Science.gov

Sample records for adverse operating conditions

  1. Telling Stories: Sustaining Improvement in Schools Operating under Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2006-01-01

    We know what good schools look like but experience tells us that it is very difficult to create and maintain them, especially when they are operating under adverse conditions-constant change, limited resources, high staff and student turnover, and a concentration of first time leaders and beginning teachers. The "Changing Schools in Changing Times…

  2. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  3. Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Operant behavior is behavior “controlled” by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice. We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the “gap” experiment and its implications, proportional timing and Weber's law, temporal dynamics and linear waiting, and the problem of simple chain-interval schedules. We review the long history of research on operant choice: the matching law, its extensions and problems, concurrent chain schedules, and self-control. We point out how linear waiting may be involved in timing, choice, and reinforcement schedules generally. There are prospects for a unified approach to all these areas. PMID:12415075

  4. Amplifying Learning through Sites of Pedagogical Practice: A Possible Effect of Working with Disciplinary Technologies in Schools Operating under Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Schools located within communities experiencing high levels of social dislocation, educational disadvantage and student disengagement from learning are working under "adverse conditions". These schools face particular challenges when it comes to stabilising and sustaining wholeschool change aimed at improving students' learning outcomes. In this…

  5. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)

  6. HEPA Filter Performance under Adverse Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven; Waggoner, Charles

    2007-07-01

    This study involved challenging nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Energy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled and uncontrolled challenge, and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by traditional differential pressure techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceeded their usable lifetime. Significant findings from this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter housing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of filters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl. (authors)

  7. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  8. Teachers and Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sherman

    A survey was conducted of 406 elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers to determine their understanding, acceptance, and use of the principle of operant conditioning. The treatment of data was by percent and chi square analysis primarily according to sex, experience, degree, and position. Subjects reported that a) they believed that the…

  9. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress.

  10. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress. PMID:26139190

  11. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  12. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  13. Quality of whey powders stored under adverse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein concentrate powder (WPC) is exported by the U.S. and is included in emergency aid foods, but the bags sent overseas are usually stored without refrigeration and under elevated temperature and relative humidity (RH). The shelf life of WPC under adverse conditions must be known to preven...

  14. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Lun-Chi; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules-namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively. PMID:27447642

  15. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  16. Operant Conditioning for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The paper briefly explains operant conditioning as it pertains to special educators. Operant conditioning is thought to be an efficient method for modifying student behavior. Using the B. F. Skinner frame of reference, operant conditioning is said to include behavior modification and therapy, programed instruction, and computer assisted and…

  17. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically

  18. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana C; Mestrinho, Heliana D; Stevens, Sophie; van Wijk, Arjen J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young adults, the oral health conditions would have no impact on their quality of life. The participants were 611 new patients aged 16-32 years seeking consultation at the Saint-Luc University Hospital in Brussels in 2010-2011. The patients (56.0% female) were examined for their oral health conditions and answered a validated questionnaire about sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants in addition to questions about their OHRQoL. The abridged Oral Health Impact Profile-14 was used to assess the OHRQoL. Interexaminer reliability for caries was 0.86 (95% CI 0.84-0.89, nonweighted κ). The outcome was a high score on the OHRQoL (median split). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that young adults with clinical absolute D1MFS scores between 9 and 16 (OR = 2.14, p = 0.031) and between 17 and 24 (OR = 3.10, p = 0.003) were significantly more likely to report a high impact on their quality of life than those with lower scores. Also, periodontal conditions compromised significantly (OR = 1.79, p = 0.011) the quality of life of young adults. In conclusion, this study identified oral health conditions with a significant adverse effect on the OHRQoL of young adults. However, the prevalence of young adults reporting impacts on at least 1 performance affected fairly often or very often was limited to 18.7% of the sample. PMID:25832802

  19. Quantum conditional operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; Dall'Arno, Michele; Perinotti, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    An essential element of classical computation is the "if-then" construct, that accepts a control bit and an arbitrary gate, and provides conditional execution of the gate depending on the value of the controlling bit. On the other hand, quantum theory prevents the existence of an analogous universal construct accepting a control qubit and an arbitrary quantum gate as its input. Nevertheless, there are controllable sets of quantum gates for which such a construct exists. Here we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for a set of unitary transformations to be controllable, and we give a complete characterization of controllable sets in the two-dimensional case. This result reveals an interesting connection between the problem of controllability and the problem of extracting information from an unknown quantum gate while using it.

  20. Perceptual Learning of Speech under Optimal and Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable ability to understand spoken language despite the large amount of variability in speech. Previous research has shown that listeners can use lexical information to guide their interpretation of atypical sounds in speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). This kind of lexically induced perceptual learning enables people to adjust to the variations in utterances due to talker-specific characteristics, such as individual identity and dialect. The current study investigated perceptual learning in two optimal conditions: conversational speech (Experiment 1) vs. clear speech (Experiment 2), and three adverse conditions: noise (Experiment 3a) vs. two cognitive loads (Experiments 4a & 4b). Perceptual learning occurred in the two optimal conditions and in the two cognitive load conditions, but not in the noise condition. Furthermore, perceptual learning occurred only in the first of two sessions for each participant, and only for atypical /s/ sounds and not for atypical /f/ sounds. This pattern of learning and non-learning reflects a balance between flexibility and stability that the speech system must have to deal with speech variability in the diverse conditions that speech is encountered. PMID:23815478

  1. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  2. Operant conditioning in redwinged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Bastian, C W; Hothersall, D

    1970-09-01

    An operant conditioning technique for use with passerine birds is described. Two redwinged blackbirds were successfully conditioned to perch-hop for food reinforcement. Continuous reinforcement and fixed-ratio schedules involving substantial ratio requirements were used to maintain this response. The behavior of the two redwinged blackbirds was comparable to that of more conventional organisms working on similar schedules of reinforcement.

  3. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  4. The dynamics of operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Dragoi, V; Staddon, J E

    1999-01-01

    Existing models of operant learning are relatively insensitive to historical properties of behavior and applicable to only limited data sets. This article proposes a minimal set of principles based on short-term and long-term memory mechanisms that can explain the major static and dynamic properties of operant behavior in both single-choice and multiresponse situations. The critical features of the theory are as follows: (a) The key property of conditioning is assessment of the degree of association between responses and reinforcement and between stimuli and reinforcement; (b) the contingent reinforcement is represented by learning expectancy, which is the combined prediction of response-reinforcement and stimulus-reinforcement associations; (c) the operant response is controlled by the interplay between facilitatory and suppressive variables that integrate differences between expected (long-term) and experienced (short-term) events; and (d) very-long-term effects are encoded by a consolidated memory that is sensitive to the entire reinforcement history. The model predicts the major qualitative features of operant phenomena and then suggests an experimental test of theoretical predictions about the joint effects of reinforcement probability and amount of training on operant choice. We hypothesize that the set of elementary principles that we propose may help resolve the long-standing debate about the fundamental variables controlling operant conditioning.

  5. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2008-01-01

    Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.

  6. 75 FR 8353 - Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions February 16, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Due to adverse weather conditions, the Federal Communications..., February 11, 2010. In recognition of the numerous closings and disruptions caused by the weather in...

  7. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  8. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  9. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  10. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  11. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  12. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.203 Eligible losses, adverse weather, and... weather or eligible loss condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, (including, but not...

  13. [Medical activities under adverse conditions. Memisa Medicus Mundi].

    PubMed

    Spanjer, J M

    1992-05-01

    The largest medical missionary organization in the Netherlands is Memisa Medicus Mundi. It has been in operation since 1984 when the organization Memisa, founded in 1925 by 2 doctors from Rotterdam and a priest, merged with Medicus Mundi Nederland. 130 of its doctors work in 80 programs mostly in English-speaking Third World countries. The regional representative for East Africa, worst affected by AIDS, related that a number of doctors work in hospitals where more than 1/2 of patients suffer from AIDS. Many doctors do not want to go to Africa because of the AIDS stigma and the lack of professional challenge of caring mainly for victims of 1 disease. Yet increasingly more foreign doctors are needed, as native doctors are often infected themselves. 1992 World Health Organizations data indicate that 1 out of 40 adult Africans is infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In major East African cities the proportion reaches 30% of the adult population. A 1991 visit to Uganda, Tanzania, and Malawi revealed the spectacle of empty villages or inhabited only by children and old people. In Malawi there is 1 doctor for 40,000 people and 1 bed for 600 inhabitants whose average age is 49.3 years for men and 57.2 years for women. The doctors working there stressed prevention, and 1 of them got embroiled in a conflict with the Catholic archbishop because of handing out condoms. Nonetheless, sensitive topics such as sterilization, caesarean section, abortion, euthanasia, and contraception have been addressed to educate the people, since prevention takes precedence over treatment.

  14. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  15. Determination and representation of electric charge distributions associated with adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for determining the size and location of electric charges which model storm systems and lightning strikes. The analysis utilizes readings from a grid of ground level field mills and geometric constraints on parameters to arrive at a representative set of charges. This set is used to generate three dimensional graphical depictions of the set as well as contour maps of the ground level electrical environment over the grid. The composite, analytic and graphic package is demonstrated and evaluated using controlled input data and archived data from a storm system. The results demonstrate the packages utility as: an operational tool in appraising adverse weather conditions; a research tool in studies of topics such as storm structure, storm dynamics, and lightning; and a tool in designing and evaluating grid systems.

  16. The Dynamics of Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragoi, Valentin; Staddon, J. E . R.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes a minimal set of principles based on short-term and long-term memory mechanisms that can explain the major static and dynamic properties of operant behavior in both single-choice and multiresponse situations. The model predicts the major qualitative features of operant phenomena and suggests an experimental test of theoretical predictions…

  17. Research on long-range laser active imaging system applied in adverse weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-gang; Liu, Meng-de; Yang, Li; Kabanov, V. V.; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jie; Chu, Shi-bo; Yang, Jun-xian; Zhou, Yang

    2013-09-01

    A low-light level night vision device or thermal infrared imager belonging to passive imaging system is generally used in daily target detection and identification. But in adverse weather conditions of dark of night, poor atmospheric transmission characteristics or strong backscattering (fog, dust, rain, snow, etc.), even the most sensitive low-light level night vision could not provide enough image resolution for detecting and identifying targets, and the thermal infrared imager is also limited by low temperature contrast. A long-range laser active imaging system, in combination with high-power semiconductor pulsed lasers with collimation technology, receiving objective lens of large diameter, long focal length and narrow viewing angle, high-gain image intensifier CCD (ICCD) camera and range-gated synchronization control technology, is developed for long distance target detection and high resolution imaging in adverse weather conditions. The system composition and operating principle are introduced. The extremely powerful and efficient illuminators with collimation technology are able to deliver uniform beams, which are essential for illuminating targets at a distance and generating high-quality images. The particular receiving objective lens, ICCD camera and range-gated synchronization control technology could reduce strong backscattering signal and improve imaging signal-to-noise ratio. The laboratory and outfield experiments have been done to validate imaging effect and imaging quality. The results show that the minimum resolution is about 3-5cm, 10cm, and greater than 20 cm for target far from 1100m, 4700m, and 6700m respectively in dark of night. Furthermore, the minimum resolution could reach to 10cm and 20cm for target far from 2500m and 4800m respectively and the image is too blurred to accurately identify the target when observing the target far from 7200m in rainy condition.

  18. The role of adverse weather conditions in acute releases of hazardous substances, Texas, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Borders, Julie; Villanacci, John; Harris, Richard; Samples-Ruiz, Melissa

    2004-11-11

    High winds, flooding, lightning, and other phenomena associated with adverse weather can cause power failures, equipment damage, and process upsets resulting in chemical releases. Of the 5000 events in Texas that were reported to the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system during 2000-2001, adverse weather conditions contributed to 110 (2%) events. Rain was the most frequent adverse weather condition. Most events to which adverse weather conditions contributed occurred during June or September; these months correspond with the high temperature and hurricane season in Texas. Most events occurred in coastal counties with large numbers of industrial facilities. Three industries reported the majority of events: industrial and miscellaneous chemicals manufacturing; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resin manufacturing. Power failures were associated more often with adverse weather-related events than with nonweather-related events. Releases occurred most commonly from ancillary process equipment and process vessels. Events associated with adverse weather-related conditions involved nine victims. System and process design improvements, such as improved backup power generation and redesigned secondary containment systems, could be explored to reduce the potential negative effects of severe weather.

  19. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  20. Friction of composite cushion bearings for total knee joint replacements under adverse lubrication conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T; Jin, Z M; Fisher, J

    1997-01-01

    Conventional joint replacements consist of a polished metallic or ceramic component articulating against a layer of polyethylene. Although the friction in the contact between these articulating surfaces is low, polyethylene wear is produced as a result of a boundary/mixed lubrication regime. Wear debris is generated by direct asperity contact, abrasion, adhesion and fatigue, and has been shown to cause adverse tissue reactions which can lead to joint failure. The introduction of soft compliant materials, similar in stiffness to articular cartilage, has shown that with cyclic loading and relative motion between the articulating surfaces typical of normal walking, a fluid film can be maintained through combined entraining and squeeze-film actions, and hence wear can be minimized. For 95 per cent of the time, however, we are not walking but standing still or moving slowly. A pendulum simulator has been used in the present study to investigate the effect of adverse tribological conditions which may lead to fluid film breakdown, such as severe cyclic loading, particularly in the swing phase, reduced sliding velocity, reduced stroke length and start-up after a period of constant loading. Friction of a model composite cushion knee bearing, manufactured from a graded modulus (20-1000 MPa) layer of polyurethane, sliding against a polished metal cylinder has been measured for various lubricants and the results have been analysed using a Stribeck assessment. Severe cyclic loading, decreased sliding velocity and decreased stroke length have been found to limit the degree of fluid entrainment previously allowed during the swing phase of normal walking, thus allowing breakdown of fluid films and elevated levels of friction and surface damage. Soft layer joint replacements must therefore be designed to operate with thick elastohydrodynamic fluid films to provide some degree of protection when tribological conditions become severe, or alternatively incorporate alternative boundary

  1. Friction of composite cushion bearings for total knee joint replacements under adverse lubrication conditions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T; Jin, Z M; Fisher, J

    1997-01-01

    Conventional joint replacements consist of a polished metallic or ceramic component articulating against a layer of polyethylene. Although the friction in the contact between these articulating surfaces is low, polyethylene wear is produced as a result of a boundary/mixed lubrication regime. Wear debris is generated by direct asperity contact, abrasion, adhesion and fatigue, and has been shown to cause adverse tissue reactions which can lead to joint failure. The introduction of soft compliant materials, similar in stiffness to articular cartilage, has shown that with cyclic loading and relative motion between the articulating surfaces typical of normal walking, a fluid film can be maintained through combined entraining and squeeze-film actions, and hence wear can be minimized. For 95 per cent of the time, however, we are not walking but standing still or moving slowly. A pendulum simulator has been used in the present study to investigate the effect of adverse tribological conditions which may lead to fluid film breakdown, such as severe cyclic loading, particularly in the swing phase, reduced sliding velocity, reduced stroke length and start-up after a period of constant loading. Friction of a model composite cushion knee bearing, manufactured from a graded modulus (20-1000 MPa) layer of polyurethane, sliding against a polished metal cylinder has been measured for various lubricants and the results have been analysed using a Stribeck assessment. Severe cyclic loading, decreased sliding velocity and decreased stroke length have been found to limit the degree of fluid entrainment previously allowed during the swing phase of normal walking, thus allowing breakdown of fluid films and elevated levels of friction and surface damage. Soft layer joint replacements must therefore be designed to operate with thick elastohydrodynamic fluid films to provide some degree of protection when tribological conditions become severe, or alternatively incorporate alternative boundary

  2. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers. PMID:27624491

  3. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers.

  4. Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

  5. Teaching Operant Conditioning at the Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, Kristen E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a partnership between Zoo Atlanta and the Georgia Institute of Technology in teaching the principles of operant conditioning to students in an experimental psychology class. Maintains that the positive training techniques used in zoos are models of applied operant conditioning. Includes a discussion of zoo training goals. (MJP)

  6. Adverse Pregnancy Conditions, Infertility, and Future Cardiovascular Risk: Implications for Mother and Child

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki; Wei, Janet; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2016-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy conditions in women are common and have been associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes such as myocardial infarction and stroke. As risk stratification in women is often suboptimal, recognition of non-traditional risk factors such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and premature delivery has become increasingly important. Additionally, such conditions may also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in the children of afflicted women. In this review, we aim to highlight these conditions, along with infertility, and the association between such conditions and various cardiovascular outcomes and related maternal risk along with potential translation of risk to offspring. We will also discuss proposed mechanisms driving these associations as well as potential opportunities for screening and risk modification. PMID:26037616

  7. Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions and Inflammatory Markers among Middle-Aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Morley, John E.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse housing and neighborhood conditions are independently associated with an increased risk of various diseases and conditions. One possible explanation relates to systemic inflammation, which is associated with these adverse health outcomes. The authors investigated the association between housing and neighborhood conditions with inflammatory markers using data about 352 persons aged 49–65 years from the African American Health study. Participants were identified by a multistage random selection process in 2000 to 2001(response rate, 76%). Blood was analyzed for soluble cytokine receptors (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α), C-reactive protein, and adiponectin. Neighborhood and housing characteristics consisted of five observed block face conditions (external appearance of the block on which the subject lived), four perceived neighborhood conditions, four observed housing conditions (home assessment by the interviewers rating the interior and exterior of the subject’s building), and census-tract level poverty rate from the 2000 census. Differences in some inflammatory markers were found by age, gender, chronic conditions, and body mass index (all Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.0034). There was no association between any of the housing/neighborhood conditions and the pro-inflammatory markers and potential associations between some housing/neighborhood conditions and adiponectin (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-adjusted p > 0.0034). Inflammation does not appear to be a mediator of the association between poor housing/neighborhood conditions and adverse health outcomes in middle-aged African Americans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-009-9426-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20186494

  8. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  9. Early Life Conditions, Adverse Life Events, and Chewing Ability at Middle and Later Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard G.; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the extent to which early life conditions and adverse life events impact chewing ability in middle and later adulthood. Methods. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in the years 2006 to 2009 and encompassing information on current chewing ability and the life history of persons aged 50 years or older from 13 European countries. Logistic regression models were estimated with sequential inclusion of explanatory variables representing living conditions in childhood and adverse life events. Results. After controlling for current determinants of chewing ability at age 50 years or older, certain childhood and later life course socioeconomic, behavioral, and cognitive factors became evident as correlates of chewing ability at age 50 years or older. Specifically, childhood financial hardship was identified as an early life predictor of chewing ability at age 50 years or older (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.06). Conclusions. Findings suggest a potential enduring impact of early life conditions and adverse life events on oral health in middle and later adulthood and are relevant for public health decision-makers who design strategies for optimal oral health. PMID:24625140

  10. Operant conditioning of the pain experience.

    PubMed

    Lousberg, R; Groenman, N H; Schmidt, A J; Gielen, A A

    1996-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study operant conditioning of pain report. Further, it was investigated whether pain-related psychophysiological and psychological measures (skin conductance response and magnitude matching) could also be conditioned operantly. In both experiments subjects received 12 painful electric shocks of equal intensity. In Exp. 1 healthy subjects were assigned to either a control group or an up-conditioning group. Up-conditioning occurred by verbally rewarding increases in pain report and punishing decreases. Analyses indicated that up-conditioning of both pain report and the pain-related psychophysiological measures succeeded. To rule out alternative explanations of the results (attention shift towards pain and conditioning of anxiety) the verbal punishments were adjusted in Exp. 2. A down-conditioning group was also added. The attempt to replicate the results of Exp. 1 failed and down-conditioning of the pain report could not be established. These inconsistent results are most probably due to modified punishment of responses. The consequences for the results of Exp. 1 are discussed. Based on the results of post hoc analyses, some suggestions are made for operant conditioning studies of pain.

  11. Algorithms for contours depicting static electric fields during adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A flexible and functional analytical tool is developed for the study of electric fields during adverse weather conditions. This tool is designed for use by members of the Atmospheric Science Group as part of their overall effort to appraise environmental conditions during these situations. It is also used to illustrate approaches open to those interested in the study of the physics of ambient electric field phenomena. Computer resources of KSC are coordinated with original software to produce contour interpretations of electric field data available from a grid of field mills spanning the region. Three model algorithms are presented and examples are given illustrating the system design, flexibility, and utility.

