death in adulthood. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. Subjects: 5645 men aged 35-64 years at the time of examination. Main outcome measures: Death from various causes. Results: Men whose fathers had manual occupations when they were children were more likely as adults to have manual jobs and be living in deprived areas. Gradients in mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and respiratory disease were seen (all P<0.05), generally increasing from men whose fathers had professional and managerial occupations (social class I and II) to those whose fathers had semiskilled and unskilled manual occupations (social class IV and V). Relative rates of mortality adjusted for age for men with fathers in manual versus non-manual occupations were 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.87) for coronary heart disease, 1.83 (1.13 to 2.94) for stroke, 1.65 (1.12 to 2.43) for lung cancer, 2.06 (0.93 to 4.57) for stomach cancer, and 2.01 (1.17 to 3.48) for respiratory disease. Mortality from other cancers and accidental and violent death showed no association with fathers’ social class. Adjustment for adult socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors did not alter results for mortality from stroke and stomach cancer, attenuated the increased risk of coronary heart disease and respiratory disease, and essentially eliminated the association with lung cancer. Conclusions: Adverse socioeconomic circumstances in childhood have a specific influence on mortality from stroke and stomach cancer in adulthood, which is not due to the continuity of social disadvantage throughout life. Deprivation in childhood influences risk of mortality from coronary heart disease and respiratory disease in adulthood, although an additive influence of adulthood circumstances is seen in these cases

  15. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers. PMID:27624491

  16. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers.

  17. The influence of living conditions on adolescent girls’ health

    PubMed Central

    Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is described by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare as the healthiest period in life. However, adolescent girls differ in that they self-report that their health decreases with age. The aim of this hermeneutical study was to describe the meaning of living conditions in relation to adolescent girls’ health. Guided by principles of reflective lifeworld research, 15 interviews with adolescent girls were analysed. The result section consists of four narratives with their existential interpretations illustrating different ways of approaching living conditions and their meaning for health and well-being. The narratives are: Approaching everyday life in a balanced way—feeling harmonious; approaching everyday life with ambiguity—feeling confused; approaching everyday life as an intellectual project—striving for control; approaching everyday life as a struggle—feeling forlorn. In addition, a comprehensive understanding was developed by using the lifeworld dimensions: lived body, lived room, lived time, and lived relations. These dimensions may deepen the understanding of important parts of those living conditions which are meaningful for the girls’ health and well-being. By using the dimensions, complex living conditions have been explored and the meaning of different parts clarified. The girls’ thoughts and feelings are often ambiguous and sometimes contradictory, depending on the situation. The health of adolescent girls needs to be understood against the background of their experiences of living conditions. One way to support their health and well-being seems to be to supply them with forums where they can talk about their living conditions. PMID:23237626

  18. [Violence against adolescents: differentials by gender and living conditions strata].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro da Costa, Inês Eugênia; Ludemir, Ana Bernarda; Avelar, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    An ecological study was conducted in order to analyze differences in mortality rates among adolescents by gender and living conditions strata in Recife from1998 to 2004. The average mortality coefficient for violence during this period was calculated by gender for the city and by living conditions strata. This analysis demonstrated a higher risk of death by violence for male adolescents in Stratum III (poorest living conditions). The mortality rates by violence for men and women were 10.89 (Recife); 10.90 (Stratum I); 11.70 (Stratum II) and 10.30 (Stratum III). The findings show that although males are at the highest risk, it is also quite clear that living conditions influence the distribution of the mortality rate due to violence.

  19. Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Criminality: How Long Must We Live before We Possess Our Own Lives?

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, James A; Looman, Jan; Franco, Kristina A; Rojas, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research associated with the Kaiser Permanente and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study has demonstrated that ACE are associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including physical and mental health disorders and aggressive behavior. Methods: Subjects from 4 different offender groups (N = 151) who were referred for treatment at an outpatient clinic in San Diego, CA, subsequent to conviction in criminal court, completed the ACE Questionnaire. Groups (nonsexual child abusers, domestic violence offenders, sexual offenders, and stalkers) were compared on the incidence of ACE, and comparisons were made between the group offenders and a normative sample. Results: Results indicated that the offender group reported nearly four times as many adverse events in childhood than an adult male normative sample. Eight of ten events were found at significantly higher levels among the criminal population. In addition, convicted sexual offenders and child abusers were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse in childhood than other offender types. Conclusions: On the basis of a review of the literature and current findings, criminal behavior can be added to the host of negative outcomes associated with scores on the ACE Questionnaire. Childhood adversity is associated with adult criminality. We suggest that to decrease criminal recidivism, treatment interventions must focus on the effects of early life experiences. PMID:23704843

  1. Adverse Pregnancy Conditions, Infertility, and Future Cardiovascular Risk: Implications for Mother and Child

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki; Wei, Janet; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2016-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy conditions in women are common and have been associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes such as myocardial infarction and stroke. As risk stratification in women is often suboptimal, recognition of non-traditional risk factors such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and premature delivery has become increasingly important. Additionally, such conditions may also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in the children of afflicted women. In this review, we aim to highlight these conditions, along with infertility, and the association between such conditions and various cardiovascular outcomes and related maternal risk along with potential translation of risk to offspring. We will also discuss proposed mechanisms driving these associations as well as potential opportunities for screening and risk modification. PMID:26037616

  2. Statewide survey of living arrangements for conditionally released insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Follansbee, Juliet; Banfe, Shelley; Bloom, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    There is a large population (n =389) of insanity acquittees on monitored conditional release in Oregon. This article focuses on the living situation for these individuals, which can range from a secure residential treatment facility to independent living. This article will define all the different placement options available and then review the current living situation for all conditionally released insanity acquittees in the state of Oregon on a single day, February 1, 2014. This article shows that the majority of individuals on conditional release live in the most highly structured settings available. The article then ends with a discussion of these findings, including a comparison of current placement options, with previous descriptions in the literature demonstrating that current community options offer more structure and more individuals reside in structured settings than was previously the case. Current findings will be related to inpatient psychiatric bed reduction strategies and the question of possible transinstitutionalization.

  3. Statewide survey of living arrangements for conditionally released insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Novosad, David; Follansbee, Juliet; Banfe, Shelley; Bloom, Joseph D

    2014-09-01

    There is a large population (n =389) of insanity acquittees on monitored conditional release in Oregon. This article focuses on the living situation for these individuals, which can range from a secure residential treatment facility to independent living. This article will define all the different placement options available and then review the current living situation for all conditionally released insanity acquittees in the state of Oregon on a single day, February 1, 2014. This article shows that the majority of individuals on conditional release live in the most highly structured settings available. The article then ends with a discussion of these findings, including a comparison of current placement options, with previous descriptions in the literature demonstrating that current community options offer more structure and more individuals reside in structured settings than was previously the case. Current findings will be related to inpatient psychiatric bed reduction strategies and the question of possible transinstitutionalization. PMID:25328071

  4. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  5. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  6. Algorithms for contours depicting static electric fields during adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A flexible and functional analytical tool is developed for the study of electric fields during adverse weather conditions. This tool is designed for use by members of the Atmospheric Science Group as part of their overall effort to appraise environmental conditions during these situations. It is also used to illustrate approaches open to those interested in the study of the physics of ambient electric field phenomena. Computer resources of KSC are coordinated with original software to produce contour interpretations of electric field data available from a grid of field mills spanning the region. Three model algorithms are presented and examples are given illustrating the system design, flexibility, and utility.

  7. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  8. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  9. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  10. Living With Limited Time: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory in the Context of Health Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan-Singh, Sarah J.; Stanton, Annette L.; Low, Carissa A.

    2016-01-01

    The current research was designed to test the applicability of socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Carstensen, 2006), a life span theory that posits that perceived time remaining in life (time perspective) is a critical determinant of motivation, to individuals who face foreshortened futures (limited time perspective) due to life-limiting medical illness. In Study 1, we investigated whether life goals and biases in attention and memory for valenced emotional stimuli differed between women living with metastatic breast cancer (n = 113; theoretically living under greater limited time perspective than peers without cancer) and similarly aged women without a cancer diagnosis (n = 50; theoretically living under greater expansive time perspective than peers with cancer) in accordance with SST. As hypothesized, metastatic group goals reflected greater emphasis on limited versus expansive time perspective relative to comparison group goals. Hypotheses regarding biases in attention and memory were not supported. Study 2 followed metastatic group participants over 3 months and revealed that, consistent with hypotheses, whereas limited time perspective goals predicted decreased intrusive thoughts about cancer, expansive time perspective goals predicted decreased perceived cancer-related benefits. Together, these studies suggest that SST is a useful lens through which to view some components of motivation and psychological adjustment among individuals confronting medically foreshortened futures. PMID:25984789

  11. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mosedale, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Robert J.; Maclean, Ilya M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions. PMID:26496127

  12. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  13. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  14. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  15. Speech perception under adverse conditions: insights from behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research

    PubMed Central

    Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Specifically, we highlight the potential role of learning algorithms that rely on prediction error signals and discuss specific neural structures that are likely to contribute to such learning. To this end, we review behavioral studies, computational accounts, and neuroimaging findings related to adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Already, a few studies have alluded to a potential role of these mechanisms in adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Furthermore, we consider research topics in neuroscience that offer insight into how perception can be adaptively tuned to short-term deviations while balancing the need to maintain stability in the perception of learned long-term regularities. Consideration of the application and limitations of these algorithms in characterizing flexible speech perception under adverse conditions promises to inform theoretical models of speech. PMID:24427119

  16. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Harding, Ann M A; Welcker, Jorg; Steen, Harald; Hamer, Keith C; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Fort, Jérôme; Talbot, Sandra L; Cornick, Leslie A; Karnovsky, Nina J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Grémillet, David

    2011-09-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species.

  17. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  19. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  20. Research on long-range laser active imaging system applied in adverse weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-gang; Liu, Meng-de; Yang, Li; Kabanov, V. V.; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jie; Chu, Shi-bo; Yang, Jun-xian; Zhou, Yang

    2013-09-01

    A low-light level night vision device or thermal infrared imager belonging to passive imaging system is generally used in daily target detection and identification. But in adverse weather conditions of dark of night, poor atmospheric transmission characteristics or strong backscattering (fog, dust, rain, snow, etc.), even the most sensitive low-light level night vision could not provide enough image resolution for detecting and identifying targets, and the thermal infrared imager is also limited by low temperature contrast. A long-range laser active imaging system, in combination with high-power semiconductor pulsed lasers with collimation technology, receiving objective lens of large diameter, long focal length and narrow viewing angle, high-gain image intensifier CCD (ICCD) camera and range-gated synchronization control technology, is developed for long distance target detection and high resolution imaging in adverse weather conditions. The system composition and operating principle are introduced. The extremely powerful and efficient illuminators with collimation technology are able to deliver uniform beams, which are essential for illuminating targets at a distance and generating high-quality images. The particular receiving objective lens, ICCD camera and range-gated synchronization control technology could reduce strong backscattering signal and improve imaging signal-to-noise ratio. The laboratory and outfield experiments have been done to validate imaging effect and imaging quality. The results show that the minimum resolution is about 3-5cm, 10cm, and greater than 20 cm for target far from 1100m, 4700m, and 6700m respectively in dark of night. Furthermore, the minimum resolution could reach to 10cm and 20cm for target far from 2500m and 4800m respectively and the image is too blurred to accurately identify the target when observing the target far from 7200m in rainy condition.

  1. Cost-sharing, physician utilization, and adverse selection among Medicare beneficiaries with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    Pooled data from the 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Surveys were used to compare the number of self-reported annual physician visits among 36,808 Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 in insurance groups with differential cost-sharing. Adjusted for adverse selection and a set of health covariates, Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) only beneficiaries had similar physician utilization compared with HMO enrollees but fewer visits compared with those with supplemental (1.04, p = .001) and Medicaid (1.55, p = .003) coverage. FFS only beneficiaries in very good or excellent health had fewer visits compared with those of similar health status with supplemental (1.30, p = .001) or Medicaid coverage (2.15, p = .002). For subpopulations with several chronic conditions, FFS only beneficiaries also had fewer visits compared with beneficiaries with supplemental or Medicaid coverage. Observed differences in utilization may reflect efficient and necessary physician utilization among those with chronic health needs.

  2. Functions of Nitric Oxide (NO) in Roots during Development and under Adverse Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2015-01-01

    The free radical molecule, nitric oxide (NO), is present in the principal organs of plants, where it plays an important role in a wide range of physiological functions. Root growth and development are highly regulated by both internal and external factors such as nutrient availability, hormones, pattern formation, cell polarity and cell cycle control. The presence of NO in roots has opened up new areas of research on the role of NO, including root architecture, nutrient acquisition, microorganism interactions and the response mechanisms to adverse environmental conditions, among others. Additionally, the exogenous application of NO throughout the roots has the potential to counteract specific damages caused by certain stresses. This review aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on NO functions in the roots of higher plants. PMID:27135326

  3. Determination and representation of electric charge distributions associated with adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for determining the size and location of electric charges which model storm systems and lightning strikes. The analysis utilizes readings from a grid of ground level field mills and geometric constraints on parameters to arrive at a representative set of charges. This set is used to generate three dimensional graphical depictions of the set as well as contour maps of the ground level electrical environment over the grid. The composite, analytic and graphic package is demonstrated and evaluated using controlled input data and archived data from a storm system. The results demonstrate the packages utility as: an operational tool in appraising adverse weather conditions; a research tool in studies of topics such as storm structure, storm dynamics, and lightning; and a tool in designing and evaluating grid systems.

  4. Friction of composite cushion bearings for total knee joint replacements under adverse lubrication conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T; Jin, Z M; Fisher, J

    1997-01-01

    Conventional joint replacements consist of a polished metallic or ceramic component articulating against a layer of polyethylene. Although the friction in the contact between these articulating surfaces is low, polyethylene wear is produced as a result of a boundary/mixed lubrication regime. Wear debris is generated by direct asperity contact, abrasion, adhesion and fatigue, and has been shown to cause adverse tissue reactions which can lead to joint failure. The introduction of soft compliant materials, similar in stiffness to articular cartilage, has shown that with cyclic loading and relative motion between the articulating surfaces typical of normal walking, a fluid film can be maintained through combined entraining and squeeze-film actions, and hence wear can be minimized. For 95 per cent of the time, however, we are not walking but standing still or moving slowly. A pendulum simulator has been used in the present study to investigate the effect of adverse tribological conditions which may lead to fluid film breakdown, such as severe cyclic loading, particularly in the swing phase, reduced sliding velocity, reduced stroke length and start-up after a period of constant loading. Friction of a model composite cushion knee bearing, manufactured from a graded modulus (20-1000 MPa) layer of polyurethane, sliding against a polished metal cylinder has been measured for various lubricants and the results have been analysed using a Stribeck assessment. Severe cyclic loading, decreased sliding velocity and decreased stroke length have been found to limit the degree of fluid entrainment previously allowed during the swing phase of normal walking, thus allowing breakdown of fluid films and elevated levels of friction and surface damage. Soft layer joint replacements must therefore be designed to operate with thick elastohydrodynamic fluid films to provide some degree of protection when tribological conditions become severe, or alternatively incorporate alternative boundary

  5. Friction of composite cushion bearings for total knee joint replacements under adverse lubrication conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T; Jin, Z M; Fisher, J

    1997-01-01

    Conventional joint replacements consist of a polished metallic or ceramic component articulating against a layer of polyethylene. Although the friction in the contact between these articulating surfaces is low, polyethylene wear is produced as a result of a boundary/mixed lubrication regime. Wear debris is generated by direct asperity contact, abrasion, adhesion and fatigue, and has been shown to cause adverse tissue reactions which can lead to joint failure. The introduction of soft compliant materials, similar in stiffness to articular cartilage, has shown that with cyclic loading and relative motion between the articulating surfaces typical of normal walking, a fluid film can be maintained through combined entraining and squeeze-film actions, and hence wear can be minimized. For 95 per cent of the time, however, we are not walking but standing still or moving slowly. A pendulum simulator has been used in the present study to investigate the effect of adverse tribological conditions which may lead to fluid film breakdown, such as severe cyclic loading, particularly in the swing phase, reduced sliding velocity, reduced stroke length and start-up after a period of constant loading. Friction of a model composite cushion knee bearing, manufactured from a graded modulus (20-1000 MPa) layer of polyurethane, sliding against a polished metal cylinder has been measured for various lubricants and the results have been analysed using a Stribeck assessment. Severe cyclic loading, decreased sliding velocity and decreased stroke length have been found to limit the degree of fluid entrainment previously allowed during the swing phase of normal walking, thus allowing breakdown of fluid films and elevated levels of friction and surface damage. Soft layer joint replacements must therefore be designed to operate with thick elastohydrodynamic fluid films to provide some degree of protection when tribological conditions become severe, or alternatively incorporate alternative boundary

  6. The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several unicellular organisms (prokaryotes and protozoa) can live under permanently anoxic conditions. Although a few metazoans can survive temporarily in the absence of oxygen, it is believed that multi-cellular organisms cannot spend their entire life cycle without free oxygen. Deep seas include some of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth, such as the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the Mediterranean Sea. These are permanently anoxic systems inhabited by a huge and partly unexplored microbial biodiversity. Results During the last ten years three oceanographic expeditions were conducted to search for the presence of living fauna in the sediments of the deep anoxic hypersaline L'Atalante basin (Mediterranean Sea). We report here that the sediments of the L'Atalante basin are inhabited by three species of the animal phylum Loricifera (Spinoloricus nov. sp., Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp.) new to science. Using radioactive tracers, biochemical analyses, quantitative X-ray microanalysis and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations on ultra-sections, we provide evidence that these organisms are metabolically active and show specific adaptations to the extreme conditions of the deep basin, such as the lack of mitochondria, and a large number of hydrogenosome-like organelles, associated with endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Conclusions This is the first evidence of a metazoan life cycle that is spent entirely in permanently anoxic sediments. Our findings allow us also to conclude that these metazoans live under anoxic conditions through an obligate anaerobic metabolism that is similar to that demonstrated so far only for unicellular eukaryotes. The discovery of these life forms opens new perspectives for the study of metazoan life in habitats lacking molecular oxygen. PMID:20370908

  7. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  8. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only. PMID:27454867

  9. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  10. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  11. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health, chronic medical conditions, and development in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zhang, Jinjin; Nadeem, Erum; Stein, Ruth E. K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health, chronic medical conditions and social development among young children in the child welfare system. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, using a nationally representative sample of children investigated by child welfare (National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II) from 2008–2009. Our analysis included caregiver interviews and caseworker reports about children age 18–71 months who were not in out-of-home care (N=912). We examined the associations between ACEs and mental health (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)), reported chronic medical conditions, and social development (measured by the Vineland Socialization Scale), in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Nearly all children (98.1%) were reported to have had an ACE in their lifetime; the average number of ACEs was 3.6. For every additional reported ACE there was a 32% increased odds of having a problem score on the CBCL (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53), and a 21% increased odds of having a chronic medical condition (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40). Among children 36–71 months, for every additional reported ACE there was a 77% increased odds of a low Vineland Socialization score (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78). Conclusion and Relevance ACEs were associated with poor early childhood mental health and chronic medical conditions, and, among children age 3–5, social development. Efforts are needed to examine whether providing early intervention to families with multiple stressors mitigates the impact of ACEs on children’s outcomes. PMID:26183001

  12. Living under a democracy: participation and its impact on the living conditions of the poor.

    PubMed

    Avritzer, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian democratization took place between 1985 and 1988. In 1985, the authoritarian power holders transferred political power to civilians, and in 1988, a new democratic constitution was enacted, thus finalizing the transition. The end of the transition triggered processes of participation in different Brazilian cities, such as São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Recife, and Rio de Janeiro. However, only in Porto Alegre could the political context in the postdemocratization period generate a process of reverting priorities, that is to say, of inverting the pattern of democratic participation and the pattern of public investment at the urban level. In this article, I show the social conditions of the poor in the city of Porto Alegre in 1985, explain the emergence of participatory budgeting in the city, and show how democracy made a difference in the living conditions of the urban poor in the city of Porto Alegre. In the second part of the article, I analyze the recent expansion of participatory budgeting in Brazil and its recent expansion to midsize cities. In the final part of the article, I show how new participatory institutions are being introduced at the federal level of government. Participation at the local and national levels is making a difference in the living conditions of the Brazilian poor. PMID:21744544

  13. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you...

  14. Quality-quantity trade-off of human offspring under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Meij, J J; van Bodegom, D; Ziem, J B; Amankwa, J; Polderman, A M; Kirkwood, T B L; de Craen, A J M; Zwaan, B J; Westendorp, R G J

    2009-05-01

    A central paradigm in life-history theory is the trade-off between offspring number and quality. Several studies have investigated this trade-off in humans, but data are inconclusive, perhaps because prosperous socio-cultural factors mask the trade-off. Therefore, we studied 2461 offspring groups in an area under adverse conditions in northern Ghana with high fertility and mortality rates. In a linear mixed model controlling for differences in age and tribe of the mother and socioeconomic status, each additional child in the offspring group resulted in a 2.3% (95% CI 1.9-2.6%, P < 0.001) lower proportional survival of the offspring. Furthermore, we made use of the polygamous population structure and compared offspring of co-wives in 388 households, thus controlling for variation in resources between compounds. Here, offspring survival decreased 2.8% (95% CI 2.3-4.0%, P < 0.001) for each increase in offspring number. We interpret these data as an apparent quality-quantity trade-off in human offspring.

  15. Beyond urban penalty and urban sprawl: back to living conditions as the focus of urban health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-02-01

    Researchers have long studied urban health, both to describe the consequences of urban living and to design interventions to promote the health of people living in cities. Two approaches to understanding the impact of cities on health have been dominant, namely, urban health penalty and urban sprawl. The urban penalty approach posits that cities concentrate poor people and expose them to unhealthy physical and social environments. Urban sprawl focuses on the adverse health and environmental effects of urban growth into outlying areas. We propose a model that integrates these approaches and emphasizes urban living conditions as the primary determinant of health. The aim of the model is to move beyond describing the health-related characteristics of various urban populations towards identifying opportunities for intervention. Such a shift in framework enables meaningful comparisons that can inform public health activities at the appropriate level and evaluate their effectiveness in improving the health of urban populations. The model is illustrated with two examples from current urban public health practice.

  16. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  17. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Sarah; Muldoon, Katherine A; Spaans, Johanna N; Balfour, Louise; Samson, Lindy; Walker, Mark; Cameron, D William

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990-2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990-2010): 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30). Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12-6.24), teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.46), and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30-40.28) were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness. PMID:27528877

  18. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Sarah; Spaans, Johanna N.; Balfour, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990–2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990–2010): 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03–1.30). Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12–6.24), teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04–1.46), and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30–40.28) were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness. PMID:27528877

  19. [Working conditions, living conditions and physical health problems declared among penitentiary administration personnel in France].

    PubMed

    Goldberg, P; Landre, M F; David, S; Goldberg, M; Dassa, S; Marne, M J

    1996-06-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted among prison staff in France to investigate the relationships between working conditions and health. The sample included men and women 20 to 64 years old belonging to all categories of prison personnel: prison guards, administrative staff, socioeducational workers, technicians, health care workers, and managers (n = 4587, response rate 45.7%). A mailed self-administered questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, and physical and mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of working conditions and social relationships on health of prison staff. However, the results reported here only concern 17 health disorders: body mass index, sick leave, medication use, accidents, digestive disorders, lower extremities and back disorders, hypertension, hemorrhoids, arthritis, skin disorders, urinary infections, chronic bronchitis, cholesterol, gastric ulcer, respiratory infections, ocular disorders. The living non professional conditions mostly associated with health disorders were financial difficulties (OR: 1.9 for digestive disorders, 1.8 for gastric ulcer, 1.7 for medication use) and irregularity of meals (OR = 1.5 for digestive disorders, and hypertension). In the occupational environment, the factors most associated with health disorders are seniority (OR = 4.2 for arthritis, 2.3 for cholesterol) and constraints (OR = 1.7 for lower extremities disorders). In spite of some limits associated to this kind of study, relationships between occupational and non occupational factors and physical health conditions were observed; the results also pointed out the protective role of the social relationships for health conditions.

  20. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources..., pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or...

  1. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  2. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  3. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  4. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Misyura, Maksym; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested.

  5. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested. PMID:23162120

  6. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  7. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-01-01

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR. PMID:25218504

  8. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-10-17

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR.

  9. Height of skull base as an indicator of living conditions in historical native populations from Europe, Australia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Senator, Małgorzata; Kwiatkowska, Barbara; Gronkiewicz, Stanisław

    2009-01-01

    Flattening and lowering of the skull base in response to improper bone growth is called platybasis, and is considered a sensitive and reliable indicator of adverse living conditions such as malnutrition and disease during the prenatal period and early childhood. The degree of platybasis was assessed in three series of skulls representing geographically distinct historical native populations from Europe, Australia and Africa. Platybasis was determined by measuring the height of the base of the skull. The degree of platybasis varied among the populations examined, and was the lowest in the Australian group, and the highest in the African group. This may be due to either variability of living conditions or genetic factors, which have an influence on robusticity and cranial architecture. There were also differences among the groups in terms of the other skull measurements and indices examined. The height of the base of the skull was generally greater in males than in females, which indicates sexual dimorphism or fact that females had worse living conditions. Correlation coefficients between the height of the base of the skull and other measurements including skull length and skull width were also calculated indicating significant relationships. The differences between the height of the base of the skull and height/length index and height/width index, were statistically significant.

  10. Performance evaluation of laser scanners through the atmosphere with adverse condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespel, L.; Riviere, N.; Huet, T.; Tanguy, B.; Ceolato, R.

    2011-11-01

    Using laser imaging systems to represent 3-D scene becomes a referent prospective technology in the areas of guidance and navigation. Measurements with high spatial resolution for significant range can be achieved, even in degraded visibility conditions such as the Brown-White Out, rain, fog, sandstorms... Moreover, this technology is well suited for assisted perception tasks (access to 3D information) and obstacle detection (telemetry of small objects). For airborne applications, it is very complementary to conventional enhanced vision systems such as Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and millimeter wave radar to provide images of land in environments with limited visibility. It also offers a 3D mapping of land or a single location in relation to the environment, which means alone or coupled with others, can realign and secure real-time database of information used such in a synthetic vision system (SVS). The objective of the work is to assess the impact of degraded visibility conditions on the laser radiometric propagation of a 3D laser scanner as they directly influence the performance of the ladar system [1].

  11. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions.

  12. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. PMID:27542493

  13. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  14. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J T; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  15. The Effect of Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions on the Development of Diabetes Mellitus among Middle-aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, Mario; Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, J. Philip; Yan, Yan; Miller, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of observed neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with the incidence of diabetes by using data from 644 subjects in the African-American Health Study (St. Louis area, Missouri). They also investigated five mediating pathways (health behavior, psychosocial, health status, access to medical care, and sociodemographic characteristics) if significant associations were identified. The external appearance of the block the subjects lived on and housing conditions were rated as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Subjects reported about neighborhood desirability. Self-reported diabetes was obtained at baseline and 3 years later. Of 644 subjects without self-reported diabetes, 10.3% reported having diabetes at the 3-year follow-up. Every housing condition rated as fair-poor was associated with an increased risk of diabetes, with odds ratios ranging from 2.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.47, 4.34 for physical condition inside the building) to 1.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 3.07 for cleanliness inside the building) in unadjusted analyses. No association was found between any of the block face conditions or perceived neighborhood conditions and incident diabetes. The odds ratios for the five housing conditions were unaffected when adjusted for the mediating pathways. Poor housing conditions appear to be an independent contributor to the risk of incident diabetes in urban, middle-aged African Americans. PMID:17625220

  16. Chaotic living conditions and sleep problems associated with children's responses to academic challenge.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eleanor D; Low, Christine M

    2008-12-01

    The ecology of economic disadvantage includes chaotic living conditions that may disrupt children's regulatory functioning and undermine mastery oriented responses to challenge. The present study examined chaotic living conditions, sleep problems, and responses to academic challenge for 96 economically disadvantaged children enrolled in a Head Start preschool. Caregiver interviews provided information regarding chaotic living conditions of residential crowding, noise, and family instability, as well as child sleep problems. Tasks individually administered to children provided measures of responses to academic challenge. Chaotic living conditions statistically predicted helpless/hopeless responses to academic challenge, and sleep problems partially mediated this relationship. Implications concern pathways of ecological risk and diversity in the school functioning of economically disadvantaged children. PMID:19102613

  17. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of patients admitted for organ transplants, transplant centers must maintain written records of: (i... FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.94 Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management. Transplant centers must have...

  18. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of patients admitted for organ transplants, transplant centers must maintain written records of: (i... FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.94 Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management. Transplant centers must have...

  19. Optical tests of a space mechanism under an adverse environment: GAIA secondary mirror mechanism under vaccum and thermal controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Urgoiti, Eduardo; Ramírez Quintana, Argiñe

    2007-09-01

    In this work, the optical evaluation of a mechanism for space applications under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA) is reported. The mechanism was developed by the Spanish company SENER to fulfill the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for GAIA Astrometric Mission; in particular, a five degrees of freedom (dof), three translations and two rotations positioning mechanism for the secondary mirror of the GAIA instrument. Both interferometric tests and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions: vacuum and thermal controlled conditions, up to a 10 -6mbar and 100K. The scope of this paper will cover the measurements concept selection, the presentation of verification activities, the results of such dedicated optical measurements, the correlation with the mechanical models and a brief description of the design process followed to meet the test requirements.

  20. Selection for Genetic Variation Inducing Pro-Inflammatory Responses under Adverse Environmental Conditions in a Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kuningas, Maris; May, Linda; Tamm, Riin; van Bodegom, David; van den Biggelaar, Anita H. J.; Meij, Johannes J.; Frölich, Marijke; Ziem, Juventus B.; Suchiman, Helena E. D.; Metspalu, Andres; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic age-associated, degenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory host responses that are deleterious later in life may originate from evolutionary selection for genetic variation mediating resistance to infectious diseases under adverse environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings In the Upper-East region of Ghana where infection has remained the leading cause of death, we studied the effect on survival of genetic variations at the IL10 gene locus that have been associated with chronic diseases. Here we show that an IL10 haplotype that associated with a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, characterised by low IL-10 (p = 0.028) and high TNF-α levels (p = 1.39×10−3), was enriched among Ghanaian elders (p = 2.46×10−6). Furthermore, in an environment where the source of drinking water (wells/rivers vs. boreholes) influences mortality risks (HR 1.28, 95% CI [1.09–1.50]), we observed that carriers of the pro-inflammatory haplotype have a survival advantage when drinking from wells/rivers but a disadvantage when drinking from boreholes (pinteraction = 0.013). Resequencing the IL10 gene region did not uncover any additional common variants in the pro-inflammatory haplotype to those SNPs that were initially genotyped. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these data lend strong arguments for the selection of pro-inflammatory host responses to overcome fatal infection and promote survival in adverse environments. PMID:19907653

  1. Challenges of self-management when living with multiple chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liddy, Clare; Blazkho, Valerie; Mill, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the perspectives of patients who live with multiple chronic conditions as they relate to the challenges of self-management. Data sources On September 30, 2013, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL using relevant key words including chronic disease, comorbidity, multimorbidity, multiple chronic conditions, self-care, self-management, perspective, and perception. Study selection Three reviewers assessed and extracted the data from the included studies after study quality was rated. Qualitative thematic synthesis method was then used to identify common themes. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria, with most coming from the United States. Synthesis Important themes raised by people living with multiple chronic conditions related to their ability to self-manage included living with undesirable physical and emotional symptoms, with pain and depression highlighted. Issues with conflicting knowledge, access to care, and communication with health care providers were raised. The use of cognitive strategies, including reframing, prioritizing, and changing beliefs, was reported to improve people’s ability to self-manage their multiple chronic conditions. Conclusion This study provides a unique view into patients’ perspectives of living with multiple chronic conditions, which are clearly linked to common functional challenges as opposed to specific diseases. Future policy and programming in self-management support should be better aligned with patients’ perspectives on living with multiple chronic conditions. This might be achieved by ensuring a more patient-centred approach is adopted by providers and health service organizations. PMID:25642490

  2. Necessary and sufficient liveness condition of GS3PR Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, GaiYun; Barkaoui, Kamel

    2015-05-01

    Structural analysis is one of the most important and efficient methods to investigate the behaviour of Petri nets. Liveness is a significant behavioural property of Petri nets. Siphons, as structural objects of a Petri net, are closely related to its liveness. Many deadlock control policies for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) modelled by Petri nets are implemented via siphon control. Most of the existing methods design liveness-enforcing supervisors by adding control places for siphons based on their controllability conditions. To compute a liveness-enforcing supervisor with as much as permissive behaviour, it is both theoretically and practically significant to find an exact controllability condition for siphons. However, the existing conditions, max, max‧, and max″-controllability of siphons are all overly restrictive and generally sufficient only. This paper develops a new condition called max*-controllability of the siphons in generalised systems of simple sequential processes with resources (GS3PR), which are a net subclass that can model many real-world automated manufacturing systems. We show that a GS3PR is live if all its strict minimal siphons (SMS) are max*-controlled. Compared with the existing conditions, i.e., max-, max‧-, and max″-controllability of siphons, max*-controllability of the SMS is not only sufficient but also necessary. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method.

  3. Inequalities in health: living conditions and infant mortality in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Renata Alves da Silva; Santos, Victor Santana; de Melo, Cláudia Moura; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation of infant mortality as per condition of life in the urban setting. METHODS Ecological study performed with data regarding registered deaths of children under the age of one who resided in Aracaju, SE, Northeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2010. Infant mortality inequalities were assessed based on the spatial distribution of the Living Conditions Index for each neighborhood, classified into four strata. The average mortality rates of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared using the Student’s t-test. RESULTS Average infant mortality rates decreased from 25.3 during 2001-2005 to 17.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006-2010. Despite the decrease in the rates in all the strata during that decade, inequality of infant mortality risks increased in neighborhoods with worse living conditions compared with that in areas with better living conditions. CONCLUSIONS Infant mortality rates in Aracaju showed a decline, but with important differences among neighborhoods. The assessment based on a living condition perspective can explain the differences in the risks of infant mortality rates in urban areas, highlighting health inequalities in infant mortality as a multidimensional issue. PMID:25741650

  4. Display of Bombyx mori Alcohol Dehydrogenases on the Bacillus subtilis Spore Surface to Enhance Enzymatic Activity under Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; Chang, Cheng; Yao, Qin; Li, Guohui; Qin, Lvgao; Chen, Liang; Chen, Keping

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are oxidoreductases catalyzing the reversible oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones accompanied by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as coenzyme. ADHs attract major scientific and industrial interest for the evolutionary perspectives, afforded by their wide occurrence in nature, and for their use in industrial synthesis. However, the low activity of ADHs under extremes of pH and temperature often limits their application. To obtain ADH with high activity, in this study, we used Bombyx mori alcohol dehydrogenases (BmADH) as foreign gene and constructed a recombinant integrative plasmid pJS700-BmADH. This pJS700-BmADH was transformed into Bacillus subtilis by double cross-over and produced an amylase inactivated mutant. The fusion protein containing BmADH was expressed on the spore surface and recognized by BmADH-specific antibody. We also assayed the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the fusion protein together with the native BmADH at different pH and temperature levels, which indicated the recombinant enzyme exhibits activity over wider ranges of temperature and pH than its native form, perhaps due to the resistance properties of B. subtilis spores against adverse conditions. PMID:21738670

  5. Discrepancies in pain presentation caused by adverse psychosocial conditions as compared to pain due to high physical workload?

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Inger; Simonsen, Jenny Gremark; Balogh, Istvan; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Dahlqvist, Camilla; Granqvist, Lothy; Ohlsson, Kerstina; Axmon, Anna; Karlson, Björn; Nordander, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Disorders in the musculoskeletal system have been associated with a high physical workload as well as psychosocial and individual factors. It is however not obvious which of these factors that is most important to prevent. Musculoskeletal disorders in neck and upper extremity was assessed by interview and clinical examination in 79 teachers and 93 assisting nurses, all females. Psychosocial work environment was assessed by questionnaire. The physical workload was recorded by technical measurements of postures, movements and muscular load, in 9 teachers and 12 nurses. The physical workload was lower among the teachers, but they had a more demanding psychosocial work environment. Among the nurses, but not in the teachers, the neck-shoulder disorders were associated with a high body mass index (BMI). The teachers reported neck-shoulder complaints to a higher extent than the nurses, but had much lower prevalence of diagnoses in the clinical examination (12% vs. 25%; POR 0.3 CI 0.1 - 1.2; adjusted for age and BMI). The results suggest that adverse psychosocial conditions among the teachers give rise to a different kind of pain in the neck-shoulder region than from physical overload, troublesome but not as severe as the one afflicting the nurses. PMID:22317089

  6. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  7. Live attenuated measles and mumps viral strain-containing vaccines and hearing loss: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, 1990--2003.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Armenak; Pool, Vitali; Chen, Robert T; Kohl, Katrin S; Davis, Robert L; Iskander, John K

    2008-02-26

    Hearing loss (HL) is a known complication of wild measles and mumps viral infections. As vaccines against measles and mumps contain live attenuated viral strains, it is biologically plausible that in some individuals HL could develop as a complication of vaccination against measles and/or mumps. Our objectives for this study were: to find and describe all cases of HL reported in the scientific literature and to the US Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) for the period 1990--2003; and to determine reporting rate of HL after live attenuated measles and/or mumps viral strain-containing vaccines (MMCV) administration. We searched published reports for cases of HL identified after vaccination with MMCV. We also searched for reports of HL after MMCV administration submitted to VAERS from 1990 through 2003 and determined the dose-adjusted reporting rate of HL. Our main outcome measure was reported cases of HL after immunization with MMCV which were classified as idiopathic. We found 11 published case reports of HL following MMCV. The review of the VAERS reports identified 44 cases of likely idiopathic sensorineural HL after MMCV administration. The onset of HL in the majority of VAERS and published cases was consistent with the incubation periods of wild measles and mumps viruses. Based on the annual usage of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, we estimated the reporting rate of HL to be 1 case per 6-8 million doses. Thus, HL following MMCV has been reported in the literature and to the VAERS. Further studies are needed to better understand if there is a causal relationship between MMCV and HL.

  8. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... limited to, the donor's history, condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's potential risk of... donation. Transplant centers must ensure that the prospective living donor is fully informed about...

  9. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... limited to, the donor's history, condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's potential risk of... donation. Transplant centers must ensure that the prospective living donor is fully informed about...

  10. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... limited to, the donor's history, condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's potential risk of... donation. Transplant centers must ensure that the prospective living donor is fully informed about...

  11. Living Conditions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities from a Gender Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umb-Carlsson, O.; Sonnander, K.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The role of gender has been a neglected issue in research on intellectual disability (ID). People with ID are generally treated as a homogenous group that are largely categorized by their level of ID. This study compared living conditions of women and men with ID and related the results to similarities and differences among the general…

  12. Conditions of Living: Queer Youth Suicide, Homonormative Tolerance, and Relative Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing social tolerance accorded nonheterosexual persons in many Western countries, queer youth suicide rates remain high. This opens the need to question not only how broad social conditions continue to make lives unlivable for many queer youth but whether queer community formations and representations that emerge within a…

  13. Sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma: prospective study on adverse events, quality of life, and related feasibility under daily conditions.

    PubMed

    Brunocilla, Paola Rita; Brunello, Franco; Carucci, Patrizia; Gaia, Silvia; Rolle, Emanuela; Cantamessa, Alessandro; Castiglione, Anna; Ciccone, Giovannino; Rizzetto, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In two randomized trials, sorafenib was reported to be safe without a significant impact on quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of adverse events, QoL variations, and treatment discontinuations in HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Between November 2009 and March 2011, all patients evaluated as suitable for sorafenib treatment were enrolled. Every patient was invited to complete the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary Questionnaire before starting therapy, at week 1, and at months 1 and 2. QoL scores were analyzed by the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Side effects were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.3.0. Thirty-six patients were enrolled. The cumulative incidence of therapy discontinuation for drug-related adverse events was 33 % (95 % confidence interval, 20.2-49.7). The most common adverse event was fatigue (66.7 %). The worst score decrease was detected from baseline to week 1 in physical well-being, with a median reduction of -8.3 (range -60.1 to 17.9; P = 0.0003). Treatment withdrawal from adverse events was higher than previously reported, significant QoL decrease occurred, and estimated feasibility was 66.7 %.

  14. Amplifying Learning through Sites of Pedagogical Practice: A Possible Effect of Working with Disciplinary Technologies in Schools Operating under Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Schools located within communities experiencing high levels of social dislocation, educational disadvantage and student disengagement from learning are working under "adverse conditions". These schools face particular challenges when it comes to stabilising and sustaining wholeschool change aimed at improving students' learning outcomes. In this…

  15. Tuberculosis Mortality and Living Conditions in Bern, Switzerland, 1856-1950

    PubMed Central

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Ballif, Marie; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rieder, Hans L.; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a poverty-related disease that is associated with poor living conditions. We studied TB mortality and living conditions in Bern between 1856 and 1950. Methods We analysed cause-specific mortality based on mortality registers certified by autopsies, and public health reports 1856 to 1950 from the city council of Bern. Results TB mortality was higher in the Black Quarter (550 per 100,000) and in the city centre (327 per 100,000), compared to the outskirts (209 per 100,000 in 1911–1915). TB mortality correlated positively with the number of persons per room (r = 0.69, p = 0.026), the percentage of rooms without sunlight (r = 0.72, p = 0.020), and negatively with the number of windows per apartment (r = -0.79, p = 0.007). TB mortality decreased 10-fold from 330 per 100,000 in 1856 to 33 per 100,000 in 1950, as housing conditions improved, indoor crowding decreased, and open-air schools, sanatoria, systematic tuberculin skin testing of school children and chest radiography screening were introduced. Conclusions Improved living conditions and public health measures may have contributed to the massive decline of the TB epidemic in the city of Bern even before effective antibiotic treatment became finally available in the 1950s. PMID:26881850

  16. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center. PMID:26038843

  17. Relationship of Living Conditions With Dietary Patterns Among Survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Nobuo; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Kubota, Tetsuya; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yokoyama, Yukari; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Ogawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Background During the year after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the health conditions and lifestyles of survivors were extensively surveyed. We examined the relationship between living conditions and dietary pattern among survivors. Methods A total of 10 466 survivors aged 18 years or older (25% of the population of that age in the area) participated in a survey of Iwate Prefecture. The average frequency of daily consumption of 8 food groups was determined by questionnaire. After excluding staple foods, which were consumed 3 times a day by 85% of participants, factor analysis was performed on 7 food groups among 9789 people (3795 men, 5994 women). Results Factor analysis identified 2 dietary patterns—prudent and meat. The prudent dietary pattern is characterized by high intakes of fish and shellfish, soybean products, vegetables, fruit, and dairy products and was more evident among older participants and women. The meat dietary pattern is characterized by high intakes of meat and eggs and was more evident among younger participants and men. Age-adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses showed that male and female current smokers and men and women living in difficult conditions were likely to have a lower prudent dietary pattern score; male current smokers and male daily alcohol drinkers were likely to have a higher meat dietary pattern score. Conclusions During the year after the earthquake, the prudent dietary pattern was associated with better living conditions among survivors, whereas the meat dietary pattern was not. PMID:23933622

  18. Genotype and Neuropsychological Response Inhibition as Resilience Promoters for ADHD, ODD, and CD under Conditions of Psychosocial Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Friderici, Karen; Park, Leeyoung; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas child personality, IQ, and family factors have been identified as enabling a resilient response to psychosocial adversity, more direct biological resilience factors have been less well delineated. This is particularly so for child ADHD, which has received less attention from a resilience perspective than have associated externalizing disorders. Children from two independent samples were classified as resilient if they avoided developing ADHD, ODD, or CD in the face of family adversity. Two protective factors were examined for their potential relevance to prefrontal brain development: neuropsychological response inhibition, as assessed by the Stop task, and a composite catecholamine genotype risk score. Resilient children were characterized in both samples by more effective response inhibition, although the effect in the second sample was very small. Genotype was measured in Sample 1, and a composite high risk genotype index was developed by summing presence of risk across markers on three genes expressed in prefrontal cortex: dopamine transporter, dopamine D4 receptor, and noradrenergic alpha 2 receptor. Genotype was a reliable resilience indicator against development of ADHD and CD, but not ODD, in the face of psychosocial adversity. Results illustrate potential neurobiological protective factors related to development of prefrontal cortex that may enable children to avoid developing ADHD and CD in the presence of psychosocial adversity. PMID:17705902

  19. Adversity-induced relapse of fear: neural mechanisms and implications for relapse prevention from a study on experimentally induced return-of-fear following fear conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Scharfenort, R; Menz, M; Lonsdorf, T B

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders is limited by high relapse rates. Relapse of anxiety disorders and addiction can be triggered by exposure to life adversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Seventy-six healthy adults were a priori selected for the presence or absence of adverse experiences during childhood (CA) and recent past (RA; that is, past 12 months). Participants underwent fear conditioning (day 1) and fear extinction and experimental return-of-fear (ROF) induction through reinstatement (a model for adversity-induced relapse; day 2). Ratings, autonomic (skin conductance response) and neuronal activation measures (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were acquired. Individuals exposed to RA showed a generalized (that is, not CS- specific) fear recall and ROF, whereas unexposed individuals showed differential (that is, CS+ specific) fear recall and ROF on an autonomic level despite no group differences during fear acquisition and extinction learning. These group differences in ROF were accompanied by corresponding activation differences in brain areas known to be involved in fear processing and differentiability/generalization of ROF (that is, hippocampus). In addition, dimensional measures of RA, CA and lifetime adversity were negatively correlated with differential skin conductance responses (SCRs) during ROF and hippocampal activation. As discriminating signals of danger and safety, as well as a tendency for overgeneralization, are core features in clinically anxious populations, these deficits may specifically contribute to relapse risk following exposure to adversity, in particular to recent adversity. Hence, our results may provide first and novel insights into the possible mechanisms mediating enhanced relapse risk following exposure to (recent) adversity, which may guide the development of effective pre- and intervention programs. PMID:27434492

  20. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    PubMed

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access.

  1. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  2. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  3. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  4. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence.

  5. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850228

  6. Prospective association of the SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype with adverse health outcomes: evidence from 60+ community-dwelling Europeans living in 11 countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the many definitions of frailty, the frailty phenotype defined by Fried et al. is one of few constructs that has been repeatedly validated: first in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and subsequently in other large cohorts in the North America. In Europe, the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) is a gold mine of individual, economic and health information that can provide insight into better understanding of frailty across diverse population settings. A recent adaptation of the original five CHS-frailty criteria was proposed to make use of SHARE data and measure frailty in the European population. To test the validity of the SHARE operationalized frailty phenotype, this study aims to evaluate its prospective association with adverse health outcomes. Methods Data are from 11,015 community-dwelling men and women aged 60+ participating in wave 1 and 2 of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, a population-based survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the 2-year follow up effect of SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype on the incidence of disability (disability-free at baseline) and on worsening disability and morbidity, adjusting for age, sex, income and baseline morbidity and disability. Results At 2-year follow up, frail individuals were at increased risk for: developing mobility (OR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.02-9.36), IADL (OR 5.52, 95% CI, 3.76-8.10) and BADL (OR 5.13, 95% CI, 3.53-7.44) disability; worsening mobility (OR 2.94, 95% CI, 2.19- 3.93) IADL (OR 4.43, 95% CI, 3.19-6.15) and BADL disability (OR 4.53, 95% CI, 3.14-6.54); and worsening morbidity (OR 1.77, 95% CI, 1.35-2.32). These associations were significant even among the prefrail, but with a lower magnitude of effect. Conclusions The SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype is significantly associated with all tested health outcomes independent of baseline morbidity and disability in community-dwelling men and women aged 60

  7. Dominance rank is associated with body condition in outdoor-living domestic horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Sarah L.; Nicol, Christine J.; Harris, Patricia A.; Rands, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the association between dominance rank and body condition in outdoor group-living domestic horses, Equus caballus. Social interactions were recorded using a video camera during a feeding test, applied to 203 horses in 42 herds. Dominance rank was assigned to 194 individuals. The outcome variable body condition score (BCS) was recorded using a 9-point scale. The variables age and height were recorded and considered as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Results were analysed using multivariable linear and logistic regression techniques, controlling for herd group as a random effect. More dominant (p = 0.001) individuals generally had a higher body condition score (p = 0.001) and this association was entirely independent of age and height. In addition, a greater proportion of dominant individuals fell into the obese category (BCS ≥ 7/9, p = 0.005). There were more displacement encounters and a greater level of interactivity in herds that had less variation in age and height, lending strength to the hypothesis that phenotypic variation may aid cohesion in group-living species. In addition there was a strong quadratic relationship between age and dominance rank (p < 0.001), where middle-aged individuals were most likely to be dominant. These results are the first to link behavioural predictors to body condition and obesity status in horses and should prompt the future consideration of behavioural and social factors when evaluating clinical disease risk in group-living animals. PMID:25937683

  8. [Social support and living conditions in poor elderly people in urban Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Treviño-Siller, Sandra; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze social support and living conditions among poor elderly people in Mexican cities. A qualitative study with eight focus groups was carried out in Guadalajara, Cuernavaca, Chilpancingo, and Culiacan, Mexico, in 2005. Forty men and 63 women participated in the study. The main support for the elderly in daily living came from their immediate family and in some cases from neighbors. Social support was basically material and economic, in addition to providing company and transportation for medical appointments. Daily emotional support, companionship, and social inclusion were minimal or absent. The study identified a significant lack of support from government and religious or civil society organizations. The family is still the main source of support for the elderly. Increased government collaboration is dramatically needed to combat the misconception that the needs of the elderly are the individual family's responsibility rather than a collaborative effort by society.

  9. [Living conditions of the family, relationships between married couples, and the birth rate in the USSR].

    PubMed

    Foteeva, E

    1988-01-01

    The relationships between various aspects of the family and reproduction in the USSR are explored using data from various Soviet sources. Attention is paid to the impact of living conditions on fertility, as well as to the effects of personality and the roles played by both spouses within the family. The author concludes that large families are associated with mothers who are more involved in the family than in outside activities, mothers who are able to combine family roles with their other activities, and families in which both spouses participate in family-oriented tasks.

  10. [Social representations and living conditions of the mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly in nursing homes.].

    PubMed

    Dorvil, H; Benoit, M

    1999-01-01

    The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.

  11. Optimizing culture conditions for free-living stages of the nematode parasite Strongyloides ratti.

    PubMed

    Dulovic, Alex; Puller, Vadim; Streit, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    The rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti (S. ratti) has recently emerged as a model system for various aspects of parasite biology and evolution. In addition to parasitic parthenogenetic females, this species can also form facultative free-living generations of sexually reproducing adults. These free-living worms are bacteriovorous and grow very well when cultured in the feces of their host. However, in fecal cultures the worms are rather difficult to find for observation and experimental manipulation. Therefore, it has also been attempted to raise S. ratti on Nematode Growth Media (NGM) plates with Escherichia coli OP50 as food, exactly as described for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whilst worms did grow on these plates, their longevity and reproductive output compared to fecal cultures were dramatically reduced. In order to improve the culture success we tested other plates occasionally used for C. elegans and, starting from the best performing one, systematically varied the plate composition, the temperature and the food in order to further optimize the conditions. Here we present a plate culturing protocol for free-living stages of S. ratti with strongly improved reproductive success and longevity. PMID:27334397

  12. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    PubMed

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (P<.05) than for cows assigned a BCS of 3 through 8. Even though U.S. Utility carcasses from BCS-8 cows produced the least (P<.05) valuable subprimal cuts from the chuck, loin, and round, the gross and net values of BCS-8 cows were greater (P<.05) than those of BCS-3, 4, 5, and 6. Within the grade of U.S. Cutter, carcasses from BCS-6 cows had the highest (P<.05), and BCS-2 cows had the lowest (P<.05), gross and net values. Across the U.S. Utility/Cutter mix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P<.05) gross and net values than cows assigned a BCS of 6, or lower. Live value increased linearly (P = .0002) from a low of $76.10/100 kg for BCS-2 cows to a high of $90.84/100 kg for BCS-7 cows. Carcasses from BCS-6 cows were relatively lean (8.4 mm of fat opposite of the longissimus muscle), and approximately 73% of the carcasses achieved a quality grade of U.S. Utility. Moreover, carcasses from BCS-6 cows had the highest total carcass values and live values comparable (P

  13. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-06-22

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon.

  14. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon. PMID:24789898

  15. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Annie E.; Dybala, Kristen E.; Botsford, Louis W.; Eadie, John M.; Bradley, Russell W.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment–species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt’s cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt’s cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities. PMID:26168050

  16. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annie E; Dybala, Kristen E; Botsford, Louis W; Eadie, John M; Bradley, Russell W; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment-species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt's cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt's cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities.

  17. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annie E; Dybala, Kristen E; Botsford, Louis W; Eadie, John M; Bradley, Russell W; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment-species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt's cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt's cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities. PMID:26168050

  18. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  19. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class

    PubMed Central

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Background Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Methods Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). Results SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85–1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92–1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Discussion Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health. PMID:24560257

  20. Climatic conditions cause complex patterns of covariation between demographic traits in a long-lived raptor.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; van de Pol, Martijn; Nielsen, Jan T; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Møller, Anders P

    2015-05-01

    Environmental variation can induce life-history changes that can last over a large part of the lifetime of an organism. If multiple demographic traits are affected, expected changes in climate may influence environmental covariances among traits in a complex manner. Thus, examining the consequences of environmental fluctuations requires that individual information at multiple life stages is available, which is particularly challenging in long-lived species. Here, we analyse how variation in climatic conditions occurring in the year of hatching of female goshawks Accipiter gentilis (L.) affects age-specific variation in demographic traits and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). LRS decreased with increasing temperature in April in the year of hatching, due to lower breeding frequency and shorter reproductive life span. In contrast, the probability for a female to successfully breed was higher in years with a warm April, but lower LRS of the offspring in these years generated a negative covariance among fecundity rates among generations. The mechanism by which climatic conditions generated cohort effects was likely through influencing the quality of the breeding segment of the population in a given year, as the proportion of pigeons in the diet during the breeding period was positively related to annual and LRS, and the diet of adult females that hatched in warm years contained fewer pigeons. Climatic conditions experienced during different stages of individual life histories caused complex patterns of environmental covariance among demographic traits even across generations. Such environmental covariances may either buffer or amplify impacts of climate change on population growth, emphasizing the importance of considering demographic changes during the complete life history of individuals when predicting the effect of climatic change on population dynamics of long-lived species.

  1. Social resources and disordered living conditions: evidence from a national sample of community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    York Cornwell, Erin

    2014-07-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement--but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. Although socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as coresidential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this article, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low-income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a coresident partner, more nonresidential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well-being in later life. PMID:25651314

  2. Living with a long-term condition: Understanding well-being for individuals with thrombophilia or asthma

    PubMed Central

    Roddis, Jennifer K.; Holloway, Immy; Bond, Carol; Galvin, Kathleen T.

    2016-01-01

    A range of literature has explored the experience of living with a long-term condition (LTC), and frequently treats such experiences and conditions as problematic. In contrast, other research has demonstrated that it may be possible to adapt and achieve well-being, even when living with such a condition. This tends to focus on meaning and the qualitative experience of living with an LTC, and offers alternative perspectives, often of the same or similar conditions. As a result of these conflicting views, this study chose to consider two conditions which, though they may lead to life-threatening illness on occasion, do not appear to impact significantly the lives of all those affected on a daily basis. The aim of this research was to explore and explain how people make sense of two long-term, potentially life-threatening health conditions, namely, thrombophilia and asthma. In doing so, it specifically considered the contribution made by information about the condition. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted; this enabled the generation of a theory regarding how people make sense of their LTC, whilst acknowledging the social circumstances in which this was situated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants who had given consent to take part in the research. The findings demonstrate that participants undergo a two-stage process—gaining knowledge and living with a long-term condition. The theory based on these findings indicates that those who are knowledgeable about their condition, making informed decisions in relation to it, and accept their condition are able to live with it, whilst those who do not accept their condition do not fully adapt to it or integrate it into their lives. PMID:27534945

  3. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  4. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  5. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM.

  6. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  7. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  8. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  9. Detection and manipulation of live antigen-expressing cells using conditionally stable nanobodies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jonathan Cy; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Etemad, Behzad; Rudolph, Stephanie; Guo, Binggege; Wang, Sui; Ellis, Emily G; Li, Jonathan Z; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect and/or manipulate specific cell populations based upon the presence of intracellular protein epitopes would enable many types of studies and applications. Protein binders such as nanobodies (Nbs) can target untagged proteins (antigens) in the intracellular environment. However, genetically expressed protein binders are stable regardless of antigen expression, complicating their use for applications that require cell-specificity. Here, we created a conditional system in which the stability of an Nb depends upon an antigen of interest. We identified Nb framework mutations that can be used to rapidly create destabilized Nbs. Fusion of destabilized Nbs to various proteins enabled applications in living cells, such as optogenetic control of neural activity in specific cell types in the mouse brain, and detection of HIV-infected human cells by flow cytometry. These approaches are generalizable to other protein binders, and enable the rapid generation of single-polypeptide sensors and effectors active in cells expressing specific intracellular epitopes. PMID:27205882

  10. American coal miner: a report on community and living conditions in the coalfields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report represents the first major documentation of coalfield community and living conditions since the Boone Report of 1947, ''A Medical Survey of the Bituminous-Coal Industry'' was published by the Coal Mines Administration of the Department of the Interior in 1947 in response to a demand by John L. Lewis for improvements in public health and medical treatment at the mines and in the coal camps. The situation in 1979 is very different from what it was in 1947. Not only do the coal miners enjoy a much more comfortable lifestyle and significantly improved quality of health care, but also a much higher percentage of miners are employed at surface mines, many of which are now in the western States. During the decade of the 1970s, women entered the mining work force, often after successfully seeking legal action under Federal Equal Employment Opportunity statutes. Many problems remain in the coalfields. There is vast room for improvement in the areas of housing and highways. Health care facilities and services are less extensively available than in more urban areas. Coal mining remains the most dangerous of occupations, despite considerable improvements in coal mine health and safety. The progress achieved by coal miners over their counterparts of earlier generations cannot be denied. Thirty years ago, the miner and his family were still living in coal camps, often in conditions of poverty. Today, mining communities are much more diverse, and the modern miner is, more often than not, among the resident middle class. The reality of that vast change is not widely recognized. This book concentrates on employed miners. (LTN)

  11. Female infidelity is constrained by El Niño conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Kiere, Lynna Marie; Drummond, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    activity. In addition to increasing general self-maintenance and reproductive costs, warm waters may increase costs specific to EP behaviours including divorce, reduced male parental care, or pathogen exposure. Our results suggest that female boobies strategically refrained from EP behaviours to avoid these or other longer-term costs, rather than being compelled by immediate constraints. This study demonstrates that current environmental conditions affect females' mating decisions, contributing to variation in EP behaviours, even in a long-lived, iteroparous species that can buffer against temporary adversity. PMID:27119773

  12. Female infidelity is constrained by El Niño conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Kiere, Lynna Marie; Drummond, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    activity. In addition to increasing general self-maintenance and reproductive costs, warm waters may increase costs specific to EP behaviours including divorce, reduced male parental care, or pathogen exposure. Our results suggest that female boobies strategically refrained from EP behaviours to avoid these or other longer-term costs, rather than being compelled by immediate constraints. This study demonstrates that current environmental conditions affect females' mating decisions, contributing to variation in EP behaviours, even in a long-lived, iteroparous species that can buffer against temporary adversity.

  13. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  14. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  15. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patient's suitability for transplantation. If a center performs living donor transplants, the center also... principles of medical ethics. Transplant centers must: (1) Ensure that a prospective living donor receives...

  16. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patient's suitability for transplantation. If a center performs living donor transplants, the center also... principles of medical ethics. Transplant centers must: (1) Ensure that a prospective living donor receives...

  17. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women.

  18. Measures to combat H7N9 virus infection in China: live poultry purchasing habits, poultry handling, and living conditions increase the risk of exposure to contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Xu, Lingzhong; Huang, Yong; Yao, Linong; Tang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    From March 31 to May 31, 2013, 132 cases of humans were infected with the H7N9 avian influenza virus, 39 of which resulted in death in China, which sparked global concerns about public health. Fortunately, no new case was reported in China since May 8, which seems like to make it step into a stable stage, and the emergency response to the event launched by Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shandong, and Hu'nan of China have been terminated currently. However, on July 20 and August 10, two new cases were reported from two provinces--Hebei and Guangdong--where no case was reported during the period of spring of 2013. The emerged two new cases rung an alarm bell, thus, the continued public health response cannot let down its guard. Based on our before studies, we found that live poultry purchasing habits, poultry handling, and living conditions increase the risk of exposure to H7N9 virus contaminated environments in China. Due to the difficulty in changing live poultry purchasing habits and in thoroughly removing or closing live poultry markets in China, we suggest that enhanced regulation of poultry markets would be a more feasible and effective strategy to fight against H7N9 virus infection in China. Moreover, in view of the fact that frequent and inevitable contact between rural residents and poultry where rural residents lived also exists due to poultry handling and living conditions, the enhanced regulations on environmental health are also needed for free-range poultry, especially in rural areas.