  12. Operant conditioning in the ant Myrmica sabuleti.

    PubMed

    Cammaerts, M C

    2004-11-30

    Operant conditioning could be obtained in the ant Myrmica sabuleti by presenting to the workers, during a six-day period, an apparatus containing either sugared water or meat as a reward. The conditioning obtained using sugared water as a reward was short lasting. A reconditioning was more persistent and lasted four hours. The ants' response was very precise, since they exhibited it only in front of an apparatus identical to that used during the training phase. Operant conditioning obtained using meat as a reward was more pronounced than that obtained by using sugared water, probably because meat is more valuable as a reward than sugar for the species studied, which is essentially a carnivorous one. Such a conditioning was rather persistent. Indeed, a first operant conditioning obtained by using meat as a reward could still be detected after seven hours, and a reconditioning was still significant after eight hours. One day after this eight-hour period without rewarding the ants, the response was higher again and a further day later, it was still significant. Since the operant conditioning is easy to perform and quantify and since the ants' response is very precise, such a conditioning can be used for further studying M. sabuleti workers' visual perception.

  13. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mosedale, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Robert J.; Maclean, Ilya M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions. PMID:26496127

  14. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  15. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  16. Operant Conditioning and Learning: Examples, Sources, Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The purpose of this paper is to relate psychology to teaching generally, and to relate behavior shaping to curriculum, specifically. Focusing on operant conditioning and learning, many studies are cited which illustrate some of the work being done toward effectively shaping or modifying student behavior whether in terms of subject matter or…

  17. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.

  18. Speech perception under adverse conditions: insights from behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research

    PubMed Central

    Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Specifically, we highlight the potential role of learning algorithms that rely on prediction error signals and discuss specific neural structures that are likely to contribute to such learning. To this end, we review behavioral studies, computational accounts, and neuroimaging findings related to adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Already, a few studies have alluded to a potential role of these mechanisms in adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Furthermore, we consider research topics in neuroscience that offer insight into how perception can be adaptively tuned to short-term deviations while balancing the need to maintain stability in the perception of learned long-term regularities. Consideration of the application and limitations of these algorithms in characterizing flexible speech perception under adverse conditions promises to inform theoretical models of speech. PMID:24427119

  19. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  20. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  1. Extraversion and reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B S

    1976-02-01

    The present investigation was designed to study the relationship between extraversion and modes of reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning. A 4 X 3 randomized block design was replicated ten times. Eighty graduate and post-graduate male students were individually subjected to the standard Taffel conditioning procedure. When the numbers of conditioned responses produced by introverts and extraverts were compared, it was found that: (1) under negative reinforcement ('bad' and electric shock), with both the female and male experimenters, and under positive reinforcement ('good') with the male experimenter, the introverts' score was the higher of the two; (2) under positive reinforcement ('good') with the female experimenter, the extraverts' score was higher than that of the introverts.

  2. Cost-sharing, physician utilization, and adverse selection among Medicare beneficiaries with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    Pooled data from the 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Surveys were used to compare the number of self-reported annual physician visits among 36,808 Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 in insurance groups with differential cost-sharing. Adjusted for adverse selection and a set of health covariates, Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) only beneficiaries had similar physician utilization compared with HMO enrollees but fewer visits compared with those with supplemental (1.04, p = .001) and Medicaid (1.55, p = .003) coverage. FFS only beneficiaries in very good or excellent health had fewer visits compared with those of similar health status with supplemental (1.30, p = .001) or Medicaid coverage (2.15, p = .002). For subpopulations with several chronic conditions, FFS only beneficiaries also had fewer visits compared with beneficiaries with supplemental or Medicaid coverage. Observed differences in utilization may reflect efficient and necessary physician utilization among those with chronic health needs.

  3. Functions of Nitric Oxide (NO) in Roots during Development and under Adverse Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2015-01-01

    The free radical molecule, nitric oxide (NO), is present in the principal organs of plants, where it plays an important role in a wide range of physiological functions. Root growth and development are highly regulated by both internal and external factors such as nutrient availability, hormones, pattern formation, cell polarity and cell cycle control. The presence of NO in roots has opened up new areas of research on the role of NO, including root architecture, nutrient acquisition, microorganism interactions and the response mechanisms to adverse environmental conditions, among others. Additionally, the exogenous application of NO throughout the roots has the potential to counteract specific damages caused by certain stresses. This review aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on NO functions in the roots of higher plants. PMID:27135326

  4. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  5. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only. PMID:27454867

  6. Limited Conditions of Operations Tracking Program

    1999-12-17

    The Lco tracking program is a computer based solution for tracking time limited action items for Limited Conditions of Operation (LCO) for nuclear and industrial processes. This use is not limited to any process except those not requiring specific action steps and times. The visual and audible assistance the LCO Tracking Program provides significantly reduces the chance of missing crucial actions required for safe operation of any facility in time of limited operations. The LCOmore » Tracking Program maintains all applicable action steps and times for each limited condition for the facility in its data base. The LCO Tracking Program is used to enter that condition by number, and the data base provides the applicble action steps and starts tracking their times based on the time the LCO was entered. The LCO display graphically displays, by colored bar charts, the time expired/time remaining of each specific action item. At 60% time expired, the bar chart turns yellow to caution personnel and then turns red at 90% time expired. Then an audible alarm is sounded at 95% as a warning, to finish or accomplish the required actions to satisfy the requirements. These warning and alarm limits are modifiable by the user and can be set at different values for each action. The display file is dynamic in function, checking every minute, and responds in real time to changes to the LCO Tracking Form file, providing the visual and audible warnings as to the status of the action steps chosen for display. The LCO Tracking Program efficiently tracks action times in minutes or days, up to 2 years. All current LCO''s are easily documentated using the LCO Tracking Form file with ease of printing and disposition. The Lco Tracking Program is designed as a user friendly program with navigational buttons to simplify use.« less

  7. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  8. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  9. Effect of operating conditions on gearbox noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zakrajsek, James J.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Atherton, William; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1992-01-01

    Low contact ratio spur gears were tested in the NASA gear noise rig to study the noise radiated from the top of the gearbox. The measured sound power from the gearbox top was obtained from a near field acoustic intensity scan taken at 63 nodes just above the surface. The sound power was measured at a matrix of 45 operating speeds and torque levels. Results are presented in the form of a spectral speed map and as a plot of sound power versus torque (at constant speed) and as sound power versus speed (at constant torque). Because of the presence of vibration modes, operating speed was found to have more impact on noise generation than torque level. A NASA gear dynamics code was used to compute the gear tooth dynamic overload at the same 45 operating conditions used for the experiment. Similar trends were found between the analytical results for dynamic tooth overload and experimental results for sound power. Dynamic analysis may be used to design high quality gears with profile relief optimized for minimum dynamic load and noise.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health, chronic medical conditions, and development in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zhang, Jinjin; Nadeem, Erum; Stein, Ruth E. K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health, chronic medical conditions and social development among young children in the child welfare system. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, using a nationally representative sample of children investigated by child welfare (National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II) from 2008–2009. Our analysis included caregiver interviews and caseworker reports about children age 18–71 months who were not in out-of-home care (N=912). We examined the associations between ACEs and mental health (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)), reported chronic medical conditions, and social development (measured by the Vineland Socialization Scale), in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Nearly all children (98.1%) were reported to have had an ACE in their lifetime; the average number of ACEs was 3.6. For every additional reported ACE there was a 32% increased odds of having a problem score on the CBCL (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53), and a 21% increased odds of having a chronic medical condition (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40). Among children 36–71 months, for every additional reported ACE there was a 77% increased odds of a low Vineland Socialization score (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78). Conclusion and Relevance ACEs were associated with poor early childhood mental health and chronic medical conditions, and, among children age 3–5, social development. Efforts are needed to examine whether providing early intervention to families with multiple stressors mitigates the impact of ACEs on children’s outcomes. PMID:26183001

  11. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you...

  12. Quality-quantity trade-off of human offspring under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Meij, J J; van Bodegom, D; Ziem, J B; Amankwa, J; Polderman, A M; Kirkwood, T B L; de Craen, A J M; Zwaan, B J; Westendorp, R G J

    2009-05-01

    A central paradigm in life-history theory is the trade-off between offspring number and quality. Several studies have investigated this trade-off in humans, but data are inconclusive, perhaps because prosperous socio-cultural factors mask the trade-off. Therefore, we studied 2461 offspring groups in an area under adverse conditions in northern Ghana with high fertility and mortality rates. In a linear mixed model controlling for differences in age and tribe of the mother and socioeconomic status, each additional child in the offspring group resulted in a 2.3% (95% CI 1.9-2.6%, P < 0.001) lower proportional survival of the offspring. Furthermore, we made use of the polygamous population structure and compared offspring of co-wives in 388 households, thus controlling for variation in resources between compounds. Here, offspring survival decreased 2.8% (95% CI 2.3-4.0%, P < 0.001) for each increase in offspring number. We interpret these data as an apparent quality-quantity trade-off in human offspring.

  13. Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause specific adult mortality: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, George Davey; Hart, Carole; Blane, David; Hole, David

    1998-01-01

    . Mortality from lung cancer, other cancer, and accidents and violence is predominantly influenced by risk factors that are related to social circumstances in adulthood. Key messages Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood are associated with mortality in later life Mortality from stroke and stomach cancer is particularly dependent on social circumstances in childhood Mortality from coronary heart disease and respiratory disease is dependent on social circumstances in both adulthood and childhood Mortality from accidents and violence and from lung cancer is mainly dependent on factors acting in adulthood The increases in child poverty seen in Britain and elsewhere over the past 20 years may herald unfavourable future trends in adult health PMID:9603744

  14. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  15. Operant conditioning of primate prefrontal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Schultz, Wolfram; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2010-04-01

    An operant is a behavioral act that has an impact on the environment to produce an outcome, constituting an important component of voluntary behavior. Because the environment can be volatile, the same action may cause different consequences. Thus to obtain an optimal outcome, it is crucial to detect action-outcome relationships and adapt the behavior accordingly. Although prefrontal neurons are known to change activity depending on expected reward, it remains unknown whether prefrontal activity contributes to obtaining reward. We investigated this issue by setting variable relationships between levels of single-neuron activity and rewarding outcomes. Lateral prefrontal neurons changed their spiking activity according to the specific requirements for gaining reward, without the animals making a motor response. Thus spiking activity constituted an operant response. Data from a control task suggested that these changes were unlikely to reflect simple reward predictions. These data demonstrate a remarkable capacity of prefrontal neurons to adapt to specific operant requirements at the single-neuron level.

  16. Operant conditioning of mental retardates' visual monitoring.

    PubMed

    Perryman, R E; Halcomb, C R; Landers, W F

    1981-10-01

    To study improvement of visual monitoring of retardates, specialized training methods backed up by incentives were used. The extent to which these training techniques might be expected to produce results which would generalize to those situations in which the retardate was required to monitor without the increased signal rate and knowledge of results was explored. Subjects were 8 female mental retardates with IQs from 38 to 69. Detection of an aperiodic pattern change during pre-training was compared with final performance after 4 training sessions. During training, the task difficulty was increased until during the final training session it approximated the test conditions. Immediate knowledge of results was given for correct detections and false positive responses. Tokens were given to the subjects, based on the scores at the end of the session. After the final session these tokens were exchanged for prizes. As predicted, training under these conditions significantly enhanced the retardates' performance and transferred to the condition with no knowledge of results.

  17. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  18. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  19. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  20. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  1. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  2. Operator strategies under varying conditions of workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnegard, Ruth J.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt was made to operationally define and measure strategic behavior in a complex multiple task environment. The Multi-Attribute Task battery was developed to simulate various aspects of flight and consisted of an auditory communication task, monitoring tasks, a tracking tasks, a resource management task which allowed a wide range of responding patterns, and a scheduling window which allowed operators to predict changes in workload. This battery was validated for its sensitivity to strategic behavior, and baseline measures for each individual task were collected. Twenty-four undergraduate and graduate students then performed the battery for four 64 minute sessions which took place over a period of 2 days. Each subject performed the task battery under four levels of workload, which were presented for equal lengths of time during all four sessions. Results indicated that in general, performance improves as a function of experience with the battery, but that performance decreased as workload level increased. The data also showed that subjects developed strategies for responding to the resource management task which allowed them to manage the high workload levels more efficiently. This particular strategy developed over time but was also associated with errors of complacency. These results are presented along with implications for the aviation field and areas of future research.

  3. Operational condition of direct single-mode-fiber coupled FSO terminal under strong atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2011-03-01

    This paper discusses the operational condition for direct single-mode-fiber-coupling FSO terminals under the various adverse weather conditions, such as strong atmospheric turbulences and rain falls. A good correlation between the scintillation index of the intensities of beacon receiving power and the signal fading depth has been observed, which allows us to predict the signal link quality based on the beacon scintillation index provided by the classical scintillation theory and concludes that the scintillation index for the beacon beam should be less than 0.1. This paper also reports the effect of performance enhancements provided by the new adaptive controller for the stable and robust terminal operation.

  4. Infant Operant Conditioning and Its Implications for Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giullo E.

    1980-01-01

    In this article infant operant conditioning studies are grouped according to distinct procedures: free operant; discrete trial with one discriminative stimulus; discrete trial with two or more discriminative stimuli; controlled operant with two or more discriminative stimuli; and unrestricted operant with two or more discriminative stimuli.…

  5. Operational conditions for random-number generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compagner, A.

    1995-11-01

    Ensemble theory is used to describe arbitrary sequences of integers, whether formed by the decimals of π or produced by a roulette or by any other means. Correlation coefficients of any range and order are defined as Fourier transforms of the ensemble weights. Competing definitions of random sequences are considered. Special attention is given to sequences of random numbers needed for Monte Carlo calculations. Different recipes for those sequences lead to correlations that vary in range and order, but the total amount of correlation is the same for all sequences of a given length (without internal periodicities). For maximum-length sequences produced by linear algorithms, most correlation coefficients are zero, but the remaining ones are of absolute value 1. In well-tempered sequences, these complete correlations are of high order or of very long range. General conditions to be obeyed by random-number generators are discussed and a qualitative method for comparing different recipes is given.

  6. Gender classification under extended operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rude, Howard N.; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    Gender classification is a critical component of a robust image security system. Many techniques exist to perform gender classification using facial features. In contrast, this paper explores gender classification using body features extracted from clothed subjects. Several of the most effective types of features for gender classification identified in literature were implemented and applied to the newly developed Seasonal Weather And Gender (SWAG) dataset. SWAG contains video clips of approximately 2000 samples of human subjects captured over a period of several months. The subjects are wearing casual business attire and outer garments appropriate for the specific weather conditions observed in the Midwest. The results from a series of experiments are presented that compare the classification accuracy of systems that incorporate various types and combinations of features applied to multiple looks at subjects at different image resolutions to determine a baseline performance for gender classification.

  7. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources..., pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or...

  8. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  9. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  10. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  11. Has nonoperative management of solid visceral injuries adversely affected resident operative experience?

    PubMed

    Jennings, G R; Poole, G V; Yates, N L; Johnson, R K; Brock, M

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of increased use of nonoperative management of blunt injuries to the spleen or liver on surgical residents' operative experience with solid visceral injuries. We conducted a 10-year retrospective study of blunt spleen and liver injuries at a state-designated Level I trauma center and a survey of chief residents' operative experience with splenic and hepatic injuries from blunt trauma during the same time period. From 1990 through 1999, 431 patients were admitted with splenic injuries and 634 patients were admitted with liver injuries; 350 splenic injuries (81%) were due to blunt trauma; 317 liver injuries (50%) were caused by blunt mechanisms. In 1990 100 per cent of patients with splenic injuries and 93 per cent of those with liver injuries underwent surgery for those injuries. These rates were 19 and 28 per cent respectively in 1999. The number of patients with blunt solid visceral injuries increased more than fourfold from 1990 through 1999. The number of operations for splenic and hepatic injuries performed by chief residents did not decline significantly during this time period (5.5 cases per chief resident in 1990; 4.6 cases per chief resident in 1999). The increased numbers of patients with solid visceral injuries were due to two factors: increased proportion of blunt trauma admissions especially from motor vehicle collisions and improved recognition of spleen and liver injuries by expanded use of CT scans. We conclude that nonoperative management of blunt solid visceral injuries does not necessarily lead to a diminution of operations nor jeopardize resident education. However, trauma volumes must be high enough to support adequate operative experience. PMID:11409812

  12. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Misyura, Maksym; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested.

  13. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Harding, Ann M A; Welcker, Jorg; Steen, Harald; Hamer, Keith C; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Fort, Jérôme; Talbot, Sandra L; Cornick, Leslie A; Karnovsky, Nina J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Grémillet, David

    2011-09-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species.

  14. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested. PMID:23162120

  16. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  17. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-01-01

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR. PMID:25218504

  18. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-10-17

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR.

  19. Adaptive strategies of remote systems operators exposed to perturbed camera-viewing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Manahan, Meera K.; Bierschwale, John M.; Sampaio, Carlos E.; Legendre, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary investigation of the use of perturbed visual feedback during the performance of simulated space-based remote manipulation tasks. The primary objective of this NASA evaluation was to determine to what extent operators exhibit adaptive strategies which allow them to perform these specific types of remote manipulation tasks more efficiently while exposed to perturbed visual feedback. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to establish a set of preliminary guidelines for enhancing remote manipulation performance and reducing the adverse effects. These objectives were accomplished by studying the remote manipulator performance of test subjects exposed to various perturbed camera-viewing conditions while performing a simulated space-based remote manipulation task. Statistical analysis of performance and subjective data revealed that remote manipulation performance was adversely affected by the use of perturbed visual feedback and performance tended to improve with successive trials in most perturbed viewing conditions.

  20. Performance evaluation of laser scanners through the atmosphere with adverse condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespel, L.; Riviere, N.; Huet, T.; Tanguy, B.; Ceolato, R.

    2011-11-01

    Using laser imaging systems to represent 3-D scene becomes a referent prospective technology in the areas of guidance and navigation. Measurements with high spatial resolution for significant range can be achieved, even in degraded visibility conditions such as the Brown-White Out, rain, fog, sandstorms... Moreover, this technology is well suited for assisted perception tasks (access to 3D information) and obstacle detection (telemetry of small objects). For airborne applications, it is very complementary to conventional enhanced vision systems such as Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and millimeter wave radar to provide images of land in environments with limited visibility. It also offers a 3D mapping of land or a single location in relation to the environment, which means alone or coupled with others, can realign and secure real-time database of information used such in a synthetic vision system (SVS). The objective of the work is to assess the impact of degraded visibility conditions on the laser radiometric propagation of a 3D laser scanner as they directly influence the performance of the ladar system [1].

  1. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions.

  2. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. PMID:27542493

  3. MFC-cascade stacks maximise COD reduction and avoid voltage reversal under adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Pablo; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    Six continuous-flow Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) configured as a vertical cascade and tested under different electrical connections are presented. When in parallel, stable operation and higher power and current densities than individual MFCs were observed, despite substrate imbalances. The cascading dynamic allowed for a cumulative COD reduction of >95% in approximately 5.7h, equivalent to 7.97 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Under a series configuration, the stack exhibited considerable losses until correct fluidic/electrical insulation of the units was applied, upon which the stack also exhibited superior performance. In both electrical configurations, the 6 MFC system was systematically starved for up to 15 d, with no significant performance degradation. The results from the 14-month trials, demonstrate that cascade-stacking of small units can result in enhanced electricity production (vs single large units) and treatment rates without using expensive catalysts. It is also demonstrated that substrate imbalances and starvation do not necessarily result in cell-voltage reversal.

  4. Impact of multiple frequency scattering on GNSS performance under adverse ionospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Aditi; Paul, Ashik

    One of the major deterrents to successful implementation of SBAS may be linked to sharp latitudinal gradients of ionization occurring during the daytime and intense Space Weather events in the post sunset hours, affecting transionospheric satellite links particularly in the equatorial region. These phenomena have the potential to cause serious damage to the technological infrastructure on which society relies. GPS modernization program is focused on addition of a new navigation signal L5 to the GPS constellation. The L5 is exclusively reserved for aviation navigation services and is designed with a protected spectrum, higher power, and greater bandwidth to support life-critical and high performance applications. Overall robustness of this dual-frequency mechanism to ionospheric scintillations could be ascertained through a study of correlated scintillations. Understanding the correlation of signal fades across two frequencies is important to assess their collective mitigation effectiveness. The Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) will operate at L1 (1575.42 MHz), L5 (1176.45 MHz) and S-band (2492.42 MHz) frequencies. A multi-constellation, multi-frequency GNSS receiver is operational at University of Calcutta, Calcutta, India (22.58deg N, 88.38deg E geographic; magnetic dip: 32deg N) since April 2013. Special emphasis was given to analyzing signals from satellite vehicles equipped to transmit L5 frequency. On April 12, 2013, amplitude scintillation and associated fluctuations in carrier-to-noise ratios (CNO) were noted on SV1 link during 14:15-14:50UT from Calcutta. The S4 indices at the three frequencies, L1, L2 and L5, were affected to different extent with L2 and L5 values showing close correspondence and L1 suffering least scintillations. Correlation coefficient of S4 and carrier-to-noise ratios (CNO) between different combination of frequencies (L1:L2, L2:L5; L1:L5) were calculated at 3 minutes interval during periods of scintillation. As L2

  5. On condition numbers of spectral operators in a hilbert space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil', Michael

    2015-12-01

    We consider a linear unbounded operator A in a separable Hilbert space. with the following property: there is a normal operator D with a discrete spectrum, such Vert A-DVert <∞ . Besides, all the Eigen values of D are different. Under certain assumptions it is shown that A is similar to a normal operator and a sharp bound for the condition number is suggested. Applications of that bound to spectrum perturbations and operator functions are also discussed. As an illustrative example we consider a non-selfadjoint differential operator.

  6. The Gerbil Jar: A Basic Home Experience in Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a teaching method such as allowing students to raise gerbils at home can encourage students to gain experience with the fundamental techniques of operant conditioning which are otherwise generally unavailable to students in large introductory psychology courses. (DB)

  7. Operant Conditioning in Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spira, Adam P.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral interventions based on operant principles are commonly attempted to manage agitation in older adults with dementia. The extent to which operant conditioning can occur in persons with particular dementias, however, is unclear. The present study involved use of a button-pressing task to evaluate the sensitivity of the responding of older…

  8. Dextroamphetamine and individual susceptibility to reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B S; Gupta, U

    1984-05-01

    The present investigation was designed to study the relationships between extraversion, d-amphetamine and modes of reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning. A factorial design involving two levels of extraversion (extraverts and introverts), two reinforcement conditions ('good' and 'electric shock') and three treatments (placebo and two doses, 7.5 and 12.5 mg, of d-amphetamine) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. Sixty postgraduate female students were individually subjected to Taffel's verbal conditioning procedure. The study supported the following conclusions: (1) under the placebo condition, the extraverted subjects condition better with the rewarding reinforcer while the introverted subjects condition better with the punishing reinforcer; (2) under the influence of d-amphetamine, the extraverted subjects condition better with the punishing reinforcer while the conditioning scores of introverted subjects decrease with the punishing reinforcer but are not influenced with the rewarding reinforcer.

  9. Impulsivity/sociability and reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B S; Nagpal, M

    1978-05-01

    The present investigation was designed to study the relationship between impulsivity/sociability and modes of reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning. Two 2x3 randomized block designs, one each for impulsivity and sociability, were replicated ten times. One hundred and twenty undergraduate female students (60 for impulsivity and 60 for sociability) were individually subjected to Taffel's verbal conditioning procedure. When the conditioning scores of high and low scorers on the impulsivity and sociability scales were compared, it was found that under rewarding conditions ('good' and 'buzzer' in respect of sociability and 'good' in respect of impulsivity) the high scorers' score and under punishing conditions ('electric shock') the low scorers' score was the higher of the two. The study also revealed that the high scorers (on the impulsivity scale) conditioned more under rewarding conditions while the low scorers (both on the impulsivity and sociability scales) conditioned more under punishing ones.

  10. Optical tests of a space mechanism under an adverse environment: GAIA secondary mirror mechanism under vaccum and thermal controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Urgoiti, Eduardo; Ramírez Quintana, Argiñe

    2007-09-01

    In this work, the optical evaluation of a mechanism for space applications under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA) is reported. The mechanism was developed by the Spanish company SENER to fulfill the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for GAIA Astrometric Mission; in particular, a five degrees of freedom (dof), three translations and two rotations positioning mechanism for the secondary mirror of the GAIA instrument. Both interferometric tests and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions: vacuum and thermal controlled conditions, up to a 10 -6mbar and 100K. The scope of this paper will cover the measurements concept selection, the presentation of verification activities, the results of such dedicated optical measurements, the correlation with the mechanical models and a brief description of the design process followed to meet the test requirements.

  11. MULTIRESOLUTION REPRESENTATION OF OPERATORS WITH BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON SIMPLE DOMAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Beylkin, Gregory; Fann, George I; Harrison, Robert J; Kurcz, Christopher E; Monzon, Lucas A

    2011-01-01

    We develop a multiresolution representation of a class of integral operators satisfying boundary conditions on simple domains in order to construct fast algorithms for their application. We also elucidate some delicate theoretical issues related to the construction of periodic Green s functions for Poisson s equation. By applying the method of images to the non-standard form of the free space operator, we obtain lattice sums that converge absolutely on all scales, except possibly on the coarsest scale. On the coarsest scale the lattice sums may be only conditionally convergent and, thus, allow for some freedom in their definition. We use the limit of square partial sums as a definition of the limit and obtain a systematic, simple approach to the construction (in any dimension) of periodized operators with sparse non-standard forms. We illustrate the results on several examples in dimensions one and three: the Hilbert transform, the projector on divergence free functions, the non-oscillatory Helmholtz Green s function and the Poisson operator. Remarkably, the limit of square partial sums yields a periodic Poisson Green s function which is not a convolution. Using a short sum of decaying Gaussians to approximate periodic Green s functions, we arrive at fast algorithms for their application. We further show that the results obtained for operators with periodic boundary conditions extend to operators with Dirichlet, Neumann, or mixed boundary conditions.

  12. Selection for Genetic Variation Inducing Pro-Inflammatory Responses under Adverse Environmental Conditions in a Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kuningas, Maris; May, Linda; Tamm, Riin; van Bodegom, David; van den Biggelaar, Anita H. J.; Meij, Johannes J.; Frölich, Marijke; Ziem, Juventus B.; Suchiman, Helena E. D.; Metspalu, Andres; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic age-associated, degenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory host responses that are deleterious later in life may originate from evolutionary selection for genetic variation mediating resistance to infectious diseases under adverse environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings In the Upper-East region of Ghana where infection has remained the leading cause of death, we studied the effect on survival of genetic variations at the IL10 gene locus that have been associated with chronic diseases. Here we show that an IL10 haplotype that associated with a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, characterised by low IL-10 (p = 0.028) and high TNF-α levels (p = 1.39×10−3), was enriched among Ghanaian elders (p = 2.46×10−6). Furthermore, in an environment where the source of drinking water (wells/rivers vs. boreholes) influences mortality risks (HR 1.28, 95% CI [1.09–1.50]), we observed that carriers of the pro-inflammatory haplotype have a survival advantage when drinking from wells/rivers but a disadvantage when drinking from boreholes (pinteraction = 0.013). Resequencing the IL10 gene region did not uncover any additional common variants in the pro-inflammatory haplotype to those SNPs that were initially genotyped. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these data lend strong arguments for the selection of pro-inflammatory host responses to overcome fatal infection and promote survival in adverse environments. PMID:19907653

  13. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J

    2009-05-25

    Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.

  14. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    SciTech Connect

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  15. Operational problems experienced by single pilots in instrument meteorological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The development and implementation of a search strategy to extract pertinent reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System-2 (ASRS-2) database are described. For any particular occurence to be pertinent to the study, it must have satisfied the following conditions: the aircraft must be of the type usually flown by a single pilot; operation on an IFR flight plan in instrument meteorological conditions; pilot experienced an operational problem. The occurances consist of reports by the pilot about his own performance, by the pilot about the system performance, or by an air traffic controller about a pilot's performance.

  16. Conditional nonlinear operations by sequential Jaynes-Cummings interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kimin; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear operations are essential for quantum information processing. We propose a way of implementing a class of nonlinear operations by sequential application of conditional gates based on Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction and projective measurements. The scheme has many advantages over the previously proposed all-optical methods and can be applied in several available experimental platforms, such as cavity quantum electrodynamics, trapped ions, and others. We demonstrate performance of the approach on the example of the cubic nonlinearity. We show several different ways in which the full nonlinear operation can be decomposed into sequences of the individual gates, and we compare their performance.

  17. A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn; Gredler, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Psychology students frequently have misconceptions of basic concepts in operant conditioning. Prior classroom observations revealed that most students defined positive reinforcement as reward and equated negative reinforcement and punishment. Students also labeled positive reinforcement as rewarding good behavior and negative reinforcement as…

  18. Updating Coverage of Operant Conditioning in Introductory Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskist, William; Miller, Erin; Ecott, Cheryl; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    Offers an example of determining what the experts of psychology deem as essential concepts in their subfield by investigating the current principles in operant conditioning through surveys of the board of editors of the "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior." Recommends concepts that are appropriate for up-to-date coverage of operant…

  19. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses.

  20. Verbal Operant Conditioning of Young Mongoloid Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCubrey, Mary Katharine

    Operant conditioning techniques were used to modify verbal behavior in 18 institutionalized, trainable mentally handicapped mongoloids with chronological ages from 4-6 to 7-10 and mental ages from 2.0 to 2.10. Two instruments were constructed to evaluate language: a language test and a speech rating scale. Project leaders had no prior knowledge of…

  1. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35 Section 325.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH...

  2. Applying Operant Conditioning Principles to the Management of Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; Jablonsky, Stephen F.

    Following Walter Nord (1969), the present article contains a predictive model of individual behavior based on both operant conditioning and management literatures. The behavior of an organizational member is seen as a function of the reinforcement contingencies applied by various groups in his environment and of his cognitive assessment of such…

  3. Display of Bombyx mori Alcohol Dehydrogenases on the Bacillus subtilis Spore Surface to Enhance Enzymatic Activity under Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; Chang, Cheng; Yao, Qin; Li, Guohui; Qin, Lvgao; Chen, Liang; Chen, Keping

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are oxidoreductases catalyzing the reversible oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones accompanied by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as coenzyme. ADHs attract major scientific and industrial interest for the evolutionary perspectives, afforded by their wide occurrence in nature, and for their use in industrial synthesis. However, the low activity of ADHs under extremes of pH and temperature often limits their application. To obtain ADH with high activity, in this study, we used Bombyx mori alcohol dehydrogenases (BmADH) as foreign gene and constructed a recombinant integrative plasmid pJS700-BmADH. This pJS700-BmADH was transformed into Bacillus subtilis by double cross-over and produced an amylase inactivated mutant. The fusion protein containing BmADH was expressed on the spore surface and recognized by BmADH-specific antibody. We also assayed the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the fusion protein together with the native BmADH at different pH and temperature levels, which indicated the recombinant enzyme exhibits activity over wider ranges of temperature and pH than its native form, perhaps due to the resistance properties of B. subtilis spores against adverse conditions. PMID:21738670

  4. Discrepancies in pain presentation caused by adverse psychosocial conditions as compared to pain due to high physical workload?

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Inger; Simonsen, Jenny Gremark; Balogh, Istvan; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Dahlqvist, Camilla; Granqvist, Lothy; Ohlsson, Kerstina; Axmon, Anna; Karlson, Björn; Nordander, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Disorders in the musculoskeletal system have been associated with a high physical workload as well as psychosocial and individual factors. It is however not obvious which of these factors that is most important to prevent. Musculoskeletal disorders in neck and upper extremity was assessed by interview and clinical examination in 79 teachers and 93 assisting nurses, all females. Psychosocial work environment was assessed by questionnaire. The physical workload was recorded by technical measurements of postures, movements and muscular load, in 9 teachers and 12 nurses. The physical workload was lower among the teachers, but they had a more demanding psychosocial work environment. Among the nurses, but not in the teachers, the neck-shoulder disorders were associated with a high body mass index (BMI). The teachers reported neck-shoulder complaints to a higher extent than the nurses, but had much lower prevalence of diagnoses in the clinical examination (12% vs. 25%; POR 0.3 CI 0.1 - 1.2; adjusted for age and BMI). The results suggest that adverse psychosocial conditions among the teachers give rise to a different kind of pain in the neck-shoulder region than from physical overload, troublesome but not as severe as the one afflicting the nurses. PMID:22317089

  5. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other parts of the airplane where ice formation will adversely affect the safety of the airplane. (b) No... icing conditions; (2) Under VFR into known light or moderate icing conditions; unless the airplane...

  6. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other parts of the airplane where ice formation will adversely affect the safety of the airplane. (b) No... icing conditions; (2) Under VFR into known light or moderate icing conditions; unless the airplane...

  7. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... other parts of the airplane where ice formation will adversely affect the safety of the airplane. (b) No... icing conditions; (2) Under VFR into known light or moderate icing conditions; unless the airplane...

  8. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown.

  9. Endurance of a diffuser under severe rocket motor operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani, Shimon; Katz, Uri

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a diffuser subjected to severe rocket motor operating conditions. High heat fluxes (over 1 (MW/sq m)) cause extremely high thermal and mechanical loads. The solution selected for the diffuser construction was based on a ductile steel structure, cooled by forced water flow through spiral channels. The paper describes the heat transfer analysis, the mechanical and water system design and post firing examination.

  10. Sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma: prospective study on adverse events, quality of life, and related feasibility under daily conditions.

    PubMed

    Brunocilla, Paola Rita; Brunello, Franco; Carucci, Patrizia; Gaia, Silvia; Rolle, Emanuela; Cantamessa, Alessandro; Castiglione, Anna; Ciccone, Giovannino; Rizzetto, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In two randomized trials, sorafenib was reported to be safe without a significant impact on quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of adverse events, QoL variations, and treatment discontinuations in HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Between November 2009 and March 2011, all patients evaluated as suitable for sorafenib treatment were enrolled. Every patient was invited to complete the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary Questionnaire before starting therapy, at week 1, and at months 1 and 2. QoL scores were analyzed by the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Side effects were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.3.0. Thirty-six patients were enrolled. The cumulative incidence of therapy discontinuation for drug-related adverse events was 33 % (95 % confidence interval, 20.2-49.7). The most common adverse event was fatigue (66.7 %). The worst score decrease was detected from baseline to week 1 in physical well-being, with a median reduction of -8.3 (range -60.1 to 17.9; P = 0.0003). Treatment withdrawal from adverse events was higher than previously reported, significant QoL decrease occurred, and estimated feasibility was 66.7 %.

  11. Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program - Operation and safety considerations during flights of a Lear 28 airplane in adverse weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Phillips, Michael R.; Maier, Launa M.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Langley Research Center Learjet 28 research airplane was flown in various adverse weather conditions in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center from 1990-1992 to measure airborne electric fields during the Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program. The objective of this program was to characterize the electrical activity in various weather phenomena common to the NASA-Kennedy area in order to refine Launch Commit Criteria for natural and triggered lightning. The purpose of the program was to safely relax the existing launch commit criteria, thereby increasing launch availability and reducing the chance for weather holds and delays. This paper discusses the operational conduct of the flight test, including environmental/safety considerations, aircraft instrumentation and modification, test limitations, flight procedures, and the procedures and responsibilities of the personnel in the ground station. Airborne field mill data were collected for all the Launch Commit Criteria during two summer and two winter deployments. These data are now being analyzed.

  12. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. PMID:26159561

  13. Optimization of operating conditions in tunnel drying of food

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Sun Lee . Dept. of Food Engineering); Yu Ryang Pyun . Dept. of Food Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    A food drying process in a tunnel dryer was modeled from Keey's drying model and experimental drying curve, and optimized in operating conditions consisting of inlet air temperature, air recycle ratio and air flow rate. Radish was chosen as a typical food material to be dried, because it has the typical drying characteristics of food and quality indexes of ascorbic acid destruction and browning during drying. Optimization results of cocurrent and counter current tunnel drying showed higher inlet air temperature, lower recycle ratio and higher air flow rate with shorter total drying time. Compared with cocurrent operation counter current drying used lower air temperature, lower recycle ratio and lower air flow rate, and appeared to be more efficient in energy usage. Most of consumed energy was shown to be used for sir heating and then escaped from the dryer in the form of exhaust air.

  14. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A

    2016-05-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis.

  15. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A

    2016-05-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis. PMID:27606188

  16. Genotype and Neuropsychological Response Inhibition as Resilience Promoters for ADHD, ODD, and CD under Conditions of Psychosocial Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Friderici, Karen; Park, Leeyoung; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas child personality, IQ, and family factors have been identified as enabling a resilient response to psychosocial adversity, more direct biological resilience factors have been less well delineated. This is particularly so for child ADHD, which has received less attention from a resilience perspective than have associated externalizing disorders. Children from two independent samples were classified as resilient if they avoided developing ADHD, ODD, or CD in the face of family adversity. Two protective factors were examined for their potential relevance to prefrontal brain development: neuropsychological response inhibition, as assessed by the Stop task, and a composite catecholamine genotype risk score. Resilient children were characterized in both samples by more effective response inhibition, although the effect in the second sample was very small. Genotype was measured in Sample 1, and a composite high risk genotype index was developed by summing presence of risk across markers on three genes expressed in prefrontal cortex: dopamine transporter, dopamine D4 receptor, and noradrenergic alpha 2 receptor. Genotype was a reliable resilience indicator against development of ADHD and CD, but not ODD, in the face of psychosocial adversity. Results illustrate potential neurobiological protective factors related to development of prefrontal cortex that may enable children to avoid developing ADHD and CD in the presence of psychosocial adversity. PMID:17705902

  17. Incinerator operating conditions affect combustion gas levels of dioxins, furans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    New research shows levels of dioxins and furans can be minimized by good combustion practices at a garbage-burning incinerator, according to results of the Combustion and Emissions Research Project at the VICON Incinerator Facility. The project focused on how a wide range of combustion conditions and different types of refuse quality affected the amount of dioxins and furans formed and destroyed during the combustion process. The results of the research show concentrations of dioxins and furans among the lowest measured at any incinerator. Tests were conducted over a broad range of operating conditions, with furnace temperatures as low as 1300 degrees and as high as 1900 degrees Fahrenheit. The only increase in dioxins and furans during testing occurred when incinerator temperatures were reduced below 1500 degrees Fahrenheit.

  18. Adversity-induced relapse of fear: neural mechanisms and implications for relapse prevention from a study on experimentally induced return-of-fear following fear conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Scharfenort, R; Menz, M; Lonsdorf, T B

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders is limited by high relapse rates. Relapse of anxiety disorders and addiction can be triggered by exposure to life adversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Seventy-six healthy adults were a priori selected for the presence or absence of adverse experiences during childhood (CA) and recent past (RA; that is, past 12 months). Participants underwent fear conditioning (day 1) and fear extinction and experimental return-of-fear (ROF) induction through reinstatement (a model for adversity-induced relapse; day 2). Ratings, autonomic (skin conductance response) and neuronal activation measures (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were acquired. Individuals exposed to RA showed a generalized (that is, not CS- specific) fear recall and ROF, whereas unexposed individuals showed differential (that is, CS+ specific) fear recall and ROF on an autonomic level despite no group differences during fear acquisition and extinction learning. These group differences in ROF were accompanied by corresponding activation differences in brain areas known to be involved in fear processing and differentiability/generalization of ROF (that is, hippocampus). In addition, dimensional measures of RA, CA and lifetime adversity were negatively correlated with differential skin conductance responses (SCRs) during ROF and hippocampal activation. As discriminating signals of danger and safety, as well as a tendency for overgeneralization, are core features in clinically anxious populations, these deficits may specifically contribute to relapse risk following exposure to adversity, in particular to recent adversity. Hence, our results may provide first and novel insights into the possible mechanisms mediating enhanced relapse risk following exposure to (recent) adversity, which may guide the development of effective pre- and intervention programs. PMID:27434492

  19. Gender classification from video under challenging operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Schrock, Olga; Dong, Guozhu

    2014-06-01

    The literature is abundant with papers on gender classification research. However the majority of such research is based on the assumption that there is enough resolution so that the subject's face can be resolved. Hence the majority of the research is actually in the face recognition and facial feature area. A gap exists for gender classification under challenging operating conditions—different seasonal conditions, different clothing, etc.—and when the subject's face cannot be resolved due to lack of resolution. The Seasonal Weather and Gender (SWAG) Database is a novel database that contains subjects walking through a scene under operating conditions that span a calendar year. This paper exploits a subset of that database—the SWAG One dataset—using data mining techniques, traditional classifiers (ex. Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, etc.) and traditional (canny edge detection, etc.) and non-traditional (height/width ratios, etc.) feature extractors to achieve high correct gender classification rates (greater than 85%). Another novelty includes exploiting frame differentials.