  19. Stability of attenuated live virus rabies vaccine in baits targeted to wild foxes under operational conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, K F; Bachmann, P

    2001-01-01

    The viability of an attenuated live virus rabies vaccine in a bait targeted to red foxes was examined under various operational conditions in a series of experiments in Ontario. The virus was relatively stable over a 28-day period in the field, losing a mean 0.5, s = 0.2 log10 of virus titer. The micro-environment into which the bait was placed (open cultivated field, grassy meadow, wooded grove, sun or shade) did not make an appreciable difference in the viability of the virus. There was no significant difference (P < or = 0.05) between mean ambient temperatures and the temperature of fluids in blister packs of baits placed in sun or shade. Sixty-three percent of foxes fed baits exposed to sun and shade conditions for 21 days (titer 10(6.2) tissue culture infective doses per 1 mL) developed rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. Storage of vaccine baits at -30 degrees C prior to bait distribution was important in maintaining virus viability. PMID:11360859

  20. Charting the Territory: Children and families living with progressive life-threatening conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siden, Harold; Steele, Rose

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To increase awareness of the topic of paediatric palliative care among practicing physicians in Canada by exploring the impact of a child’s neurological or rare genetic life-threatening condition on the affected child and his/her parents. METHODS: Cross-sectional, baseline results from an observational, longitudinal study, Charting the Territory, which followed 275 children and 390 parents from 258 families. Parents completed multiple surveys, for themselves and their child. RESULTS: These children had a high symptom burden. The three most common symptoms were pain, sleep problems and feeding difficulties; on average, they had 3.2 symptoms of concern. Despite analgesic use, the frequency of pain episodes and distress were invariant over time, suggesting that treatments were not successful. Parents experienced anxiety, depression and burden; at the same time they also reported positive life change and a high degree of spirituality. The child’s condition resulted in parental changes in living arrangements, work status and hours devoted to caregiving. Nearly two-thirds of families were involved with a palliative care team; the size of the community in which a family resided did not make a significant difference in such involvement. CONCLUSIONS: These families experience many challenges, for the patient, other individual members and the family as a whole. At least some of these challenges may be alleviated by early and organized palliative care. Effective interventions are needed to enhance symptom management for the ill child and to alleviate the various negative impacts on the family. PMID:25914572

  1. Safety practices and living conditions of low-income urban families.

    PubMed

    Santer, L J; Stocking, C B

    1991-12-01

    Injuries remain the leading cause of mortality in children and disproportionately affect poor children. Prior injury prevention efforts have neglected the injury prevention needs of these children. One hundred thirty-three care givers of medically indigent urban children younger than 6 years old were interviewed regarding living conditions, previous injuries, and safety practices and knowledge. Functional smoke detectors and fire extinguishers were present in 75% and 27% of homes, respectively. Few respondents, regardless of previous poisoning experience, were cognizant of ipecac, had it in their homes, or had a good response to a possible poisoning. Few homes had locked storage space, and most hazards were stored suboptimally. While the frequency of the use of automobiles was low, rides in a variety of vehicles were common with 63% of children who usually were restrained inadequately. Additionally, 89% of children aged 35 to 59 months and 6% of those younger than 3 years old sometimes bathed without adult supervision. These findings indicate the dramatic need for injury prevention programs focused on low-income urban families. Specific concerns include exposure to fires and burns, falls, hazardous travel conditions, dangerous chemical, choking, and drowning. Lack of information and isolated care givers may result in poor supervision and responses to injury of these children.

  2. Temperament and living conditions: a comparison study of Poles and Koreans.

    PubMed

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2013-02-01

    The present investigation tested the temperament traits of 319 Polish and 315 South Korean students according to the regulative theory of temperament. Poland and South Korea are two countries with a similar rate of economic growth but with distinct cultures; for instance, they differ in terms of individualism and masculinity dimensions as well as living conditions. This means that they have achieved the same goal with different resources but presumably also with different side effects. The results indicate that the Poles had higher levels of briskness, sensor sensibility and endurance, as well as lower levels of emotional reactivity and perseveration in comparison with South Koreans. The structure of one's temperament determines one's ability to meet environmental requirements and also how one deals with stressful conditions. According to previous empirical data, Poles' temperament profile can be characterized as being less prone to stress perception and therefore more advantageous. It is possible that Koreans, as they have a less adaptive temperament structure, experience higher levels of stress in a more stimulating environment than Poles.

  3. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition. PMID:27493966

  4. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shijie; Tang, Qiang; Quan, Haiying; Lu, Qi; Sun, Ming; Zhang, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition. PMID:27493966

  5. One-against-All Weighted Dynamic Time Warping for Language-Independent and Speaker-Dependent Speech Recognition in Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianglilan; Sun, Jiping; Luo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English) names, language-independent (LI) with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD) automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW). This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI) for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW), as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER) compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions. PMID:24520317

  6. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important…

  7. Numerical simulation of turbulence and sand-bed morphodynamics in natural waterways under live bed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-11-01

    We develop and validate a 3D numerical model for coupled simulations of turbulence and sand-bed morphodynamics in natural waterways under live bed conditions. We employ the Fluid-Structure Interaction Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (FSI-CURVIB) method of Khosronejad et al. (Adv. in Water Res., 2011). The mobile channel bed is discretized with an unstructured triangular grid and treated as the sharp-interface immersed boundary embedded in a background curvilinear mesh. Transport of bed load and suspended load sediments are combined in the non-equilibrium from of the Exner-Poyla for the bed surface elevation, which evolves due to the spatio-temporally varying bed shear stress and velocity vector induced by the turbulent flow field. Both URANS and LES models are implemented to simulate the effects of turbulence. Simulations are carried out for a wide range of waterways, from small scale streams to large-scale rivers, and the simulated sand-waves are quantitatively compared to available measurements. It is shown that the model can accurately capture sand-wave formation, growth, and migration processes observed in nature. The simulated bed-forms are found to have amplitude and wave length scales ranging from the order of centimeters up to several meters. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 and EAR-0738726, and National Cooperative Highway Research Program Grant NCHRP-HR 24-33. Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  8. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations. PMID:26594267

  9. Detection and manipulation of live antigen-expressing cells using conditionally stable nanobodies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jonathan CY; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Etemad, Behzad; Rudolph, Stephanie; Guo, Binggege; Wang, Sui; Ellis, Emily G; Li, Jonathan Z; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect and/or manipulate specific cell populations based upon the presence of intracellular protein epitopes would enable many types of studies and applications. Protein binders such as nanobodies (Nbs) can target untagged proteins (antigens) in the intracellular environment. However, genetically expressed protein binders are stable regardless of antigen expression, complicating their use for applications that require cell-specificity. Here, we created a conditional system in which the stability of an Nb depends upon an antigen of interest. We identified Nb framework mutations that can be used to rapidly create destabilized Nbs. Fusion of destabilized Nbs to various proteins enabled applications in living cells, such as optogenetic control of neural activity in specific cell types in the mouse brain, and detection of HIV-infected human cells by flow cytometry. These approaches are generalizable to other protein binders, and enable the rapid generation of single-polypeptide sensors and effectors active in cells expressing specific intracellular epitopes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15312.001 PMID:27205882

  10. Scour around a submerged cylinder and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device in live-bed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, Maria Laura; Volpe, Michael; Krane, Michael; Fontaine, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are presented to explore how sediment scour around a single Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine varies with flow speed. Three Reynolds numbers, based on support structure diameter were used to induce live-bed scour conditions. Based on results from previous studies on submerged cylinders, differences in scour patterns between a single cylinder and MHK device can be determined. In the case of MHK energy, many devices are submerged in the flow. Thus, it is important to analyze the impact of both the support structure and the addition of the rotating blades. The experiments were performed in the small-scale testing platform in the hydraulic flume facility at Bucknell University. For each test case, bed form topology was measured after a three-hour time interval using a traversing two-dimensional bed profiler. During the experiment, scour depth measurements at the front face of the cylindrical support structure were taken to estimate the scour rate. Measurements of the bed form were taken across the width of the test section. Results show that the scour hole dimensions increase in the presence of the MHK device. These dimensions also increase with increasing Reynolds number.

  11. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; López-López, J. Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host. PMID:26445111

  12. Comparison of total energy expenditure assessed by two devices in controlled and free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Sylvie; Fardet, Anthony; Lacomme, Philippe; Normand, Sylvie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves; Morio, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of total energy expenditure (TEE) provided by Actiheart and Armband. Normal-weight adult volunteers wore both devices either for 17 hours in a calorimetric chamber (CC, n = 49) or for 10 days in free-living conditions (FLC) outside the laboratory (n = 41). The two devices and indirect calorimetry or doubly labelled water, respectively, were used to estimate TEE in the CC group and FLC group. In the CC, the relative value of TEE error was not significant (p > 0.05) for Actiheart but significantly different from zero for Armband, showing TEE underestimation (-4.9%, p < 0.0001). However, the mean absolute values of errors were significantly different between Actiheart and Armband: 8.6% and 6.7%, respectively (p = 0.05). Armband was more accurate for estimating TEE during sleeping, rest, recovery periods and sitting-standing. Actiheart provided better estimation during step and walking. In FLC, no significant error in relative value was detected. Nevertheless, Armband produced smaller errors in absolute value than Actiheart (8.6% vs. 12.8%). The distributions of differences were more scattered around the means, suggesting a higher inter-individual variability in TEE estimated by Actiheart than by Armband. Our results show that both monitors are appropriate for estimating TEE. Armband is more effective than Actiheart at the individual level for daily light-intensity activities. PMID:25141769

  13. Does childhood adversity account for poorer mental and physical health in second-generation Irish people living in Britain? Birth cohort study from Britain (NCDS)

    PubMed Central

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Clark, Charlotte; Dewey, Michael E; Leavey, Gerard; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Prince, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Worldwide, the Irish diaspora experience elevated mortality and morbidity across generations, not accounted for through socioeconomic position. The main objective of the present study was to assess if childhood disadvantage accounts for poorer mental and physical health in adulthood, in second-generation Irish people. Design Analysis of prospectively collected birth cohort data, with participants followed to midlife. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Approximately 17 000 babies born in a single week in 1958. Six per cent of the cohort were of second-generation Irish descent. Outcomes Primary outcomes were common mental disorders assessed at age 44/45 and self-rated health at age 42. Secondary outcomes were those assessed at ages 23 and 33. Results Relative to the rest of the cohort, second-generation Irish children grew up in marked material and social disadvantage, which tracked into early adulthood. By midlife, parity was reached between second-generation Irish cohort members and the rest of the sample on most disadvantage indicators. At age 23, Irish cohort members were more likely to screen positive for common mental disorders (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.94). This had reduced slightly by midlife (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.69). Although at age 23 second-generation cohort members were just as likely to report poorer self-rated health (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43), by midlife this difference had increased (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.60). Adjustment for childhood and early adulthood adversity fully attenuated differences in adult health disadvantages. Conclusions Social and material disadvantage experienced in childhood continues to have long-range adverse effects on physical and mental health at midlife, in second-generation Irish cohort members. This suggests important mechanisms over the life-course, which may have important policy implications in the settlement of migrant families. PMID:23457320

  14. Rehabilitation of living conditions in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: the ETHOS project.

    PubMed

    Lochard, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The ETHOS Project, supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (EC), was implemented in the mid-1990's with the support of the Belarus authorities as a pilot project to initiate a new approach for the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the Republic. This initiative followed a series of studies performed in the context of the EC Community of Independent States cooperation program to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), which clearly brought to the fore that a salient characteristic of the situation in these territories was the progressive and general loss of control of the population on its daily life. Furthermore, due to the economic difficulties during the years following the breakdown of the USSR, the population was developing private production and, in the absence of know-how and adequate means to control the radiological quality of foodstuffs, the level of internal exposure was rising significantly. The aim of the project was primarily to involve directly the population wishing to stay in the territories in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation with the goal of improving their protection and their living conditions. It was based on clear ethical principles and implemented by an interdisciplinary team of European experts with specific skills in radiation protection, agronomy, social risk management, communication, and cooperation in complex situations, with the support of local authorities and professionals. In a first phase (1996-1999), the ETHOS Project was implemented in a village located in the Stolyn District in the southern part of Belarus. During this phase, a few tens of villagers were involved in a step-by-step evaluation of the local radiological situation to progressively regain control of their daily life. In a second phase (1999-2001), the ETHOS Project was extended to four other localities of the District with the objective to

  15. Medical Conditions and Healthcare Utilization among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Group Homes in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Joel M.; Botuck, Shelly; Damiani, Marco R.; Levy, Philip H.; Dern, Thomas A.; Freeman, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    The shift in living situations for adults with intellectual and other developmental disabilities (IDDD) from family homes to group homes has raised questions about their healthcare needs and access to appropriate healthcare services. This study was undertaken to describe the disability characteristics and medical conditions in a sample of adults…

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 cell surface hydrophobicity and survival of the cells under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakirova, Laisana; Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Auzina, Lilija; Zikmanis, Peteris

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and the survival of these cells were examined in response to varied cultivation conditions and adverse environmental conditions. An inverse linear relationship (P < 0.01) was detected between the CSH of intact L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 and survival of cells subjected to subsequent freezing/thawing, long-term storage or exposure to mineral and bile acids. The observed relationships were supported by significant correlations between the CSH and changes in composition of the cell envelopes (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) of L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 examined using FT-IR spectroscopy and conventional biochemical analysis methods. The results also suggest that the estimates of hydrophobicity, being a generalized characteristic of cell surfaces, are important parameters to predict the ability of intact probiotic bacteria to endure extreme environments and therefore should be monitored during cultivation. A defined balance of cell components, which can be characterized by the reduced CSH values, apparently helps to ensure the resistance, improved viability and hence the overall probiotic properties of bacteria. PMID:23053348

  17. Enhancement of NK Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Long-Term Living in Negatively Charged-Particle Dominant Indoor Air-Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mase, Akinori; Kotani, Muneo; Ami, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Megumi; Shirahama, Takashi; Lee, Suni; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yoshitome, Kei; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of house conditions that promote health revealed that negatively charged-particle dominant indoor air-conditions (NCPDIAC) induced immune stimulation. Negatively charged air-conditions were established using a fine charcoal powder on walls and ceilings and utilizing forced negatively charged particles (approximate diameter: 20 nm) dominant in indoor air-conditions created by applying an electric voltage (72 V) between the backside of the walls and the ground. We reported previously that these conditions induced a slight and significant increase of interleukin-2 during a 2.5-h stay and an increase of NK cell cytotoxicity when examining human subjects after a two-week night stay under these conditions. In the present study, seven healthy volunteers had a device installed to create NCPDIAC in the living or sleeping rooms of their own homes. Every three months the volunteers then turned the NCPDIAC device on or off. A total of 16 ON and 13 OFF trials were conducted and their biological effects were analyzed. NK activity increased during ON trials and decreased during OFF trials, although no other adverse effects were found. In addition, there were slight increases of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during ON trials. Furthermore, a comparison of the cytokine status between ON and OFF trials showed that basic immune status was stimulated slightly during ON trials under NCPIADC. Our overall findings indicate that the NCPDIAC device caused activation of NK activity and stimulated immune status, particularly only on NK activity, and therefore could be set in the home or office buildings. PMID:26173062

  18. The Living Conditions of U.S.-Born Children of Mexican Immigrants in Unmarried Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…

  19. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must use written donor selection criteria in determining the suitability of candidates for donation. (a... distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement on the center's waiting list, a prospective transplant candidate... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  20. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard: Patient... team coordinated by a physician throughout the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of donation. (b) Standard: Waiting list management. Transplant centers must keep their waiting lists up...

  1. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must use written donor selection criteria in determining the suitability of candidates for donation. (a... distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement on the center's waiting list, a prospective transplant candidate... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  2. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard: Patient... team coordinated by a physician throughout the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of donation. (b) Standard: Waiting list management. Transplant centers must keep their waiting lists up...

  3. 42 CFR 482.94 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of living organ donation. (a) Standard: Patient... team coordinated by a physician throughout the donor evaluation, donation, and discharge phases of donation. (b) Standard: Waiting list management. Transplant centers must keep their waiting lists up...

  4. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must use written donor selection criteria in determining the suitability of candidates for donation. (a... distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement on the center's waiting list, a prospective transplant candidate... medical and psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living donor's medical...

  5. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J

    2014-12-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However, this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past-year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed.

  6. Fecal Bacterial Composition of the Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoises Living Under Captive and Semi-natural Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoling; Ruan, Rui; McLaughlin, Richard William; Hao, Yujiang; Zheng, Jinsong; Wang, Ding

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal microbiota is essential to the health and physiology of host animals. We undertook the first microbiological study of the fecal bacterial composition from critically endangered (CR) Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis; YFPs) living under captive and semi-natural conditions using both high-throughput sequencing method and 16S rRNA gene clone library method. As determined by high-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, semi-natural samples harbored 30 and 36 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which was more than the 22 and 27 OTUs detected from YFPs living in captivity. In captive YFPs Firmicutes was the predominant phylum, whereas this was Proteobacteria for YFPs living in semi-nature conditions. This suggests habitat-specific fecal bacterial composition of YFPs. Plesiomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp., which are potentially pathogenic, were identified in all the feces. Bacterial diversity from one porpoise living in captivity was also determined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library and only 1 phylum was identified. High-throughput sequencing was more effective at determining the bacterial diversity compared to the 16S rRNA gene clone library. This study provides important information for the management and conservation of the CR YFPs. PMID:26620537

  7. [Breastfeeding duration, infant feeding regimes, and factors related to living conditions in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lucivalda P Magalhães; Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Gomes, Gecynalda Soares da Silva; Prado, Matildes da S; Barreto, Maurício L

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify breastfeeding duration, infant feeding regimes, and factors related to living conditions among 811 children under 24 months of age in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Data were statistically analyzed by survival analysis, Pearson's chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression. Median duration of exclusive, predominant, and total breastfeeding was 30.6, 73.0, and 131.5 days, respectively. Exclusive or predominant breastfeeding was discontinued in 83.6% of the subjects. Children with poor living conditions were 2.3 times more likely (95%CI: 1.09-5.01) to receive early supplementary food, whereas the figure for the very poor increased to 2.5 (95%CI: 1.20-5.34). Early exclusive or predominant breastfeeding discontinuation was associated with early pregnancy and poor living conditions of the children and their families. Programs directed towards proper breastfeeding and healthy feeding practices in childhood should consider the social factors associated with early introduction of supplementary foods in this population. PMID:16158158

  8. [Numerical Analysis of Particle Trajectories in Living Cells under Uncertainty Conditions].

    PubMed

    Pisarev, A S; Rukolaine, S A; Samsonov, A M; Samsonova, M G

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a numerical method for the analysis of particle trajectories in living cells, where a type of movement is determined by Akaike's information criterion, while model parameters are identified by a weighted least squares method. The method is realized in computer software, written in the Java programming language, that enables us to automatically conduct the analysis of trajectories. The method is tested on synthetic trajectories with known parameters, and applied to the analysis of replication complexes in cells, infected with hepatitis C virus. Results of the analysis are in agreement with available data on the movement of biological objects along microtubules. PMID:26591609

  9. An Inquiry into Rural Dwellers' Opinions about Living Conditions in Urban and Rural Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azarkh, Emilia Davidovna; Korel, Liudmila Vasilyevna

    Utilizing data derived from a questionnaire survey of the rural population of Novosibirsk province in the USSR, the following hypothesis was tested: the attitude of rural inhabitants toward urban and rural conditions is characterized by a considerable preponderance of positive evaluations of dominant rural conditions and transient urban conditions…

  10. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena. PMID:22279770

  11. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena.

  12. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation (MD). We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor Marlau(TM) cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24 h MD on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition. PMID:26733839

  13. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation (MD). We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor MarlauTM cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24 h MD on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition. PMID:26733839

  14. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system. PMID:24127096

  15. Effects of live-well conditions on mortality and largemouth bass virus prevalence in largemouth bass caught during summer tournaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Walters, A.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Beck, B.H.; Hanson, L.A.; Rees, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of improved live-well conditions and the interaction of tournament stress and largemouth bass virus (LMBV) on tournament-associated mortality of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides caught during 12 summer tournaments. Improvements in live-well conditions (reduction in water temperature by 2-5??C; addition of NaCl; continuous aeration) significantly reduced initial mortality of largemouth bass from 7% to 3% (F 1,11 = 10.29, P < 0.01). However, postrelease mortality of fish held for 5 d in net-pens or raceways was not reduced by the improved live-well conditions and averaged 76% for all tournament fish (F1,11 = 0.09, P = 0.77). The percentage of angler-caught fish infected with LMBV at the end of tournaments (14%) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) than the percentage infected in the general population (7%). The percentage of LMBV-infected fish increased during the post-tournament retention period to 64% for fish from live wells with improved conditions and 70% for fish from control live wells. Reference fish collected by electrofishing and held with tournament fish for 5 d also had high mortality (59%) and LMBV prevalence (47%), but these variables were significantly lower than those for tournament fish (mortality: F 2,30 = 3.63, P = 0.04; prevalence [Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test]: P < 0.01). Many of the fish also had bacterial diseases during the post-tournament period, so the effect of LMBV on postrelease mortality could not be determined. However, the higher postrelease mortality of tournament and reference fish in our study relative to that observed in previous tournaments on lakes presumed free of LMBV suggests that this newly discovered pathogen influences measurement of post-tournament mortality. Increases in LMBV prevalence after typical fishing tournaments without prolonged post-tournament fish confinement will probably be lower than those we observed, but further research on the effects of LMBV on fish released from tournaments

  16. Study the live weight and live weight gain of black bengal and jamunapari goat breeds by fitting the linear regression under semi-intensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K I; Naznin, M

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the live weight gain of goats under semi-intensive conditions of Chittagong district of Bangladesh during the period of July, 2012 to January, 2013. Data were collected from 72 black Bengal and 32 Jamunapari goats and the kids birth weight and their subsequent live weight at weekly intervals up to age and weight of weaning at sexual maturity was recorded. The weight gains from birth to sexual maturity of two different breeds under 2 different farms were studied. Average birth weight of male and female black Bengal goats kids were 1.22 +/- 0.15, 1.01 +/- 0.14, 1.42 +/- 0.10 and 1.12 +/- 0.27 kg, respectively for farm 1 and 2. For Jamunapari goat's kid birth weight were 1.51 +/- 0.07 and 1.42 +/- 0.09 kg, for male and females, respectively in the farm 2. The average weaning age was 4 months and the average weaning weight of male and female black Bengal goats were 5.19 +/- 0.358, 5.05 +/- 0.28, 5.63 +/- 0.61 and 5.54 +/- 0.41 kg, in the farm 1 and 2, respectively. However, the average weaning weight of male and female Jamunapari was 6.59 +/- 0.69 and 6.79 +/- 0.31 kg, respectively in farm 2 which was higher than black Bengal. The average age at sexual maturity of black Bengal goat was 8 months. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female black Bengal goats were 9.82 +/- 0.75 and 9.52 +/- 0.62 kg, respectively in farm 1 and 9.65 +/- 0.75 and 9.138 +/- 0.70 kg, respectively in farm 2. The average age at sexual maturity was 9 months for Jamunapari goat. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female Jamunapari goats was 13.2 +/- 0.75 and 14.1 +/- 0.82 kg, respectively. The average daily body weight gain from birth to weaning for male and female black Bengal goat was 33.70, 35.11 g day(-1) and was 35.67 and 45.94 g day(-1), respectively in farm 1 and 2 and for Jamunapari goat was 42.97 and 45.47 g day(-1), respectively. The males were grew faster than the females. The predicted live weight gains for both

  17. [Condition of microflora of the nasopharynx in immunization with live influenza vaccine for oral administration].

    PubMed

    Kolotilova, L V; Shablovskaia, E A; Urin, A I; Lomnitskaia, V B; Vygovskaia, T V

    1975-07-01

    The authors present data concerning the state of the microflora of the nasopharynx in the immunization of adults and schoolchildren with the living influenza vaccine for oral administration. During the vaccinal process there occurred qualitative changes in the microbial pattern of the nasopharynx and a reduction in the level of the salivary lysozyme. The most pronounced changes were seen after the first vaccination, when the seeding efficiency of the pathogenic staphylococcus the E. coli and the Pr. mirabilis increased considerably. At the same time the incidence of isolation of the pathogenic staphylococcus, neisseria, and hemolytic streptococcus was decreased. The mentioned changes in the microbial flora directly depended on the dynamics of the survival of the vaccine influenza virus.

  18. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera

  19. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  20. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  1. Validation of a Talking Pedometer for Adolescents with Visual Impairments in Free-Living Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegele, Justin A.; Porretta, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Because school-aged individuals with visual impairments are less physically active than peers without visual impairments, they are at greater risk for developing health-related conditions. One instrument that provides an objective, cost-effective measure of physical activity by counting the total number of steps taken is the pedometer (Albright…

  2. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... impact the patient's ability to receive a transplant should an organ become available, and what... HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.102 Condition...

  3. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... about all Medicare outcome requirements not being met by the transplant center; (6) Organ donor risk... impact the patient's ability to receive a transplant should an organ become available, and what... HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.102 Condition...

  4. Nutritional condition and serum biochemistry for free-living Swainson's Hawks wintering in central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sarasola, José Hernán; Negro, Juan José; Travaini, Alejandro

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the nutritional condition and established reference values for serum chemistry parameters in a long distance migrant bird of prey, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni), wintering in central Argentina. We analyzed serum concentration of urea, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides and assessed age and sex related differences in these parameters. A body condition index was obtained from the resultant residuals of the regression of body mass and a morphometric measure. No statistical differences were observed among sex and age groups for urea, uric acid and triglyceride serum concentration. However, cholesterol concentration differed among male and female hawks, which could be related to the gain of body mass in wintering grounds at differential rates. The mean values of the four parameters were in the range of those recorded in the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), indicating good nutritional condition of the population we studied. Forearm length was the morphometric variable that better correlated with body mass. The resultant body condition index was only correlated with triglyceride concentration, suggesting that this index could be valuable in future work dealing with the assessment of body fat storage in wintering and breeding hawks, as well as in stopover points on the migratory route.

  5. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  6. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  7. Short-Lived HF Molecules in Superionic Hydrogen Fluoride at Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumuraya, Kazuo; Ohde, Yoshiyuki; Oshimi, Tadaaki

    2015-02-01

    The first principles molecular dynamics study enables us to elucidate the existence of short-lived HF molecules in the superionic hydrogen fluoride at an extreme high pressure and a temperature. Three fourth of the immobile fluorines constructs the molecules with lifetime of 8 fs. The ionized fluorines form weak HF bond with the proton in the nearest HF molecule of which the lifetime is 3 fs. The covalent and the Coulomb bonds between the fluorines and the protons form indirect covalent and indirect Coulomb attractions between the di-interstitial protons on the mid-fluorines. The attractions reduce the Haven's ratio of the protons. The absence of the proton dimers indicates a failure of the caterpillar diffusion model or the Frenkel-Kontorova chain model for the superionic diffusion of the protons. The incompletely ionized cations and anions reduce their Coulomb attractions which induce the sublattice melting of smaller size and smaller mass of the protons than the fluorines. The electronic states of the fluoride are intermediate between the ionic crystals and the covalent bonded molecular crystals. The superionic conductors are classified into three groups: they are molecular type, covalent metalloid type, and metallic type conductors.

  8. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda; Feng, Zhanchun

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036-1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037-1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981-2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  9. Men living with long-term conditions: exploring gender and improving social care.

    PubMed

    Abbott, David; Jepson, Marcus; Hastie, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Disabled men have traditionally been seen as incomplete men or as entirely gender-less. Research which has looked at the intersection of disability and male gender has largely treated disabled men as a homogeneous group with little reference to, for example, impairment-related differences. The ongoing move towards self-directed, personalised social care in England suggests that support needs relating to gender may be taken more seriously. A qualitative study with 20 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in England in 2013 explored the men's experiences of the organisation and delivery of social care as it pertained to their sense of being men. Our main finding was that social care in its broadest sense did little to support a positive sense of masculinity or male gender. More often than not the organisation and delivery of social care people de-gendered or emasculated many of the men who took part in the study. Our paper speaks to the need to explore impairment-specific issues for disabled men; to deliver a more person-centred approach to social care which recognises the importance of the social and sexual lives of disabled men; and to create ways in which men can support and empower each other to assert essential human rights relating to independence, dignity and liberty.

  10. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk.

    PubMed

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7-7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk.

  11. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  12. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk.

    PubMed

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7-7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  13. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed previously. Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in test cast-iron pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to be focused on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported previously.) Several design issues were identified which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter repair

  14. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  15. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast-iron test pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported last quarter.) These tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small- and large

  16. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-11-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each as well as field testing of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. The field tests were conducted August 23-26, 2004 in Oradell, New Jersey. The field tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small

  17. Palliative Care, Hospice, and Advance Care Planning: Views of People Living with HIV and Other Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Jacquelyn; Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Webel, Allison; Daly, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) who survive to older adulthood risk developing multiple chronic medical conditions. Health policymakers recognize the role of early palliative care and advance care planning in improving health quality for at-risk populations, but misperceptions about palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning are common. Before testing a program of early palliative care for PLWH and other chronic conditions, we conducted focus groups to elicit perceptions of palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning in our target population. Overall, participants were unfamiliar with the term palliative care, confused concepts of palliative care and hospice, and/or associated hospice care with dying. Participants misunderstood advance care planning, but valued communication about health care preferences. Accepting palliative care was contingent on distinguishing it from hospice and historical memories of HIV and dying. Provision of high-quality, comprehensive care will require changing public perceptions and individuals' views in this high-risk population.

  18. Design and methods in a survey of living conditions in the Arctic – the SLiCA study

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Kruse, Jack; Poppel, Birger; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study is to describe the methods and design of the survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA), relevant participation rates and the distribution of participants, as applicable to the survey data in Alaska, Greenland and Norway. This article briefly addresses possible selection bias in the data and also the ways to tackle it in future studies. Study design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Methods Indigenous individuals aged 16 years and older, living in Greenland, Alaska and in traditional settlement areas in Norway, were invited to participate. Random sampling methods were applied in Alaska and Greenland, while non-probability sampling methods were applied in Norway. Data were collected in 3 periods: in Alaska, from January 2002 to February 2003; in Greenland, from December 2003 to August 2006; and in Norway, in 2003 and from June 2006 to June 2008. The principal method in SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Results A total of 663, 1,197 and 445 individuals were interviewed in Alaska, Greenland and Norway, respectively. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, while a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. A predominance of female respondents was obtained in Alaska. Overall, the Sami cohort is older than the cohorts from Greenland and Alaska. Conclusions Preliminary assessments suggest that selection bias in the Sami sample is plausible but not a major threat. Few or no threats to validity are detected in the data from Alaska and Greenland. Despite different sampling and recruitment methods, and sociocultural differences, a unique database has been generated, which shall be used to explore relationships between health and other living conditions variables. PMID:22456042

  19. Living In A Country With A Strong Primary Care System Is Beneficial To People With Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Johan; Groenewegen, Peter P; Boerma, Wienke G W; Kringos, Dionne S

    2015-09-01

    In light of the growing pressure that multiple chronic diseases place on health care systems, we investigated whether strong primary care was associated with improved health outcomes for the chronically ill. We did this by combining country- and individual-level data for the twenty-seven countries of the European Union, focusing on people's self-rated health status and whether or not they had severe limitations or untreated conditions. We found that people with chronic conditions were more likely to be in good or very good health in countries that had a stronger primary care structure and better coordination of care. People with more than two chronic conditions benefited most: Their self-rated health was higher if they lived in countries with a stronger primary care structure, better continuity of care, and a more comprehensive package of primary care services. In general, while having access to a strong primary care system mattered for people with chronic conditions, the degree to which it mattered differed across specific subgroups (for example, people with primary care-sensitive conditions) and primary care dimensions. Primary care reforms, therefore, should be person centered, addressing the needs of subgroups of patients while also finding a balance between structure and service delivery.

  20. Local Actors' Frames of the Role of Living Conditions in Shaping Hypertension Risk and Disparities in a Colombian Municipality.

    PubMed

    Lucumi, Diego I; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A

    2016-04-01

    Conditions in the social and physical environment influence population health and risk for CVD, including hypertension. These environmental conditions are influenced by the decisions of public officials, community leaders, and service providers. Examining the frames that local decision makers bring to understanding hypertension can provide important insights into the decisions that they make about strategies for addressing this problem in their jurisdiction. The goal of this study was to examine the frames that local decision makers in Quibdó, Colombia, bring to understanding hypertension risk, and in particular, whether and how they use frames that encompass associations between living conditions and hypertension risk. Data for this qualitative study were collected using a stratified sampling strategy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2012 with 13 local decision makers and analyzed using a framework approach. Participants linked the structural conditions experienced in Quibdó, including displacement, limited economic opportunities, and the infrastructure of the city, to hypertension risk through multiple pathways, including behavioral risk factors for hypertension and physiologic responses to stress. They described the social patterning of these factors across socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender hierarchies. Although several conditions associated with hypertension risk are widely distributed in the city's population, social processes of marginalization and stratification create additional disadvantages for those on the lower rungs of the social hierarchy. PMID:26988557

  1. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-06-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1-Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2-Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3-Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a wide

  2. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2--Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a

  3. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Results Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Conclusions Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955 PMID:23638799

  4. Adaptation of Camelus dromedarius pars nervosa of the hypophysis to winter and summer living conditions.

    PubMed

    Djazouli Alim, Fatma Zohra; Rodríguez, Manuel Jose; Andrade, Carmen; Lebaili, Nemcha; Mahy, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of the dromedary nervous lobe and determine how the seasons condition its organization. To this end, electron microscopy was performed and examined quantitatively on animals from winter and summer periods. The results show a higher number of cells in the nervous lobe in summer than in winter. The most abundant glial elements in winter are light pituicytes engulfing neurosecretory nerve fibers making neuroglial contact, and dark pituicytes containing numerous heterogeneous light bodies. In summer, the most distinctive glial cells may be pituicytes in a phagocytic state making contact with characteristic large light bodies that could represent a degenerative process of large neuropeptide storage. Granular pituicytes were also observed in contact with glial and neuronal components. However, lipid droplets, described in pituicytes of other mammals, were not observed in our samples. Quantitative analysis of neurovascular contacts revealed that the number of nerve terminals contacting the basal lamina did not differ between summer and winter, but the mean number of glial processes increased in winter. Our data provides evidence that the storage of neuropeptides is very marked in summer and that, associated with an autophagic and phagocytic phenomenon, this suggests an adaptation to anticipate any situation that would cause dehydration of the dromedary. Thus, in its tough environment, the animal remains permanently prepared to avoid any large water loss.

  5. Alginate bead fabrication and encapsulation of living cells under centrifugally induced artificial gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Haeberle, Stefan; Naegele, Lars; Burger, Robert; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Ducrée, Jens

    2008-06-01

    This study presents a novel method for the direct, centrifugally induced fabrication of small, Ca2+-hardened alginate beads at polymer-tube micronozzles. The bead diameter can arbitrarily be adjusted between 180-800 microm by the nozzle geometry and spinning frequencies between 5-28 Hz. The size distribution of the main peak features a CV of 7-16%, only. Up to 600 beads per second and channel are issued from the micronozzle through an air gap towards the curing agent contained in a standard lab tube ('Eppi'). Several tubes can be mounted on a 'flying bucket' rotor where they align horizontally under rotation and return to a vertical position as soon as the rotor is at rest. The centrifugally induced, ultra-high artificial gravity conditions (up to 180 g) even allow the micro-encapsulation of alginate solutions displaying viscosities up to 50 Pa s, i.e. approximately 50,000 times the viscosity of water! With this low cost technology for microencapsulation, HN25 and PC12 cells have successfully been encapsulated while maintaining vitality.

  6. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  7. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. PMID:25617465

  8. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance.

  9. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. PMID:25617465

  10. Physical Activity Assessment Between Consumer- and Research-Grade Accelerometers: A Comparative Study in Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Winfree, Kyle N; Pohlig, Ryan T; Papas, Mia A

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity monitors such as Fitbit enable users to track various attributes of their physical activity (PA) over time and have the potential to be used in research to promote and measure PA behavior. However, the measurement accuracy of Fitbit in absolute free-living conditions is largely unknown. Objective To examine the measurement congruence between Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph GT3X for quantifying steps, metabolic equivalent tasks (METs), and proportion of time in sedentary activity and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity PA in healthy adults in free-living conditions. Methods A convenience sample of 19 participants (4 men and 15 women), aged 18-37 years, concurrently wore the Fitbit Flex (wrist) and ActiGraph GT3X (waist) for 1- or 2-week observation periods (n=3 and n=16, respectively) that included self-reported bouts of daily exercise. Data were examined for daily activity, averaged over 14 days and for minutes of reported exercise. Average day-level data included steps, METs, and proportion of time in different intensity levels. Minute-level data included steps, METs, and mean intensity score (0 = sedentary, 3 = vigorous) for overall reported exercise bouts (N=120) and by exercise type (walking, n=16; run or sports, n=44; cardio machine, n=20). Results Measures of steps were similar between devices for average day- and minute-level observations (all P values > .05). Fitbit significantly overestimated METs for average daily activity, for overall minutes of reported exercise bouts, and for walking and run or sports exercises (mean difference 0.70, 1.80, 3.16, and 2.00 METs, respectively; all P values < .001). For average daily activity, Fitbit significantly underestimated the proportion of time in sedentary and light intensity by 20% and 34%, respectively, and overestimated time by 3% in both moderate and vigorous intensity (all P values < .001). Mean intensity scores were not different for overall minutes of exercise or for run or

  11. [Effect of timber moisture content and terrain conditions on the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-yong; Wang, Li-hai; Hou, Jie-jian; Ge, Xiao-wen

    2015-02-01

    Vast loss of timber resources can be reduced by preventing and controlling the decay of standing trees in forest management. Therefore, research concerning the effect of site conditions on decay of standing trees is particularly important for decay prevention and cure. A relevant study was carried out in Xiaoxing'anling Mountains on October, 2013, and thirty decayed and ten normal mature or postmature Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) live standing trees were selected as sample trees, respectively. Two increment core samples were selected from the basal trunk of each sample tree to measure the mass loss ratio of rotted increment core samples. Meanwhile, moisture content of the soil near sample trees' roots and the gradient, exposure, slope position and elevation of the site where sample trees located were tested or measured. Analysis was made upon the relationship between factors such as sapwood and heartwood moisture contents and the decay of sample trees by correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The results indicated that moisture content of the sapwood negatively correlated with the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees at a very significant level, so did the heartwood moisture content. Soil moisture content had a positive correlation with the decay degree at a highly significant level. Significant differences in the moisture contents of sapwood, heartwood and soils were observed between decayed and normal sample trees. Slope position was the only factor that had a significant effect on the decay degree among all the three slope factors. The decay degree of live standing trees on the middle part of slopes was significantly higher than that on the upper part of slope, mainly due to the significantly higher soil moisture content on the middle part of slope. Elevation of the site where sample trees located had no significant correlation with the decay degree of Korean pine. PMID:26094446

  12. [Effect of timber moisture content and terrain conditions on the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-yong; Wang, Li-hai; Hou, Jie-jian; Ge, Xiao-wen

    2015-02-01

    Vast loss of timber resources can be reduced by preventing and controlling the decay of standing trees in forest management. Therefore, research concerning the effect of site conditions on decay of standing trees is particularly important for decay prevention and cure. A relevant study was carried out in Xiaoxing'anling Mountains on October, 2013, and thirty decayed and ten normal mature or postmature Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) live standing trees were selected as sample trees, respectively. Two increment core samples were selected from the basal trunk of each sample tree to measure the mass loss ratio of rotted increment core samples. Meanwhile, moisture content of the soil near sample trees' roots and the gradient, exposure, slope position and elevation of the site where sample trees located were tested or measured. Analysis was made upon the relationship between factors such as sapwood and heartwood moisture contents and the decay of sample trees by correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The results indicated that moisture content of the sapwood negatively correlated with the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees at a very significant level, so did the heartwood moisture content. Soil moisture content had a positive correlation with the decay degree at a highly significant level. Significant differences in the moisture contents of sapwood, heartwood and soils were observed between decayed and normal sample trees. Slope position was the only factor that had a significant effect on the decay degree among all the three slope factors. The decay degree of live standing trees on the middle part of slopes was significantly higher than that on the upper part of slope, mainly due to the significantly higher soil moisture content on the middle part of slope. Elevation of the site where sample trees located had no significant correlation with the decay degree of Korean pine.

  13. [Effect of working conditions and various social and living factors of the incidence of nervous system diseases with temporary disability among farmers].

    PubMed

    Kuptsov, V V

    1989-01-01

    It is pointed out that working and living conditions have essential impact on the incidence of nervous diseases causing temporary disability among farmers. The above conclusion has great practical significance since the necessity of carrying out a set of measures aimed at the sanitation of working and living conditions of farmers has been scientifically approved in order to reduce work losses due to nervous diseases. PMID:2744550

  14. Temporal variation of juvenile survival in a long-lived species: the role of parasites and body condition.

    PubMed

    Souchay, Guillaume; Gauthier, Gilles; Pradel, Roger

    2013-09-01

    Studies of population dynamics of long-lived species have generally focused on adult survival because population growth should be most sensitive to this parameter. However, actual variations in population size can often be driven by other demographic parameters, such as juvenile survival, when they show high temporal variability. We used capture-recapture data from a long-term study of a hunted, migratory species, the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica), to assess temporal variability in first-year survival and the relative importance of natural and hunting mortality. We also conducted a parasite-removal experiment to determine the effect of internal parasites and body condition on temporal variation in juvenile survival. We found that juvenile survival showed a higher temporal variability than adult survival and that natural mortality was more important than hunting mortality, unlike in adults. Parasite removal increased first-year survival and reduced its annual variability in females only. Body condition at fledging was also positively correlated with first-year survival in treated females. With reduced parasite load, females, which are thought to invest more in their immune system than males according to Bateman's principle, could probably reallocate more energy to growth than males, leading to a higher survival. Treated birds also had a higher survival than control ones during their second year, suggesting a developmental effect that manifested later in life. Our study shows that natural factors such as internal parasites may be a major source of variation in juvenile survival of a long-lived, migratory bird, which has implications for its population dynamics. PMID:23456200

  15. Living conditions, ability to seek medical treatment, and awareness of health conditions and healthcare options among homeless persons in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Toda, Ryouhei; Shiraishi, Tomonobu; Toyoda, Hirokuni; Toyozawa, Hideyasu; Kamioka, Yasuaki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shimada, Naoki; Shirasawa, Takako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2011-12-01

    Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate: 36.7%). With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen). The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively). This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable), respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1%) and "public offices" (33.3%). Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1)). Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  16. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    PubMed

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions.

  17. [The relationship between gingival condition and socio-demographic factors of adolescents living in a Brazilian region].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Emilio Prado; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to correlate the gingival condition and sociodemographic status of adolescents living in an economically disadvantaged Brazilian region. The survey was conducted with a random sample of 450 adolescents in 13 cities selected in the Jequitinhonha Valley (State of Minas Gerais). The gingival condition was evaluated using a calibrated examiner (Kappa ≥ 0.85). The oral exam was based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The frequencies of individuals were calculated and sextants subsequently assessed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR) to reveal the relationship between CPI and sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that: 16 (3.6%) were healthy; 235 (52.2%) had gingival bleeding; 36 (8%) had dental calculus and 163 (36.2%) had both bleeding and calculus. ANACOR identified two groups with similarities in relation to periodontal disease. Group one featured 19-year-olds with healthy CPI who work and have higher family income. Group two included 15- and 16-year-olds of both sexes with CPI and gingival bleeding in elementary school with lower family income, who declared themselves to be of mixed or Afro-descendant race. The presence of gingivitis was related to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescents in the region.

  18. Maternal presence and rearing condition affect responses to a live predator in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae).

    PubMed

    Yoerg, S I; Shier, D M

    1997-12-01

    Experiment 1 compared the responses of wild-caught adult and captive-born adult and juvenile kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae) to a live snake. Wild-caught adult rats were less active and monitored the snake more than during a control condition; captive-born juvenile rats did not behave differently during snake and control tests. Snake-naive adult rats behaved more like the wild-caught adult rats, but not on all measures. In Experiment 2, pups were tested at 25 and 50 days of age in 4 conditions: no-snake control, alone with the snake, with a sibling and the snake, and with the mother and the snake. Pups did not behave differently during control and snake tests, but during tests with the mother, pups faced the snake less and followed the mother. Younger pups were more often near the mother than a sibling and followed the mother more when the snake was present. Development of defensive behavior may depend on both predator experience and maternal influence.

  19. [The relationship between gingival condition and socio-demographic factors of adolescents living in a Brazilian region].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Emilio Prado; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to correlate the gingival condition and sociodemographic status of adolescents living in an economically disadvantaged Brazilian region. The survey was conducted with a random sample of 450 adolescents in 13 cities selected in the Jequitinhonha Valley (State of Minas Gerais). The gingival condition was evaluated using a calibrated examiner (Kappa ≥ 0.85). The oral exam was based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The frequencies of individuals were calculated and sextants subsequently assessed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR) to reveal the relationship between CPI and sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that: 16 (3.6%) were healthy; 235 (52.2%) had gingival bleeding; 36 (8%) had dental calculus and 163 (36.2%) had both bleeding and calculus. ANACOR identified two groups with similarities in relation to periodontal disease. Group one featured 19-year-olds with healthy CPI who work and have higher family income. Group two included 15- and 16-year-olds of both sexes with CPI and gingival bleeding in elementary school with lower family income, who declared themselves to be of mixed or Afro-descendant race. The presence of gingivitis was related to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescents in the region. PMID:26602715

  20. Histochemical approach of cryobiopsy for glycogen distribution in living mouse livers under fasting and local circulation loss conditions.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yurika; Terada, Nobuo; Saitoh, Sei; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Ohno, Shinichi

    2010-02-01

    Soluble proteins and glycogen particles, which are easily lost upon conventional chemical fixation, have been reported to be better preserved in paraffin-embedded sections by 'cryobiopsy' combined with freeze-substitution fixation (FS). In this study, we examined the distribution of glycogen in living mouse livers under physiologic and pathologic conditions with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining by cryobiopsy. The livers of the fully fed mice showed high PAS-staining intensity in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes. The PAS-staining intensity gradually decreased away from hepatocytes around portal tracts, depending on treatments with different alpha-amylase concentrations. At 6 or 12 h after fasting, PAS-staining intensity markedly decreased in restricted areas of zone I near the portal tracts. The cryobiopsy was repeatedly performed not only on different mice, but also on individuals. Next, glycogen distributions were evaluated by temporarily clipping of liver tissues of anesthetized mice, followed by recovery of blood circulation. In the liver tissues in which blood was recirculated for 1 h after the 30 min anoxia, PAS staining was still observed in zone II and also in restricted areas of zone I far from the portal tracts. In PAS-unstained hepatocytes, the immunoglobulin-kappa light chain was not detected in the cytoplasm, indicating that cell membrane permeability was retained and that glycogen metabolism was related to the functional state of blood circulation. We propose that the level of consumption or production of glycogen particles could vary in zone I, depending on the distance from the portal tracts. Thus, cryobiopsy combined with FS enabled us to examine time-dependent changes in glycogen distribution in the liver tissues of living mice. This combination might be applicable to the clinical evaluation of human liver tissues.

  1. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with

  3. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Del Pozo, Jorge; Gottstein, Bruno; Girling, Simon; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank; Pizzi, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5-90.6%), with

  4. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  5. Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes.

    PubMed

    Tartarotti, Barbara; Baffico, Gustavo; Temporetti, Pedro; Zagarese, Horacio E

    2004-07-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25-1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r(2) = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r(2) = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 μm between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

  6. Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes

    PubMed Central

    TARTAROTTI, BARBARA; BAFFICO, GUSTAVO; TEMPORETTI, PEDRO; ZAGARESE, HORACIO E.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25–1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r2 = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r2 = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 μm between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

  7. Impact of socioeconomic status and living condition on latent tuberculosis diagnosis among the tribal population of Melghat: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajpal S; Nayak, Amit R; Husain, Aliabbas A; Shekhawat, Seema D; Satav, Ashish R; Jain, Ruchika K; Raje, Dhananjay V; Daginawala, Hatim F; Taori, Girdhar M

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study socioeconomic status (SES) and living conditions (LC) as risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and their impact on QuantiFERON-TB gold (QFT-G) and tuberculin skin test (TST) outcome for determining a better diagnostic test for LTBI in the malnourished tribal population of Melghat. Settings and Design: Six hundred sixty nine participants matching the inclusion criteria were recruited from 10 tribal villages of Melghat region, India. Subjects and Methods: Complete information related to various risk factors and test outcome was obtained on 398 participants, which was analyzed as per predefined conceptual framework. Factors were classified based on their relevance either at individual or household level, and subsequently based on the possibility of intervention. Data were partitioned into concordant and discordant sets depending on test agreement. Results: In concordant set, the two tests revealed that LTBI was significantly associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–6.79]), tobacco usage (aOR: 2.74 [95% CI: 1.50–4.99]), and malnourishment (aOR: 1.97 [95% CI: 1.12–3.48]) after basic adjustment. Inclusion of latent variable SES and LC in the model has mediating effect on the association of above factors with LTBI. Further, the association of SES and LC with LTBI in concordant set was unaltered in presence of other cofactors. From discordant set, results of QFT-G corroborated with that of concordant set. Conclusions: Poor SES and LC can be considered as strong risk factors linked with LTBI as compared to malnourishment, which is often targeted in such communities. Further, our study showed QFT-G test as a reliable tool in screening of LTBI in the tribal population of Melghat, India. PMID:27578928

  8. No Longer Children: Case Studies of the Living and Working Conditions of the Youth Who Harvest America's Crops. Executive Summary. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre International, San Mateo, CA.

    This report examines the living and working conditions of adolescent migrant farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 216 youth working during peak harvest time in six states, as well as with adult farmworkers, family members of working youth, and farm labor contractors. Most of the youth were 14-17 years old, although a few had begun work as…

  9. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  10. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  11. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    PubMed

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  12. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    Only 60–70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to ‘live-birth bias’) that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children as an example. PFAS are persistent organic pollutants that may impact human fecundity and be toxic for neurodevelopment. We simulated several hypothetical scenarios based on characteristics from the Danish National Birth Cohort and found that a weak inverse association may appear even if PFAS do not cause ADHD but have a considerable effect on fetal survival. The magnitude of the negative bias was generally small, and adjusting for common causes of the outcome and fetal loss can reduce the bias. Our example highlights the need to identify the determinants of pregnancy loss and the importance of quantifying bias arising from conditioning on live birth in observational studies. PMID:25604449

  13. Gene Expression and Physiological Changes of Different Populations of the Long-Lived Bivalve Arctica islandica under Low Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Eva E. R.; Wessels, Wiebke; Gruber, Heike; Strahl, Julia; Wagner, Anika E.; Ernst, Insa M. A.; Rimbach, Gerald; Kraemer, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Abele, Doris; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years) and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP) from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD) during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years) German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti-) aging genes. Expression changes of a) antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b) oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c) anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa) and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation, temperature

  14. Gene expression and physiological changes of different populations of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica under low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Eva E R; Wessels, Wiebke; Gruber, Heike; Strahl, Julia; Wagner, Anika E; Ernst, Insa M A; Rimbach, Gerald; Kraemer, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Abele, Doris; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years) and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP) from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD) during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years) German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti-) aging genes. Expression changes of a) antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b) oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c) anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa) and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation, temperature

  15. The role of large and small cometary showers in the changes of living conditions on the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Stepahno, I. V.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.

    2016-10-01

    1. The supremum of astrophysical problems in modern astronomy. With the introduction into service in 1974, of the largest at that time, six-meter telescope BTA at Zelenchukskaya Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) - Department of Extragalactic Research and relativistic astrophysics was established. Its main task was to study the so-called super-distant boundary fields and extreme states of substances of stars, galactic nuclei in the early epoch of the Universe. Now, after 40 years, these tasks are as popular and relevant: quasars, pulsars, gravitational lenses, black holes, active galactic nuclei, etc. Already established telescopes with diameters of multicomponent mirrors of 8-10 meters or more. Astronomical observatories had gone high into the mountains, to the special mountain on the islands in the oceans, in the alpine desert and into space. Extreme problems on the supremum still attracts the strongest efforts of astrophysicists in the world. But what about the other side of extreme tasks: with the tasks of astrophysics for "infimum"? Let us consider the astrophysical problems of "infimum" in more detail. 2. Infinum of astrophysical problems in modern astronomy. We believe that among the tasks of modern astrophysics can be super-close latent invasion (SCLI). If SCLI develop the concepts of cosmology, our views on the entire universe, on special times and special state of substance, then the infimum problem solving and must save the people and all living creatures on the planet against various types of aerospace dangerous intruders. SСLІ tasks are vital for all of us. These problems must be solved by leaders of countries and of concrete cities. The essence of these tasks determined the real threats and real fears against quite possibly over-close encounters with deadly consequences for all mankind intrusion of comets nucleus and asteroids, as well as the hidden, latent threat against far more numerous invasions of fragments of these bodies. And it is a

  16. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  17. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Gendler, E

    1987-06-01

    Adverse reactions to cosmetics can be irritant or allergic and are most often caused by fragrances or preservatives. Preservatives include formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and parabens. Other agents that cause allergy are paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes and toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail polishes.

  18. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  19. Early Life Events Carry Over to Influence Pre-Migratory Condition in a Free-Living Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Greg W.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Conditions experienced during development can have long-term consequences for individual success. In migratory songbirds, the proximate mechanisms linking early life events and survival are not well understood because tracking individuals across stages of the annual cycle can be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first use a 13 year dataset to demonstrate a positive relationship between 1st year survival and nestling mass in migratory Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). We also use a brood manipulation experiment to show that nestlings from smaller broods have higher mass in the nest relative to individuals from larger broods. Having established these relationships, we then use three years of field data involving multiple captures of individuals throughout the pre-migratory period and a multi-level path model to examine the hypothesis that conditions during development limit survival during migration by affecting an individual's ability to accumulate sufficient lean tissue and fat mass prior to migration. We found a positive relationship between fat mass during the pre-migratory period (Sept–Oct) and nestling mass and a negative indirect relationship between pre-migratory fat mass and fledging date. Our results provide the first evidence that conditions during development limit survival during migration through their effect on fat stores. These results are particularly important given recent evidence showing that body condition of songbirds at fledging is affected by climate change and anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. PMID:22194925

  20. Caring for a Living: A Study on Wages and Working Conditions in Canadian Child Care. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Between November 1990 and August 1992, a study examined wages and working conditions of child care staff in both licensed group centers and family day care homes in Canada. Three instruments were developed for the study, a short telephone interview for center directors, a follow-up director's questionnaire, and a staff questionnaire. The study…

  1. Improving Personal Characterization of Meaningful Activity in Adults with Chronic Conditions Living in a Low-Income Housing Community

    PubMed Central

    Ciro, Carrie A.; Smith, Patsy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To understand how adults living in a low-income, public housing community characterize meaningful activity (activity that gives life purpose) and if through short-term intervention, could overcome identified individual and environmental barriers to activity engagement. Methods: We used a mixed methods design where Phase 1 (qualitative) informed the development of Phase 2 (quantitative). Focus groups were conducted with residents of two low-income, public housing communities to understand their characterization of meaningful activity and health. From these results, we developed a theory-based group intervention for overcoming barriers to engagement in meaningful activity. Finally, we examined change in self-report scores from the Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA) and the Engagement in Meaningful Activity Survey (EMAS). Results: Health literacy appeared to impact understanding of the questions in Phase 1. Activity availability, transportation, income and functional limitations were reported as barriers to meaningful activity. Phase 2 within group analysis revealed a significant difference in MAPA pre-post scores (p =0.007), but not EMAS (p =0.33). Discussion: Health literacy should be assessed and addressed in this population prior to intervention. After a group intervention, participants had a change in characterization of what is considered healthy, meaningful activity but reported fewer changes to how their activities aligned with their values. PMID:26378559

  2. The interaction between reproductive cost and individual quality is mediated by oceanic conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Paiva, Vitor H; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2012-08-01

    Environmental variability, costs of reproduction, and heterogeneity in individual quality are three important sources of the temporal and interindividual variations in vital rates of wild populations. Based on an 18-year monitoring of an endangered, recently described, long-lived seabird, Monteiro's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma monteiroi), we designed multistate survival models to separate the effects of the reproductive cost (breeders vs. nonbreeders) and individual quality (successful vs. unsuccessful breeders) in relation to temporally variable demographic and oceanographic properties. The analysis revealed a gradient of individual quality from nonbreeders, to unsuccessful breeders, to successful breeders. The survival rates of unsuccessful breeders (0.90 +/- 0.023, mean +/- SE) tended to decrease in years of high average breeding success and were more sensitive to oceanographic variation than those of both (high-quality) successful breeders (0.97 +/- 0.015) and (low-quality) nonbreeders (0.83 +/- 0.028). Overall, our results indicate that reproductive costs act on individuals of intermediate quality and are mediated by environmental harshness. PMID:22928422

  3. Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a congenital disorder characterized by triplication of Chromosome 21 components. Patients with T21 have an increased risk of acquiring periodontal disease due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene. Consequently, it is important to determine an approach for disease prevention in this population. Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal health, through the prevalence of gingivitis and plaque, among children with T21 living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and method This study included 93 children with T21 and 99 age- and gender-matched children without T21 between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Parents were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Trained examiners using standardized tools assessed the prevalence rates of gingivitis and plaque in all children. Results Gingivitis prevalence was elevated among T21 children (46.9%) compared to controls (34%) in all arch sextants except the mandibular middle (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups, the prevalence of plaque was higher in the maxillary right sextant of the T21 group and the mandibular middle sextant of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children. PMID:26644759

  4. The interaction between reproductive cost and individual quality is mediated by oceanic conditions in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Paiva, Vitor H; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2012-08-01

    Environmental variability, costs of reproduction, and heterogeneity in individual quality are three important sources of the temporal and interindividual variations in vital rates of wild populations. Based on an 18-year monitoring of an endangered, recently described, long-lived seabird, Monteiro's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma monteiroi), we designed multistate survival models to separate the effects of the reproductive cost (breeders vs. nonbreeders) and individual quality (successful vs. unsuccessful breeders) in relation to temporally variable demographic and oceanographic properties. The analysis revealed a gradient of individual quality from nonbreeders, to unsuccessful breeders, to successful breeders. The survival rates of unsuccessful breeders (0.90 +/- 0.023, mean +/- SE) tended to decrease in years of high average breeding success and were more sensitive to oceanographic variation than those of both (high-quality) successful breeders (0.97 +/- 0.015) and (low-quality) nonbreeders (0.83 +/- 0.028). Overall, our results indicate that reproductive costs act on individuals of intermediate quality and are mediated by environmental harshness.

  5. Minority Health and Small Numbers Epidemiology: A Case Study of Living Conditions and the Health of Children in 5 Foreign Romá Camps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J.; Cockcroft, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. We sought to test methods for generating epidemiological evidence on health conditions of small, dispersed minority communities. Methods. We used community-based mixed methods including a cross-sectional survey in 5 purposely selected settlements of Khorakané Romá (Gypsies of Muslim culture) in Italy to study the living conditions and health status of children aged from birth to 5 years. Results. In the 15 days prior to the survey, 32% of the children had suffered diarrhea and 55% had had a cough. Some 17% had experienced respiratory difficulties during the past year. Risk factors associated with these outcomes included years spent living at the camp, overcrowding, housing conditions, use of wood-burning stoves, presence of rats, and issues related to quality of sanitation and drains. Qualitative information helped define the approach and the design, and in the interpretation and consolidation of quantitative results. Conclusions. Guided by the priorities expressed by dispersed minority communities, small studies with little resources can provide a solid base to advocate for evidence-based participatory planning. Exact intervals appeared to be robust and conservative enough compared with other intervals, conferring solidity to the results. PMID:18799769

  6. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725

  7. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E.; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age. PMID:26689455

  8. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dogra, A; Minocha, Y C; Kaur, S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  9. Harboring illnesses: On the association between disease and living conditions in a Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    HABIB, RIMA R.; BASMA, SHIRAZ H.; YERETZIAN, JOUMANA S.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the association between the domestic built environment in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon, and the presence of illness among household members. Data on the domestic built environment, socio-demographics and health were collected in 860 households. The association between the presence of illness among household members and three environmental indices, namely infrastructure and services, housing conditions, and crowding was evaluated. These indices were based on a number of items that reflected the existing problems in the domestic built environment. The main finding was the positive association between poor housing conditions and the presence of illness among household members. Households with 8-15 housing problems were twice more likely to report the presence of illness than those with less than four housing problems (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.40-3.11). This research contributes to the understanding of the influence of the built environment on the health of a refugee population. PMID:16546804

  10. Characterization of wrist-wearable activity measurement using whole body calorimetry in semi-free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Amor, James D; Hattersley, John G; Barber, Thomas M; James, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a significant factor in a number of health conditions and monitoring PA can play a significant role in the treatment of, or research into, these conditions. For longitudinal monitoring of PA, unobtrusive devices are often used and there is a need for the development of energy expenditure (EE) estimation techniques from single-device systems. This paper presents an experiment designed to characterize the relationship between a previously described technique, the activity score (AS) and EE obtained from whole-room indirect calorimetry. The study used 8 participants over a 24-hr period with interspersed exercise periods to observe physical movement with wearable devices and EE in 5 minute epochs. Results show that AS and EE are correlated with a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.775 with p <; 0.001.