  20. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen

  1. Quantifying Social Motivation in Mice Using Operant Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren; Iceberg, Erica

    2015-01-01

    In this protocol, social motivation is measured in mice through a pair of operant conditioning paradigms. To conduct the experiments, two-chambered shuttle boxes were equipped with two operant levers (left and right) and a food receptacle in one chamber, which was then divided from the second chamber by an automated guillotine door covered by a wire grid. Different stimulus mice, rotated across testing days, served as a social stimulus behind the wire grid, and were only visible following the opening of the guillotine door. Test mice were trained to lever press in order to open the door and gain access to the stimulus partner for 15 sec. The number of lever presses required to obtain the social reward progressively increased on a fixed schedule of 3. Testing sessions ended after test mice stopped lever pressing for 5 consecutive minutes. The last reinforced ratio or breakpoint can be used as a quantitative measure of social motivation. For the second paradigm, test mice were trained to discriminate between left and right lever presses in order to obtain either a food reward or the social reward. Mice were rewarded for every 3 presses of each respective lever. The number of food and social rewards can be compared as a measurement of the value placed upon each reward. The ratio of each reward type can also be compared between mouse strains and the change in this ratio can be monitored within testing sessions to measure satiation with a given reward type. Both of these operant conditioning paradigms are highly useful for the quantification of social motivation in mouse models of autism and other disorders of social behavior. PMID:26327305

  2. Quantifying Social Motivation in Mice Using Operant Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren; Iceberg, Erica

    2015-08-08

    In this protocol, social motivation is measured in mice through a pair of operant conditioning paradigms. To conduct the experiments, two-chambered shuttle boxes were equipped with two operant levers (left and right) and a food receptacle in one chamber, which was then divided from the second chamber by an automated guillotine door covered by a wire grid. Different stimulus mice, rotated across testing days, served as a social stimulus behind the wire grid, and were only visible following the opening of the guillotine door. Test mice were trained to lever press in order to open the door and gain access to the stimulus partner for 15 sec. The number of lever presses required to obtain the social reward progressively increased on a fixed schedule of 3. Testing sessions ended after test mice stopped lever pressing for 5 consecutive minutes. The last reinforced ratio or breakpoint can be used as a quantitative measure of social motivation. For the second paradigm, test mice were trained to discriminate between left and right lever presses in order to obtain either a food reward or the social reward. Mice were rewarded for every 3 presses of each respective lever. The number of food and social rewards can be compared as a measurement of the value placed upon each reward. The ratio of each reward type can also be compared between mouse strains and the change in this ratio can be monitored within testing sessions to measure satiation with a given reward type. Both of these operant conditioning paradigms are highly useful for the quantification of social motivation in mouse models of autism and other disorders of social behavior.

  3. Identifying a "default" visual search mode with operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2010-09-01

    The presence of a singleton in a task-irrelevant domain can impair visual search. This impairment, known as the attentional capture depends on the set of participants. When narrowly searching for a specific feature (the feature search mode), only matching stimuli capture attention. When searching broadly (the singleton detection mode), any oddball captures attention. The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a target in an ambiguous context in which one of two modes was available. The results revealed that participants behaviorally adopted the singleton detection as the default mode but reported using the feature search mode. Conscious strategies did not eliminate capture. These results challenge the view that a conscious set always modulates capture, suggesting that the visual system tends to rely on stimulus salience to deploy attention.

  4. Presearch Data Conditioning in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Jenkins, Jon M.; Gunter, Jay P.; Girouard, Forrest; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Presearch Data Conditioning (PDC) software component and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline. The primary tasks of this component are to correct systematic and other errors, remove excess flux due to aperture crowding, and condition the raw flux light curves for over 160,000 long cadence (thirty minute) and 512 short cadence (one minute) targets across the focal plane array. Long cadence corrected flux light curves are subjected to a transiting planet search in a subsequent pipeline module. We discuss the science algorithms for long and short cadence PDC: identification and correction of unexplained (i.e., unrelated to known anomalies) discontinuities; systematic error correction; and excess flux removal. We discuss the propagation of uncertainties from raw to corrected flux. Finally, we present examples of raw and corrected flux time series for flight data to illustrate PDC performance. Corrected flux light curves produced by PDC are exported to the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope [Science Institute] (MAST) and will be made available to the general public in accordance with the NASA/Kepler data release policy.

  5. Effect of Circadian Phase on Memory Acquisition and Recall: Operant Conditioning vs. Classical Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Garren, Madeleine V.; Sexauer, Stephen B.; Page, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    There have been several studies on the role of circadian clocks in the regulation of associative learning and memory processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The results have been quite variable and at present it is unclear to what extent the variability observed reflects species differences or differences in methodology. Previous results have shown that following differential classical conditioning in the cockroach, Rhyparobia maderae, in an olfactory discrimination task, formation of the short-term and long-term memory is under strict circadian control. In contrast, there appeared to be no circadian regulation of the ability to recall established memories. In the present study, we show that following operant conditioning of the same species in a very similar olfactory discrimination task, there is no impact of the circadian system on either short-term or long-term memory formation. On the other hand, ability to recall established memories is strongly tied to the circadian phase of training. On the basis of these data and those previously reported for phylogenetically diverse species, it is suggested that there may be fundamental differences in the way the circadian system regulates learning and memory in classical and operant conditioning. PMID:23533587

  6. Effect of circadian phase on memory acquisition and recall: operant conditioning vs. classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Garren, Madeleine V; Sexauer, Stephen B; Page, Terry L

    2013-01-01

    There have been several studies on the role of circadian clocks in the regulation of associative learning and memory processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The results have been quite variable and at present it is unclear to what extent the variability observed reflects species differences or differences in methodology. Previous results have shown that following differential classical conditioning in the cockroach, Rhyparobia maderae, in an olfactory discrimination task, formation of the short-term and long-term memory is under strict circadian control. In contrast, there appeared to be no circadian regulation of the ability to recall established memories. In the present study, we show that following operant conditioning of the same species in a very similar olfactory discrimination task, there is no impact of the circadian system on either short-term or long-term memory formation. On the other hand, ability to recall established memories is strongly tied to the circadian phase of training. On the basis of these data and those previously reported for phylogenetically diverse species, it is suggested that there may be fundamental differences in the way the circadian system regulates learning and memory in classical and operant conditioning.

  7. The Effect of Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions on the Development of Diabetes Mellitus among Middle-aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, Mario; Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, J. Philip; Yan, Yan; Miller, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of observed neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with the incidence of diabetes by using data from 644 subjects in the African-American Health Study (St. Louis area, Missouri). They also investigated five mediating pathways (health behavior, psychosocial, health status, access to medical care, and sociodemographic characteristics) if significant associations were identified. The external appearance of the block the subjects lived on and housing conditions were rated as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Subjects reported about neighborhood desirability. Self-reported diabetes was obtained at baseline and 3 years later. Of 644 subjects without self-reported diabetes, 10.3% reported having diabetes at the 3-year follow-up. Every housing condition rated as fair-poor was associated with an increased risk of diabetes, with odds ratios ranging from 2.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.47, 4.34 for physical condition inside the building) to 1.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 3.07 for cleanliness inside the building) in unadjusted analyses. No association was found between any of the block face conditions or perceived neighborhood conditions and incident diabetes. The odds ratios for the five housing conditions were unaffected when adjusted for the mediating pathways. Poor housing conditions appear to be an independent contributor to the risk of incident diabetes in urban, middle-aged African Americans. PMID:17625220

  8. On the resolvent of multidimensional operators with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case of the homogenized Dirichlet condition

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapov, T F

    2014-10-31

    We consider an elliptic operator in a multidimensional domain with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case when the homogenized operator contains the Dirichlet boundary condition. We prove the uniform resolvent convergence of the perturbed operator to the homogenized operator and obtain estimates for the rate of convergence. A complete asymptotic expansion is constructed for the resolvent when it acts on sufficiently smooth functions. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  9. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  10. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  11. Operant Conditioning: A Tool for Special Physical Educators in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John M.; French, Ron

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of operant conditioning for the special physical educator in managing behavior problems is pointed out, and steps to follow in applying operant conditioning techniques are outlined. (SB)

  12. 42 CFR 417.413 - Qualifying condition: Operating experience and enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifying condition: Operating experience and... Qualifying condition: Operating experience and enrollment. (a) Condition. The HMO or CMP must demonstrate that it has operating experience and an enrolled population sufficient to provide a reasonable...

  13. 46 CFR 78.83-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from exhausts of power-operated...%) as a time-weighted average, and persons shall be removed from the area if the concentration...

  14. 46 CFR 78.83-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from exhausts of power-operated industrial trucks shall have adequate ventilation. The senior deck officer shall see that tests of the...

  15. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  16. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  17. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women.

  18. 14 CFR 91.527 - Operating in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conditions. (a) No pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller... of climb, or flight attitude instrument system or wing, except that takeoffs may be made with...

  19. 14 CFR 91.527 - Operating in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conditions. (a) No pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller... of climb, or flight attitude instrument system or wing, except that takeoffs may be made with...

  20. 14 CFR 91.527 - Operating in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conditions. (a) No pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller... of climb, or flight attitude instrument system or wing, except that takeoffs may be made with...

  1. 14 CFR 91.527 - Operating in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conditions. (a) No pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller... of climb, or flight attitude instrument system or wing, except that takeoffs may be made with...

  2. Halogen Cycle Operation Test under Microgravity Conditions Using Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Fumio; Mizutani, Takayuki; Yokota, Takao; Saito, Masatoshi; Kanbayashi, Akio; Nakahata, Yoshihiro; Sawaoka, Akira

    1984-02-01

    Effect of halogen cycle under microgravity conditions was determined by using halogen lamp equipment on board sounding rocket TT-500 A #12 launched by the National Space Development Agency of Japan. Results show that the halogen lamp halogen cycle under microgravity conditions behaves the same as on the ground. From this result, it is foreseeable that there will be no reduction halogen cycle effect in the lamp in the image furnace on board the Space Shuttle Spacelab.

  3. 47 CFR 74.25 - Temporary conditional operating authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... area of operation. This requirement can be satisfied by coordination with the local frequency committee... broadcast or cable network entities. (2) The antenna structure(s) has been previously studied by the Federal... this chapter; (5) The station site does not lie within an area identified in § 1.924 of this...

  4. 46 CFR 78.83-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from exhausts of power-operated industrial trucks shall have adequate ventilation. The senior deck officer shall see that tests of the carbon... acquainted with the test equipment and procedure. The carbon monoxide concentration in the holds...

  5. 46 CFR 78.83-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from exhausts of power-operated industrial trucks shall have adequate ventilation. The senior deck officer shall see that tests of the carbon... acquainted with the test equipment and procedure. The carbon monoxide concentration in the holds...

  6. 46 CFR 78.83-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from exhausts of power-operated industrial trucks shall have adequate ventilation. The senior deck officer shall see that tests of the carbon... acquainted with the test equipment and procedure. The carbon monoxide concentration in the holds...

  7. [Design, equipment, and management for air conditioning in operating room].

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kumiko; Mizuno, Ju

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain air cleanliness in the operating room (OR) permanently, air exchange rate in the OR should be more than 15 times x hr(-1), the laminar air flow should be kept, and the numbers of the persons in the OR and the numbers of opening and closing OR door should be limited. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is effective in collection and removal of airborne microbes, and is used in the biological clean room. We need to design, equip, and manage the OR environment according to Guideline for Design and Operation of Hospital HVAC Systems HEAS-02-2004 established by Healthcare Engineering Association of Japan and Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA. PMID:22175178

  8. Stress states in nuclear operators under conditions of shiftwork.

    PubMed

    Dalbokova, D; Tzenova, B; Ognjanova, V

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the stress states experienced by nuclear power operators at work under an existing shift system, time-on-shift effects and the manner in which these states may be moderated by achievement motivation and a sense of coherence. The results show an incidence of stress states during evening shifts and night-shifts in the operators, which are primarily characterized by increased distraction as well as by enhanced sleepiness and low irritability. The night-shift was found to be the most problematic one in terms of increased sleepiness and distractibility, and reduced alertness. An abrupt fall in alertness during the evening shift and a considerably increased distractibility at its end was observed. These facts, as well as the lack of recuperation from daily domestic activities and caring for children at the start of the shift, suggest that besides the night duty, the evening one also constitutes a serious challenge to operational safety at this nuclear facility. Correlations found between personality characteristics and sleepiness, distractibility and irritability, indicate personal resources as important modifiers of stress states. A narrowing in the effects of motivation and sense of coherence was found in the evening shifts and night-shifts. The results have practical implications for intentional modifications of personal resources at nuclear facilities. PMID:11539392

  9. Operating condition limitations of high density QCW arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Jeremy; Levy, Joseph; Feeler, Ryan

    2012-03-01

    Northrop Grumman Cutting Edge Optronics (NGCEO) has developed a laser diode array package with minimal bar-tobar spacing. These High Density Stack (HDS) packages allow for a power density increase on the order of ~ 2.5x when compared to industry-standard arrays. Power densities as high as 15 kW/cm2 can be achieved when operated at 200 W/bar. This work provides a detailed description of the duty factor, pulse width and power limitations of high density arrays. The absence of the interposing heatsinks requires that all of the heat generated by the interior bars must travel through the adjacent bars to the electrical contacts. This results in limitations to the allowable operating envelope of the HDS arrays. Thermal effects such as wavelength shifts across large HDS arrays are discussed. An overview of recent HDS design and manufacturing improvements is also presented. These improvements result in reliable operation at higher power densities and increased duty factors. A comparison of the effect of bar geometry on HDS performance is provided. Test data from arrays featuring these improvements based on both full 1 cm wide diode bars as well as 3 mm wide mini-bars is also presented.

  10. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS Licenses § 960.11 Conditions for... all facilities which comprise the remote sensing space system for the purpose of conducting license... possession, the licensee shall offer such data to the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive...

  11. 33 CFR 156.320 - Maximum operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the following conditions exist: (1) The wind velocity is 56 km/hr (30 knots) or more; or (2) The... shall be drained when— (1) The wind velocity exceeds 82 km/hr (44 knots); or (2) Wave heights exceed...

  12. 33 CFR 156.320 - Maximum operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the following conditions exist: (1) The wind velocity is 56 km/hr (30 knots) or more; or (2) The... shall be drained when— (1) The wind velocity exceeds 82 km/hr (44 knots); or (2) Wave heights exceed...

  13. 33 CFR 156.320 - Maximum operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the following conditions exist: (1) The wind velocity is 56 km/hr (30 knots) or more; or (2) The... shall be drained when— (1) The wind velocity exceeds 82 km/hr (44 knots); or (2) Wave heights exceed...

  14. 33 CFR 156.320 - Maximum operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the following conditions exist: (1) The wind velocity is 56 km/hr (30 knots) or more; or (2) The... shall be drained when— (1) The wind velocity exceeds 82 km/hr (44 knots); or (2) Wave heights exceed...

  15. 33 CFR 156.320 - Maximum operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the following conditions exist: (1) The wind velocity is 56 km/hr (30 knots) or more; or (2) The... shall be drained when— (1) The wind velocity exceeds 82 km/hr (44 knots); or (2) Wave heights exceed...

  16. Operant Theory and Methodology in Infant Vocal Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulson, Claire L.

    1984-01-01

    Aims to clarify the distinction between elicitation and reinforcement discussed in Bloom (1984); to make explicit theoretical and methodological assumptions about the experimental analysis of infant behavior as shown in components of Poulson (1983); and to clarify differences in interpretation of other infant vocal conditioning research.…

  17. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS Licenses § 960.11 Conditions for... all facilities which comprise the remote sensing space system for the purpose of conducting license... possession, the licensee shall offer such data to the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive...

  18. 46 CFR 97.80-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in this section have been met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from... see that tests of the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere are made as frequently as conditions... which persons are working, by persons acquainted with the test equipment and procedure. The...

  19. 46 CFR 97.80-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in this section have been met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from... see that tests of the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere are made as frequently as conditions... which persons are working, by persons acquainted with the test equipment and procedure. The...

  20. 46 CFR 97.80-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in this section have been met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from... see that tests of the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere are made as frequently as conditions... which persons are working, by persons acquainted with the test equipment and procedure. The...

  1. 46 CFR 97.80-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in this section have been met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from... see that tests of the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere are made as frequently as conditions... which persons are working, by persons acquainted with the test equipment and procedure. The...

  2. 46 CFR 97.80-1 - Special operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in this section have been met. (b) Spaces exposed to carbon monoxide or other hazardous vapors from... see that tests of the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere are made as frequently as conditions... which persons are working, by persons acquainted with the test equipment and procedure. The...

  3. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS Licenses § 960.11 Conditions for... all facilities which comprise the remote sensing space system for the purpose of conducting license... possession, the licensee shall offer such data to the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive...

  4. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS Licenses § 960.11 Conditions for... all facilities which comprise the remote sensing space system for the purpose of conducting license... possession, the licensee shall offer such data to the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive...

  5. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS Licenses § 960.11 Conditions for... all facilities which comprise the remote sensing space system for the purpose of conducting license... possession, the licensee shall offer such data to the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive...

  6. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  7. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... system, or wing, except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel tanks... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably...

  8. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... system, or wing, except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel tanks... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably...

  9. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  10. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  11. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... system, or wing, except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel tanks... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably...

  12. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 74 FR 62696, Dec. 1, 2009. (a) No pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow... follow conditions: (1) Takeoffs may be made with frost adhering to the wings, or stabilizing or control surfaces, if the frost has been polished to make it smooth. (2) Takeoffs may be made with frost under...

  13. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  14. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... system, or wing, except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel tanks... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably...

  15. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  16. One-against-All Weighted Dynamic Time Warping for Language-Independent and Speaker-Dependent Speech Recognition in Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianglilan; Sun, Jiping; Luo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English) names, language-independent (LI) with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD) automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW). This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI) for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW), as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER) compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions. PMID:24520317

  17. Influence of impurity gases and operating conditions on PAFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, K.; Iwasa, N.; Suzuki, M.; Okada, O.

    1996-12-31

    On-site Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Cogeneration system is installed at various test sites, such as at underground parking lot, within chemical plant premises and near urban streets. Since in the current PAFC system, cathode air is supplied to the cell with no particular pretreatment, impurity gases in the air might influence on cell performance. We have investigated the influence of various impurity gases in the cathode gas, on sub-scale single cells, and have found that NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and toluene affect negatively on cell performance. The results of these experiments and the conceivable mechanism of these effects on cell degradation are reported. We have also investigated the influence of other operating parameters, such as temperature, current density, fuel utilization on cell performance. From these experiments, we have found that operating temperature is a significant factor, which mainly determines cell voltage decline rate. The results of sub-scale single cell tests and a short-stack verification test are also reported.

  18. Extending In Vitro Conditioning in "Aplysia" to Analyze Operant and Classical Processes in the Same Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brembs, Bjorn; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Operant and classical conditioning are major processes shaping behavioral responses in all animals. Although the understanding of the mechanisms of classical conditioning has expanded significantly, the understanding of the mechanisms of operant conditioning is more limited. Recent developments in "Aplysia" are helping to narrow the gap in the…

  19. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  20. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed. PMID:22478407

  1. Operational seasonal and interannual predictions of ocean conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leetmaa, Ants

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Leetmaa described current work at the U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC) on coupled systems leading to a seasonal prediction system. He described the way in which ocean thermal data is quality controlled and used in a four dimensional data assimilation system. This consists of a statistical interpolation scheme, a primitive equation ocean general circulation model, and the atmospheric fluxes that are required to force this. This whole process generated dynamically consist thermohaline and velocity fields for the ocean. Currently routine weekly analyses are performed for the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. These analyses are used for ocean climate diagnostics and as initial conditions for coupled forecast models. Specific examples of output products were shown both in the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Global boundary conditions for a Dirac operator on the solid torus

    SciTech Connect

    Klimek, Slawomir; McBride, Matt

    2011-06-15

    We study a Dirac operator subject to Atiayh-Patodi-Singer-like boundary conditions on the solid torus and shows that the corresponding boundary value problem is elliptic in the sense that the Dirac operator has a compact parametrix.

  3. Effect of Drying Operating Conditions on Canola Oil Tocopherol Content

    PubMed Central

    Laoretani, Daniela; Fernández, María; Crapiste, Guillermo; Nolasco, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate two operating parameters of seed drying (temperature and initial moisture content) on the tocopherol content of canola oil. The raw material was characterized by moisture, oil, protein, crude fiber and ash content. Seeds at 13.6% and 22.7% moisture content (dry basis, db) were dried at temperatures in the range of 35–100 °C to a safe storage moisture of 7% db. Oil was extracted from each treated sample. The oil extracted from the samples dried at the extreme temperatures was analyzed by means of the acidity value, peroxide index and fatty acid composition, finding no significant differences among treatments or among untreated and treated samples. Tocopherol contents in the oils obtained for all the assayed temperatures were determined. Differences were found for the samples with 22.7% (db) initial moisture content. Except at 35 °C, temperature affected negatively the oil tocopherol content. However, when 13.6% (db) moisture seeds were processed, no significant differences were observed in the amount of this minor oil component among assays. PMID:26784866

  4. High precision moving magnet chopper for variable operation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aicher, Winfried; Schmid, Manfred

    1994-05-01

    In the context of an ESTEC technology contract, a Chopping Mechanism was developed and built with the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) astronomy mission as a reference. The task of the mechanism is to tilt the subreflector of the telescope with an assumed mass of 2.5 kg about one chopping axis at nominal frequencies of up to 5 Hz and chopping angles of up to +/- 11.25 mrad with high efficiency (minimum time for position change). The chopping axis is required to run through the subreflector vertex. After performing a concept trade-off also considering the low operational temperatures in the 130 K range, a design using moving magnet actuators was found to be the favorite one. In addition, a bearing concept using flexible pivots was chosen to meet the high chopping accuracy required. With this approach, a very reliable design could be realized, since the actuators work without any mechanical contact between its moving and fixed parts, and the only bearings used are two flexible pivots supporting the subreflector mounting interface. The mechanism was completely built in titanium in a lightweight and stiff design. The moving magnet actuators were designed to meet the stringent requirements for minimum risetime (time necessary to move from one angular position to a new one) in the 20 msec range. The angular position and the corresponding chopping frequency as well can be arbitrarily selected by the user.

  5. High precision moving magnet chopper for variable operation conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aicher, Winfried; Schmid, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    In the context of an ESTEC technology contract, a Chopping Mechanism was developed and built with the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) astronomy mission as a reference. The task of the mechanism is to tilt the subreflector of the telescope with an assumed mass of 2.5 kg about one chopping axis at nominal frequencies of up to 5 Hz and chopping angles of up to +/- 11.25 mrad with high efficiency (minimum time for position change). The chopping axis is required to run through the subreflector vertex. After performing a concept trade-off also considering the low operational temperatures in the 130 K range, a design using moving magnet actuators was found to be the favorite one. In addition, a bearing concept using flexible pivots was chosen to meet the high chopping accuracy required. With this approach, a very reliable design could be realized, since the actuators work without any mechanical contact between its moving and fixed parts, and the only bearings used are two flexible pivots supporting the subreflector mounting interface. The mechanism was completely built in titanium in a lightweight and stiff design. The moving magnet actuators were designed to meet the stringent requirements for minimum risetime (time necessary to move from one angular position to a new one) in the 20 msec range. The angular position and the corresponding chopping frequency as well can be arbitrarily selected by the user.

  6. Pseudo-spark switch (PSS) characteristics under different operation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, B. H.; Lateef, K. H.; Ahmad, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper concentrates on the characteristics of the pseudospark switch (PSS) designed in a previous work. The special characteristics of PSS make it a replacement for other high voltage switches such as thyratrons and ordinary high-pressure spark gaps. PSS is characterized by short rise time and small jitter time. The pseudo park chamber consists of two hollow cylindrical electrodes made of a stainless steel material (type 306L) separated by an insulator. The insulator used in our design is a glazed ceramic 70 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm in thickness. A PSS with an anode voltage of 29.2 kV, and a current of 3.6 kA and 11 ns rise time was achieved and used successfully at a repetition rate of about 2.2 kHz. A simple trigger circuit designed, built, and used effectively reaching more than 1.56 kV trigger pulse which is sufficient to ignite the argon gas inside the cathode to cause a breakdown. A non-inductive dummy load is designed to be a new technique to find the accurate value of the PSS inductance. A jitter time of ±10 ns pulses is observed to occur in a reliable manner for more than 6 h of continuous operation. In this research, the important parameters of this switch like rise time, peak current, and anode voltage were studied at various values of charging capacitance. The lifetime of this system is depending on the kind of the electrode material and on the type of insulation material in the main gap of the pseudospark switch.

  7. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight...

  8. Study to determine operational and performance criteria for STOL aircraft operating in low visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational and performance criteria for civil CTOL passenger-carrying airplanes landing in low visibilities depend upon the characteristics of the airplane, the nature and use of the ground and airborne guidance and control systems, and the geometry and lighting of the landing field. Based upon these criteria, FAA advisory circulars, airplane and equipment design characteristics, and airline operational and maintenance procedures were formulated. The documents are selected, described, and discussed in relationship to the potential low weather minima operation of STOL aircraft. An attempt is made to identify fundamental differences between CTOL and STOL aircraft characteristics which could impact upon existing CTOL documentation. Further study and/or flight experiments are recommended.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 cell surface hydrophobicity and survival of the cells under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakirova, Laisana; Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Auzina, Lilija; Zikmanis, Peteris

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and the survival of these cells were examined in response to varied cultivation conditions and adverse environmental conditions. An inverse linear relationship (P < 0.01) was detected between the CSH of intact L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 and survival of cells subjected to subsequent freezing/thawing, long-term storage or exposure to mineral and bile acids. The observed relationships were supported by significant correlations between the CSH and changes in composition of the cell envelopes (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) of L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 examined using FT-IR spectroscopy and conventional biochemical analysis methods. The results also suggest that the estimates of hydrophobicity, being a generalized characteristic of cell surfaces, are important parameters to predict the ability of intact probiotic bacteria to endure extreme environments and therefore should be monitored during cultivation. A defined balance of cell components, which can be characterized by the reduced CSH values, apparently helps to ensure the resistance, improved viability and hence the overall probiotic properties of bacteria. PMID:23053348

  10. 43 CFR 3137.51 - Under what conditions does BLM permit multiple unit operators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Under what conditions does BLM permit multiple unit operators? 3137.51 Section 3137.51 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...-Alaska Optional Terms § 3137.51 Under what conditions does BLM permit multiple unit operators?...

  11. Operant Conditioning Concepts in Introductory Psychology Textbooks and Their Companion Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Jane P.

    2002-01-01

    Psychology instructors and textbook authors rate operant conditioning as one of the most essential concepts for students to learn, yet textbook writers, as well as students, can fall prey to misconceptions. This study is a content analysis of the presentation of operant conditioning in introductory psychology textbooks and their companion Web…

  12. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  13. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  14. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  15. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  16. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  17. The Establishment and Administration of Operant Conditioning Programs in a State Hospital for the Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Thomas S., Ed.

    Seven articles treat the establishment of operant conditioning programs for the mentally retarded at Pacific State Hospital in California. Emphasis is on the administrative rather than the demonstration of research aspects of operant conditioning programs. Following an introduction and overview, the medical director's point of view on operant…

  18. 77 FR 31844 - New Mexico Gas Company, Inc; Notice of Revised Statement of Operating Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New Mexico Gas Company, Inc; Notice of Revised Statement of Operating Conditions Take notice that on May 18, 2012, New Mexico Gas Company, Inc. (NMGC) submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC). NMGC...

  19. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictive condition resulting from open hand... Instructions; Roadway § 236.528 Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement. When a facing point hand-operated switch is open one-fourth inch or more, a trailing point...

  20. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictive condition resulting from open hand... Instructions; Roadway § 236.528 Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement. When a facing point hand-operated switch is open one-fourth inch or more, a trailing point...

  1. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictive condition resulting from open hand... Instructions; Roadway § 236.528 Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement. When a facing point hand-operated switch is open one-fourth inch or more, a trailing point...

  2. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictive condition resulting from open hand... Instructions; Roadway § 236.528 Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement. When a facing point hand-operated switch is open one-fourth inch or more, a trailing point...

  3. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  4. Myocardial Fibrosis Identified by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Late Gadolinium Enhancement is Associated with Adverse Ventricular Mechanics and Ventricular Tachycardia Late After Fontan Operation

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Rahul H.; Prakash, Ashwin; Powell, Andrew J.; Geva, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship between myocardial fibrosis identified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and ventricular performance and arrhythmias in patients late after the Fontan operation. Background Patients who have undergone the Fontan palliation may develop ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias, but the mechanisms and risk factors are poorly defined. Methods All patients who have had a Fontan operation and a CMR study with the myocardial delayed enhancement technique from January 2002 to November 2008 were retrospectively identified. Results Of 90 patients (mean age at study 23.1 ± 10.9 years), 25 (28%) had positive late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in the ventricular myocardium. Patients with positive LGE had lower mean ejection fraction (EF) (45% v. 56%, P<0.001), increased median end-diastolic volume (EDVi) (100 mL/BSA1.3 v. 82 mL/BSA1.3, P=0.004), increased median ventricular massi (63 g/BSA1.3 v. 45 g/BSA1.3, P<0.001), higher frequency of regional wall motion abnormalities (52% v. 28%, P=0.05), and higher frequency of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) (36% v. 11%, P=0.01). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that more extensive positive LGE, expressed as percent LGE of total myocardial mass, was associated with lower EF (P=0.002), increased EDVi (P<0.001), increased massi (P<0.001), and a higher frequency of NSVT (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4, P=0.006). Conclusions In this cohort of late Fontan survivors, myocardial fibrosis was common and associated with adverse ventricular mechanics and higher prevalence of NSVT. Further studies are warranted to examine the utility of LGE for risk stratification and treatment of ventricular arrhythmia and dysfunction in Fontan patients. PMID:20394877

  5. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J

    2014-12-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However, this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past-year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed.

  6. Store operation with conditional push of a tag value to a queue

    SciTech Connect

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-07-28

    According to one embodiment, a method for a store operation with a conditional push of a tag value to a queue is provided. The method includes configuring a queue that is accessible by an application, setting a value at an address in a memory device including a memory and a controller, receiving a request for an operation using the value at the address and performing the operation. The method also includes the controller writing a result of the operation to the address, thus changing the value at the address, the controller determining if the result of the operation meets a condition and the controller pushing a tag value to the queue based on the condition being met, where the tag value in the queue indicates to the application that the condition is met.

  7. Operational-Condition-Independent Criteria Dedicated to Monitoring Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.; Sheng, S.; Court, R.

    2012-08-01

    To date the existing wind turbine condition monitoring technologies and commercially available systems have not been fully accepted for improving wind turbine availability and reducing their operation and maintenance costs. One of the main reasons is that wind turbines are subject to constantly varying loads and operate at variable rotational speeds. As a consequence, the influences of turbine faults and the effects of varying load and speed are coupled together in wind turbine condition monitoring signals. So, there is an urgent need to either introduce some operational condition de-coupling procedures into the current wind turbine condition monitoring techniques or develop a new operational condition independent wind turbine condition monitoring technique to maintain high turbine availability and achieve the expected economic benefits from wind. The purpose of this paper is to develop such a technique. In the paper, three operational condition independent criteria are developed dedicated for monitoring the operation and health condition of wind turbine generators. All proposed criteria have been tested through both simulated and practical experiments. The experiments have shown that these criteria provide a solution for detecting both mechanical and electrical faults occurring in wind turbine generators.

  8. The characteristics of the combustion process occurring under real operating conditions of traction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longwic, R.; Sander, P.

    2016-09-01

    The authors deal with the issues of the Diesel engine under dynamic conditions. The conditions of the dynamic operation of the engine have most frequently been mapped by the method of free acceleration of the engine caused by the change of the position of the fuel dose lever. The article presents the results of indication of the traction Diesel engine under real operating conditions. This allows for the use of a mobile system to indicate the AVL engine built in the vehicle in research. We analysed a number of thermodynamic parameters of the combustion process in various dynamic states, typical for the process of actual operation of the engine, such as working in start-up conditions and immediately after, working in conditions of acceleration and coasting. Formulated conclusions significantly expand the area of knowledge concerning the functioning of the internal combustion engine in dynamic conditions.

  9. Operant Conditioning Principles in the Treatment of Learning and Behavior Problems with Delinquent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Richard L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This study on operant conditioning showed that both groups showed significant improvement in reading skills from pretest to posttest, but that the reinforced group showed significantly more improvement than the nonreinforced group. (Author)

  10. Relative Effectiveness of Operant Conditioning and Play Therapy in Childhood Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Philip G.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study designed to examine the relative effectiveness of operant conditioning and play therapy in improving the communication and social functioning of psychotic children was presented and discussed. (Author)

  11. Matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2013-11-05

    Mechanisms for performing matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. A load and splat operation is performed to load an element of a second vector operand and replicating the element to each of a plurality of elements of a second target vector register. A multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the matrix multiplication operation. The partial product of the matrix multiplication operation is accumulated with other partial products of the matrix multiplication operation.

  12. Application of signature analysis for determining the operational readiness of motor-operated valves under blowdown test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the NRC-funded Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs). As part of this work, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown (GVFIB) tests carried out in Huntsville, Alabama. The GVFIB tests were intended primarily to determine the behavior of motor-operated gate valves under the temperature, pressure, and flow conditions expected to be experienced by isolation valves in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) during a high energy line break (blowdown) outside of containment. In addition, the tests provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate signature analysis methods for determining the operational readiness of the MOVs under those accident conditions. ORNL acquired motor current and torque switch shaft angular position data on two test MOVs during various times of the GVFIB tests. The reduction in operating ''margin'' of both MOVs due to the presence of additional valve running loads imposed by high flow was clearly observed in motor current and torque switch angular position signatures. In addition, the effects of differential pressure, fluid temperature, and line voltage on MOV operations were observed and more clearly understood as a result of utilizing signature analysis techniques. 1 ref.; 16 figs.

  13. Self-adjoint elliptic operators with boundary conditions on not closed hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantile, Andrea; Posilicano, Andrea; Sini, Mourad

    2016-07-01

    The theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators is used to construct self-adjoint realizations of a second-order elliptic differential operator on Rn with linear boundary conditions on (a relatively open part of) a compact hypersurface. Our approach allows to obtain Kreĭn-like resolvent formulae where the reference operator coincides with the "free" operator with domain H2 (Rn); this provides an useful tool for the scattering problem from a hypersurface. Concrete examples of this construction are developed in connection with the standard boundary conditions, Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, δ and δ‧-type, assigned either on a (n - 1) dimensional compact boundary Γ = ∂ Ω or on a relatively open part Σ ⊂ Γ. Schatten-von Neumann estimates for the difference of the powers of resolvents of the free and the perturbed operators are also proven; these give existence and completeness of the wave operators of the associated scattering systems.

  14. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  15. Operation of a phase locked loop system under distorted utility conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaura, V.; Blasko, V.

    1997-01-01

    Operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) system under distorted utility conditions is presented. A control model of the PLL system is developed and recommendations are made on tuning of this model specially for operation under common utility distortions as line notching, voltage unbalance/loss, frequency variations. The PLL is completely implemented in software without any filters. All analytical results are experimentally verified.

  16. Tracking MOV operability under degraded voltage condition by periodic test measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, B.; Behera, A.K.; Alsammarae, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for evaluating the operability of Alternating Current (AC) Motor Operated Valve (MOV) under degraded voltage condition, based on the seating parameter measured during surveillance/testing. This approach will help resolve Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) concern on verifying the AC MOV`s design basis capability through periodic testing.

  17. Combination of process and vibration data for improved condition monitoring of industrial systems working under variable operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Cárcel, C.; Jaramillo, V. H.; Mba, D.; Ottewill, J. R.; Cao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The detection and diagnosis of faults in industrial processes is a very active field of research due to the reduction in maintenance costs achieved by the implementation of process monitoring algorithms such as Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares or more recently Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA). Typically the condition of rotating machinery is monitored separately using vibration analysis or other specific techniques. Conventional vibration-based condition monitoring techniques are based on the tracking of key features observed in the measured signal. Typically steady-state loading conditions are required to ensure consistency between measurements. In this paper, a technique based on merging process and vibration data is proposed with the objective of improving the detection of mechanical faults in industrial systems working under variable operating conditions. The capabilities of CVA for detection and diagnosis of faults were tested using experimental data acquired from a compressor test rig where different process faults were introduced. Results suggest that the combination of process and vibration data can effectively improve the detectability of mechanical faults in systems working under variable operating conditions.

  18. 19 CFR 113.73 - Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... condition shall be based upon the quantity and value of the merchandise as determined by Customs, and that... Regulations concerning the maintenance of inventory control and recordkeeping systems covering merchandise in... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions....

  19. 19 CFR 113.73 - Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... condition shall be based upon the quantity and value of the merchandise as determined by Customs, and that... Regulations concerning the maintenance of inventory control and recordkeeping systems covering merchandise in... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions....

  20. 19 CFR 113.73 - Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... condition shall be based upon the quantity and value of the merchandise as determined by Customs, and that... Regulations concerning the maintenance of inventory control and recordkeeping systems covering merchandise in... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions....

  1. 19 CFR 113.73 - Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... condition shall be based upon the quantity and value of the merchandise as determined by Customs, and that... Regulations concerning the maintenance of inventory control and recordkeeping systems covering merchandise in... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign trade zone operator bond conditions....

  2. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  3. Contriving Transitive Conditioned Establishing Operations to Establish Derived Manding Skills in Adults with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Rocio; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate derived manding skills in 2 adults with severe developmental disabilities and language deficits by contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations. Specifically, we evaluated whether a history of reinforced conditional discrimination learning would ultimately result in a derived mand…

  4. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  5. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  6. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  7. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  8. Fluid dynamic characterization of operating conditions for continuous flow blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z J; Antaki, J F; Burgreen, G W; Butler, K C; Thomas, D C; Griffith, B P

    1999-01-01

    As continuous flow pumps become more prominent as long-term ventricular assist devices, the wide range of conditions under which they must be operated has become evident. Designed to operate at a single, best-efficiency, operating point, continuous flow pumps are required to perform at off-design conditions quite frequently. The present study investigated the internal fluid dynamics within two representative rotary fluid pumps to characterize the quality of the flow field over a full range of operating conditions. A Nimbus/UoP axial flow blood pump and a small centrifugal pump were used as the study models. Full field visualization of flow features in the two pumps was conducted using a laser based fluorescent particle imaging technique. Experiments were performed under steady flow conditions. Flow patterns at inlet and outlet sections were visualized over a series of operating points. Flow features specific to each pump design were observed to exist under all operating conditions. At off-design conditions, an annular region of reverse flow was commonly observed within the inlet of the axial pump, while a small annulus of backflow in the inlet duct and a strong disturbed flow at the outlet tongue were observed for the centrifugal pump. These observations were correlated to a critical nondimensional flow coefficient. The creation of a "map" of flow behavior provides an additional, important criterion for determining favorable operating speed for rotary blood pumps. Many unfavorable flow features may be avoided by maintaining the flow coefficient above a characteristic critical coefficient for a particular pump, whereas the intrinsic deleterious flow features can only be minimized by design improvement. Broadening the operating range by raising the band between the critical flow coefficient and the designed flow coefficient, is also a worthy goal for design improvement.

  9. Ketamine administration diminishes operant responding but does not impair conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Groeber Travis, Caitlin M; Altman, Daniel E; Genovese, Raymond F

    2015-12-01

    While not well understood, the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonist ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, has been reported to be efficacious in depression and related psychological disorders. Conditioned fear is a normal emotional conditioning process that is known to become dysfunctional in individuals suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and related stress disorders. We examined the effects of ketamine to determine the potential modulation of the acquisition and extinction of a conditioned fear using a conditioned suppression procedure. Rats were trained on a variable interval (VI), food maintained, operant conditioning task to establish a general measure of performance. Rats were exposed to inescapable shock (IES, unconditioned stimulus) paired (×20) with an audio/visual conditioned stimulus (CS) to establish conditioning. Conditioning was quantified by measuring response suppression following CS presentation during subsequent extinction trials where the CS alone was presented. Ketamine or vehicle was administered either after initial conditioning or after each of the subsequent extinction trials. For each regimen, a series of four injections were administered 60 min apart (100, 50, 50, 50 mg/kg, respectively) in order to sustain a ketamine effect for a minimum of 4 h. Ketamine produced a general decrease in responding on the VI, relative to baseline, as response rates were slower on the operant task when tested 24 h later and longer. Ketamine did not affect the acquisition of the conditioned fear when the regimen was administered shortly after the initial pairings of IES and CS. Ketamine did not alter extinction to the conditioned fear when the regimen was administered following each CS only presentation following initial conditioning. Our conclusion from these findings is that while ketamine alters behavior on an appetitively motivated operant task it does not, however, appear to directly modulate learning and memory processes associated

  10. Ketamine administration diminishes operant responding but does not impair conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Groeber Travis, Caitlin M; Altman, Daniel E; Genovese, Raymond F

    2015-12-01

    While not well understood, the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonist ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, has been reported to be efficacious in depression and related psychological disorders. Conditioned fear is a normal emotional conditioning process that is known to become dysfunctional in individuals suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and related stress disorders. We examined the effects of ketamine to determine the potential modulation of the acquisition and extinction of a conditioned fear using a conditioned suppression procedure. Rats were trained on a variable interval (VI), food maintained, operant conditioning task to establish a general measure of performance. Rats were exposed to inescapable shock (IES, unconditioned stimulus) paired (×20) with an audio/visual conditioned stimulus (CS) to establish conditioning. Conditioning was quantified by measuring response suppression following CS presentation during subsequent extinction trials where the CS alone was presented. Ketamine or vehicle was administered either after initial conditioning or after each of the subsequent extinction trials. For each regimen, a series of four injections were administered 60 min apart (100, 50, 50, 50 mg/kg, respectively) in order to sustain a ketamine effect for a minimum of 4 h. Ketamine produced a general decrease in responding on the VI, relative to baseline, as response rates were slower on the operant task when tested 24 h later and longer. Ketamine did not affect the acquisition of the conditioned fear when the regimen was administered shortly after the initial pairings of IES and CS. Ketamine did not alter extinction to the conditioned fear when the regimen was administered following each CS only presentation following initial conditioning. Our conclusion from these findings is that while ketamine alters behavior on an appetitively motivated operant task it does not, however, appear to directly modulate learning and memory processes associated

  11. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  12. Plasticity in the Central Nervous System: Operant Conditioning of the Spinal Stretch Reflex.