  11. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. PMID:26629647

  12. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot.

  13. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  14. Prevalence of self-reported suicidal thoughts in SLiCA. The survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA)

    PubMed Central

    Ragnhild Broderstad, Ann; Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The Survey of Living Condition in the Arctic (SLiCA) is an international research project on health and living conditions among Arctic indigenous peoples. The main objective of this article is to examine the prevalence of self-reported suicide thoughts among the study population in Alaska, Greenland, Sweden and Norway. Study design Population-based survey. Methods Indigenous participants aged 16 years (15 years in Greenland) and older living in traditional settlement regions in Alaska, Sweden and Norway and across the entire Greenland were invited to participate. Data were collected in three periods: in Alaska from January 2002 to February 2003, in Greenland from December 2003 to August 2006, in Sweden from spring 2004 to 2006 and in Norway in 2003 and from June 2006 to June 2008. The principal method in SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. A questionnaire had among other things, questions about health, education, traditional activities, ethnicity and suicidal thoughts. Results Information about suicidal thoughts, gender and age were available in 2,099 participants between the ages of 16 and 84 from Alaska, Greenland, Sweden and Norway. Greenland had the highest rates of suicidal thoughts when adjusting for age and gender (p=0.003). When stratifying on age and gender, significant differences across countries were only found for females in the two youngest age groups. Differences in suicidal thoughts across countries could partly be explained by educational level. Conclusion Swedish respondents had less suicidal thoughts than those in any other countries. In the future, analyses of suicidal thoughts should take socioeconomic status into account as well as self- reported health, depression and anxiety. PMID:22114568

  15. Resilience in Youth and Families Living With Pediatric Health and Developmental Conditions: Introduction to the Special Issue on Resilience.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Marisa E; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Nabors, Laura; Hood, Korey K

    2015-10-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology showcases a growing area of research with a collection of 16 contemporary studies of resilience in youth with chronic medical or developmental conditions and their families. The research reported in this special issue covers a broad range of pediatric populations, including cancer, type 1 diabetes, and chronic pain, among others, ranging in age from early childhood through early adulthood. This introduction to the special issue reviews the various ways the articles' authors conceptualize and define risk and resilience; most analyze protective processes in relation to resilient outcomes, including both achievement of explicitly positive experiences and avoidance of dysfunction or disruption. Challenges with measurement of resilience-related constructs is reviewed. Finally, the special issue editors offer a definition of resilience in the context of pediatric and health psychology. PMID:26275974

  16. Living With, Managing and Minimising Treatment Burden in Long Term Conditions: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Sara; Gonçalves, Ana-Carolina; Areia, Carlos; Oliveira, Rúben; Marcos, Ana Jorge; Marques, Alda; Parmar, Ranj; Hunt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Treatment burden’, defined as both the workload and impact of treatment regimens on function and well-being, has been associated with poor adherence and unfavourable outcomes. Previous research focused on treatment workload but our understanding of treatment impact is limited. This research aimed to systematically review qualitative research to identify: 1) what are the treatment generated disruptions experienced by patients across all chronic conditions and treatments? 2) what strategies do patients employ to minimise these treatment generated disruptions? Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: treatment burden and qualitative methods. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched electronically from inception to Dec 2013. No language limitations were set. Teams of two reviewers independently conducted paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis informed by Cumulative Complexity Model. Eleven papers reporting data from 294 patients, across a range of conditions, age groups and nationalities were included. Treatment burdens were experienced as a series of disruptions: biographical disruptions involved loss of freedom and independence, restriction of meaningful activities, negative emotions and stigma; relational disruptions included strained family and social relationships and feeling isolated; and, biological disruptions involved physical side-effects. Patients employed “adaptive treatment work” and “rationalised non-adherence” to minimise treatment disruptions. Rationalised non-adherence was sanctioned by health professionals at end of life; at other times it was a “secret-act” which generated feelings of guilt and impacted on family and clinical relationships. Conclusions Treatments generate negative emotions and physical side effects, strain relationships and affect identity. Patients minimise these disruptions through additional adaptive work and/or by non

  17. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  18. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  19. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  20. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  1. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a

  2. [Adaptive immune response of people living near chemically hazardous object].

    PubMed

    Petlenko, S V; Ivanov, M B; Goverdovskiĭ, Iu B; Bogdanova, E G; Golubkov, A V

    2011-10-01

    The article presents data dynamics of adaptive immune responses of people for a long time living in adverse environmental conditions caused by pollution of the environment by industrial toxic waste. It is shown that in the process of adaptation to adverse environmental factors, changes in the immune system are in the phase fluctuations of immunological parameters that are accompanied by changes in the structure of immunodependent pathology. Most sensitive to prolonged exposure to toxic compounds are the cellular mechanisms of immune protection. Violations of the structural and quantitative and functional parameters of the link of the immune system are leading to the formation of immunopathological processes.

  3. A PCR assay used to study aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from samples of live pigs under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Savoye, C; Jobert, J L; Berthelot-Hérault, F; Keribin, A M; Cariolet, R; Morvan, H; Madec, F; Kobisch, M

    2000-05-11

    The study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The test is based on the amplification of the omlA gene coding for an outer membrane protein of A. pleuropneumoniae. To test the specificity of the reaction, 19 other bacterial species related to A. pleuropneumoniae or isolated from pigs were assayed. They were all found negative in the PCR assay. The detection threshold of the test was 10(2) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/assay. The test was then applied to the detection of A. pleuropneumoniae from tonsillar biopsies and tracheobronchial lavage fluids of pigs without a culture step. The detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in these samples was performed by PCR, by conventional culture and by bacteriology with immunomagnetic beads. The number of samples that were found positive by PCR was almost three times higher than the number of samples from which A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated by both bacteriological techniques. The detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in these samples allowed us to demonstrate its aerosol transmission to pigs under experimental conditions. The trial involved 18 specific pathogen free pigs. Six pigs, infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, were located in a unit A, together with four non-infected animals (contact pigs). Eight non-infected pigs (reporter pigs) were located in a unit B, adjacent to A. We detected A. pleuropneumoniae in samples from infected animals but also from 'contact' (unit A) and 'reporter' (unit B) pigs. The results of this study show that the simple preparation of the samples followed by the PCR assay may be a useful tool for epidemiological studies. PMID:10781732

  4. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  5. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Enrico; Piciucchi, Sara; Feletti, Francesco; Barone, Domenico; Piraccini, Antonella; Minghetti, Caterina; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Poletti, Venerino; Bertocco, Mauro; Traversari, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines. Methods From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT). Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded. Results Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death. Conclusions Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and

  6. Optimized Ultrasound Conditions for Enhanced Sensitivity of Molecular Beacons in the Detection of MDR1 mRNA in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiumei; Ma, Yi; Wang, Zhaohui; Wang, Ke; Liu, Ruonan; Han, Zhihao; Zhang, Min; Li, Siwen; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), aprognostic indicator for chemotherapy failure, is encoded by multidrug resistance gene (MDR1). MDR1 mRNA expression could serve as a guidance for personalized medicine. However, the traditional PCR process for mRNA measurement is complicated and cannot realize the real-time detection of mRNA in living single cells. In this work, optimized gold nanoparticle-based molecular beacons were employed to determine MDR1 mRNA levels in living cancer cells. To improve detection sensitivity, ultrasound (US) irradiation was applied to facilitate and enhance cellular uptake of hairpin DNA-coated gold nanoparticle (hDAuNP). The US conditions including irradiation power, exposure time, duty cycle, and incubation time were optimized. The slight difference in MDR1 expression manipulated by siRNA silence could be recognized by US assisted hDAuNP beacons; a 10-fold increase of detection sensitivity was achieved compared with the nonultrasound assistance. Meanwhile, the detection cycle could be shortened from 12 to 2 h. Furthermore, this hDAuNP beacon can serve as an antisense agent to down-regulate P-gp expression and to reverse drug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells to doxorubicin. Our results demonstrated that the MDR1 hDAuNP beacon assisted by US irradiation had great potential to predict chemotherapy sensitivity and to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells and was thus a promising tool for individualized medicine.

  7. Optimized Ultrasound Conditions for Enhanced Sensitivity of Molecular Beacons in the Detection of MDR1 mRNA in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiumei; Ma, Yi; Wang, Zhaohui; Wang, Ke; Liu, Ruonan; Han, Zhihao; Zhang, Min; Li, Siwen; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), aprognostic indicator for chemotherapy failure, is encoded by multidrug resistance gene (MDR1). MDR1 mRNA expression could serve as a guidance for personalized medicine. However, the traditional PCR process for mRNA measurement is complicated and cannot realize the real-time detection of mRNA in living single cells. In this work, optimized gold nanoparticle-based molecular beacons were employed to determine MDR1 mRNA levels in living cancer cells. To improve detection sensitivity, ultrasound (US) irradiation was applied to facilitate and enhance cellular uptake of hairpin DNA-coated gold nanoparticle (hDAuNP). The US conditions including irradiation power, exposure time, duty cycle, and incubation time were optimized. The slight difference in MDR1 expression manipulated by siRNA silence could be recognized by US assisted hDAuNP beacons; a 10-fold increase of detection sensitivity was achieved compared with the nonultrasound assistance. Meanwhile, the detection cycle could be shortened from 12 to 2 h. Furthermore, this hDAuNP beacon can serve as an antisense agent to down-regulate P-gp expression and to reverse drug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells to doxorubicin. Our results demonstrated that the MDR1 hDAuNP beacon assisted by US irradiation had great potential to predict chemotherapy sensitivity and to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells and was thus a promising tool for individualized medicine. PMID:26821347

  8. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  9. A job description for the effective self-management of a long-term condition: experiences of living with difficult asthma.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Maureen; Rickards, Emma

    2013-04-01

    This paper concerns a study exploring the salience of a 'job description' for the effective self-management of a long-term condition to the experiences of a group of women living with difficult asthma. This is a life-threatening disease. It has been claimed that sufferers are a marginalised, misunderstood, mistreated and vulnerable group. The method involved secondary analysis of focus group data. The job description has been developed as a tool to enable nurses to facilitate and support effective self-management. This study was designed to examine the application of this tool to a particular case. Long-term conditions are a growing feature of the developed world and are strongly implicated in health inequalities. They are more prevalent in socially and economically disadvantaged populations and therefore add further burden to already vulnerable people. Effective self-management is critical to adapting and adjusting to the experience of a long-term condition and nurses have a responsibility to promote this process.

  10. Adversity and Resiliency in the Lives of Native Hawaiian Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2009-01-01

    Native Hawaiians constitute 401,000 or 0.1 percent of the total U.S. population, with approximately 60 percent residing in the state of Hawai'i. In Hawai'i, Native Hawaiian elders ("na kupuna") face a number of social and health disparities when compared with their non-Native Hawaiian counterparts: higher rates of poverty, greater disability…

  11. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  12. [31P-NMR analysis of high energy phosphorous compounds (ATP and phosphocreatine) in the living rat brain--effects of halothane anesthesia and a hypoxic condition].

    PubMed

    Yuasa, T; Miyatake, T; Kuwabara, T; Umeda, M; Eguchi, K

    1983-11-01

    31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) measurements have provided new and valuable insights for studying the metabolism of living systems. The aim of this paper is to introduce a technique of application of 31P-NMR measurements using a surface coil method, and to discuss the effects of halothane anesthesia and hypoxic hypoxia on the energetic metabolism of intact rat brains. All measurements were made using a JEOL FX 270 spectrometer with a super conducting magnet of 54-mm bore diameter. The magnetic field intensity of this machine is 6.3 tesla, and the resonance frequency used for 31P was 109.14 MHz. We remodelled an ordinary probe to take a live rat, and the animals were made to inhale anesthetic halothane or mixture of oxygen and nitrogen at various concentrations controlled by a flow regulator. The best conditions for measurements with our surface coil method were determined in this study as follows: (1) 90 degrees pulse width and selectivity, Fig. 1 shows signal selectivity in depthwise direction changed with 90 degrees pulse width, which was set to 20 microseconds. (2) Sensitivity and resolution; To obtain a spectrum of 31P-NMR from a rat brain 500 accumulations of free induction decays were considered suitable for both time and space resolution. Fig. 2 shows variations of signal intensity with pulse repetition time, which was set to 2 sec. It took about 17 min for averaging to get a spectrogram. (3) Quantitative accuracy and qualification; As shown in Fig. 3, a linear relationship was found between the signal intensity of beta-phosphate of ATP and the concentration of ATP solutions, thus proving the quantitative accuracy of our systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6661335

  13. β-Decay half-lives and nuclear structure of exotic proton-rich waiting point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Böyükata, Mahmut

    2016-03-01

    We investigate even-even nuclei in the A ∼ 70 mass region within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1). Our work includes calculation of the energy spectra and the potential energy surfaces V (β , γ) of Zn, Ge, Se, Kr and Sr nuclei with the same proton and neutron number, N = Z. The parametrization of the IBM-1 Hamiltonian was performed for the calculation of the energy levels in the ground state bands. Geometric shape of the nuclei was predicted by plotting the potential energy surfaces V (β , γ) obtained from the IBM-1 Hamiltonian in the classical limit. The pn-QRPA model was later used to compute half-lives of the neutron-deficient nuclei which were found to be in very good agreement with the measured ones. The pn-QRPA model was also used to calculate the Gamow-Teller strength distributions and was found to be in decent agreement with the measured data. We further calculate the electron capture and positron decay rates for these N = Z waiting point (WP) nuclei in the stellar environment employing the pn-QRPA model. For the rp-process conditions, our total weak rates are within a factor two compared with the Skyrme HF +BCS +QRPA calculation. All calculated electron capture rates are comparable to the competing positron decay rates under rp-process conditions. Our study confirms the finding that electron capture rates form an integral part of the weak rates under rp-process conditions and should not be neglected in the nuclear network calculations.

  14. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN THE ORAL CAVITY.

    PubMed

    Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Brailo, Vlaho; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Gabrić, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-06-01

    Every medication may lead to adverse effects, even when used in standard doses and mode of application. In the oral cavity, adverse effects may affect every part of oral mucosa and are the result of medications taken either locally or systemically. Oral adverse reactions to drugs are not typical and therefore sometimes not easy to recognize. On diagnosing adverse side effects in the oral cavity, experienced clinician will usually diagnose the condition on the basis of detailed medical history and clinical finding. However, the only objective evidence for the offending drug is 're-challenge', i.e. exposure to the drug after its discontinuation. It carries a huge risk of anaphylactic reaction; therefore it has to be performed in a controlled hospital setting. Therapy is based on immediate exclusion of the offending drug and, if lesions are present in the oral cavity, topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy is prescribed. This article gives a review of patients with oral adverse drug reactions referred to the Department of Oral Medicine in Zagreb.

  15. Effect of vaccination with a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine on growth performance in fattening pigs under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    LYOO, Kwang-Soo; CHOI, Jong-Young; HAHN, Tae-Wook; PARK, Kun Taek; KIM, Hye Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has caused significant economic losses to the global swine industry. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) vaccine in conventionally reared growing/finishing pigs. Four barns were designated for groups A, B, C and D in the growing-to-finishing site. All pigs of the A barn were vaccinated with a commercial PRRSV MLV vaccine, whereas pigs of the B, C or D barn as control groups were unvaccinated. Twenty pigs randomly selected and tagged from each barn were serially bled at 0, 20, 40 and 60 day-post-vaccination, and tested for serological response with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Body weights were measured to calculate the average-daily-weight gain (ADG). Serological assays indicated that the seropositivity of the PRRSV-vaccinated group was higher than that of the unvaccinated groups at 40 day-post-vaccination. ADG of group A was significantly higher than that of groups B and C, and the mean weights of groups A, B, C and D were 0.82 ± 0.017, 0.76 ± 0.016, 0.74 ± 0.019 and 0.81 ± 0.018 kg, respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports the serological responses and growth performance parameters by the PRRSV MLV vaccine in growing/finishing pigs under field conditions. PMID:27264966

  16. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  17. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 °C in relation to microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with SPME-GC-MS technique. Through multivariate chemometric method, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson's correlations, the CSIs: trimethylamine (TMA), ethanol (EtOH), 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Met-1But), acetoin and acetic acid (C2) were selected from the group of 28 detected VOCs. At the moment of microbiological shelf life established at total viable count (TVC) of 7.0 log CFU/g, the CSIs achieved levels of 11.5, 38.3, 0.3, 24.0 and 90.7 μg/g of salmon for TMA, EtOH, 3M-1But, acetoin and C2, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. was found as major specific spoilage organism (SSOs), suitable for shelf life prediction using modified Gompertz model at the cut-off level of 6.5 log CFU/g. H2S producing bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were considered as important spoilage microorganisms; however, they were not suitable for shelf life estimation. Partial least square (PLS) regression revealed possible associations between microorganisms and synthetized VOCs, showing correlations between Pseudomonas spp. and 3Met-1But and aldehydes synthesis, lactic acid bacteria were linked with EtOH, C2 and esters, and B. thermosphacta with acetoin formation. PMID:26678146

  18. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 °C in relation to microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with SPME-GC-MS technique. Through multivariate chemometric method, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson's correlations, the CSIs: trimethylamine (TMA), ethanol (EtOH), 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Met-1But), acetoin and acetic acid (C2) were selected from the group of 28 detected VOCs. At the moment of microbiological shelf life established at total viable count (TVC) of 7.0 log CFU/g, the CSIs achieved levels of 11.5, 38.3, 0.3, 24.0 and 90.7 μg/g of salmon for TMA, EtOH, 3M-1But, acetoin and C2, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. was found as major specific spoilage organism (SSOs), suitable for shelf life prediction using modified Gompertz model at the cut-off level of 6.5 log CFU/g. H2S producing bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were considered as important spoilage microorganisms; however, they were not suitable for shelf life estimation. Partial least square (PLS) regression revealed possible associations between microorganisms and synthetized VOCs, showing correlations between Pseudomonas spp. and 3Met-1But and aldehydes synthesis, lactic acid bacteria were linked with EtOH, C2 and esters, and B. thermosphacta with acetoin formation.

  19. Investigation of health effects of current levels of environmental sanitation and hygienic living conditions of rural population in the municipality of Zenica.

    PubMed

    Tandir, Salih; Huseinagic, Senad; Sivic, Suad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate and identify all the relevant ways of epidemiology significance for transmitting infectious diseases in the existing unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in rural areas of the municipality of Zenica, which are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal diseases. The study was conducted in seven rural localities of Zenica municipality where the dominant livestock are sheep and cows, and the population is mostly dealing with individual production of cheese and milk. This research aimed to examine and identify the conditions favoring life as the primary issues that affect the increase in the risk of and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases such as: the level of environmental sanitation in investigated villages, sanitary and hygiene habits of families living in the villages studied, ratio of population to personal hygiene, health safety of water supply, hygienic disposal of fecal waste and waste generated in the breeding of animals. The study included the monitoring and statistical analysis of the epidemiological situation in the values of average prevalence rates of the intestinal infectious diseases in the 1000 inhabitants of each village studied. The study identified five major negative epidemiological indicators that have a major impact on the appearance and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases. The leading indicator is a negative relationship and personal hygiene attitude in the broader sense, the pending state of water supply, sanitary toilets and unresolved rubbish dump with a negative attitude and stance toward general hygiene. Identified are all the relevant ways of epidemiology importance that are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal disease. Investigations of the epidemiological situation regarding the occurrence of intestinal infectious disease in the study population showed that intestinal infectious diseases in the

  20. The trauma of ongoing conflict and displacement in Chechnya: quantitative assessment of living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status among war displaced in Chechnya and Ingushetia

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; van der Kam, Saskia; Ford, Nathan; Hargreaves, Sally; van Oosten, Richard; Cunningham, Debbie; Boots, Gerry; Andrault, Elodie; Kleber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Background Conflict in Chechnya has resulted in over a decade of violence, human rights abuses, criminality and poverty, and a steady flow of displaced seeking refuge throughout the region. At the beginning of 2004 MSF undertook quantitative surveys among the displaced populations in Chechnya and neighbouring Ingushetia. Methods Surveys were carried out in Ingushetia (January 2004) and Chechnya (February 2004) through systematic sampling. Various conflict-related factors contributing to ill health were researched to obtain information on displacement history, living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status. Results The average length of displacement was five years. Conditions in both locations were poor, and people in both locations indicated food shortages (Chechnya (C): 13.3%, Ingushetia (I): 11.3%), and there was a high degree of dependency on outside help (C: 95.4%, I: 94.3%). Most people (C: 94%, I: 98%) were confronted with violence in the past. Many respondents had witnessed the killing of people (C: 22.7%, I: 24.1%) and nearly half of people interviewed witnessed arrests (C: 53.1%, I: 48.4%) and maltreatment (C: 56.2%, I: 44.5%). Approximately one third of those interviewed had directly experienced war-related violence. A substantial number of people interviewed – one third in Ingushetia (37.5%) and two-thirds in Chechnya (66.8%) – rarely felt safe. The violence was ongoing, with respondents reporting violence in the month before the survey (C: 12.5%, I: 4.6%). Results of the general health questionnaire (GHQ 28) showed that nearly all internally displaced persons interviewed were suffering from health complaints such as somatic complaints, anxiety/insomnia, depressive feelings or social dysfunction (C: 201, 78.5%, CI: 73.0% – 83.4%; I: 230, 81.3%, CI: 76.2% – 85.6%). Poor health status was reflected in other survey questions, but health services were difficult to access for around half the population (C: 54.3%, I: 46.6%). Discussion

  1. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  2. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Hickson, R C; Ball, K L; Falduto, M T

    1989-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are used therapeutically for various disorders and as ergogenic aids by athletes to augment strength, muscular development, and to enhance performance. There is a wide range of concomitant temporary and permanent adverse effects with steroid administration. Several well-documented adverse actions of these hormones may develop rapidly within several weeks or less (i.e. altered reproductive function) or require up to several years of steroid intake (i.e. liver carcinoma). More recent studies indicate that glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiovascular disease risk profiles, cerebral dangers, musculoskeletal injuries, prostate cancer, psychosis and schizophrenic episodes, among others, accompany anabolic steroid intake. There is, at present, no evidence to support the claim that athletes are less susceptible to adverse effects than those individuals receiving hormone treatment in a clinical setting. Based on the available information which has accumulated primarily from cross-sectional, short term longitudinal, and case studies, there is a need: (a) to develop a comprehensive battery of specific and sensitive markers of adverse effects, particularly those that would be able to detect the onset of adverse actions; and (b) to conduct controlled long term longitudinal studies in order to fully understand the extensiveness and mechanisms involved in the occurrence of adverse effects.

  3. Living with Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... live longer and enjoy a good quality of life. Many people who have Marfan syndrome and are ... tears and leaks blood. Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition. The main symptom of aortic dissection ...

  4. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    PubMed

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  5. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    PubMed

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  6. Adverse environments: investigating local variation in child growth.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Tina; Galloway, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    Epigenetic and life history approaches to child growth are centered on the relationship between the organism and its environment. However, defining and operationalizing the concept of environment is challenging, in light of the multiple variables that influence growth. Moreover, the concept of adaptation as it applies to child growth is seldom considered in the developed country context. This paper presents a study of children living in three neighborhoods in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Two of the communities are considered adverse environments on the basis of low socioeconomic status, and their inner city, industrial location. In contrast to children living in the higher socioeconomic status area, children in these adverse environments display negative growth indicators, i.e., somewhat constrained linear growth in one and risk for overweight and obesity in both. Although both these inner city neighborhoods constitute adverse environments, they differ in ways that have a significant impact on children's growth. We argue for a definition of "adverse environment" that is broadly based, incorporating a range of physical, social, and temporal factors that are highly localized and sensitive to community-level influences on growth and health. As well, we consider whether higher prevalence of overweight and obesity is adaptive in any way to these adverse environments and conclude that they are more likely to be deleterious than adaptive in either the long or short term.

  7. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  8. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed

    Reason, J

    1995-06-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  10. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  11. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  13. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home care, it is still ... of services an older person chooses, the price costs can range from less than $25,000 a ...

  14. Surviving the adversity of childlessness: fostering resilience in couples.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra; Rudge, Trudy

    2011-12-01

    In contemporary Western society, infertility has the capacity to impact greatly on couples, emotionally and socially. In the face of such infertility, couples are able to seek assisted reproductive technologies to assist in the pursuit of biological parenthood. These technologies are not infallible though, and the likelihood of success remains small. Therefore it is inevitable that some couples will remain childless, and this has been associated with grief and adversity. Findings present the narratives of participant couples' through and beyond the many adversities encountered due to remaining childless despite infertility treatment. Regardless of theories that seek to pathologise couples experiencing this type of adversity, participant couples demonstrated resilience in redirecting their energies into areas of their lives where they could achieve positive outcomes. This research highlights the importance of caring for couples rather than individuals undergoing infertility treatment. It provides support for approaches that foster couples' relationships with the aim of promoting individuals' resilience.

  15. Adverse outcomes following hospitalization in acutely ill older patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Roger Y; Miller, William C

    2008-01-01

    Background The longitudinal outcomes of patients admitted to acute care for elders units (ACE) are mixed. We studied the associations between socio-demographic and functional measures with hospital length of stay (LOS), and which variables predicted adverse events (non-independent living, readmission, death) 3 and 6 months later. Methods Prospective cohort study of community-living, medical patients age 75 or over admitted to ACE at a teaching hospital. Results The population included 147 subjects, median LOS of 9 days (interquartile range 5–15 days). All returned home/community after hospitalization. Just prior to discharge, baseline timed up and go test (TUG, P < 0.001), bipedal stance balance (P = 0.001), and clinical frailty scale scores (P = 0.02) predicted LOS, with TUG as the only independent predictor (P < 0.001) in multiple regression analysis. By 3 months, 59.9% of subjects remained free of an adverse event, and by 6 months, 49.0% were event free. The 3 and 6-month mortality was 10.2% and 12.9% respectively. Almost one-third of subjects had developed an adverse event by 6 months, with the highest risk within the first 3 months post discharge. An abnormal TUG score was associated with increased adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.59, P = 0.03. A higher FMMSE score (adjusted HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96, P = 0.003) and independent living before hospitalization (adjusted HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.84, P = 0.01) were associated with reduced risk of adverse outcome. Conclusion Some ACE patients demonstrate further functional decline following hospitalization, resulting in loss of independence, repeat hospitalization, or death. Abnormal TUG is associated with prolonged LOS and future adverse outcomes. PMID:18479512

  16. Residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brender, Jean D; Maantay, Juliana A; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-12-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  17. Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-01-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  18. Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic risk factors for idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in the past 30 years. These reactions can affect various tissues and organs, including liver, skin, muscle and heart, in a drug-dependent manner. Using both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, various genes that make contributions of varying extents to each of these forms of reactions have been identified. Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. Future prospects for identification of additional genetic risk factors for the various adverse drug reactions are discussed. PMID:23360680

  19. The effect of maternal near miss on adverse infant nutritional outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zanardi, Dulce M; Moura, Erly C; Santos, Leonor P; Leal, Maria C; Cecatti, Jose G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between self-reported maternal near miss and adverse nutritional status in children under one year of age. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a study in which women who took their children under one year of age to the national vaccine campaign were interviewed. The self-reported condition of maternal near miss used the criteria of Intensive Care Unit admission; eclampsia; blood transfusion and hysterectomy; and their potential associations with any type of nutritional disorder in children, including deficits in weight-for-age, deficits in height-for-age, obesity and breastfeeding. The rates of near miss for the country, regions and states were initially estimated. The relative risks of infant adverse nutritional status according to near miss and maternal/childbirth characteristics were estimated with their 95% CIs using bivariate and multiple analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of near miss was 2.9% and was slightly higher for the Legal Amazon than for other regions. No significant associations were found with nutritional disorders in children. Only a 12% decrease in overall maternal breastfeeding was associated with near miss. Living in the countryside and child over 6 months of age increased the risk of altered nutritional status by approximately 15%, while female child gender decreased this risk by 30%. Maternal near miss was not associated with an increased risk of any alteration in infant nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between maternal near miss and altered nutritional status in children up to one year of age. The risk of infant adverse nutritional status was greater in women living in the countryside, for children over 6 months of age and for male gender. PMID:27759848

  20. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  1. Bachelor Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Sondra

    1974-01-01

    Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)

  2. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  3. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  4. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... premises. Adult foster care has the advantages of maintaining frail older adults in a more home-like ... pay to live in these communities, though some facilities have beds for skilled care that are funded ...

  5. Sqstm1–GFP knock-in mice reveal dynamic actions of Sqstm1 during autophagy and under stress conditions in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Eino, Atsushi; Kageyama, Shun; Uemura, Takefumi; Annoh, Hiromichi; Saito, Tetsuya; Narita, Ichiei; Waguri, Satoshi; Komatsu, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sqstm1 serves as a signaling hub and receptor for selective autophagy. Consequently, dysregulation of Sqstm1 causes imbalances in signaling pathways and disrupts proteostasis, thereby contributing to the development of human diseases. Environmental stresses influence the level of Sqstm1 by altering its expression and/or autophagic degradation, and also changes the localization of Sqstm1, making it difficult to elucidate the actions and roles of this protein. In this study, we developed knock-in mice expressing Sqstm1 fused to GFP (Sqstm1-GFPKI/+). Using these Sqstm1-GFPKI/+ mice, we revealed for the first time the dynamics of endogenous Sqstm1 in living cells. Sqstm1–GFP was translocated to a restricted area of LC3-positive structures, which primarily correspond to the inside of autophagosomes, and then degraded. Moreover, exposure to arsenite induced expression of Sqstm1–GFP, followed by accumulation of the fusion protein in large aggregates that were degraded by autophagy. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy in Sqstm1-GFPKI/+ mouse livers caused accumulation of Sqstm1–GFP and formation of GFP-positive aggregate structures, leading to severe hepatic failure. These results indicate that Sqstm1-GFPKI/+ mice are a useful tool for analyzing Sqstm1 in living cells and intact animals. PMID:26483381

  6. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  7. Adverse reactions to sulfa drugs: implications for malaria chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Björkman, A; Phillips-Howard, P A

    1991-01-01

    National adverse drug reaction registers in Sweden and the United Kingdom provided data on the type, severity and frequency of reported adverse reactions attributed to sulfa drugs. Reactions to the ten principal drugs were examined in terms of their half-lives and usual indications for use. Of 8339 reactions reported between 1968 and 1988, 1272 (15%) were blood dyscrasias, 3737 (45%) were skin disorders, and 578 (7%) involved the liver. These side-effects occurred with all types of sulfa drugs investigated, although at different relative rates, and 3525 (42%) of them were classified as serious. The overall case fatality rate (CFR) was 1:15 serious reactions, and was highest in patients with white blood cell dyscrasias (1:7). Drugs with longer elimination half-lives had higher CFRs, particularly for fatalities after skin reactions. In Sweden, the estimated incidences of serious reactions were between 9 and 33 per 100,000 short-term users of sulfa drugs (two weeks), between 53 and 111 among those on malaria prophylaxis, and between 1744 and 2031 in patients on continuous therapy. For dapsone, the incidence appeared to increase with higher doses. Our results indicate that sulfa drugs with short elimination half-lives deserve to be considered for use in combination with proguanil or chlorproguanil for malaria chemotherapy and possibly prophylaxis. The smaller risk of adverse reactions associated with lower-dose dapsone suggests that it should also be evaluated as a potentially safe alternative.