    PubMed

    Segal, R L

    1997-01-01

    Studies in monkey models have demonstrated that spinal stretch reflexes (SSRs) can be conditioned to be smaller or larger. Results of H-reflex conditioning studies further support the concept that operant conditioning alters the anatomical and biophysical properties of targeted alpha motoneurons. Results from able-bodied human subjects are strikingly similar to results from monkey models. Conditioning paradigms appear successful in downtraining the SSR of spinal-cord-injured patients who present with some residual control of a hyperactive biceps brachii. The conditioning may also affect movement control of spinal-cord-injured patients. Initial attempts at conditioning hyperactive SSRs of stroke patients have been equivocal. The site of lesion probably influences whether a stroke patient can successfully condition the SSR. PMID:27620376

  13. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  14. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers.

  15. Effects of operation of Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage project on Nickajack Reservoir flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Price, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a study to determine the effects of Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant operations on flow conditions within Nickajack Reservoir are presented. Computer simulations and field studies have shown that flow reversals occur in Nickajack Reservoir as a result of the power peaking operations of the Nickajack and Chickamauga hydroelectric plants, both situated on the Tennessee River. The primary cause of these reversals is attributable to shutdowns of the Chickamauga turbines. The focus of this study is on flow reversals near the Moccasin Bend sewage treatment plant and near the Tennessee American water treatment plant, both of which are located on the Tennessee River near Chattanooga. Results from the study show that, under normal and extreme operating conditions at Chickamauga and Nickajack Dams, operation of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant has no appreciable influence on flow reversals at the two plant sites.

  16. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  17. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  18. Teaching Giant African Pouched Rats to Find Landmines: Operant Conditioning With Real Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  19. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  20. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining.

  1. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  2. Distribution of AC loss in a HTS magnet for SMES with different operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Jiao, F.; Song, M.; Cao, K.; Wang, D.; Wang, L.; Dong, H.

    2013-11-01

    The AC loss induced in superconducting tape may affect the performance of a superconducting device applied to power system, such as transformer, cable, motor and even Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The operating condition of SMES is changeable due to the need of compensation to the active or reactive power according to the demand of a power grid. In this paper, it is investigated that the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet on different operating conditions, which is based on finite element method (FEM) and measured properties of BSCCO/Ag tapes. This analytical method can be used to optimize the SMES magnet.

  3. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  4. Training Autistic Children to Urinate in the Toilet Through Operant Conditioning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Haruhiko

    1977-01-01

    Five profoundly retarded males (6 to 9 years old) with clinical manifestations of autism were used to evaluate the use of operant conditioning techniques to toilet train children in an autism ward of a hospital for developmentally disturbed children. (Author/SBH)

  5. Operant Conditioning of Within-Interview Verbal Behavior of Counselors-In-Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gerald R.

    This study was designed to answer two major questions: (1) whether or not operant conditioning procedures supplemented by treatments drawn from other areas of experimental psychology could produce changes in counselor interviewing behavior, and (2) how much change resulted from response specific reinforcement and how much from other factors. Three…

  6. Self-Injurious Behavior in Rett Syndrome: Interactions between Features of Rett Syndrome and Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this case study, interactions were examined between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning as determinants of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Analysis suggested different functions for two forms of SIB: automatic reinforcement by sensory stimulation and escape from social interactions. Features of Rett syndrome tended to maximize the…

  7. Infant Temperament and Subject Loss Due to Crying during Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-five infants (mean age of 111 days) who failed to complete a two-day operant-conditioning task were compared with a stratified random sample of those who did on measures of infant temperament and several demographic characteristics. A discriminant-function analysis was performed. (Author/BN)

  8. 40 CFR 201.11 - Standard for locomotive operation under stationary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for locomotive operation under stationary conditions. 201.11 Section 201.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 40 CFR 201.11 - Standard for locomotive operation under stationary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for locomotive operation under stationary conditions. 201.11 Section 201.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  10. Operant conditioning and psychoanalysis: contrasts, similarities, and some thoughts about integration.

    PubMed

    Shectman, F A

    1975-01-01

    An operant conditioning orientation and a psychoanalytic one are compared, in terms of differences and likenesses, on a number of dimensions. A few ideas are offered as to why advocates of each approach have generated more heat than light in their discussions with one another; and thereby worked against mutual enrichment and integration of the two viewpoints.

  11. The simplest motor skill: mechanisms and applications of reflex operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2014-04-01

    Operant conditioning protocols can change spinal reflexes gradually, which are the simplest behaviors. This article summarizes the evidence supporting two propositions: that these protocols provide excellent models for defining the substrates of learning and that they can induce and guide plasticity to help restore skills, such as locomotion, that have been impaired by spinal cord injury or other disorders.

  12. Modeling of the Human - Operator in a Complex System Functioning Under Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzov, Peter; Hubenova, Zoia; Yordanov, Dimitar; Popov, Wiliam

    2013-12-01

    Problems, related to the explication of sophisticated control systems of objects, operating under extreme conditions, have been examined and the impact of the effectiveness of the operator's activity on the systems as a whole. The necessity of creation of complex simulation models, reflecting operator's activity, is discussed. Organizational and technical system of an unmanned aviation complex is described as a sophisticated ergatic system. Computer realization of main subsystems of algorithmic system of the man as a controlling system is implemented and specialized software for data processing and analysis is developed. An original computer model of a Man as a tracking system has been implemented. Model of unmanned complex for operators training and formation of a mental model in emergency situation, implemented in "matlab-simulink" environment, has been synthesized. As a unit of the control loop, the pilot (operator) is simplified viewed as an autocontrol system consisting of three main interconnected subsystems: sensitive organs (perception sensors); central nervous system; executive organs (muscles of the arms, legs, back). Theoretical-data model of prediction the level of operator's information load in ergatic systems is proposed. It allows the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of a real working operator. Simulation model of operator's activity in takeoff based on the Petri nets has been synthesized.

  13. An assessment of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir, Philippines, at high-pressure operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Z.F.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Rodis, N.O.; Saw, V.S.

    1993-10-01

    An evaluation of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir was conducted to improve the power recovery through reservoir and process optimization. The performance of the existing production wells was reviewed and the response of the field based on the anticipated production levels was simulated at various operating conditions. The results indicate that the Tongonan geothermal reservoir can be exploited at a high pressure operating condition with substantial improvement in the field capacity. The authors calculate that the Upper Mahiao and the Malitbog sectors of the Tongonan field are capable of generating 395 MWe at 1.0 MPa abs., on top of the existing 112.5 MWe plant, compared with 275 MWe if the field is operated at 0.6 MPa abs. The total capacity for the proposed Leyte A 640 MWe expansion can be generated from these sectors with the additional power to be tapped from Mahanagdong and Alto Peak sectors.

  14. Predators in training: operant conditioning of novel behavior in wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus).

    PubMed

    Emer, Sherri A; Mora, Cordula V; Harvey, Mark T; Grace, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Large pythons and boas comprise a group of animals whose anatomy and physiology are very different from traditional mammalian, avian and other reptilian models typically used in operant conditioning. In the current study, investigators used a modified shaping procedure involving successive approximations to train wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus) to approach and depress an illuminated push button in order to gain access to a food reward. Results show that these large, wild snakes can be trained to accept extremely small food items, associate a stimulus with such rewards via operant conditioning and perform a contingent operant response to gain access to a food reward. The shaping procedure produced robust responses and provides a mechanism for investigating complex behavioral phenomena in massive snakes that are rarely studied in learning research.

  15. Predators in training: operant conditioning of novel behavior in wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus).

    PubMed

    Emer, Sherri A; Mora, Cordula V; Harvey, Mark T; Grace, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Large pythons and boas comprise a group of animals whose anatomy and physiology are very different from traditional mammalian, avian and other reptilian models typically used in operant conditioning. In the current study, investigators used a modified shaping procedure involving successive approximations to train wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus) to approach and depress an illuminated push button in order to gain access to a food reward. Results show that these large, wild snakes can be trained to accept extremely small food items, associate a stimulus with such rewards via operant conditioning and perform a contingent operant response to gain access to a food reward. The shaping procedure produced robust responses and provides a mechanism for investigating complex behavioral phenomena in massive snakes that are rarely studied in learning research. PMID:25139000

  16. Feeding behavior of Aplysia: a model system for comparing cellular mechanisms of classical and operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural circuitry that mediates the behavior is well characterized and amenable to detailed cellular analyses, substantial progress has been made toward a comparative analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying these two forms of associative learning. Both forms of associative learning use the same reinforcement pathway (the esophageal nerve, En) and the same reinforcement transmitter (dopamine, DA). In addition, at least one cellular locus of plasticity (cell B51) is modified by both forms of associative learning. However, the two forms of associative learning have opposite effects on B51. Classical conditioning decreases the excitability of B51, whereas operant conditioning increases the excitability of B51. Thus, the approach of using two forms of associative learning to modify a single behavior, which is mediated by an analytically tractable neural circuit, is revealing similarities and differences in the mechanisms that underlie classical and operant conditioning.

  17. An all-electrical torque differential magnetometer operating under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamra, Akashdeep; von Hoesslin, Stefan; Roschewsky, Niklas; Lotze, Johannes; Schreier, Michael; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Huebl, Hans

    2015-09-01

    An all-electrical torque differential magnetometry (also known as cantilever magnetometry) setup employing piezoelectric quartz tuning forks is demonstrated. The magnetometer can be operated under ambient conditions as well as low temperatures and pressures. It extends the allowed specimen mass range up to several 10 μg without any significant reduction in the sensitivity. Operation under ambient conditions and a simple all-electrical design of the magnetometer should allow for an easy integration with other experimental setups. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of a 25 μm diameter iron wire, measured under ambient conditions with a high signal to noise ratio, was found to be in good agreement with its literature value. Further applications of the technique are discussed.

  18. Multiple memory stores and operant conditioning: a rationale for memory's complexity.

    PubMed

    Meeter, Martijn; Veldkamp, Rob; Jin, Yaochu

    2009-02-01

    Why does the brain contain more than one memory system? Genetic algorithms can play a role in elucidating this question. Here, model animals were constructed containing a dorsal striatal layer that controlled actions, and a ventral striatal layer that controlled a dopaminergic learning signal. Both layers could gain access to three modeled memory stores, but such access was penalized as energy expenditure. Model animals were then selected on their fitness in simulated operant conditioning tasks. Results suggest that having access to multiple memory stores and their representations is important in learning to regulate dopamine release, as well as in contextual discrimination. For simple operant conditioning, as well as stimulus discrimination, hippocampal compound representations turned out to suffice, a counterintuitive result given findings that hippocampal lesions tend not to affect performance in such tasks. We argue that there is in fact evidence to support a role for compound representations and the hippocampus in even the simplest conditioning tasks.

  19. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5–10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  20. Exploring the limits and utility of operant conditioning in the treatment of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this contingency appear to be an orderly function of familiar parameters of operant conditioning. Increasing reinforcement magnitude and duration can increase effectiveness, and sustaining the contingency can prevent relapse. Initial development of a potentially practical application of this technology suggests that it may be possible to integrate abstinence reinforcement into employment settings using salary for work to reinforce drug abstinence. This research illustrates the potential utility and current limitations of an operant approach to the treatment of drug addiction. Similar research programs are needed to explore the limits of the operant approach and to develop practical applications that can be used widely in society for the treatment of drug addiction.

  1. International perspectives on psychosocial working conditions, mental health, and stress of dairy farm operators.

    PubMed

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Kallioniemi, Marja; Lundqvist, Peter; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Stallones, Lorann; Brumby, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farm operators-farmers, workers, and family members-are faced with many demands and stressors in their daily work and these appear to be shared across countries and cultures. Dairy operators experience high psychosocial demands with respect to a hard work and production ethos, economic influences, and social and environmental responsibility. Furthermore, both traditional and industrial farms are highly dependent on external conditions, such as weather, fluctuating markets, and regulations from government authorities. Possible external stressors include disease outbreaks, taxes related to dairy production, and recent negative societal attitudes to farming in general. Dairy farm operators may have very few or no opportunities to influence and control these external conditions, demands, and expectations. High work demands and expectations coupled with low control and lack of social support can lead to a poor psychosocial work environment, with increased stress levels, ill mental health, depression, and, in the worst cases, suicide. Internationally, farmers with ill mental health have different health service options depending on their location. Regardless of location, it is initially the responsibility of the individual farmer and farm family to handle mental health and stress, which can be of short- or long-term duration. This paper reviews the literature on the topics of psychosocial working conditions, mental health, stress, depression, and suicide among dairy farm operators, farm workers, and farm family members in an international perspective. PMID:23844791

  2. New conditioning procedure derived from operating experience with the Common Long-Pulse Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, B.G.; Madruga, M.; Hong, R.M.; Phillips, J.C.

    1993-10-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam system utilizes an 80 kV version of the Common Long-Pulse Ion Source designed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL) and originally built by RCA. Eight of these ion sources are mounted on four beamlines to provide a total of 20 MW of injected deuterium neutral power to the DIII-D tokamak. To support the DIII-D one-shift operation, neutral beams must be readied in a relatively short period of time each day, typically one hour. During non-operating periods conditioning time for the ion sources is limited, due to the costs of associated support services and the need to perform corrective and preventive maintenance. The experience gained over a six year period has resulted in finely tuned procedures for the conditioning and operation of these ion sources. Recently, an ion source was conditioned which had been accidentally filled with water for several days, resulting in surface corrosion and deconditioning of the grids and surfaces. The method of successful recovery along with data, experience and procedures derived this event and normal operations will be detailed and discussed.

  3. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state.

  4. Extended necessary condition for local operations and classical communication: Tight bound for all measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2015-06-01

    We give a necessary condition that a separable measurement can be implemented by local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) in any finite number of rounds of communication, generalizing and strengthening a result obtained previously. That earlier result involved a bound that is tight when the number of measurement operators defining the measurement is relatively small. The present results generalize that bound to one that is tight for any finite number of measurement operators, and we also provide an extension which holds when that number is infinite. We apply these results to the famous example on a 3 ×3 system known as "domino states," which were the first demonstration of nonlocality without entanglement. Our extended necessary condition provides another way of showing that these states cannot be perfectly distinguished by (finite-round) LOCC. It directly shows that this conclusion also holds for their related rotated domino states. We also introduce a class of problems involving the unambiguous discrimination of quantum states, each of which is an example where the states can be optimally discriminated by a separable measurement, but according to our condition, cannot be optimally discriminated by LOCC. These examples nicely illustrate the usefulness of the present results, since our earlier necessary condition, which the present result generalizes, is not strong enough to reach a conclusion in any of these cases.

  5. Online Condition Monitoring to Enable Extended Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-03-31

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption for online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components.

  6. Novel neural correlates of operant conditioning in normal and differentially reared Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdullah M; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2009-04-01

    The aerial respiratory behaviour of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis is an important homeostatic behaviour that can be operantly conditioned. The central pattern generator underlying this behaviour, as well as motorneurons innervating the respiratory orifice, the pneumostome, have been identified and their activity can be monitored in the semi-intact preparation using electrophysiological recordings. In this study, we used both intact animals and semi-intact preparations to identify novel changes in the respiratory central pattern generator following operant conditioning. In addition, we reared animals in the absence of this respiratory behaviour throughout development, to investigate whether previous experience and activity-dependent plasticity during development are essential to allow neural plasticity in the adult. We found that animals raised normally (allowed to perform aerial respiratory behaviour) exhibited the expected reduction in aerial respiratory behaviour following operant conditioning. Then, using the semi-intact preparation, we identified novel neural changes within the network as a result of the conditioning. These included specific changes at the level of the central pattern generator interneurons, as well as the motor output. In the differentially reared intact animals, there was no behavioural reduction as a result of operant conditioning, although their baseline respiratory behaviour was already significantly reduced as a result of their differential rearing. There were, however, significant differences found in the network parameters in the semi-intact preparation, similar to those observed in normally reared animals. We thus provide evidence for neural plasticity within the network in the absence of significant behavioural changes in differentially reared animals, and show that plasticity was not dependent on previous activity of the network during development.

  7. Mutagenicity of biodiesel or diesel exhaust particles and the effect of engine operating conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kisin, Elena R; Shi, X.C; Keane, Michael J; Bugarski, Aleksandar B; Shvedova, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Background Changing the fuel supply from petroleum based ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a viable option for controlling exposures to particulate material (PM). This is critical in the mining industry where approximately 28,000 underground miners are potentially exposed to relatively high concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This study was conducted to investigate the mutagenic potential of diesel engine emissions (DEE) from neat (B100) and blended (B50) soy-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel in comparison with ULSD PM using different engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatment configurations. Methods The DPM samples were collected for engine equipped with either a standard muffler or a combination of the muffler and diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) that was operated at four different steady-state modes. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on the organic solvent extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. Results The results indicate that mutagenic activity of DPM was strongly affected by fuels, engine operating conditions, and exhaust aftertreatment systems. The mutagenicity was increased with the fraction of biodiesel in the fuel. While the mutagenic activity was observed in B50 and B100 samples collected from both light-and heavy-load operating conditions, the ULSD samples were mutagenic only at light-load conditions. The presence of DOC in the exhaust system resulted in the decreased mutagenicity when engine was fueled with B100 and B50 and operated at light-load conditions. This was not the case when engine was fueled with ULSD. Heavy-load operating condition in the presence of DOC resulted in a decrease of mutagenicity only when engine was fueled with B50, but not B100 or ULSD. Conclusions Therefore, the results indicate that DPM from neat or blended biodiesel has a higher mutagenic potency than that one of ULSD. Further research is needed to

  8. A paradigm for operant conditioning in blow flies (Phormia terrae novae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Disma, Gérald; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly (Protophormia terrae novae) is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole decreases. Control procedures revealed that rate of responding is not a simple overall result of feeding or of aging. The flies entered into the hole only if the response was required to obtain the food.

  9. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  10. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.

    2016-02-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained.

  11. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would

  12. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER.

    PubMed

    Serianni, G; Agostinetti, P; Antoni, V; Baltador, C; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Marconato, N; Pasqualotto, R; Sartori, E; Toigo, V; Veltri, P

    2016-02-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained. PMID:26932099

  13. Functional analysis of maladaptive behaviors: Rule as a transitive conditioned motivating operation.

    PubMed

    Belfiore, Phillip J; Kitchen, Thomas; Lee, David L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of a staff-delivered rule on the occurrence of challenging behavior (stereotypic touching) of an adult with severe intellectual disabilities. Four experimental functional analysis conditions were developed: (a) attention, (b) rule+attention, (c) rule only, and (d) control. Results showed that the percentage of intervals in which stereotypic touching responses (STR) occurred was greater within the experimental condition where a rule statement was embedded with contingent attention. Results are discussed in light of the plasticity of functional analysis technology to allow for stimulus variation within the typical social attention condition, and the suggestion that the rule statement, in this study, may function as a Transitive Conditioned Establishing Operation (CEO-T), asserting that the provision of attention is more valued in the presence of the stated rule.

  14. Using Vibration Monitoring for Local Fault Detection on Gears Operating Under Fluctuating Load Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stander, C. J.; Heyns, P. S.; Schoombie, W.

    2002-11-01

    Gearboxes often operate under fluctuating load conditions during service. Conventional techniques for monitoring vibration are based on the assumption that changes in the measured structural response are caused by deterioration in the condition of the gearbox. However, this assumption is not valid for fluctuating load conditions. To find a methodology that could deal with such conditions, experiments were conducted on a gearbox test rig with different levels of tooth damage severity and the capability of applying fluctuating loads to the gear system. Different levels of fluctuation in constant loads as well as in sinusoidal, step and chirp loads were considered. The test data were order tracked and time synchronously averaged with the rotation of the shaft in order to compensate for the variation in rotational speed induced by the fluctuating loads. A pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution was then applied to the test data, in order to identify the influence of the fluctuating load conditions. In this work, a vibration waveform normalisation approach is presented, which enables the use of the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution to indicate deteriorating fault conditions under fluctuating load conditions. Statistical parameters and various other features were extracted from the distribution in order to indicate the linear separation of the values for various fault conditions, after applying the vibration waveform normalisation approach. Feature vectors were compiled for the various fault and load conditions. Mahalanobis distances were calculated between the various feature vectors and an average feature vector was compiled from data measured on the undamaged gearbox. It was proved that the Mahalanobis distance could be used as a single parameter, which can readily be monotonically trended to indicate the progression of a fault condition under fluctuating load conditions. It was shown that a single layer perceptron network could be trained with the perceptron learning rule

  15. Investigation of degradation effects in polymer electrolyte fuel cells under automotive-related operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, S.; Dao, T. A.; Messerschmidt, M.; Scholta, J.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of artificial starvation effects during automotive-related operating conditions is investigated within a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) using non-dispersive infrared sensors and a current scan shunt. Driving cycles (DC) and single load change experiments are performed with specific fuel and oxidant starvation conditions. Within the DC experiments, a maximal CO2 amount of 4.67 μmol per cycle is detected in the cathode and 0.97 μmol per cycle in the anode exhaust without reaching fuel starvation conditions during the DC. Massive cell reversal conditions occur within the single load change experiments as a result of anodic fuel starvation. As soon as a fuel starvation appears, the emitted CO2 increases exponentially in the anode and cathode exhaust. A maximal CO2 amount of 143.8 μmol CO2 on the anode side and 5.8 μmol CO2 on the cathode side is detected in the exhaust gases. The critical cell reversal conditions only occur by using hydrogen reformate as anode reactant. The influence of the starvation effects on the PEFC performance is investigated via polarization curves, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PEFC performance is reduced by 47% as a consequence of the dynamic operation.

  16. The role of operant conditioning in chronic pain: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Flor, Herta; Knost, Bärbel; Birbaumer, Niels

    2002-01-01

    The role of operant conditioning for the development and maintenance of chronic pain was examined in 30 chronic back pain patients (CBP) and 30 matched healthy controls. Half of each group was reinforced for increased, half for decreased pain reports while EEG, EOG, heart rate, skin conductance and muscle tension levels were recorded. Both groups showed similar learning rates, however, the CBP patients displayed slower extinction of both the verbal and the cortical (N150) pain response. In addition, the CBP group displayed prolonged elevated electromyogram levels to the task. These data suggest that CBP patients are more easily influenced by operant conditioning factors than healthy controls and this susceptibility may add to the maintenance of the chronic pain problem.

  17. Effect of operating conditions on the exhaust emissions from a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L.; Strancar, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Exhaust concentrations of total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide were measured from a single J-57 combustor liner installed in a 30 diameter test section. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet total pressures from 1 to 20 atmospheres, inlet total temperatures from 310 to 590 K, reference velocities from 8 to m/sec, and fuel-air ratios from 0.004 to 0.015. Most of the data were obtained using ASTM A-1 fuel; however, a limited number of tests was performed with natural gas fuel. Combustion efficiency and emission levels are correlated with operating conditions. Sampling error at operating conditions for which combustion efficiency was below about 90 percent resulted in abnormally low readings for hydrocarbon emissions.

  18. Training autistic children to urinate in the toilet through operant conditioning techniques.

    PubMed

    Ando, H

    1977-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of operant conditioning techniques to toilet train children in an autism ward of a hospital for developmentally disturbed children. Five profoundly retarded males with clear clinical manifestations of autism were selected as subjects. Records of the urination behavior of these subjects were kept during a baseline period and throughout the application of procedures. Appropriate urination behavior was immediately followed by positive reinforcers, such as candy, verbal praise, and physical affection. Inappropriate urination behavior was immediately followed by negative reinforces, verbal as well as physical. The results of this study show that operant conditioning techniques can be used to change the urination behavior of profoundly retarded autistic children even where other methods have failed. Factors requiring further investigation for their possible impact on the effectiveness of these procedures in toilet training autistic children are also discussed.

  19. Remote Sensing of In-Flight Icing Conditions: Operational, Meteorological, and Technological Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryerson, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Remote-sensing systems that map aircraft icing conditions in the flight path from airports or aircraft would allow icing to be avoided and exited. Icing remote-sensing system development requires consideration of the operational environment, the meteorological environment, and the technology available. Operationally, pilots need unambiguous cockpit icing displays for risk management decision-making. Human factors, aircraft integration, integration of remotely sensed icing information into the weather system infrastructures, and avoid-and-exit issues need resolution. Cost, maintenance, power, weight, and space concern manufacturers, operators, and regulators. An icing remote-sensing system detects cloud and precipitation liquid water, drop size, and temperature. An algorithm is needed to convert these conditions into icing potential estimates for cockpit display. Specification development requires that magnitudes of cloud microphysical conditions and their spatial and temporal variability be understood at multiple scales. The core of an icing remote-sensing system is the technology that senses icing microphysical conditions. Radar and microwave radiometers penetrate clouds and can estimate liquid water and drop size. Retrieval development is needed; differential attenuation and neural network assessment of multiple-band radar returns are most promising to date. Airport-based radar or radiometers are the most viable near-term technologies. A radiometer that profiles cloud liquid water, and experimental techniques to use radiometers horizontally, are promising. The most critical operational research needs are to assess cockpit and aircraft system integration, develop avoid-and-exit protocols, assess human factors, and integrate remote-sensing information into weather and air traffic control infrastructures. Improved spatial characterization of cloud and precipitation liquid-water content, drop-size spectra, and temperature are needed, as well as an algorithm to

  20. Impact of inocula and operating conditions on the microbial community structure of two anammox reactors.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Cristina Monteiro S; Carvalho, Luciana; Leal, Cintia Dutra; Dias, Marcela França; Martins, Karoline L; Garcia, Guilherme Brugger; Mancuelo, Isabella Daldegan; Hipólito, Thais; Conell, Erika F Abreu Mac; Okada, Dagoberto; Etchebehere, Claudia; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto L; Araujo, Juliana Calabria

    2014-08-01

    The microbial community structure of the biomass selected in two distinctly inoculated anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) reactors was investigated and compared with the help of data obtained from 454-pyrosequencing analyses. The anammox reactors were operated for 550 days and seeded with different sludges: sediment from a constructed wetland (reactor I) and biomass from an aerated lagoon part of the oil-refinery wastewater treatment plant (reactor II). The anammox diversity in the inocula was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis. The diversity of anammox bacteria was greater in the sludge from the oil-refinery (three of the five known genera of anammox were detected) than in the wetland sludge, in which only Candidatus Brocadia was observed. Pyrosequencing analysis demonstrated that the community enriched in both reactors had differing compositions despite the nearly similar operational conditions applied. The dominant phyla detected in both reactors were Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, and Acidobacteria. The phylum Bacteroidetes, which is frequently observed in anammox reactors, was not detected. However, Acidobacteria and GN04 phyla were observed for the first time, suggesting their importance for this process. Our results suggest that, under similar operational conditions, anammox populations (Ca. Brocadia sinica and Ca. Brocadia sp. 40) were selected in both reactors despite the differences between the two initial inocula. Taken together, these results indicated that the type of inoculum and the culture conditions are key determinants of the general microbial composition of the biomass produced in the reactors. Operational conditions alone might play an important role in anammox selection. PMID:24956774

  1. Statistical Measurements of Contact Conditions of 478 Transport-airplane Landings During Routine Daytime Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, Norman S

    1955-01-01

    Statistical measurements of contact conditions have been obtained, by means of a special photographic technique, of 478 landings of present-day transport airplanes made during routine daylight operations in clear air at the Washington National Airport. From the measurements, sinking speeds, rolling velocities, bank angles, and horizontal speeds at the instant before contact have been evaluated and a limited statistical analysis of the results has been made and is reported in this report.

  2. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  3. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  4. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  5. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  6. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  7. An operant conditioning method for studying auditory behaviors in marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Remington, Evan D; Osmanski, Michael S; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2012-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate that has increasingly been used as a non-human model in the fields of sensory, motor, and cognitive neuroscience. However, little knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods in this species. Developing an understanding of the neural basis of perception and cognition in an animal model requires measurement of both brain activity and behavior. Here we describe an operant conditioning behavioral training method developed to allow controlled psychoacoustic measurements in marmosets. We demonstrate that marmosets can be trained to consistently perform a Go/No-Go auditory task in which a subject licks at a feeding tube when it detects a sound. Correct responses result in delivery of a food reward. Crucially, this operant conditioning task generates little body movement and is well suited for pairing behavior with single-unit electrophysiology. Successful implementation of an operant conditioning behavior opens the door to a wide range of new studies in the field of auditory neuroscience using the marmoset as a model system.

  8. Conditional Sampling of Ammonia at Livestock Operations Using Robotically Controlled Diffusive Samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.; Stratton, J. J.; Borch, T.

    2011-12-01

    Diffusive/passive samplers can be used to measure the spatial variations in ammonia and other trace gases near livestock operations, but results are often confounded by changing weather conditions during extended deployment periods (e.g., 1 to 2 weeks). A new type of conditional sampler was developed that only exposes the passive samplers when a user-defined set of wind and weather conditions are met. The samplers were housed in air-tight tubes that could be opened and closed with a motorized actuator controlled by datalogger. Samplers were deployed on portable tripods and linked via a wireless network. Multiple tripods, equipped with Radiello diffusive NH3 samplers, were deployed near cattle feedlots and dairies and programmed to only expose the passive samplers when the upwind source area represented a specific zone of the operation. A base-station with an anemometer, wind vane, thermometer, and humidity sensor controlled sampling at all tripods. This new methodology allows improved detection of spatial variation in emissions near livestock operations and provides more accurate measurements of downwind gradients. Data could be used in inverse models to approximate site specific emissions factors for ammonia.

  9. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size. PMID:27491014

  10. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size.

  11. Determination of operating conditions in an anaerobic acid-phase reactor treating dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Kasapgil, B.; Ince, O.; Anderson, G.K.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic material is a multistep process. Two groups of bacteria, namely acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria, are responsible for the acidification and for the methane formation, respectively. The growth requirements of the two groups of bacteria are rather different. In order to create optimum conditions for the process, it was first proposed to separate the process into two phases. Operating variables applicable for the selection and enrichment of microbial populations in phased digesters include digester loading, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, temperature, reactor design, and operating mode. By proper manipulation of these operating parameters it is possible to prevent any significant growth of methane bacteria and at the same time achieve the required level of acidification in the first reactor. Further enrichment of two cultures is possible by biomass recycle around each phase. Since the 1970s, phase separation has been introduced into anaerobic digestion technology. However, data concerning the optimization of operating conditions in both acidogenic and methanogenic phase reactors are scarce. This study was therefore carried out for the purposes given below. These were: (1) to determine the best combination of pH and temperature within the ranges studied for the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater; (2) to determine the maximum acidogenic conversion from COD to VFAs, and (3) to determine the changes in the distribution of major VFAs being produced during the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater.

  12. Operation Reliability Assessment for Cutting Tools by Applying a Proportional Covariate Model to Condition Monitoring Information

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools. PMID:23201980

  13. Operation reliability assessment for cutting tools by applying a proportional covariate model to condition monitoring information.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-09-25

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools.

  14. Appetitive Operant Conditioning in Mice: Heritability and Dissociability of Training Stages

    PubMed Central

    Malkki, Hemi A. I.; Donga, Laura A. B.; de Groot, Sabine E.; Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2010-01-01

    To study the heritability of different training stages of appetitive operant conditioning, we carried out behavioral screening of 5 standard inbred mouse strains, 28 recombinant-inbred (BxD) mouse lines and their progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also computed correlations between successive training stages to study whether learning deficits at an advanced stage of operant conditioning may be dissociated from normal performance in preceding phases of training. The training consisted of two phases: an operant nose poking (NP) phase, in which mice learned to collect a sucrose pellet from a food magazine by NP, and an operant lever press and NP phase, in which mice had to execute a sequence of these two actions to collect a food pellet. As a measure of magazine oriented exploration, we also studied the nose poke entries in the food magazine during the intertrial intervals at the beginning of the first session of the nose poke training phase. We found significantly heritable components in initial magazine checking behavior, operant NP and lever press–NP. Performance levels in these phases were positively correlated, but several individual strains were identified that showed poor lever press–NP while performing well in preceding training stages. Quantitative trait loci mapping revealed suggestive likelihood ratio statistic peaks for initial magazine checking behavior and lever press–NP. These findings indicate that consecutive stages toward more complex operant behavior show significant heritable components, as well as dissociability between stages in specific mouse strains. These heritable components may reside in different chromosomal areas. PMID:21119771

  15. A novel attention training paradigm based on operant conditioning of eye gaze: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Price, Rebecca B; Greven, Inez M; Siegle, Greg J; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Inability to engage with positive stimuli is a widespread problem associated with negative mood states across many conditions, from low self-esteem to anhedonic depression. Though attention retraining procedures have shown promise as interventions in some clinical populations, novel procedures may be necessary to reliably attenuate chronic negative mood in refractory clinical populations (e.g., clinical depression) through, for example, more active, adaptive learning processes. In addition, a focus on individual difference variables predicting intervention outcome may improve the ability to provide such targeted interventions efficiently. To provide preliminary proof-of-principle, we tested a novel paradigm using operant conditioning to train eye gaze patterns toward happy faces. Thirty-two healthy undergraduates were randomized to receive operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces (train-happy) or neutral faces (train-neutral). At the group level, the train-happy condition attenuated sad mood increases following a stressful task, in comparison to train-neutral. In individual differences analysis, greater physiological reactivity (pupil dilation) in response to happy faces (during an emotional face-search task at baseline) predicted decreased mood reactivity after stress. These Preliminary results suggest that operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces buffers against stress-induced effects on mood, particularly in individuals who show sufficient baseline neural engagement with happy faces. Eye gaze patterns to emotional face arrays may have a causal relationship with mood reactivity. Personalized medicine research in depression may benefit from novel cognitive training paradigms that shape eye gaze patterns through feedback. Baseline neural function (pupil dilation) may be a key mechanism, aiding in iterative refinement of this approach.

  16. A novel attention training paradigm based on operant conditioning of eye gaze: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Price, Rebecca B; Greven, Inez M; Siegle, Greg J; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Inability to engage with positive stimuli is a widespread problem associated with negative mood states across many conditions, from low self-esteem to anhedonic depression. Though attention retraining procedures have shown promise as interventions in some clinical populations, novel procedures may be necessary to reliably attenuate chronic negative mood in refractory clinical populations (e.g., clinical depression) through, for example, more active, adaptive learning processes. In addition, a focus on individual difference variables predicting intervention outcome may improve the ability to provide such targeted interventions efficiently. To provide preliminary proof-of-principle, we tested a novel paradigm using operant conditioning to train eye gaze patterns toward happy faces. Thirty-two healthy undergraduates were randomized to receive operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces (train-happy) or neutral faces (train-neutral). At the group level, the train-happy condition attenuated sad mood increases following a stressful task, in comparison to train-neutral. In individual differences analysis, greater physiological reactivity (pupil dilation) in response to happy faces (during an emotional face-search task at baseline) predicted decreased mood reactivity after stress. These Preliminary results suggest that operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces buffers against stress-induced effects on mood, particularly in individuals who show sufficient baseline neural engagement with happy faces. Eye gaze patterns to emotional face arrays may have a causal relationship with mood reactivity. Personalized medicine research in depression may benefit from novel cognitive training paradigms that shape eye gaze patterns through feedback. Baseline neural function (pupil dilation) may be a key mechanism, aiding in iterative refinement of this approach. PMID:26389646

  17. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, R.; Sinnathambi, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H2 and CO (desirable) and CO2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H2 & CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  18. Design Criteria, Operating Conditions, and Nickel-Iron Hydroxide Catalyst Materials for Selective Seawater Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Fabio; Reier, Tobias; Pawolek, Zarina; Gliech, Manuel; Strasser, Peter

    2016-05-10

    Seawater is an abundant water resource on our planet and its direct electrolysis has the advantage that it would not compete with activities demanding fresh water. Oxygen selectivity is challenging when performing seawater electrolysis owing to competing chloride oxidation reactions. In this work we propose a design criterion based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations that identifies alkaline conditions as preferable to obtain high selectivity for the oxygen evolution reaction. The criterion states that catalysts sustaining the desired operating current with an overpotential <480 mV in alkaline pH possess the best chance to achieve 100 % oxygen/hydrogen selectivity. NiFe layered double hydroxide is shown to satisfy this criterion at pH 13 in seawater-mimicking electrolyte. The catalyst was synthesized by a solvothermal method and the activity, surface redox chemistry, and stability were tested electrochemically in alkaline and near-neutral conditions (borate buffer at pH 9.2) and under both fresh seawater conditions. The Tafel slope at low current densities is not influenced by pH or presence of chloride. On the other hand, the addition of chloride ions has an influence in the temporal evolution of the nickel reduction peak and on both the activity and stability at high current densities at pH 9.2. Faradaic efficiency close to 100 % under the operating conditions predicted by our design criteria was proven using in situ electrochemical mass spectrometry.

  19. Restoring walking after spinal cord injury: operant conditioning of spinal reflexes can help.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer motor disabilities due to spasticity and poor muscle control, even after conventional therapy. Abnormal spinal reflex activity often contributes to these problems. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes, which can target plasticity to specific reflex pathways, can enhance recovery. In rats in which a right lateral column lesion had weakened right stance and produced an asymmetrical gait, up-conditioning of the right soleus H-reflex, which increased muscle spindle afferent excitation of soleus, strengthened right stance and eliminated the asymmetry. In people with hyperreflexia due to incomplete SCI, down-conditioning of the soleus H-reflex improved walking speed and symmetry. Furthermore, modulation of electromyographic activity during walking improved bilaterally, indicating that a protocol that targets plasticity to a specific pathway can trigger widespread plasticity that improves recovery far beyond that attributable to the change in the targeted pathway. These improvements were apparent to people in their daily lives. They reported walking faster and farther, and noted less spasticity and better balance. Operant conditioning protocols could be developed to modify other spinal reflexes or corticospinal connections; and could be combined with other therapies to enhance recovery in people with SCI or other neuromuscular disorders.

  20. Design Criteria, Operating Conditions, and Nickel-Iron Hydroxide Catalyst Materials for Selective Seawater Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Fabio; Reier, Tobias; Pawolek, Zarina; Gliech, Manuel; Strasser, Peter

    2016-05-10

    Seawater is an abundant water resource on our planet and its direct electrolysis has the advantage that it would not compete with activities demanding fresh water. Oxygen selectivity is challenging when performing seawater electrolysis owing to competing chloride oxidation reactions. In this work we propose a design criterion based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations that identifies alkaline conditions as preferable to obtain high selectivity for the oxygen evolution reaction. The criterion states that catalysts sustaining the desired operating current with an overpotential <480 mV in alkaline pH possess the best chance to achieve 100 % oxygen/hydrogen selectivity. NiFe layered double hydroxide is shown to satisfy this criterion at pH 13 in seawater-mimicking electrolyte. The catalyst was synthesized by a solvothermal method and the activity, surface redox chemistry, and stability were tested electrochemically in alkaline and near-neutral conditions (borate buffer at pH 9.2) and under both fresh seawater conditions. The Tafel slope at low current densities is not influenced by pH or presence of chloride. On the other hand, the addition of chloride ions has an influence in the temporal evolution of the nickel reduction peak and on both the activity and stability at high current densities at pH 9.2. Faradaic efficiency close to 100 % under the operating conditions predicted by our design criteria was proven using in situ electrochemical mass spectrometry. PMID:27010750

  1. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Jet transport flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information during instrument meteorological conditions: Simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in a conventional jet transport aircraft. Eight two-person airline flight crews participated as test subjects flying simulated terminal area approach and departure operations under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). A fixed-base cockpit simulator configured with a full complement of conventional electromechanical instrumentation to permit full workload operations was utilized. Traffic information was displayed on a color cathode-ray tube (CRT) mounted above the throttle quadrant in the typical weather radar location. A transparent touchpanel overlay was utilized for pilot interface with the display. Air traffic control (ATC) simulation included an experienced controller and full partyline radio environment for evaluation of pilot-controlled self-separation and traffic situation monitoring tasks. Results of the study revealed the CDTI to be well received by the test subjects as a useful system which could be incorporated into an existing jet transport cockpit. Crew coordination and consistent operating procedures were identified as important considerations in operational implementation of traffic displays. Cockpit workload was increased with active CDTI tasks. However, all test subjects rated the increase to be acceptable.