  8. Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Frida; San Sebastian, Miguel; Strömsten, Lotta M. J.; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low) in adolescence (age 16) were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/non-manual) was measured using the participant’s own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068) which was partially explained by people’s own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an unfavorable

  9. If we build it, we will come: a model for community-led change to transform neighborhood conditions to support healthy eating and active living.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Vedette R; Seeholzer, Eileen L; Leon, Janeen B; Chappelle, Sandra Byrd; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2015-06-01

    Neighborhoods affect health. In 3 adjoining inner-city Cleveland, Ohio, neighborhoods, residents have an average life expectancy 15 years less than that of a nearby suburb. To address this disparity, a local health funder created the 2010 to 2013 Francis H. Beam Community Health Fellowship to develop a strategic community engagement process to establish a Healthy Eating & Active Living (HEAL) culture and lifestyle in the neighborhoods. The fellow developed and advanced a model, engaging the community in establishing HEAL options and culture. Residents used the model to identify a shared vision for HEAL and collaborated with community partners to create and sustain innovative HEAL opportunities. This community-led, collaborative model produced high engagement levels (15% of targeted 12 000 residents) and tangible improvements in the neighborhood's physical, resource, and social environments.

  10. Is perceived nervousness and anxiety a predictor of premature mortality and severe morbidity? A longitudinal follow up of the Swedish survey of living conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ringback, W; Rosen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To find out if people perceiving nervousness, uneasiness, and anxiety have excess risks of premature death and severe morbidity. Design, setting, participants: Random samples of the Swedish population aged 16–74 years in 1980–81, 1988–89, and 1995–96 were followed up for 5 and 10 years with regard to deaths and hospital admissions for different causes. Relative risks were estimated by Poisson regression, comparing those who reported perceived nervousness, uneasiness, and anxiety with those who did not and adjustments were made for baseline characteristics as age, education, smoking, and longstanding illness. Main results: Perceived nervousness, uneasiness, and anxiety was strongly related to subsequent risks of suicide attempt and psychiatric disease. Those perceiving severe complaints of anxiety had a relative risk (fully adjusted) for suicide attempt of 9.2 (95% CI 3.0 to 28.8) for men and 3.1 (1.4 to 7.1) for women. Even for less severe complaints, there was a significant, but less pronounced excess risk. These negative feelings were also associated with later risks for all cause mortality, hospital care, and ischaemic heart disease, although to a lesser extent and more strongly among men. Unchanged relative risks over time shows no trend in response attitude and perceived anxiety seems to be a better predictor of a negative health outcome than self reported longstanding illness. Conclusions: Positive responses to self report survey questions about anxiety/nervousness are associated with adverse health outcomes, particularly hospital admission for deliberate self harm. This is an alarming signal bearing in mind the rapid increase in prevalence of perceived anxiety in the Swedish society. PMID:16100319

  11. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  12. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. PMID:27357302

  13. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  14. Acquisition of Pavlovian fear conditioning using β-adrenoceptor activation of the dorsal premammillary nucleus as an unconditioned stimulus to mimic live predator-threat exposure.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Canteras, Newton S; Carobrez, Antônio P

    2011-04-01

    In the present work, we sought to mimic the internal state changes in response to a predator threat by pharmacologically stimulating the brain circuit involved in mediating predator fear responses, and explored whether this stimulation would be a valuable unconditioned stimulus (US) in an olfactory fear conditioning paradigm (OFC). The dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) is a key brain structure in the neural processing of anti-predatory defensive behavior and has also been shown to mediate the acquisition and expression of anti-predatory contextual conditioning fear responses. Rats were conditioned by pairing the US, which was an intra-PMd microinjection of isoproterenol (ISO; β-adrenoceptor agonist), with amyl acetate odor-the conditioned stimulus (CS). ISO (10 and 40 nmol) induced the acquisition of the OFC and the second-order association by activation of β-1 receptors in the PMd. Furthermore, similar to what had been found for contextual conditioning to a predator threat, atenolol (β-1 receptor antagonist) in the PMd also impaired the acquisition and expression of OFC promoted by ISO. Considering the strong glutamatergic projections from the PMd to the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), we tested how the glutamatergic blockade of the dPAG would interfere with the OFC induced by ISO. Accordingly, microinjections of NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5, 6 nmol) into the dPAG were able to block both the acquisition, and partially, the expression of the OFC. In conclusion, we have found that PMd β-1 adrenergic stimulation is a good model to mimic predatory threat-induced internal state changes, and works as a US able to mobilize the same systems involved in the acquisition and expression of predator-related contextual conditioning.

  15. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal's housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  16. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  17. Early adversity, immunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, Ronit; Levy, Sigal; Goren, Naama; Grinshpahet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between biological, behavioral and environmental factors are involved in mediating individual differences in health and disease. In this review, we present evidence suggesting that increased vulnerability to infectious disease may be at least, in part, due to long-lasting effects of early life psychosocial adversities. Studies have shown that maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy is associated with long lasting changes in immune function and disease resistance in the offspring. Studies further indicated that harsh environmental conditions during the neonatal period may also cause lasting changes in host response to infectious disease. Although the mechanisms involved in these effects have not been fully examined, several potential mediators have been described, including changes in the development of the offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, alterations in epigenetic pathways, stress-related maternal health risk behavior and infection during pregnancy. Although there are ample literature indicating that perinatal psychosocial stress increases vulnerability to disease, other reports suggest that mild predictable stressors may benefit the organism and allow better coping with future stressors. Thus, understanding the possible consequences of perinatal adversities and the mechanisms that are involved in immune regulation is important for increasing awareness to the potential outcomes of early negative life events and providing insight into potential therapies to combat infection in vulnerable individuals.

  18. [Preliminary ergonomic assessment of the work sites and living conditions for the crew on board the new t/h Ignacy Daszyński series of merchant ships].

    PubMed

    Weclawik, Z

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the new merchant ship series B545-OT, built at the Szczecin shipyard. The preliminary appraisal of this vessel was made during the trial trip in November 1987. The experimented ship is a universal and very modern cargo boat, type B545-OT, which meets the requirements of the international conventions with respect to the prevention of sea pollution by ships. As regards its construction and equipment, the vessel complies with all conditions and international conventions on safety, as well as on health and environment protection. A control and actuation system centralized in the engine-room assures the functioning without a direct supervision. The automatic functioning of mechanisms is followed-up by means of a computed alarm system. The living-rooms, the recreation spaces, the cabins, which secure to the crew comfortable conditions on the ship, are built in a modern style. Less successfully was solved the placement of the kitchen, the dining-room and the larder on the upper deck, near the entrance to the engine-room, entailing thus the danger of steam penetration from the latter. The conditioned air assures in the cabins and living-rooms a temperature of +20 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40-60 per cent. The designers and builders have not used all the possibilities of lowering the intensity of noise. PMID:2749439

  19. [Preliminary ergonomic assessment of the work sites and living conditions for the crew on board the new t/h Ignacy Daszyński series of merchant ships].

    PubMed

    Weclawik, Z

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the new merchant ship series B545-OT, built at the Szczecin shipyard. The preliminary appraisal of this vessel was made during the trial trip in November 1987. The experimented ship is a universal and very modern cargo boat, type B545-OT, which meets the requirements of the international conventions with respect to the prevention of sea pollution by ships. As regards its construction and equipment, the vessel complies with all conditions and international conventions on safety, as well as on health and environment protection. A control and actuation system centralized in the engine-room assures the functioning without a direct supervision. The automatic functioning of mechanisms is followed-up by means of a computed alarm system. The living-rooms, the recreation spaces, the cabins, which secure to the crew comfortable conditions on the ship, are built in a modern style. Less successfully was solved the placement of the kitchen, the dining-room and the larder on the upper deck, near the entrance to the engine-room, entailing thus the danger of steam penetration from the latter. The conditioned air assures in the cabins and living-rooms a temperature of +20 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40-60 per cent. The designers and builders have not used all the possibilities of lowering the intensity of noise.

  20. Untold Stories of Fieldworkers Working Amid Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serekoane, Motsaathebe; Sharp, Carla; Skinner, Donald; Marais, Lochner

    2014-01-01

    Working in unfamiliar contexts and often alone, fieldworkers may face challenges for which their training and previous experience has not prepared them. While there is literature about the technical, ethical and moral aspects of fieldwork, there is little focusing on fieldworkers' actual experiences. Additionally, there is little constructive…

  1. [Medical activities under adverse conditions. Memisa Medicus Mundi].

    PubMed

    Spanjer, J M

    1992-05-01

    The largest medical missionary organization in the Netherlands is Memisa Medicus Mundi. It has been in operation since 1984 when the organization Memisa, founded in 1925 by 2 doctors from Rotterdam and a priest, merged with Medicus Mundi Nederland. 130 of its doctors work in 80 programs mostly in English-speaking Third World countries. The regional representative for East Africa, worst affected by AIDS, related that a number of doctors work in hospitals where more than 1/2 of patients suffer from AIDS. Many doctors do not want to go to Africa because of the AIDS stigma and the lack of professional challenge of caring mainly for victims of 1 disease. Yet increasingly more foreign doctors are needed, as native doctors are often infected themselves. 1992 World Health Organizations data indicate that 1 out of 40 adult Africans is infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In major East African cities the proportion reaches 30% of the adult population. A 1991 visit to Uganda, Tanzania, and Malawi revealed the spectacle of empty villages or inhabited only by children and old people. In Malawi there is 1 doctor for 40,000 people and 1 bed for 600 inhabitants whose average age is 49.3 years for men and 57.2 years for women. The doctors working there stressed prevention, and 1 of them got embroiled in a conflict with the Catholic archbishop because of handing out condoms. Nonetheless, sensitive topics such as sterilization, caesarean section, abortion, euthanasia, and contraception have been addressed to educate the people, since prevention takes precedence over treatment.

  2. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

  3. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  4. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  5. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  6. Living History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2005-01-01

    John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

  7. Health state of the population living at eastern border of the European Union and its conditioning (based on the example of the south-eastern borderland of Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses modern health problems of population at the eastern border of the European Union and the factors that condition the health state of the population in this area. Spatial-temporal reasoning was conducted with regard to such indicators reflecting the health state of population as death rates due to basic reasons: circulatory system diseases, malignant neoplasm, respiratory system diseases, external causes and infant mortality rate. The above-mentioned elements were analysed with division into counties in Podkarpackie and Lubelskie voivodeships in 2002-2009. The article also analyses selected conditions of health state, such as population wealth and healthcare quality. It was noticed that some parameters of health state in the region deteriorated, especially in Lubelskie voivodeship, which results from synergy effects of socio-economic, medical and organizational nature.

  8. Validity of GT3X and Actiheart to estimate sedentary time and breaks using ActivPAL as the reference in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Júdice, Pedro B; Santos, Diana A; Hamilton, Marc T; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2015-05-01

    Sedentary time, specifically sitting/reclining, is a risk factor for many non-communicable diseases and premature mortality. Inclinometers have been used as a valid measurement of sedentary time and its patterns; however, there is a lack of information regarding the validity of alternative accelerometry and heart rate methods. The validity of GT3X and Actiheart in estimating changes in daily sedentary time and breaks, during free-living settings, using ActivPAL as the reference was examined. A crossover randomized control trial of an intervention that aimed to reduce ∼3 h/day of sitting time included 10 overweight/obese adults (37-65 years). Participants had a total of 74 valid days for the three devices (29 controls; 45 interventions). For ActivPAL, sedentary time was measured directly based upon posture (sitting/reclining); Actiheart, the presumed MET cutpoint for sedentary time (<1.5 METs) based on accelerometry+heart rate; GT3X, the traditional <100countsmin(-1). A break in sedentary time was defined as when the participants were above the aforementioned cutoffs. GT3X overestimated and Actiheart underestimated sedentary time (bias=135min; bias=-156min, respectively) and both methods overestimated breaks in sedentary time (bias=78; bias=235 breaks, respectively). The GT3X method was in better agreement with the ActivPAL sedentary time (r2=0.70; concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)=0.56) than the Actiheart (r2=0.24; CCC=0.31). The present results highlight the magnitude of potential errors in estimating sedentary time and breaks from common alternative methods other than ActivPAL. Because misclassification errors from the commonly used surrogates are potentially large, this raises concern that alternative methods used in many epidemiological observations may have underestimated the true effects caused by too much sitting (ClinicalTrials.govID:NCT02007681).

  9. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate.

  10. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  11. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety.

  12. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in four free-living bird species exposed to different levels of lead under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the δALAD activity and δALAD ratio in blood of four free-living bird species (Griffon vulture, Eagle owl, Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull); (2) and to investigate the correlations between δALAD activity/ratio and Pb concentrations in blood samples. A decrease was observed in δALAD activity in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls exposed to Pb. In addition, negative relationships were found between δALAD ratio or δALAD activity and Log blood Pb levels in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls, and these relationships were stronger in areas with the highest Pb exposure. We provide equations that may be helpful to estimate δALAD activity and δALAD ratio using blood Pb concentrations. Regarding gull species, δALAD activity found in the present study may be considered the normal activity in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull species, since very low blood Pb concentrations and no correlations were found in these species. Although both δALAD activity and δALAD ratio are sensitive biomarkers of Pb exposure and effect in birds, the use of δALAD ratio may improve the results. Besides, this study provides blood threshold concentrations at which Pb bears effects on δALAD enzyme (5µg/dl in Eagle owl; 8µg/dl in Griffon vulture; and probably >2µg/dl in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull). Our findings show that Eagle owl seems to be more sensitive to δALAD enzymatic inhibition by Pb than Griffon vultures. Eagle owls and Griffon vultures exhibited up to 79% and 94% decrease in δALAD activity when blood Pb concentrations exceeded 19 and 30µg/dl, respectively. Regarding the effects related with δALAD inhibition, significant negative correlations were found between δALAD activity and hematocrit in Eagle owls and Griffon vultures, which may be related to compensatory response associated with a decrease in δALAD activity. In addition, an effect on creatine kinase activity and total proteins in plasma was found

  13. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in four free-living bird species exposed to different levels of lead under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the δALAD activity and δALAD ratio in blood of four free-living bird species (Griffon vulture, Eagle owl, Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull); (2) and to investigate the correlations between δALAD activity/ratio and Pb concentrations in blood samples. A decrease was observed in δALAD activity in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls exposed to Pb. In addition, negative relationships were found between δALAD ratio or δALAD activity and Log blood Pb levels in Griffon vultures and Eagle owls, and these relationships were stronger in areas with the highest Pb exposure. We provide equations that may be helpful to estimate δALAD activity and δALAD ratio using blood Pb concentrations. Regarding gull species, δALAD activity found in the present study may be considered the normal activity in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull species, since very low blood Pb concentrations and no correlations were found in these species. Although both δALAD activity and δALAD ratio are sensitive biomarkers of Pb exposure and effect in birds, the use of δALAD ratio may improve the results. Besides, this study provides blood threshold concentrations at which Pb bears effects on δALAD enzyme (5µg/dl in Eagle owl; 8µg/dl in Griffon vulture; and probably >2µg/dl in Slender-billed gull and Audouin's gull). Our findings show that Eagle owl seems to be more sensitive to δALAD enzymatic inhibition by Pb than Griffon vultures. Eagle owls and Griffon vultures exhibited up to 79% and 94% decrease in δALAD activity when blood Pb concentrations exceeded 19 and 30µg/dl, respectively. Regarding the effects related with δALAD inhibition, significant negative correlations were found between δALAD activity and hematocrit in Eagle owls and Griffon vultures, which may be related to compensatory response associated with a decrease in δALAD activity. In addition, an effect on creatine kinase activity and total proteins in plasma was found

  14. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  15. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  16. Dermatological Adverse Events Associated with Topical Brimonidine Gel 0.33% in Subjects with Erythema of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Anna D.; Waite, Kimberly A.; Chen, Michael C.; Palaniswamy, Kiruthi; Wiser, Thomas H.; Draelos, Zoe D.; Rafal, Elyse S.; Werschler, W. Philip; Harvey, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The topical α2 adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine gel 0.33% is an effective and safe pharmacological treatment for the facial erythema of rosacea. However, adverse events of worsened redness have occasionally been reported with its use. Objective: A detailed analysis of adverse events is needed to accurately define worsening erythema and the adverse-events profile associated with brimonidine gel treatment. Methods and measurements: A retrospective review of related dermatological adverse events occurring in subjects enrolled in the two pivotal four-week Phase 3 studies and the 52-week long-term safety study for brimonidine gel was conducted. Measurements included total adverse-event incidences; number of subjects experiencing adverse events; study discontinuation due to adverse events, severity, onset, episodic duration period; and correlation of adverse events to subject disposition, and rosacea profile. Results: Flushing and erythema were the most commonly reported adverse events, occurring in a total of 5.4 percent of subjects in the Phase 3 studies and in 15.4 percent in the long-term study. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity, transient, and intermittent. Adverse events occurred early in treatment, and duration was short-lived in the majority of cases. Adverse-event patterns were not remarkably altered with regard to subject disposition in the long-term study. Conclusion: Adverse events of worsening redness are not frequent, are transient in nature, and occur early in the course of treatment with brimonidine gel. PMID:26345379

  17. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  18. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  19. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  20. Evolution of a Planar Wake in Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, David M.; Mateer, George G.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of improving the predictability of high-lift systems at maximum lift conditions, a series of fundamental experiments were conducted to study the effects of adverse pressure gradient on a wake flow. Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter. Data were obtained for several cases of adverse pressure gradient, producing flows ranging from no reversed flow to massively reversed flow. While the turbulent Reynolds stresses increase with increasing size of the reversed flow region, the gradient of Reynolds stress does not. Computations using various turbulence models were unable to reproduce the reversed flow.

  1. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and other adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Mary C

    2011-01-01

    Amiodarone is a class III antiarrhythmic agent that is frequently prescribed today for the treatment of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. Amiodarone has many adverse effects, and one of them is thyroid dysfunction. Advanced practice and staff nurses need to be vigilant, recognizing early signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction to prevent adverse drug reactions. Often, the signs and symptoms of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism are overlooked because of the complexity of the patient's condition. The purpose of this article was to review a case study, present differential diagnoses and testing, discuss risk factors associated with amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, discuss its pathogenesis, and review clinical management. PMID:21307683

  2. Adverse events after hepatitis A B combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Woo, Emily Jane; Miller, Nancy B; Ball, Robert

    2006-03-24

    In May 2001, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Hepatitis A Inactivated and Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine (HEPAB) for immunization of adults. From May 2001 to September 2003, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) received 305 reports of adverse events after HEPAB. Many events were similar to those reported after the monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Non-serious events included constitutional symptoms and local reactions. Serious events included neurologic, hepatobiliary, and dermatologic conditions, and detailed medical and epidemiological review did not suggest a clear pattern of evidence supporting a causal relationship with the vaccine, except for injection site reactions and some allergic reactions.

  3. Alteration of the exopolysaccharide production and the transcriptional profile of free-living Frankia strain CcI3 under nitrogen-fixing conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-In; Donati, Andrew J; Hahn, Dittmar; Tisa, Louis S; Chang, Woo-Suk

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of different nitrogen (N) sources on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and composition by Frankia strain CcI3, a N2-fixing actinomycete that forms root nodules with Casuarina species. Frankia cells grown in the absence of NH4Cl (i.e., under N2-fixing conditions) produced 1.7-fold more EPS, with lower galactose (45.1 vs. 54.7 mol%) and higher mannose (17.3 vs. 9.7 mol%) contents than those grown in the presence of NH4Cl as a combined N-source. In the absence of the combined N-source, terminally linked and branched residue contents were nearly twice as high with 32.8 vs. 15.1 mol% and 15.1 vs. 8.7 mol%, respectively, than in its presence, while the content of linearly linked residues was lower with 52.1 mol% compared to 76.2 mol%. To find out clues for the altered EPS production at the transcriptional level, we performed whole-gene expression profiling using quantitative reverse transcription PCR and microarray technology. The transcription profiles of Frankia strain CcI3 grown in the absence of NH4Cl revealed up to 2 orders of magnitude higher transcription of nitrogen fixation-related genes compared to those of CcI3 cells grown in the presence of NH4Cl. Unexpectedly, microarray data did not provide evidence for transcriptional regulation as a mechanism for differences in EPS production. These findings indicate effects of nitrogen fixation on the production and composition of EPS in Frankia strain CcI3 and suggest posttranscriptional regulation of enhanced EPS production in the absence of the combined N-source. PMID:24097014

  4. What Online User Innovation Communities Can Teach Us about Capturing the Experiences of Patients Living with Chronic Health Conditions. A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Julia; Zanini, Claudia; Rubinelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to adapt to societal changes, healthcare systems need to switch from a disease orientation to a patient-centered approach. Virtual patient networks are a promising tool to favor this switch and much can be learned from the open and user innovation literature where the involvement of online user communities in the innovation process is well-documented. Objectives The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the use of online communities as a tool to capture and harness innovative ideas of end users or consumers; and 2) to point to the potential value and challenges of these virtual platforms to function as a tool to inform and promote patient-centered care in the context of chronic health conditions. Methods A scoping review was conducted. A total of seven databases were searched for scientific articles published in English between 1995 and 2014. The search strategy was refined through an iterative process. Results A total of 144 studies were included in the review. Studies were coded inductively according to their research focus to identify groupings of papers. The first set of studies focused on the interplay of factors related to user roles, motivations, and behaviors that shape the innovation process within online communities. Studies of the second set examined the role of firms in online user innovation initiatives, identifying different organizational strategies and challenges. The third set of studies focused on the idea selection process and measures of success with respect to online user innovation initiatives. Finally, the findings from the review are presented in the light of the particularities and challenges discussed in current healthcare research. Conclusion The present paper highlights the potential of virtual patient communities to inform and promote patient-centered care, describes the key challenges involved in this process, and makes recommendations on how to address them. PMID:27272912

  5. Idiosyncratic adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Zaccara, Gaetano; Franciotta, Diego; Perucca, Emilio

    2007-07-01

    Idiosyncratic drug reactions may be defined as adverse effects that cannot be explained by the known mechanisms of action of the offending agent, do not occur at any dose in most patients, and develop mostly unpredictably in susceptible individuals only. These reactions are generally thought to account for up to 10% of all adverse drug reactions, but their frequency may be higher depending on the definition adopted. Idiosyncratic reactions are a major source of concern because they encompass most life-threatening effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), as well as many other reactions requiring discontinuation of treatment. Based on the underlying mechanisms, idiosyncratic reactions can be differentiated into (1) immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, which may range from benign skin rashes to serious conditions such as drug-related rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms; (2) reactions involving unusual nonimmune-mediated individual susceptibility, often related to abnormal production or defective detoxification of reactive cytotoxic metabolites (as in valproate-induced liver toxicity); and (3) off-target pharmacology, whereby a drug interacts directly with a system other than that for which it is intended, an example being some types of AED-induced dyskinesias. Although no AED is free from the potential of inducing idiosyncratic reactions, the magnitude of risk and the most common manifestations vary from one drug to another, a consideration that impacts on treatment choices. Serious consequences of idiosyncratic reactions can be minimized by knowledge of risk factors, avoidance of specific AEDs in subpopulations at risk, cautious dose titration, and careful monitoring of clinical response.

  6. Adverse effects of general anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, M C; Reilly, C S

    1992-01-01

    This review deals with the adverse reactions associated with general anaesthetic agents in current use. These reactions fall into 2 categories; those which are more common, predictable and often closely related, and those which are rare, unpredictable and carry a high mortality. Both inhalational and intravenous anaesthetic agents affect the central nervous and cardio-respiratory systems in a dose-related manner. Neuronal inhibition results in decreasing levels of consciousness and depression of the medullary vital centres which can lead to cardiorespiratory failure. Both groups of agents have some depressant effect on the myocardium and vascular smooth muscle leading to a fall in cardiac output and hypotension. Centrally-mediated respiratory depression is common to both groups and the inhalational agents have a direct effect on lung physiology. The most important idiosyncratic reactions to the volatile agents are malignant hyperpyrexia and 'halothane hepatitis'. Malignant hyperpyrexia has an incidence of 1:12,000 with a mortality of about 24%. It is triggered most often by halothane together with suxamethonium. Post halothane hepatic necrosis is rare. Evidence points to 2 distinct syndromes; direct toxicity from the products of reductive metabolism, and a more serious illness, immunologically mediated via haptens formed by liver proteins and the products of oxidative metabolism. Prolonged nitrous oxide exposure can cause bone marrow depression and life-threatening pressure effects by expansion of air-filled spaces within the body. The idiosyncratic reactions to the intravenous agents include anaphylactoid reactions (which are rare) and triggering of acute porphyria. Etomidate is immunologically 'clean', but it inhibits cortisol synthesis. PMID:1418699

  7. Live a Full Life with Fibro

    MedlinePlus

    ... Live a Full Life with Fibro Page Content Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition that affects 10 ... family, you can live an active life with fibromyalgia. Talking with Your Physician Take the first step ...

  8. Early adversity, neural development, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jessica J; Taylor, Shelley E; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-12-01

    Early adversity is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Although altered neural development is believed to be one pathway linking early adversity to psychopathology, it has rarely been considered a pathway linking early adversity to poor physical health. However, this is a viable pathway because the central nervous system is known to interact with the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In support of this pathway, early adversity has been linked to changes in neural development (particularly of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex), HPA axis and ANS dysregulation, and higher levels of inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, can be detrimental to physical health when prolonged. In this review, we present these studies and consider how altered neural development may be a pathway by which early adversity increases inflammation and thus risk for adverse physical health outcomes.

  9. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  10. Multiple adverse experiences and child cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W

    2016-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, children's social environments shape their cognitive development. Children exposed to multiple adversities in their social environment are more likely to have poorer cognitive outcomes. These findings have prompted interest among pediatric and public health communities to screen and connect youth to appropriate interventions that ameliorate the detrimental effects of adverse exposures. Such intervention efforts can be improved with a stronger conceptual understanding of the relationship between multiple adverse exposures and child cognitive development. This includes disentangling adverse exposures from other risk factors or underlying mechanisms, specifying mechanisms of action, and determining when adverse exposures are most detrimental. This review summarizes findings from the literature on each of these areas and proposes a conceptual model to guide further research and intervention.

  11. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kibble, M W; Ross, M B

    1987-09-01

    The effects of anabolic steroid use on athletic performance and the adverse effects associated with the use of anabolic steroids are reviewed. Anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscles and reverse catabolic processes. Because of these properties, some athletes use anabolic steroids in an attempt to improve their athletic performance. However, studies indicate that increases in muscle mass and strength during anabolic steroid administration are observed only in athletes who already are weight-trained and who continue intensive training while maintaining high-protein, high-calorie diets. Adverse effects attributed to anabolic steroid use occur frequently. Serious adverse effects include hepatic and endocrine dysfunction; cardiovascular and behavioral changes also are reported. Some of the adverse effects associated with the use of these agents are irreversible, particularly in women. The use of anabolic steroids to improve athletic performance has become prevalent. However, the reported benefits are tempered by numerous adverse reactions.

  12. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  13. Healthy living

    MedlinePlus

    ... program if you have health conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure, or diabetes. This can help ensure that your ... It can also increase your risk for developing high blood pressure, stroke, ... disease. Obesity can be caused by eating too much and ...

  14. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  15. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  16. Live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions. PMID:25482523

  17. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  18. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  19. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE - Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  20. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  1. Psychological adverse effects of cannabis smoking: a tentative classification.

    PubMed

    Nigrete, J C

    1973-01-20

    This paper stresses the need for an early definition and description of the "deviant" cannabis smoker in North America. Attention is called to the fact that on this continent heavy smokers have not yet been separated as "problem" users from other smokers.A comprehensive review of possible psychological adverse effects of the drug is made. The following classification is suggested: a) Severe intoxications, b) Pathological intoxications, c) Acute cannabis psychoses, d) Subacute and chronic cannabis psychoses and e) Residual conditions.

  2. Psychological adverse effects of cannabis smoking: a tentative classification.

    PubMed

    Nigrete, J C

    1973-01-20

    This paper stresses the need for an early definition and description of the "deviant" cannabis smoker in North America. Attention is called to the fact that on this continent heavy smokers have not yet been separated as "problem" users from other smokers.A comprehensive review of possible psychological adverse effects of the drug is made. The following classification is suggested: a) Severe intoxications, b) Pathological intoxications, c) Acute cannabis psychoses, d) Subacute and chronic cannabis psychoses and e) Residual conditions. PMID:4569453

  3. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI) predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI), this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL). Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI) with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life. PMID:26246968

  4. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  5. Therapist Adversity and the Life of the Therapist: Perspectives from Miriam Greenspan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    Painful situations arise during the education and careers of counselors and therapists. Most theoretical orientations fail to address how clinicians are to handle their live adversity during the course of their work with clients. In fact, irrespective of the theoretical orientation, most clinicians are given the directive to "check your own life"…

  6. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  7. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet.

  8. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet. PMID:26606684

  9. Childhood adversities and psychosis: evidence, challenges, implications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Gayer‐Anderson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities – particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat – do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. PMID:27265690

  10. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  11. Encouraging spontaneous reporting of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    One priority when organising surveillance of health products is to remove barriers to reporting adverse effects. One way to encourage reporting is by providing regular feedback, as practised by the German drug bulletin arznei-telegramm, for example. PMID:25802925

  12. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  13. Fathers’ intelligence measured at age 18–20 years is associated with offspring smoking: linking the Swedish 1969 conscription cohort to the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Background An association between lower IQ of parents, measured early in life, and smoking among their offspring has been reported. The extent to which other background factors account for this association is unknown. Methods Data on IQ, smoking, mental health, social class, parental divorce and social problems in a cohort of men born during 1949–1951 and conscripted for military service in 1969 were linked to smoking data on 682 offspring interviewed in the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions 1984–2009. Results In an age-adjusted model, a one-step decrease on a stanine scale was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.35) for offspring smoking. Adjusting for father's socioeconomic background and smoking, mental illness and social problems in youth only marginally lowered the OR's. Conclusions Lower IQ among fathers measured at ages 18–20 years was associated with smoking in their offspring. The association was not explained by father's social class in childhood or a higher prevalence of mental illness, social problems or smoking measured among the fathers in their late adolescence. PMID:26515987

  14. Organ-specific systemic lupus erythematosus activity during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Sara K; Guan, Hongshu; Fine, Alexander; Costenbader, Karen H; Bermas, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of reproductive-age women, and thus questions regarding how disease influences pregnancy outcomes arise. We investigated whether five specific types of SLE activity during the 6 months before conception or during pregnancy (nephritis, cytopenias, skin disease, arthritis, serositis) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcomes among women with SLE at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Lupus Center. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, elective termination due to SLE, spontaneous miscarriage at weeks 12-20, and stillbirth. SLE and obstetric history, laboratories, and medications were obtained from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to identify predictors of any adverse pregnancy outcome. Most pregnancies resulted in a live term delivery (76.5 %). After adjustment for Hispanic ethnicity, prior adverse pregnancy outcome and medication use 6 months before conception, nephritis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-12.8), cytopenias during pregnancy (OR 3.9, 95 % CI 1.3-11.4), and serositis during pregnancy (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 1.0-34.0) were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Specific types of SLE disease activity during pregnancy were related to adverse pregnancy outcome. Nephritis, cytopenias, and serositis carried a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, suggesting that these abnormalities should be carefully monitored during pregnancy. PMID:27166627

  15. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  16. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  17. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  18. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  19. Evaluation of adverse reaction reports for a newly laundry product.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J E; Herrmann, K W

    1981-05-01

    The marketing of widely used consumer products inevitably results in some reports of adverse dermatologic reactions which are tentatively attributable through medical history to the use of these products. Just as it is important for manufacturers to perform thorough premarket safety testing, it also is important for them to investigate these reported reactions to confirm the safety of the product under widespread use conditions. This report describes the results of such a follow-up investigation into 300 adverse reaction reports obtained during the first year of marketing of new laundry product. The results of diagnostic patch and prick tests, controlled reuse testing, and definitive diagnoses by physicians (mostly allergists and dermatologists) demonstrated that this product was highly unlikely to have caused the reported dermatologic conditions. Widespread distribution of free samples of the new product appeared to be largely responsible for the frequency of anecdotal association of adverse reactions to use of the product. The diagnostic follow-up program is described. PMID:7240466

  20. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  1. The Complement System and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Regal, Jean F.; Gilbert, Jeffrey S.; Burwick, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the feta allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  2. Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J.; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J.; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

  3. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child.

  4. Adverse reaction; patent blue turning patient blue.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Meera; Hart, Matthew; Ahmed, Farid; McPherson, Sandy

    2012-11-30

    The authors report a severe anaphylactic reaction to Patent Blue V dye used in sentinel node biopsy for lymphatic mapping during breast cancer surgery to stage the axilla. Patent Blue dye is the most widely used in the UK; however, adverse reactions have been reported with the blue dye previously. This case highlights that reactions may not always be immediately evident and to be vigilant in all patients that have undergone procedures using blue dye. If the patients are not responding appropriately particularly during an anaesthetic, one must always think of a possible adverse reaction to the dye. All surgical patients should give consent for adverse reactions to patent blue dye preoperatively. Alternative agents such as methylene blue are considered.

  5. The multisystem adverse effects of NSAID therapy.

    PubMed

    James, D S

    1999-11-01

    The clinical utility of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to manage pain and inflammation is limited by adverse side effects. Although effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents, NSAIDs are associated with side effects that are a consequence of nonspecific inhibition of both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The primary adverse events associated with NSAID therapy are upper gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration, perforation, or bleeding, all of which involve mucosal damage of varying severity and can be asymptomatic and occur with little warning. Clinicians who prescribe NSAIDs should be able to identify patients who are at risk of an NSAID-induced GI adverse event and to detect and manage the event should one occur. The use of COX-2-specific inhibitors to manage pain and inflammation may minimize the risks of NSAID-associated toxicities.

  6. Adverse events related to blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided. PMID:25535415

  7. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars.

  8. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning.

    PubMed

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events. PMID:24955289

  9. Poverty in childhood and adverse health outcomes in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2011-05-01

    The experience of poverty during childhood is a potent predictor of a variety of adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Children who live in poverty are more likely as adults than their peers to develop and die earlier from a range of diseases. These effects are especially strong for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Most disturbingly, these effects appear in large part to be biologically embedded such that later improved life circumstances have only a modest ameliorative effect. Considering these findings and the relatively high rates of child poverty in nations such as Canada, UK, and USA, those concerned with improving the health of citizens should focus their attention on advocating for public policy that will reduce the incidence of child poverty.

  10. Adverse events following immunization with vaccines containing adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Cerpa-Cruz, S; Paredes-Casillas, P; Landeros Navarro, E; Bernard-Medina, A G; Martínez-Bonilla, G; Gutiérrez-Ureña, S

    2013-07-01

    A traditional infectious disease vaccine is a preparation of live attenuated, inactivated or killed pathogen that stimulates immunity. Vaccine immunologic adjuvants are compounds incorporated into vaccines to enhance immunogenicity. Adjuvants have recently been implicated in the new syndrome named ASIA autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. The objective describes the frequencies of post-vaccination clinical syndrome induced by adjuvants. We performed a cross-sectional study; adverse event following immunization was defined as any untoward medical occurrence that follows immunization 54 days prior to the event. Data on vaccinations and other risk factors were obtained from daily epidemiologic surveillance. Descriptive statistics were done using means and standard deviation, and odds ratio adjusted for potential confounding variables was calculated with SPSS 17 software. Forty-three out of 120 patients with moderate or severe manifestations following immunization were hospitalized from 2008 to 2011. All patients fulfilled at least 2 major and 1 minor criteria suggested by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin for ASIA diagnosis. The most frequent clinical findings were pyrexia 68%, arthralgias 47%, cutaneous disorders 33%, muscle weakness 16% and myalgias 14%. Three patients had diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, one patient had Adult-Still's disease 3 days after vaccination. A total of 76% of the events occurred in the first 3 days post-vaccination. Two patients with previous autoimmune disease showed severe adverse reactions with the reactivation of their illness. Minor local reactions were present in 49% of patients. Vaccines containing adjuvants may be associated with an increased risk of autoimmune/inflammatory adverse events following immunization.

  11. Neighborhood deprivation and adverse birth outcomes among diverse ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Janevic, T; Stein, CR; Savitz, DA; Kaufman, JS; Mason, SM; Herring, AH

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Living in a socioeconomically deprived neighborhood has been associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, variation in the effect of neighborhood deprivation among diverse ethnic groups has not been studied. Methods Using linked hospital discharge and birth data for 517,994 singleton live births in New York City from 1998–2002, we examined the association between neighborhood deprivation, preterm birth (PTB), and term low birthweight (TLBW)(≥37 weeks and <2500g). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for PTB (<32 and 33–36 weeks) and TLBW were estimated using logistic regression. Results The aOR for PTB <32 weeks for the highest quartile of deprivation compared to the lowest was 1.24 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.13, 1.36), for PTB 33–36 weeks was 1.06 (95%CI=1.01, 1.11), and for TLBW was 1.19 (95%CI=1.11, 1.27). Measures of association varied by ethnicity; AORs of the greatest magnitude for PTB were found among Hispanic Caribbean women (PTB<32weeks: aOR=1.63, 95%CI=1.27, 2.10; PTB 33–36 weeks: aOR=1.32, 95%CI=1.02, 1.70), and for TLBW among African women (aOR=1.47, 95%CI=1.02, 2.13). Conclusions The mechanisms linking neighborhood deprivation to adverse birth outcomes may differ depending on individual ethnicity and/or cultural context and should be investigated in future research. PMID:20470971

  12. Free-living amoebae, a training field for macrophage resistance of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Salah, I B; Ghigo, E; Drancourt, M

    2009-10-01

    Mycobacterium species evolved from an environmental recent common ancestor by reductive evolution and lateral gene transfer. Strategies selected through evolution and developed by mycobacteria resulted in resistance to predation by environmental unicellular protists, including free-living amoebae. Indeed, mycobacteria are isolated from the same soil and water environments as are amoebae, and experimental models using Acanthamoeba spp. and Dictyostelium discoideum were exploited to analyse the mechanisms for intracellular survival. Most of these mechanisms have been further reproduced in macrophages for mycobacteria regarded as opportunistic and obligate pathogens. Amoebal cysts may protect intracellular mycobacteria against adverse conditions and may act as a vector for mycobacteria. The latter hypothesis warrants further environmental and clinical studies to better assess the role of free-living amoebae in the epidemiology of infections caused by mycobacteria.

  13. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development and evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway provides a construct for assembling mechanistic information at different levels of biological organization in a form designed to support regulatory decision making. In particular, it frames the link between molecular and cellular events that can be mea...

  14. The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

  15. Linezolid Induced Adverse Drug Reactions - An Update.

    PubMed

    Kishor, Kamal; Dhasmana, Neha; Kamble, Shashank Shivaji; Sahu, Roshan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimen recommended for resistant tuberculosis consists of various drugs and these drugs are prescribed for at least 12-15 months. Such a long duration therapy and high dose of antibiotics result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs may lead to various complications in disease management like replacement of drugs, dose increment, therapy withdrawal, etc. Linezolid is one of those drugs, practiced as an anti-mycobacterial agent and it is an important member of drug regimen for MDR and XDR tuberculosis. Linezolid is a broad spectrum antibiotic known for its unique mechanism of inhibition of resistant pathogenic strains. However, it causes serious adverse effects like thrombocytopenia, optic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis, etc. Literature suggests that Linezolid can cause severe ADRs which affect patient compliance and hinder in therapy to a larger extent. Recent studies confirm the possibility of ADRs to be predicted with genetic make-up of individuals. To effectively deliver the available treatment regimen and ensure patient compliance, it is important to manage ADRs more efficiently. The role of pharmacogenomics in reducing adverse drug effects has been recently explored. In the present review, we discussed about Linezolid induced adverse drug reactions, mechanisms and genetic associations. PMID:26424176

  16. Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

  17. Adverse Stress, Hippocampal Networks, and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent clinical data have implicated chronic adverse stress as a potential risk factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and data also suggest that normal, physiological stress responses may be impaired in AD. It is possible that pathology associated with AD causes aberrant responses to chronic stress, due to potential alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent work in rodent models of AD suggests that chronic adverse stress exacerbates the cognitive deficits and hippocampal pathology that are present in the AD brain. This review summarizes recent findings obtained in experimental AD models regarding the influence of chronic adverse stress on the underlying cellular and molecular disease processes including the potential role of glucocorticoids. Emerging findings suggest that both AD and chronic adverse stress affect hippocampal neural networks in a similar fashion. We describe alterations in hippocampal plasticity that occur in both chronic stress and AD including dendritic remodeling, neurogenesis and long-term potentiation. Finally, we outline potential roles for oxidative stress and neurotrophic factor signaling as key determinants of the impact of chronic stress on the plasticity of neural networks and AD pathogenesis. PMID:19943124

  18. Adverse Effects of Common Drugs: Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Felix, Todd Matthew; Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Lewis, Peter R

    2015-09-01

    Dietary supplement-induced adverse effects often resolve quickly after discontinuation of the offending product, especially in younger patients. The potential for unwanted outcomes can be amplified in elderly patients or those taking multiple prescription drugs, especially where interactions exist with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Attributing injury or illness to a specific supplement can be challenging, especially in light of multi-ingredient products, product variability, and variability in reporting, as well as the vast underreporting of adverse drug reactions. Clinicians prescribing a new drug or evaluating a patient with a new symptom complex should inquire about use of herbal and dietary supplements as part of a comprehensive evaluation. Clinicians should report suspected supplement-related adverse effects to the local or state health department, as well as the Food and Drug Administration's MedWatch program (available at https://www.safetyreporting.hhs.gov). Clinicians should consider discussing suspected adverse effects involving drugs, herbal products, or dietary supplements with their community- and hospital-based pharmacists, and explore patient management options with medical or clinical toxicology subspecialists.

  19. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  20. Helping Student Teachers Avoid Adverse Legal Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five areas of the school environment lending themselves to the possibility of teacher and student teacher liability: negligence, malpractice, rights to privacy, field trips, and search of students and school property. Suggests specific guidelines for decreasing the possibility of adverse legal action. (NEC)

  1. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options.

  2. Resilience in the Face of Adversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    "Resilience" is the capacity for moving ahead under adverse circumstances. School superintendents are advised to stay upbeat and mindful of "both-and" opportunities; stay focused on what they care about; remain flexible and tolerant of ambiguity; be proactive, not reactive; and apply resilience-conserving strategies during tough times. (MLH)

  3. Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Medications on Sleep.

    PubMed

    Doghramji, Karl; Jangro, William C

    2016-09-01

    Psychotropic medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and benzodiazepines are widely prescribed. Most of these medications are thought to exert their effects through modulation of various monoamines as well as interactions with receptors such as histamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Through these interactions, psychotropics can also have a significant impact on sleep physiology, resulting in both beneficial and adverse effects on sleep. PMID:27514301

  4. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues.

  5. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  6. Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Bryan D; Kelman, Bruce J; Saxon, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    Molds are common and important allergens. About 5% of individuals are predicted to have some allergic airway symptoms from molds over their lifetime. However, it should be remembered that molds are not dominant allergens and that the outdoor molds, rather than indoor ones, are the most important. For almost all allergic individuals, the reactions will be limited to rhinitis or asthma; sinusitis may occur secondarily due to obstruction. Rarely do sensitized individuals develop uncommon conditions such as ABPA or AFS. To reduce the risk of developing or exacerbating allergies, mold should not be allowed to grow unchecked indoors. When mold colonization is discovered in the home, school, or office, it should be remediated after the source of the moisture that supports its growth is identified and eliminated. Authoritative guidelines for mold remediation are available. Fungi are rarely significant pathogens for humans. Superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails are relatively common in normal individuals, but those infections are readily treated and generally resolve without complication. Fungal infections of deeper tissues are rare and in general are limited to persons with severely impaired immune systems. The leading pathogenic fungi for persons with nonimpaired immune function, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma, may find their way indoors with outdoor air but normally do not grow or propagate indoors. Due to the ubiquity of fungi in the environment, it is not possible to prevent immunecompromised individuals from being exposed to molds and fungi outside the confines of hospital isolation units. Some molds that propagate indoors may under some conditions produce mycotoxins that can adversely affect living cells and organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Adverse effects of molds and mycotoxins have been recognized for centuries following ingestion of contaminated foods. Occupational diseases are also recognized in association with

  7. Antidepressants and cardiovascular adverse events: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Vojdanparast, Mohammad; Nezafati, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Major depression or deterioration of previous mood disorders is a common adverse consequence of coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiac revascularization procedures. Therefore, treatment of depression is expected to result in improvement of mood condition in these patients. Despite demonstrated effects of anti-depressive treatment in heart disease patients, the use of some antidepressants have shown to be associated with some adverse cardiac and non-cardiac events. In this narrative review, the authors aimed to first assess the findings of published studies on beneficial and also harmful effects of different types of antidepressants used in patients with heart diseases. Finally, a new categorization for selecting antidepressants according to their cardiovascular effects was described. METHODS Using PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Index Copernicus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database, we identified studies designed to evaluate the effects of depression and also using antidepressants on cardiovascular outcome. A 40 studies were finally assessed systematically. Among those eligible studies, 14 were cohort or historical cohort studies, 15 were randomized clinical trial, 4 were retrospective were case-control studies, 3 were meta-analyses and 2 animal studies, and 2 case studies. RESULTS According to the current review, we recommend to divide antidepressants into three categories based on the severity of cardiovascular adverse consequences including (1) the safest drugs including those drugs with cardio-protective effects on ventricular function, as well as cardiac conductive system including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, (2) neutralized drugs with no evidenced effects on cardiovascular system including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and (3) harmful drugs with adverse effects on cardiac function, hemodynamic stability, and heart rate variability including tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors

  8. Transient paralysis during acupuncture therapy: a case report of an adverse event.

    PubMed

    Beable, Anne

    2013-09-01

    A patient with apparently well-controlled epilepsy with a painful musculoskeletal condition was treated successfully with two sessions of acupuncture. However, 4 h after the first treatment and during the second, an adverse event involving impairment of consciousness occurred. The patient subsequently experienced an increased frequency of complex partial seizures resulting in the loss of his driving licence. A detailed retrospective review of the past medical history indicated that the patient probably had comorbidities in the form of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and dysfunctional somatosensory/vestibular processing. Acupuncture may have triggered the adverse event via shared neurosubstrates. This adverse event raises possible implications regarding safe clinical acupuncture practice.

  9. Psychological adverse effects of cannabis smoking: a tentative classification

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for an early definition and description of the “deviant” cannabis smoker in North America. Attention is called to the fact that on this continent heavy smokers have not yet been separated as “problem” users from other smokers. A comprehensive review of possible psychological adverse effects of the drug is made. The following classification is suggested: a) Severe intoxications, b) Pathological intoxications, c) Acute cannabis psychoses, d) Subacute and chronic cannabis psychoses and e) Residual conditions. PMID:4569453

  10. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Nourian, Manijeh; Nourozi Tabrizi, Kian; Rassouli, Maryam; Biglarrian, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience. PMID:26942909

  11. Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment.

    PubMed

    Berghänel, Andreas; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2016-09-28

    Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring phenotype in numerous species including humans, but it is debated whether these effects are evolutionarily adaptive. Relating stress to adverse conditions, current explanations invoke either short-term developmental constraints on offspring phenotype resulting in decelerated growth to avoid starvation, or long-term predictive adaptive responses (PARs) resulting in accelerated growth and reproduction in response to reduced life expectancies. Two PAR subtypes were proposed, acting either on predicted internal somatic states or predicted external environmental conditions, but because both affect phenotypes similarly, they are largely indistinguishable. Only external (not internal) PARs rely on high environmental stability particularly in long-lived species. We report on a crucial test case in a wild long-lived mammal, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis), which evolved and lives in an unpredictable environment where external PARs are probably not advantageous. We quantified food availability, growth, motor skills, maternal caretaking style and maternal physiological stress from faecal glucocorticoid measures. Prenatal maternal stress was negatively correlated to prenatal food availability and led to accelerated offspring growth accompanied by decelerated motor skill acquisition and reduced immune function. These results support the 'internal PAR' theory, which stresses the role of stable adverse internal somatic states rather than stable external environments. PMID:27655764

  12. Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment

    PubMed Central

    Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring phenotype in numerous species including humans, but it is debated whether these effects are evolutionarily adaptive. Relating stress to adverse conditions, current explanations invoke either short-term developmental constraints on offspring phenotype resulting in decelerated growth to avoid starvation, or long-term predictive adaptive responses (PARs) resulting in accelerated growth and reproduction in response to reduced life expectancies. Two PAR subtypes were proposed, acting either on predicted internal somatic states or predicted external environmental conditions, but because both affect phenotypes similarly, they are largely indistinguishable. Only external (not internal) PARs rely on high environmental stability particularly in long-lived species. We report on a crucial test case in a wild long-lived mammal, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis), which evolved and lives in an unpredictable environment where external PARs are probably not advantageous. We quantified food availability, growth, motor skills, maternal caretaking style and maternal physiological stress from faecal glucocorticoid measures. Prenatal maternal stress was negatively correlated to prenatal food availability and led to accelerated offspring growth accompanied by decelerated motor skill acquisition and reduced immune function. These results support the ‘internal PAR’ theory, which stresses the role of stable adverse internal somatic states rather than stable external environments. PMID:27655764

  13. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  14. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  15. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  16. Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-01-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity’s enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

  17. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  18. Glaucoma eye drops adverse skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Ambrifi, Marina; Frascani, Federica; Fazia, Gilda; Paolino, Giovanni; Lisi, Roberto; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open-angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

  19. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise; Zimmermann, Ute S; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable agents may induce severe complications, but they will normally disappear spontaneously in a few months. Slowly biodegradable or nonresorbable fillers may give rise to severe reactions that show little or no tendency to spontaneous improvement. They may appear several years after the injection, when the patient does not remember which product was injected, and treatment is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the most commonly used fillers, their most frequent adverse reactions as well as the characteristic histopathologic findings that allow the identification of the injected filler agent. In conclusion, histopathologic study remains as the gold standard technique to identify the responsible filler.

  20. Adverse events occurring after smallpox vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lane, J Michael; Goldstein, Joel

    2003-07-01

    We reviewed the literature on adverse events reported to occur after smallpox vaccination. Nearly one-half of the United States population is vaccinia-naïve and may be at risk for development of serious adverse events. We describe the clinical features of postvaccinial central nervous system disease, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, accidental implantations, "generalized vaccinia," and the common erythematous and/or urticarial rashes. In the 1960s, death occurred approximately once in every million primary vaccinations, with fatalities resulting from progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial encephalitis, and eczema vaccinatum. Death in revaccinees occurred less commonly and almost entirely from progressive vaccinia. In today's population, death rates might be higher because of the increased prevalence of immune deficiency and atopic dermatitis.

  1. An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

  2. Living with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is among the most common of the allergic disorders, with a prevalence of 6-8 per cent in children up to the age of three. However, many people self-diagnose, putting their children at risk of malnutrition, possibly as a result of lack of awareness by health professionals of food allergy as a potential cause of conditions such as infantile eczema, chronic diarrhoea, faltering growth and gastrooesophageal reflux. NICE (The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) recently published guidelines, which they hope will help to improve the diagnosis of food allergies within the community. If food allergy or lactose intolerance is suspected, the mainstay of a diagnostic work up should comprise of a detailed allergy-focused clinical history, part of which will involve determining whether the adverse reaction is typically an immediate (IgE mediated) or more delayed-type (non-IgE mediated) allergic reaction, or whether it may be lactose intolerance; a form of non-allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:21980692

  3. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors.

  4. Major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Belonje, Anne; Nangrahary, Mary; de Swart, Hans; Umans, Victor

    2007-03-15

    Major adverse cardiac events in endurance exercise are usually due to underlying and unsuspected heart disease. The investigators present an analysis of major adverse cardiac events that occurred during 2 consecutive annual long distance races (a 36-km beach cycling race and a 21-km half marathon) over the past 5 years. All patients with events were transported to the hospital. Most of the 62,862 participants were men (77%; mean age 40 years). Of these, 4 men (3 runners, 1 cyclist; mean age 48 years) collapsed during (n = 2) or shortly after the races, rendering a prevalence of 0.006%. Two patients collapsed after developing chest pain, 1 of whom needed resuscitation at the event site, which was successful. These patients had acute myocardial infarctions and underwent primary angioplasty. The third patient was resuscitated at the site but did not have coronary disease or inducible ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and collapsed presumably because of catecholamine-induced ventricular fibrillation. The fourth patient experienced heat stroke and had elevated creatine kinase-MB and troponins in the absence of electrocardiographic changes. In conclusion, the risk for major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports in well-trained athletes is very low.

  5. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

  6. Neighborhood conditions, diabetes, and risk of lower-body functional limitations among middle-aged African Americans: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between presence of diabetes and adverse neighborhood and housing conditions and their effect on functional decline is unclear. We examined the association of adverse neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with incidence of lower-body functional limitations among persons with and those without diabetes using a prospective population-based cohort study of 563 African Americans 49-65 years of age at their 2000-2001 baseline interviews. Methods Participants were randomly sampled African Americans living in the St. Louis area (response rate: 76%). Physician-diagnosed diabetes was self reported at baseline interview. Lower-body functional limitations were self reported based on the Nagi physical performance scale at baseline and the three-year follow-up interviews. The external appearance of the block the respondent lived on and five housing conditions were rated by study interviewers. All analyses were done using propensity score methods to control for confounders. Results 109 (19.4%) of subjects experienced incident lower-body functional limitations at three-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, persons with diabetes who lived on block faces rated as fair-poor on each of the five conditions had higher odds (7.79 [95% confidence interval: 1.36-37.55] to 144.6 [95% confidence interval: 4.45-775.53]) of developing lower-body functional limitations than the referent group of persons without diabetes who lived on block faces rated as good-excellent. At least 80 percent of incident lower-body functional limitations was attributable to the interaction between block face conditions and diabetes status. Conclusions Adverse neighborhood conditions appear to exacerbate the detrimental effects on lower-body functioning associated with diabetes. PMID:20507573

  7. Adverse Neonatal Outcomes Among Women Living With HIV: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Erin M; Ng, Ryan; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Raboud, Janet; Brophy, Jason; Masinde, Khatundi-Irene; Tharao, Wangari E; Yudin, Mark H; Loutfy, Mona R; Glazier, Richard H; Antoniou, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Contexte : Peu d’études en population générale ont décrit le risque d’issues néonatales indésirables chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH au Canada. Par conséquent, nous avons comparé les risques d’accouchement préterme (APT), de faible poids de naissance (FPN) et d’hypotrophie fœtale (HF) chez des Ontariennes de 18-49 ans vivant ou non avec le VIH. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude en population générale au moyen de données administratives sur la santé en Ontario. Des équations d’estimation généralisées comptant une fonction Logit ont été utilisées pour en venir à des rapports de cotes corrigés (RCc) et à des intervalles de confiance à 95 % en ce qui concerne l’association entre l’infection au VIH et des issues néonatales indésirables. Résultats : Entre 2002–2003 et 2010–2011, 1 113 874 naissances vivantes issues de grossesses monofœtales étaient disponibles aux fins de l’analyse, 615 (0,06 %) desquelles mettaient en jeu des femmes vivant avec le VIH. La proportion de naissances issues de grossesses monofœtales qui présentaient une HF (14,6 % vs 10,3 %; P < 0,001), un APT (14,6 % vs 6,3 %; P < 0,001) et un FPN (12,5 % vs 4,6 %; P < 0,001) était plus élevée chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH que chez les femmes n’étant pas infectées par ce dernier. À la suite d’une correction multivariée, les risques d’APT (RCc, 1,76; IC à 95 %, 1,38 - 2,24), d’HF (RCc, 1,43; IC à 95 %, 1,12 - 1,81) et de FPN (RCc, 1,90; IC à 95 %, 1,47 - 2,45) étaient plus élevés chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH que chez les femmes n’étant pas infectées par ce dernier. Conclusion : Les femmes vivant avec le VIH sont exposées à des risques d’issues néonatales indésirables plus élevés que les femmes séronégatives pour le VIH. La tenue d’autres recherches s’avère requise pour que l’on puisse élaborer des interventions préconceptionnelles et prénatales qui pourraient atténuer le fardeau supplémentaire que doivent assumer les femmes vivant avec le VIH en matière de piètres issues de grossesse.

  8. Adverse events in emerging adulthood are associated with increases in neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Boals, Adriel; Southard-Dobbs, Shana; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have produced mixed results when examining whether experiencing an adverse event can lead to changes in Neuroticism. We sought to examine this effect when (a) the event was relatively recent, (b) the event occurred during a relatively early development stage (i.e., emerging adulthood), and (c) the event was severely adverse. A sample of 1,108 undergraduates completed three measures of Neuroticism twice, separated by approximately 3 months, and indicated the most traumatic or adverse event they experienced during the intervening 3 months. We examined two operationalizations of adverse events: one that is more objectively defined (indicated experiencing a trauma listed on a trauma history measure) and another more subjectively defined (participant ratings of event centrality). The results revealed that high Neuroticism at Time 1 predicted future exposure to both types of adverse events. Critically, participants who experienced either type of adverse event during the semester reported significant increases in Neuroticism. Experiencing a high event centrality event was also associated with small increases in the personality traits Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness. The results are discussed in terms of the conditions necessary for adverse events to affect personality traits.

  9. [Cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Heng; Zhu, Huai-Min

    2009-08-01

    The isolation and culture of pathogenic free-living amoebae are useful in the diagnosis and research. This review focuses on the methods of isolation and cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae, including sample treatment, culture conditions, passage culture, pathogen detection, and maintenance.

  10. The Independent Living Behavior Checklist: Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    The document describes independent living skills, and provides information on how they can be measured. It is explained in an introductory chapter that the checklist is an extensive list of 343 independent living skill objectives specified in terms of conditions (antecedents or givens), behaviors, and standards. Objectives are classified and…

  11. Live Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  12. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  13. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information for Current Grantees About ACL Organization Why Community Living? Authorizing Statutes Budget Mandatory Grant Allocations Strategic ... Final Rule Get ACL Updates OAA Reauthorization Why Community Living? FEATURES #InclusionWorks IL Final Rule Get ACL ...

  14. Adversity in Preschool-Aged Children: Effects on Salivary Interleukin-1β

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Valentine, Thomas R.; Eslinger, Nicole M.; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to early life adversity is linked to impaired affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning and increases risk for various psychiatric and medical conditions. Stress-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a biological mechanism of these effects. Few studies have examined cytokine levels in children experiencing early life adversity, and very little research has investigated cytokines or other markers of inflammation in saliva. In the present study, we examined salivary IL-1β and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in relation to stress exposure in 40 children aged 3 to 5 years who were enrolled in a larger study of early life adversity. Childhood maltreatment status was assessed via review of child welfare records, and contextual stress exposure, traumatic life event history, and symptoms of psychopathology were assessed via caregiver interviews at a home visit. In a subsequent visit, salivary IL-1β and CRP were obtained before and after participation in four emotion-eliciting tasks. Number of past month contextual stressors, lifetime contextual stressors, and traumatic life events each demonstrated a significant main effect on IL-1β. Baseline IL-1β was positively associated with each of the significant main-effect adversities. Post-challenge IL-1β displayed positive associations with each adversity variable, but were not significant. CRP was not significantly associated with any of the adversity variables. Given evidence suggesting involvement of IL-1β in the neuropathology of psychiatric conditions, these results may have important implications for developmental outcomes. PMID:25997772

  15. Adversity in preschool-aged children: Effects on salivary interleukin-1β.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Parade, Stephanie H; Valentine, Thomas R; Eslinger, Nicole M; Seifer, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to early life adversity is linked to impaired affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning and increases risk for various psychiatric and medical conditions. Stress-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a biological mechanism of these effects. Few studies have examined cytokine levels in children experiencing early life adversity, and very little research has investigated cytokines or other markers of inflammation in saliva. In the present study, we examined salivary interleukin (IL)-1β and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in relation to stress exposure in 40 children aged 3 to 5 years who were enrolled in a larger study of early life adversity. Childhood maltreatment status was assessed via review of child welfare records. Contextual stress exposure, traumatic life event history, and symptoms of psychopathology were assessed via caregiver interviews at a home visit. In a subsequent visit, salivary IL-1β and CRP were obtained before and after participation in four emotion-eliciting tasks. The number of past-month contextual stressors, lifetime contextual stressors, and traumatic life events each demonstrated a significant main effect on IL-1β. Baseline IL-1β was positively associated with each of the significant main-effect adversities. Postchallenge IL-1β displayed positive associations with each adversity variable, but these were not significant. CRP was not significantly associated with any of the adversity variables. Given the evidence suggesting the involvement of IL-1β in the neuropathology of psychiatric conditions, these results may have important implications for developmental outcomes. PMID:25997772

  16. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Development I: Strategies and Principles

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organization of regulatory relevance. Systematic organization of information into AOP frameworks has potential to improve regulatory decision-making through greater integration and more meaningful use of mechanistic data. However, for the scientific community to collectively develop a useful AOP knowledgebase that encompasses toxicological contexts of concern to human health and ecological risk assessment, it is critical that AOPs be developed in accordance with a consistent set of core principles. Based on the experiences and scientific discourse among a group of AOP practitioners, we propose a set of five fundamental principles that guide AOP development: (1) AOPs are not chemical specific; (2) AOPs are modular and composed of reusable components—notably key events (KEs) and key event relationships (KERs); (3) an individual AOP, composed of a single sequence of KEs and KERs, is a pragmatic unit of AOP development and evaluation; (4) networks composed of multiple AOPs that share common KEs and KERs are likely to be the functional unit of prediction for most real-world scenarios; and (5) AOPs are living documents that will evolve over time as new knowledge is generated. The goal of the present article was to introduce some strategies for AOP development and detail the rationale behind these 5 key principles. Consideration of these principles addresses many of the current uncertainties regarding the AOP framework and its application and is intended to foster greater consistency in AOP development. PMID:25466378

  17. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development I: strategies and principles.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H; LaLone, Carlie A; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-12-01

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organization of regulatory relevance. Systematic organization of information into AOP frameworks has potential to improve regulatory decision-making through greater integration and more meaningful use of mechanistic data. However, for the scientific community to collectively develop a useful AOP knowledgebase that encompasses toxicological contexts of concern to human health and ecological risk assessment, it is critical that AOPs be developed in accordance with a consistent set of core principles. Based on the experiences and scientific discourse among a group of AOP practitioners, we propose a set of five fundamental principles that guide AOP development: (1) AOPs are not chemical specific; (2) AOPs are modular and composed of reusable components-notably key events (KEs) and key event relationships (KERs); (3) an individual AOP, composed of a single sequence of KEs and KERs, is a pragmatic unit of AOP development and evaluation; (4) networks composed of multiple AOPs that share common KEs and KERs are likely to be the functional unit of prediction for most real-world scenarios; and (5) AOPs are living documents that will evolve over time as new knowledge is generated. The goal of the present article was to introduce some strategies for AOP development and detail the rationale behind these 5 key principles. Consideration of these principles addresses many of the current uncertainties regarding the AOP framework and its application and is intended to foster greater consistency in AOP development. PMID:25466378

  18. Early adversity, hypocortisolism, and behavior problems at school entry: A study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Koss, Kalsea J; Mliner, Shanna B; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children's cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  19. Nursing in the sandbox: a lived experience.

    PubMed

    Haynes-Smith, Glennena

    2010-01-01

    Despite an extensive career in military nursing, the author's deployment to Iraq included experiences for which no amount of education could have prepared her: the extreme living conditions, harrowing battlefield injuries, and ethical dilemmas she confronted.

  20. ASSESSING EXPOSURES TO MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FOR POPULATIONS LIVING NEAR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing number of epidemiological studies have identified an increase in occurrence of adverse health effects for populations living near major roads. However, the biological mechanism(s) leading to the adverse effects have not been identified. Limitations in exposure assessm...

  1. Anticoagulation-associated adverse drug events

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Gregory; Nguyen, Thanh Nha; Cios, Deborah; Labreche, Matthew; Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Fanikos, John; Fiumara, Karen; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Anticoagulant drugs are among the most common medications that cause adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients. We performed a five-year retrospective study at Brigham and Women’s Hospital to determine clinical characteristics, types, root causes, and outcomes of anticoagulant-associated adverse drug events (ADEs). Methods We reviewed all inpatient anticoagulant-associated ADEs, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and medication errors, reported at Brigham and Women’s Hospital through the Safety Reporting System from May 2004 to May 2009. We also collected data regarding the cost associated with hospitalizations in which ADRs occurred. Results Of 463 anticoagulant-associated ADEs, 226 were MEs (48.8%), 141 were ADRs (30.5%), and 96 (20.7%) involved both a medication error and ADR. Seventy percent of anticoagulant-associated ADEs were potentially preventable. Transcription errors (48%) were the most frequent root cause of anticoagulant-associated medication errors, while medication errors (40%) were a common root cause of anticoagulant-associated ADRs. Death within 30 days of anticoagulant-associated ADEs occurred in 11% of patients. After an anticoagulant-associated ADR, most hospitalization expenditures were attributable to nursing costs (mean $33,189 per ADR) followed by pharmacy costs (mean $7,451 per ADR). Conclusion Most anticoagulant-associated ADEs among inpatients result from medication errors and are therefore potentially preventable. We observed an elevated 30-day mortality rate among patients who suffered an anticoagulant-associated ADE and high hospitalization costs following ADRs. Further Quality Improvement efforts to reduce anticoagulant-associated medication errors are warranted to improve patient safety and decrease health care expenditures. PMID:22114827

  2. Adverse reactions to fragrances. A clinical review.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Frosch, P J

    1997-02-01

    This article reviews side-effects of fragrance materials present in cosmetics with emphasis on clinical aspects: epidemiology, types of adverse reactions, clinical picture, diagnostic procedures, and the sensitizers. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of fragrance materials, the risk of side-effects is small. In absolute numbers, however, fragrance allergy is common, affecting approximately 1% of the general population. Although a detailed profile of patients sensitized to fragrances needs to be elucidated, common features of contact allergy are: axillary dermatitis, dermatitis of the face (including the eyelids) and neck, well-circumscribed patches in areas of "dabbing-on" perfumes (wrists, behind the ears) and (aggravation of) hand eczema. Depending on the degree of sensitivity, the severity of dermatitis may range from mild to severe with dissemination and even erythroderma. Airborne or "connubial" contact dermatitis should always be suspected. Other less frequent adverse reactions to fragrances are photocontact dermatitis, immediate contact reactions and pigmentary changes. The fragrance mix, although very useful for the detection of sensitive patients, both causes false-positive and false-negative reactions, and detects only 70% of perfume-allergic patients. Therefore, future research should be directed at increasing the sensitivity and the specificity of the mix. Relevance is said to be established in 50-65% of positive reactions, but accurate criteria are needed. Suggestions are made for large-scale investigation of several fragrances on the basis of literature data and frequency of use in cosmetics. The literature on adverse reactions to balsam of Peru (an indicator for fragrance sensitivity), essential oils (which currently appear to be used more in aromatherapy than in perfumery) and on fragrances used as flavours and spices in foods and beverages is not discussed in detail, but pertinent side-effects data are tabulated and relevant literature is

  3. ORAL ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS TO CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS.

    PubMed

    Torpet, Lis Andersen; Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, Jesper; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    A great many cardiovascular drugs (CVDs) have the potential to induce adverse reactions in the mouth. The prevalence of such reactions is not known, however, since many are asymptomatic and therefore are believed to go unreported. As more drugs are marketed and the population includes an increasing number of elderly, the number of drug prescriptions is also expected to increase. Accordingly, it can be predicted that the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including the oral ones (ODRs), will continue to increase. ODRs affect the oral mucous membrane, saliva production, and taste. The pathogenesis of these reactions, especially the mucosal ones, is largely unknown and appears to involve complex interactions among the drug in question, other medications, the patient's underlying disease, genetics, and life-style factors. Along this line, there is a growing interest in the association between pharmacogenetic polymorphism and ADRs. Research focusing on polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 system (CYPs) has become increasingly important and has highlighted the intra- and inter-individual responses to drug exposure. This system has recently been suggested to be an underlying candidate regarding the pathogenesis of ADRs in the oral mucous membrane. This review focuses on those CVDs reported to induce ODRs. In addition, it will provide data on specific drugs or drug classes, and outline and discuss recent research on possible mechanisms linking ADRs to drug metabolism patterns. Abbreviations used will be as follows: ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ADR, adverse drug reaction; ANA, antinuclear antigen; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; BAB, beta-adrenergic blocker; CCB, calcium-channel blocker; CDR, cutaneous drug reaction; CVD, cardiovascular drug; CYP, cytochrome P450 enzyme; EM, erythema multiforme; FDE, fixed drug eruption; I, inhibitor of CYP isoform activity; HMG-CoA, hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A; NAT, N-acetyltransferase; ODR, oral drug reaction; RDM, reactive

  4. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  5. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  6. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  7. Reducing medical errors and adverse events.

    PubMed

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Aswani, Monica S; Rosen, Michael; Lee, HeeWon; Huddle, Matthew; Weeks, Kristina; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Medical errors account for ∼98,000 deaths per year in the United States. They increase disability and costs and decrease confidence in the health care system. We review several important types of medical errors and adverse events. We discuss medication errors, healthcare-acquired infections, falls, handoff errors, diagnostic errors, and surgical errors. We describe the impact of these errors, review causes and contributing factors, and provide an overview of strategies to reduce these events. We also discuss teamwork/safety culture, an important aspect in reducing medical errors.

  8. Environmental Perchlorate Exposure: Potential Adverse Thyroid Effects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Recent findings Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant IQ in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recent proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. Summary The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants. PMID:25106002

  9. Adverse effects of equine rabies immune gobulin.

    PubMed

    Wilde, H; Chomchey, P; Prakongsri, S; Puyaratabandhu, P; Chutivongse, S

    1989-02-01

    Following a recently published prospective study of 485 recipients of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG) manufactured by Pasteur Vaccins (Paris), this paper reports a study of 323 postexposure rabies patients receiving ERIG manufactured by the Swiss Vaccine and Serum Institute (Berna). It is concluded that there may be significant differences in adverse reaction rates, reflecting differing manufacturing or purification processes and protein content. Further studies of different ERIG products and of different lots of the same product are needed while ERIG remains an essential component of postexposure rabies treatment in developing countries.

  10. Agomelatine: a review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    More pharmacovigilance data on agomelatine became available in 2012. The main sources of information were surveillance data from the French national monitoring system, EU periodic safety update reports (PSURs), and the European pharmacovigilance database. The principal adverse effects of agomelatine consist of hepatic, pancreatic, neuropsychiatric, muscular and cutaneous disorders. The harms associated with agomelatine, which has no proven efficacy in depression, clearly outweigh the benefits. Until regulatory agencies decide to withdraw agomelatine from the market, it is up to healthcare professionals to protect patients from this unnecessarily dangerous drug.

  11. Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Medications: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Mago, Rajnish

    2016-09-01

    Adverse effects are common, bothersome, and a leading cause of discontinuation of treatment. The methodology for evaluating adverse effects of medications has been greatly neglected, however, especially in comparison to the methodology for assessment of efficacy of medications. Existing methods for assessment and reporting of adverse effects have important limitations leading to lack of much-needed data related to adverse effects. Lastly, there is little systematic research into management of most adverse effects. A series of recommendations are made in this article about how to improve identification, assessment, reporting, and management of adverse effects. PMID:27514294

  12. In-vitro analysis of APA microcapsules for oral delivery of live bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Ouyang, W; Jones, M; Haque, T; Lawuyi, B; Prakash, S

    2005-08-01

    Oral administration of microcapsules containing live bacterial cells has potential as an alternative therapy for several diseases. This article evaluates the suitability of the alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules for oral delivery of live bacterial cells, in-vitro, using a dynamic simulated human gastro-intestinal (GI) model. Results showed that the APA microcapsules were morphologically stable in the simulated stomach conditions, but did not retain their structural integrity after a 3-day exposure in simulated human GI media. The microbial populations of the tested bacterial cells and the activities of the tested enzymes in the simulated human GI suspension were not substantially altered by the presence of the APA microcapsules, suggesting that there were no significant adverse effects of oral administration of the APA microcapsules on the flora of the human gastrointestinal tract. When the APA microcapsules containing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 (LP80) were challenged in the simulated gastric medium (pH = 2.0), 80.0% of the encapsulated cells remained viable after a 5-min incubation; however, the viability decreased considerably (8.3%) after 15 min and dropped to 2.6% after 30 min and lower than 0.2% after 60 min, indicating the limitations of the currently obtainable APA membrane for oral delivery of live bacteria. Further in-vivo studies are required before conclusions can be made concerning the inadequacy of APA microcapsules for oral delivery of live bacterial cells.

  13. Adverse reaction to lupine-fortified pasta.

    PubMed

    Hefle, S L; Lemanske, R F; Bush, R K

    1994-08-01

    A 5-year-old girl with peanut sensitivity experienced urticaria and angioedema after ingesting a spaghetti-like pasta fortified with sweet lupine seed flour. The pasta was extracted and used in immunologic studies in patients with peanut sensitivity to determine whether such individuals are at similar risk. Results of skin prick tests with the lupine pasta extract were positive in five of seven subjects; these patients also reported a history of adverse reactions to green peas. In direct RAST studies IgE binding from pooled sera from patients with peanut sensitivity to the lupine pasta extract was 7 times that of a nonallergic control serum, and individual serum samples demonstrated binding from 1 to 6 times that of the negative control. Direct RAST studies of lupine seed flour with serum samples from patients with peanut allergy demonstrated IgE binding 1 to 11 times that of the negative control. Immunoblotting studies of electrophoretically separated pasta extract and lupine seed flour proteins showed IgE-binding protein bands at approximately 21 kd and in the range of 35 to 55 kd molecular weight. We conclude that some peanut-sensitive patients may be at risk for adverse reactions to lupine.

  14. Adverse reactions to food: allergies and intolerances.

    PubMed

    Montalto, Massimo; Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Curigliano, Valentina; Gallo, Antonella; Visca, Dina; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    All the anomalous reactions secondary to food ingestion are defined as 'adverse reactions to food'. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification on the basis of the responsible pathogenetic mechanism; according to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into 'food allergies' when they recognize immunological mechanisms, and 'food intolerances' when there are no immunological implications. The diagnostic approach to adverse reactions to food is based on accurate clinical history and objective examination, and further execution of specific tests when allergy or intolerance is suspected. The therapy for food allergies is the elimination of the food to which hypersensibility has been found; this strategy can lead, especially in pediatric age, to tolerance. If elimination diets cannot be completely performed, or if it is not possible to identify the food to eliminate, some drugs (e.g. antihistaminics, steroids, etc.) can be administered. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been recently introduced. Fundamental is food allergy prevention, especially in high-risk subjects. The therapeutic approach to secondary food intolerances is based principally on primitive disease resolution; on the other hand, some specific treatments (e.g. beta-galactosidases in lactose malabsorption) are available in case of primary intolerance. PMID:18431058

  15. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization

    PubMed Central

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (P <0.001), most commonly for children aged less than 7 years. Consumer reports were 5% more likely to describe serious AEFI than HCP (P = 0.018) and 10% more likely to result in specialist clinic attendance (P <0.001). Although online reporting increased to 32% of all report since its introduction in 2010, 85% of consumers continued to report by phone. Consumer reporting of AEFI is a valuable component of vaccine safety surveillance in addition to HCP reporting. Changes are required to AEFI reporting systems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity. PMID:25483686

  16. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making. PMID:25800813

  17. Adverse outcome pathway development II: best practices.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H; LaLone, Carlie A; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-12-01

    Organization of existing and emerging toxicological knowledge into adverse outcome pathway (AOP) descriptions can facilitate greater application of mechanistic data, including those derived through high-throughput in vitro, high content omics and imaging, and biomarker approaches, in risk-based decision making. The previously ad hoc process of AOP development is being formalized through development of internationally harmonized guidance and principles. The goal of this article was to outline the information content desired for formal AOP description and some rules of thumb and best practices intended to facilitate reuse and connectivity of elements of an AOP description in a knowledgebase and network context. For example, key events (KEs) are measurements of change in biological state that are indicative of progression of a perturbation toward a specified adverse outcome. Best practices for KE description suggest that each KE should be defined as an independent measurement made at a particular level of biological organization. The concept of "functional equivalence" can help guide both decisions about how many KEs to include in an AOP and the specificity with which they are defined. Likewise, in describing both KEs and evidence that supports a causal linkage or statistical association between them (ie, a key event relationship; KER), best practice is to build from and contribute to existing KE or KER descriptions in the AOP knowledgebase rather than creating redundant descriptions. The best practices proposed address many of the challenges and uncertainties related to AOP development and help promote a consistent and reliable, yet flexible approach. PMID:25466379

  18. Immunomodulatory drugs: Oral and systemic adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Riikka; Gomez-Font, Rafael; Meurman, Jukka H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The main objectives are to present the different adverses effects of the immunomodulatory drugs that can impair the quality of life of the immunosupressed patients and study the impact of immunomodualtion on oral diseases. Immunomodulatory drugs have changed the treatment protocols of many diseases where immune functions play a central role, such as rheumatic diseases. Their effect on oral health has not been systematically investigated, however. Study Design: We review current data on the new immunomodulatory drugs from the oral health perspective based on open literature search of the topic. Results: These target specific drugs appear to have less drug interactions than earlier immunomodulating medicines but have nevertheless potential side effects such as activating latent infections. There are some data showing that the new immunomodulatory drugs may also have a role in the treatment of certain oral diseases such as lichen planus or ameliorating symptoms in Sjögren´s syndrome, but the results have not been overly promising. Conclusions: In general, data are sparse of the effect of these new drugs vs. oral diseases and there are no properly powered randomized controlled trials published on this topic. Key words:Immunomodulatory drugs, oral diseases, adverse effects, therapeutic action. PMID:23986016

  19. Adverse outcome pathway development II: best practices.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H; LaLone, Carlie A; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-12-01

    Organization of existing and emerging toxicological knowledge into adverse outcome pathway (AOP) descriptions can facilitate greater application of mechanistic data, including those derived through high-throughput in vitro, high content omics and imaging, and biomarker approaches, in risk-based decision making. The previously ad hoc process of AOP development is being formalized through development of internationally harmonized guidance and principles. The goal of this article was to outline the information content desired for formal AOP description and some rules of thumb and best practices intended to facilitate reuse and connectivity of elements of an AOP description in a knowledgebase and network context. For example, key events (KEs) are measurements of change in biological state that are indicative of progression of a perturbation toward a specified adverse outcome. Best practices for KE description suggest that each KE should be defined as an independent measurement made at a particular level of biological organization. The concept of "functional equivalence" can help guide both decisions about how many KEs to include in an AOP and the specificity with which they are defined. Likewise, in describing both KEs and evidence that supports a causal linkage or statistical association between them (ie, a key event relationship; KER), best practice is to build from and contribute to existing KE or KER descriptions in the AOP knowledgebase rather than creating redundant descriptions. The best practices proposed address many of the challenges and uncertainties related to AOP development and help promote a consistent and reliable, yet flexible approach.

  20. Adverse Outcome Pathway Development II: Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Organization of existing and emerging toxicological knowledge into adverse outcome pathway (AOP) descriptions can facilitate greater application of mechanistic data, including those derived through high-throughput in vitro, high content omics and imaging, and biomarker approaches, in risk-based decision making. The previously ad hoc process of AOP development is being formalized through development of internationally harmonized guidance and principles. The goal of this article was to outline the information content desired for formal AOP description and some rules of thumb and best practices intended to facilitate reuse and connectivity of elements of an AOP description in a knowledgebase and network context. For example, key events (KEs) are measurements of change in biological state that are indicative of progression of a perturbation toward a specified adverse outcome. Best practices for KE description suggest that each KE should be defined as an independent measurement made at a particular level of biological organization. The concept of “functional equivalence” can help guide both decisions about how many KEs to include in an AOP and the specificity with which they are defined. Likewise, in describing both KEs and evidence that supports a causal linkage or statistical association between them (ie, a key event relationship; KER), best practice is to build from and contribute to existing KE or KER descriptions in the AOP knowledgebase rather than creating redundant descriptions. The best practices proposed address many of the challenges and uncertainties related to AOP development and help promote a consistent and reliable, yet flexible approach. PMID:25466379

  1. [Adverse drug reactions in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Isabelle; Cabou, Cendrine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Damase-Michel, Christine

    2007-01-01

    A Prospective pharmacovigilance survey of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in pregnant women was performed in collaboration with gynaecologists and obstetricians of Midi-Pyrenees area (south west of france). The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of adverse drug reactions in pregnant women. The incidence of ADRs in pregnant women was low: 0.3%. Moreover, a retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted to characterize ADRs in pregnant women. Reports of ADRs collected in the Midi-Pyrenees pharmacovigilance centre from 1982 to 2002 were used: type of ADRs, drugs involved and potential risk factors were compared for pregnant women and for age-matched non pregnant women. Forty seven and 94 reports of ADRs were collected in pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Anaphylactic reactions were only observed in pregnant women (3 cases, p = 0.04). We observed 1 ADR related stillbirth (due to anaphylactic reaction) in pregnant women. Drugs for gynaecological and cardiovascular systems were more frequently involved in ADRs in pregnant women than in controls. ADRs mainly occurred during the third trimester of pregnancy. The incidence of ADRs is very low in pregnant women. However, one must pay attention on the risk of anaphylactic reactions in pregnant women. PMID:18206108

  2. Adverse food reactions--an emerging issue for adults.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are classified according to the presence or absence of involvement of the immune system, which may or may not include the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. This review focuses on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of adverse food reactions, primarily in adults, and excluding celiac disease and lactose intolerance. Reported reactions to foods are often believed to be manifestations of a food allergy; however, IgE-mediated food allergy only affects 1% to 4% of adults, with seafood, tree nuts, peanuts, fruits, and vegetables being the most common triggers. Diagnosis is challenging and most commonly achieved through careful evaluation of clinical history followed by elimination and reintroduction or challenge with the suspected offending food. With acute-onset allergic reactions, estimation of food-specific IgE antibodies is frequently used to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Recent developments, such as single allergen assays, enhance the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy, but the gold standard remains oral food challenge. Despite recent advances in the management of food allergy, including the promotion of oral tolerance, the mainstay of management is still the avoidance of food triggers. Dietary management can be compromised by nutritional inadequacy, accidental exposure, food labeling, and quality of life or adherence issues. It is essential that adults with confirmed food allergy receive optimal nutrition and dietetic support to enable them to manage their condition. PMID:22117664

  3. Fiber optics in adverse environments III. SPIE volume 721

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwell, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON OPTICAL FIBER COMPONENTS. Space as an adverse environment: vacuum surface and gamma ray irradiation effects on LEDs and photodiodes. Electron irradiation of InGaAsP LEDs and InGaAs photodetectors. Effects of radiation on optoelectronic devices. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON OPTICAL FIBERS. Static fatigue of optical fibers in bending. Effect of hydrogen treatment on radiation hardness of optical fibers. AFB. Influence of preform variations and drawing conditions on transient radiation effects in pure silica fibers. Radiation resistivity of pure silica core fibers. Radiation-induced losses in pure silica core fibers. Radiation response prediction of single-mode optical fiber waveguides. Ionizing radiation effects on doped silica and pure silica core fibers. MEASUREMENTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OPTICAL FIBER COMPONENTS. Optical fiber radiation-damage measurements. Characterization of 820-nm single-mode fibers. Effects of test parameters on the recovery of Febetron-irradiated optical fibers. APPLICATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTS. Optical fiber waveguides for spacecraft applications. Optical fiber power delivery system. Fiber optic cables in a harsh ocean environment. Lightguide technology for adverse industrial environment. Low dispersion glass for optical fiber industrial applications. Electronic Materials Technology.

  4. Emergency Department Discharge Diagnosis and Adverse Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, S. Nicole; Whitson, Heather E.; Purser, Jama L.; Sloane, Richard J.; Johnson, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the relationship between the reason for an emergency department (ED) visit and subsequent risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Setting ED. Participants One thousand eight hundred fifty-one community-dwelling Medicare fee-for-service enrollees aged 65 and older discharged from the ED between January 2000 and September 2002. Measurements Independent variables were ED discharge diagnosis groups: injury or musculoskeletal (MSK) (e.g., fracture, open wound), chronic condition (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure), infection, non-MSK symptom (e.g., chest pain, abdominal pain), and unclassified. Adverse health outcomes were hospitalization or death within 30 days of the index ED visit. Results Injury or MSK was the largest ED diagnosis group (31.4%), followed by non-MSK symptom (22.2%), chronic condition (20.9%), and infection (7.8%); 338 (17.8%) had ED discharge diagnoses that were unclassified. In adjusted analyses, a discharge diagnosis of injury or MSK condition was associated with lower risk of subsequent adverse health outcomes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50–0.96) than for all other diagnosis groups. Patients seen in the ED for chronic conditions were at greater risk of adverse outcomes (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.37–2.52) than all others. There were no significant differences in risk between patients with infections, those with non-MSK symptoms, and the unclassified group. Conclusion Adverse health outcomes were common in older patients with an ED discharge diagnosis classified as a chronic condition. ED discharge diagnosis may improve risk assessment and inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. PMID:19694872

  5. Ultrafast nanolaser device for detecting cancer in a single live cell.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, Paul Lee; McDonald, Anthony Eugene

    2007-11-01

    Emerging BioMicroNanotechnologies have the potential to provide accurate, realtime, high throughput screening of live tumor cells without invasive chemical reagents when coupled with ultrafast laser methods. These optically based methods are critical to advancing early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. The first year goals of this project are to develop a laser-based imaging system integrated with an in- vitro, live-cell, micro-culture to study mammalian cells under controlled conditions. In the second year, the system will be used to elucidate the morphology and distribution of mitochondria in the normal cell respiration state and in the disease state for normal and disease states of the cell. In this work we designed and built an in-vitro, live-cell culture microsystem to study mammalian cells under controlled conditions of pH, temp, CO2, Ox, humidity, on engineered material surfaces. We demonstrated viability of cell culture in the microsystem by showing that cells retain healthy growth rates, exhibit normal morphology, and grow to confluence without blebbing or other adverse influences of the material surfaces. We also demonstrated the feasibility of integrating the culture microsystem with laser-imaging and performed nanolaser flow spectrocytometry to carry out analysis of the cells isolated mitochondria.

  6. Adverse allergic reaction to Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, J.A.; Preston, D.F.; Stephens, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Adverse allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are rare but have been documented in the literature. This report presents data consistent with a definite adverse reaction to the radiopharmaceutical (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP.

  7. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development I: Strategies and principles

    EPA Science Inventory

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically-supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organizatio...

  8. Adverse Outcome Pathways – Tailoring Development to Support Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) represent an ideal framework for connecting high-throughput screening (HTS) data and other toxicity testing results to adverse outcomes of regulatory importance. The AOP Knowledgebase (AOP-KB) captures AOP information to facilitate the development,...

  9. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for Fatty Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk re...

  10. Health inequalities among workers with a foreign background in Sweden: do working conditions matter?

    PubMed

    Dunlavy, Andrea C; Rostila, Mikael

    2013-07-01

    Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB) to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18-65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.

  11. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

  12. Second-generation antipsychotics and extrapyramidal adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Divac, Nevena; Prostran, Milica; Jakovcevski, Igor; Cerovac, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects are well recognized in the context of first-generation antipsychotic drugs. However, the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, with atypical mechanism of action, especially lower dopamine receptors affinity, was met with great expectations among clinicians regarding their potentially lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal syndrome. This review gives a brief summary of the recent literature relevant to second-generation antipsychotics and extrapyramidal syndrome. Numerous studies have examined the incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome with first- and second-generation antipsychotics. The majority of these studies clearly indicate that extrapyramidal syndrome does occur with second-generation agents, though in lower rates in comparison with first generation. Risk factors are the choice of a particular second-generation agent (with clozapine carrying the lowest risk and risperidone the highest), high doses, history of previous extrapyramidal symptoms, and comorbidity. Also, in comparative studies, the choice of a first-generation comparator significantly influences the results. Extrapyramidal syndrome remains clinically important even in the era of second-generation antipsychotics. The incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome differ amongst these antipsychotics, but the fact is that these drugs have not lived up to the expectation regarding their tolerability. PMID:24995318

  13. Gambling and Adverse Life Events Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace P.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the cross sectional association between adverse life events and gambling in a sample of 515 urban adolescents (average age 17, 55% male, 88% African American). Approximately half of the sample had gambled in the past year (51%); 78% of the gamblers gambled monthly and 39% had a gambling-related problem. On the other hand, 88% of the sample had experienced at least one life event in the past year, and those experiencing events tended to live in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. The mere acknowledgement of experiencing a stressful life event in the past year (yes/no) was not associated with an increase in odds of being a gambler, with gambling more frequently, or with having a gambling problem. However, when the context of the event was considered, an association was found between directly experiencing threatening and deviant/violent types of events and frequent gambling (OR > 2). Additionally, the probability of being a gambler increased as the number of events experienced increased (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.13, P = 0.013), but problems among gamblers were not associated with the number of events experienced (aOR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.92, 1.11, P = 0.876). During adolescence, life events appear to be connected more with the frequency of gambling rather than with problems related to gambling. PMID:21614529

  14. Baby on board: do responses to stress in the maternal brain mediate adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    Stress and adverse environmental surroundings result in suboptimal conditions in a pregnant mother such that she may experience poor pregnancy outcome including complete pregnancy failure and preterm labor. Furthermore her developing baby is at risk of adverse programming, which confers susceptibility to long term ill health. While some mechanisms at the feto-maternal interface underlying these conditions are understood, the underlying cause for their adverse adaptation is often not clear. Progesterone plays a key role at many levels, including control of neuroendocrine responses to stress, procuring the required immune balance and controlling placental and decidual function, and lack of progesterone can explain many of the unwanted consequences of stress. How stress that is perceived by the mother inhibits progesterone secretion and action is beginning to be investigated. This overview of maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress throughout pregnancy analyses how they interact to compromise progesterone secretion and precipitate undesirable effects in mother and offspring.

  15. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170 Food... reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions regarding... investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of the investigation of...

  16. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 18, Jan. 3, 2012. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions regarding each unit of blood or blood...

  17. 36 CFR 800.6 - Resolution of adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resolution of adverse effects... PROTECTION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.6 Resolution of adverse effects. (a) Continue... the undertaking that could avoid, minimize, or mitigate adverse effects on historic properties....

  18. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adverse effect rate (computed pursuant to 20 CFR 655.207(b)(1), 43 FR 10317; March 10, 1978) by the... at 20 CFR 655.207(b)(2) (1985). (c) In no event shall an adverse effect rate for any year be lower... listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and for Florida sugarcane work, the adverse effect rate...

  19. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adverse effect rate (computed pursuant to 20 CFR 655.207(b)(1), 43 FR 10317; March 10, 1978) by the... at 20 CFR 655.207(b)(2) (1985). (c) In no event shall an adverse effect rate for any year be lower... listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and for Florida sugarcane work, the adverse effect rate...

  20. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adverse effect rate (computed pursuant to 20 CFR 655.207(b)(1), 43 FR 10317; March 10, 1978) by the... at 20 CFR 655.207(b)(2) (1985). (c) In no event shall an adverse effect rate for any year be lower... listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and for Florida sugarcane work, the adverse effect rate...