  3. Particle emissions from a marine engine: chemical composition and aromatic emission profiles under various operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Sippula, O; Stengel, B; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Rabe, R; Orasche, J; Lintelmann, J; Michalke, B; Abbaszade, G; Radischat, C; Gröger, T; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Harndorf, H; Zimmermann, R

    2014-10-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determined. In addition, the molecular composition of aromatic organic matter was analyzed using a novel coupling of a thermal-optical carbon analyzer with a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) mass spectrometer. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly present in an alkylated form, and the composition of the aromatic organic matter in emissions clearly resembled that of fuel. The emissions of species known to be hazardous to health (PAH, Oxy-PAH, N-PAH, transition metals) were significantly higher from HFO than from DF operation, at all engine loads. In contrast, DF usage generated higher elemental carbon emissions than HFO at typical load points (50% and 75%) for marine operation. Thus, according to this study, the sulfur emission regulations that force the usage of low-sulfur distillate fuels will also substantially decrease the emissions of currently unregulated hazardous species. However, the emissions of soot may even increase if the fuel injection system is optimized for HFO operation.

  4. Teager–Kaiser energy operator signal conditioning improves EMG onset detection

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Patrick; Steinweg, Ken; DeVita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Accurate identification of the onset of muscle activity is an important element in the biomechanical analysis of human movement. The purpose of this study was to determine if inclusion of the Teager–Kaiser energy operator (TKEO) in signal conditioning would increase the accuracy of popular electromyography (EMG) onset detection methods. Three methods, visual determination, threshold-based method, and approximated generalized likelihood ratio were used to estimate the onset of EMG burst with and without TKEO conditioning. Reference signals, with known onset times, were constructed from EMG signals collected during isometric contraction of the vastus lateralis (n = 17). Additionally, vastus lateralis EMG signals (n = 255) recorded during gait were used to evaluate a clinical application of the TKEO conditioning. Inclusion of TKEO in signal conditioning significantly reduced mean detection error of all three methods compared with signal conditioning without TKEO, using artificially generated reference data (13 vs. 98 ms, p < 0.001) and also compared with experimental data collected during gait (55 vs. 124 ms, p < 0.001). In conclusion, addition of TKEO as a step in conditioning surface EMG signals increases the detection accuracy of EMG burst boundaries. PMID:20526612

  5. Operant conditioning of enhanced pain sensitivity by heat-pain titration.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Klossika, Iris; Hölzl, Rupert

    2008-11-15

    Operant conditioning mechanisms have been demonstrated to be important in the development of chronic pain. Most experimental studies have investigated the operant modulation of verbal pain reports with extrinsic reinforcement, such as verbal reinforcement. Whether this reflects actual changes in the subjective experience of the nociceptive stimulus remained unclear. This study replicates and extends our previous demonstration that enhanced pain sensitivity to prolonged heat-pain stimulation could be learned in healthy participants through intrinsic reinforcement (contingent changes in nociceptive input) independent of verbal pain reports. In addition, we examine whether different magnitudes of reinforcement differentially enhance pain sensitivity using an operant heat-pain titration paradigm. It is based on the previously developed non-verbal behavioral discrimination task for the assessment of sensitization, which uses discriminative down- or up-regulation of stimulus temperatures in response to changes in subjective intensity. In operant heat-pain titration, this discriminative behavior and not verbal pain report was contingently reinforced or punished by acute decreases or increases in heat-pain intensity. The magnitude of reinforcement was varied between three groups: low (N1=13), medium (N2=11) and high reinforcement (N3=12). Continuous reinforcement was applied to acquire and train the operant behavior, followed by partial reinforcement to analyze the underlying learning mechanisms. Results demonstrated that sensitization to prolonged heat-pain stimulation was enhanced by operant learning within 1h. The extent of sensitization was directly dependent on the received magnitude of reinforcement. Thus, operant learning mechanisms based on intrinsic reinforcement may provide an explanation for the gradual development of sustained hypersensitivity during pain that is becoming chronic. PMID:18774227

  6. Operant conditioning of enhanced pain sensitivity by heat-pain titration.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Klossika, Iris; Hölzl, Rupert

    2008-11-15

    Operant conditioning mechanisms have been demonstrated to be important in the development of chronic pain. Most experimental studies have investigated the operant modulation of verbal pain reports with extrinsic reinforcement, such as verbal reinforcement. Whether this reflects actual changes in the subjective experience of the nociceptive stimulus remained unclear. This study replicates and extends our previous demonstration that enhanced pain sensitivity to prolonged heat-pain stimulation could be learned in healthy participants through intrinsic reinforcement (contingent changes in nociceptive input) independent of verbal pain reports. In addition, we examine whether different magnitudes of reinforcement differentially enhance pain sensitivity using an operant heat-pain titration paradigm. It is based on the previously developed non-verbal behavioral discrimination task for the assessment of sensitization, which uses discriminative down- or up-regulation of stimulus temperatures in response to changes in subjective intensity. In operant heat-pain titration, this discriminative behavior and not verbal pain report was contingently reinforced or punished by acute decreases or increases in heat-pain intensity. The magnitude of reinforcement was varied between three groups: low (N1=13), medium (N2=11) and high reinforcement (N3=12). Continuous reinforcement was applied to acquire and train the operant behavior, followed by partial reinforcement to analyze the underlying learning mechanisms. Results demonstrated that sensitization to prolonged heat-pain stimulation was enhanced by operant learning within 1h. The extent of sensitization was directly dependent on the received magnitude of reinforcement. Thus, operant learning mechanisms based on intrinsic reinforcement may provide an explanation for the gradual development of sustained hypersensitivity during pain that is becoming chronic.

  7. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  8. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM.

  9. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  10. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  11. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... most adverse operating conditions; (c) Provide for safe, legal, and environmentally sound waste... permanent interference with natural processes or features that are important to natural currents and...

  12. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... most adverse operating conditions; (c) Provide for safe, legal, and environmentally sound waste... permanent interference with natural processes or features that are important to natural currents and...

  13. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... most adverse operating conditions; (c) Provide for safe, legal, and environmentally sound waste... permanent interference with natural processes or features that are important to natural currents and...

  14. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  15. Operant Conditioning in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.): The Cap Pushing Response.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Dinges, Christopher W; Wells, Harrington

    2016-01-01

    The honey bee has been an important model organism for studying learning and memory. More recently, the honey bee has become a valuable model to understand perception and cognition. However, the techniques used to explore psychological phenomena in honey bees have been limited to only a few primary methodologies such as the proboscis extension reflex, sting extension reflex, and free flying target discrimination-tasks. Methods to explore operant conditioning in bees and other invertebrates are not as varied as with vertebrates. This may be due to the availability of a suitable response requirement. In this manuscript we offer a new method to explore operant conditioning in honey bees: the cap pushing response (CPR). We used the CPR to test for difference in learning curves between novel auto-shaping and more traditional explicit-shaping. The CPR protocol requires bees to exhibit a novel behavior by pushing a cap to uncover a food source. Using the CPR protocol we tested the effects of both explicit-shaping and auto-shaping techniques on operant conditioning. The goodness of fit and lack of fit of these data to the Rescorla-Wagner learning-curve model, widely used in classical conditioning studies, was tested. The model fit well to both control and explicit-shaping results, but only for a limited number of trials. Learning ceased rather than continuing to asymptotically approach the physiological most accurate possible. Rate of learning differed between shaped and control bee treatments. Learning rate was about 3 times faster for shaped bees, but for all measures of proficiency control and shaped bees reached the same level. Auto-shaped bees showed one-trial learning rather than the asymptotic approach to a maximal efficiency. However, in terms of return-time, the auto-shaped bees' learning did not carry over to the covered-well test treatments.

  16. Operant Conditioning in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.): The Cap Pushing Response

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Charles I.; Dinges, Christopher W.; Wells, Harrington

    2016-01-01

    The honey bee has been an important model organism for studying learning and memory. More recently, the honey bee has become a valuable model to understand perception and cognition. However, the techniques used to explore psychological phenomena in honey bees have been limited to only a few primary methodologies such as the proboscis extension reflex, sting extension reflex, and free flying target discrimination-tasks. Methods to explore operant conditioning in bees and other invertebrates are not as varied as with vertebrates. This may be due to the availability of a suitable response requirement. In this manuscript we offer a new method to explore operant conditioning in honey bees: the cap pushing response (CPR). We used the CPR to test for difference in learning curves between novel auto-shaping and more traditional explicit-shaping. The CPR protocol requires bees to exhibit a novel behavior by pushing a cap to uncover a food source. Using the CPR protocol we tested the effects of both explicit-shaping and auto-shaping techniques on operant conditioning. The goodness of fit and lack of fit of these data to the Rescorla-Wagner learning-curve model, widely used in classical conditioning studies, was tested. The model fit well to both control and explicit-shaping results, but only for a limited number of trials. Learning ceased rather than continuing to asymptotically approach the physiological most accurate possible. Rate of learning differed between shaped and control bee treatments. Learning rate was about 3 times faster for shaped bees, but for all measures of proficiency control and shaped bees reached the same level. Auto-shaped bees showed one-trial learning rather than the asymptotic approach to a maximal efficiency. However, in terms of return-time, the auto-shaped bees’ learning did not carry over to the covered-well test treatments. PMID:27626797

  17. Operant Conditioning in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.): The Cap Pushing Response.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Dinges, Christopher W; Wells, Harrington

    2016-01-01

    The honey bee has been an important model organism for studying learning and memory. More recently, the honey bee has become a valuable model to understand perception and cognition. However, the techniques used to explore psychological phenomena in honey bees have been limited to only a few primary methodologies such as the proboscis extension reflex, sting extension reflex, and free flying target discrimination-tasks. Methods to explore operant conditioning in bees and other invertebrates are not as varied as with vertebrates. This may be due to the availability of a suitable response requirement. In this manuscript we offer a new method to explore operant conditioning in honey bees: the cap pushing response (CPR). We used the CPR to test for difference in learning curves between novel auto-shaping and more traditional explicit-shaping. The CPR protocol requires bees to exhibit a novel behavior by pushing a cap to uncover a food source. Using the CPR protocol we tested the effects of both explicit-shaping and auto-shaping techniques on operant conditioning. The goodness of fit and lack of fit of these data to the Rescorla-Wagner learning-curve model, widely used in classical conditioning studies, was tested. The model fit well to both control and explicit-shaping results, but only for a limited number of trials. Learning ceased rather than continuing to asymptotically approach the physiological most accurate possible. Rate of learning differed between shaped and control bee treatments. Learning rate was about 3 times faster for shaped bees, but for all measures of proficiency control and shaped bees reached the same level. Auto-shaped bees showed one-trial learning rather than the asymptotic approach to a maximal efficiency. However, in terms of return-time, the auto-shaped bees' learning did not carry over to the covered-well test treatments. PMID:27626797

  18. Effect of particulate organic substrate on aerobic granulation and operating conditions of sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jamile; Weissbrodt, David Gregory; Manguin, Vincent; da Costa, Rejane Helena Ribeiro; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Derlon, Nicolas

    2015-11-15

    The formation and application of aerobic granules for the treatment of real wastewaters still remains challenging. The high fraction of particulate organic matter (XS) present in real wastewaters can affect the granulation process. The present study aims at understanding to what extent the presence of XS affects the granule formation and the quality of the treated effluent. A second objective was to evaluate how the operating conditions of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) reactor must be adapted to overcome the effects of the presence of XS. Two reactors fed with synthetic wastewaters were operated in absence (R1) or presence (R2) of starch as proxy for XS. Different operating conditions were evaluated. Our results indicated that the presence of XS in the wastewater reduces the kinetic of granule formation. After 52 d of operation, the fraction of granules reached only 21% in R2, while in R1 this fraction was of 54%. The granules grown in presence of XS had irregular and filamentous outgrowths in the surface, which affected the settleability of the biomass and therefore the quality of the effluent. An extension of the anaerobic phase in R2 led to the formation of more compact granules with a better settling ability. A high fraction of granules was obtained in both reactors after an increase of the selection pressure for fast-settling biomass, but the quality of the effluent remained low. Operating the reactors in a simultaneous fill-and-draw mode at a low selection pressure for fast-settling biomass showed to be beneficial for substrate removal efficiency and for suppressing filamentous overgrowth. Average removal efficiencies for total COD, soluble COD, ammonium, and phosphate were 87 ± 4%, 95 ± 1%, 92 ± 10%, and 87 ± 12% for R1, and 72 ± 12%, 86 ± 5%, 71 ± 12%, and 77 ± 11% for R2, respectively. Overall our study demonstrates that the operating conditions of AGS reactors must be adapted according to the wastewater composition. When treating effluents that

  19. Application-ready expedited MODIS data for operational land surface monitoring of vegetation condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Jesslyn; Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Frieze, Aaron; Ji, Lei; Gacke, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring systems benefit from high temporal frequency image data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) system. Because of near-daily global coverage, MODIS data are beneficial to applications that require timely information about vegetation condition related to drought, flooding, or fire danger. Rapid satellite data streams in operational applications have clear benefits for monitoring vegetation, especially when information can be delivered as fast as changing surface conditions. An “expedited” processing system called “eMODIS” operated by the U.S. Geological Survey provides rapid MODIS surface reflectance data to operational applications in less than 24 h offering tailored, consistently-processed information products that complement standard MODIS products. We assessed eMODIS quality and consistency by comparing to standard MODIS data. Only land data with known high quality were analyzed in a central U.S. study area. When compared to standard MODIS (MOD/MYD09Q1), the eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maintained a strong, significant relationship to standard MODIS NDVI, whether from morning (Terra) or afternoon (Aqua) orbits. The Aqua eMODIS data were more prone to noise than the Terra data, likely due to differences in the internal cloud mask used in MOD/MYD09Q1 or compositing rules. Post-processing temporal smoothing decreased noise in eMODIS data.

  20. Operational control of radiation conditions in Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Shugay, Yulia; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of Moscow State University provides mission support for Russian satellites and give operational analysis of radiation conditions in space. SMDC Web-sites (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ and http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/) give access to current data on the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation state of Earth's magnetosphere and heliosphere in near-real time. For data analysis the models of space environment factors working online have been implemented. Interactive services allow one to retrieve and analyze data at a given time moment. Forecasting applications including solar wind parameters, geomagnetic and radiation condition forecasts have been developed. Radiation dose and SEE rate control are of particular importance in practical satellite operation. Satellites are always under the influence of high-energy particle fluxes during their orbital flight. The three main sources of particle fluxes: the Earth's radiation belts, the galactic cosmic rays, and the solar energetic particles (SEP), are taken into account by SMDC operational services to estimate the radiation dose caused by high-energy particles to a satellite at LEO orbits. ISO 15039 and AP8/AE8 physical models are used to estimate effects of galactic cosmic rays and radiation belt particle fluxes. Data of geosynchronous satellites (GOES or Electro-L1) allow to reconstruct the SEP fluxes spectra at a given low Earth orbit taking into account the geomagnetic cut-off depending on geomagnetic activity level.

  1. Rotary kiln incineration of dichloromethane and xylene: A comparison of incinerability characteristics under various operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cundy, V.A.; Lu, C.; Cook, C.A.; Sterling, A.M.; Leger, C.B.; Jakway, A.L.; Montestruc, A.N.; Conway, R. ); Lester, T.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Comparisons are made, for the first time, between the combustion characteristics of dicholoromethane and xylene in an industrial rotary kiln incinerator. The comparisons are made under different operating conditions, including variable kiln rotation rate and operation both with and without turbulence air. Continuous gas composition and temperature measurements and batch gas composition measurements were obtained from two vertical locations near the exit region of the rotary kiln. The measurements show that there is significant vertical stratification at the exit of the kiln. Addition of turbulence air enhanced combustion conditions throughout the kiln during xylene processing. During dichloromethane processing, however, the addition of turbulence air had minimal effect and only promoted greater bulk mixing; chlorinated compounds transported from the lower kiln during operation with turbulence air were not efficiently processed in the upper kiln. Evolution of test liquids from the bed was not constant but rather was characterized by intermittent peaks. The field-scale data of this work suggest that the evolution rate of the test liquid was increased as kiln rotation rate increased. Many of the differences between xylene and dichloromethane processing during these experiments are explained by a simple stoichiometric analysis.

  2. Optimization of magnetic refrigerators by tuning the heat transfer medium and operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahremani, Mohammadreza; Aslani, Amir; Bennett, Lawrence; Della Torre, Edward

    A new reciprocating Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) experimental device has been designed, built and tested to evaluate the effect of the system's parameters on a reciprocating Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) near room temperature. Gadolinium turnings were used as the refrigerant, silicon oil as the heat transfer medium, and a magnetic field of 1.3 T was cycled. This study focuses on the methodology of single stage AMR operation conditions to get a higher temperature span near room temperature. Herein, the main objective is not to report the absolute maximum attainable temperature span seen in an AMR system, but rather to find the system's optimal operating conditions to reach that maximum span. The results of this work show that there is an optimal operating frequency, heat transfer fluid flow rate, flow duration, and displaced volume ratio in an AMR system. It is expected that such optimization and the results provided herein will permit the future design and development of more efficient room-temperature magnetic refrigeration systems.

  3. Tuning the heat transfer medium and operating conditions in magnetic refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahremani, Mohammadreza; Aslani, Amir; Siddique, Abid; Bennett, Lawrence H.; Della Torre, Edward

    2016-07-01

    A new experimental test bed has been designed, built, and tested to evaluate the effect of the system's parameters on a reciprocating Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) near room temperature. Bulk gadolinium was used as the refrigerant, silicon oil as the heat transfer medium, and a magnetic field of 1.3 T was cycled. This study focuses on the methodology of single stage AMR operation conditions to get a high temperature span near room temperature. Herein, the main objective is not to report the absolute maximum attainable temperature span seen in an AMR system, but rather to find the system's optimal operating conditions to reach that maximum span. The results of this research show that there is a optimal operating frequency, heat transfer fluid flow rate, flow duration, and displaced volume ratio in any AMR system. By optimizing these parameters in our AMR apparatus the temperature span between the hot and cold ends increased by 24%. The optimized values are system dependent and need to be determined and measured for any AMR system by following the procedures that are introduced in this research. It is expected that such optimization will permit the design of a more efficient magnetic refrigeration system.

  4. Effects of operating conditions on performance of high-temperature polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Inada, Akiko; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakajima, Hironori; Sasaki, Kazunari; Ito, Kohei

    2016-06-01

    Effects of operating conditions of a high-temperature polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer (HT-PEWE) on the electrolysis voltage are evaluated, and the optimal conditions for a high performance are revealed. A HT-PEWE unit cell with a 4-cm2 electrode consisting of Nafion117-based catalyst-coated membrane with IrO2 and Pt/C as the oxygen and hydrogen evolution catalysts is fabricated, and its electrolysis voltage and high-frequency resistance are assessed. The cell temperature and pressure are controlled at 80-130 °C and 0.1-0.5 MPa, respectively. It is observed that increasing the temperature at a constant pressure of 0.1 MPa does not increase the ohmic overvoltage of the cell; however, it does increase the concentration overvoltage. It is also found that the increase in the overvoltage resulting from the rise in the temperature can be suppressed by elevating the pressure. When operating the cell at a temperature of 100 °C, pressure greater than 0.1 MPa suppresses the overvoltage, and so does pressures greater than 0.3 MPa at 130 °C. This behavior suggests that keeping the water in a liquid water phase by increasing the pressure is critical for operating PEWEs at high temperatures.

  5. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d{sup −1} at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d{sup −1} at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d{sup −1} at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution

  6. Analysis of winter weather conditions and their potential impact on wind farm operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovskaia, E.; Treinish, L. A.; Praino, A.

    2009-12-01

    Severe weather conditions have two primary impacts on wind farm operations. The first relates to understanding potential damage to the turbines themselves and what actions are required to mitigate the effects. The second is recognizing what conditions may lead to a full or partial shutdown of the wind farm with sufficient lead time to determine the likely inability to meet energy generation committments. Ideally, wind forecasting suitable for wind farm operations should be of sufficient fidelity to resolve features within the boundary layer that lead to either damaging conditions or useful power generation. Given the complexity of the site-specific factors that effect the boundary layer at the scale of typical land-based wind farm locations such as topography, vegetation, land use, soil conditions, etc., which may vary with turbine design and layout within the farm, enabling reliable forecasts of too little or too much wind is challenging. A potential solution should involve continuous updates of alert triggering criteria through analysis of local wind patterns and probabilistic risk assessment for each location. To evaluate this idea, we utilize our operational mesoscale prediction system, dubbed “Deep Thunder”, developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. In particular, we analyze winter-time near-surface winds in upstate New York, where four similar winds farms are located. Each of these farms were built at roughly the same time and utilize similar turbines. Given the relative uncertainty associated with numerical weather prediction at this scale, and the difference in risk assessment due to the two primary impacts of severe weather, probabilistic forecasts are a prerequisite. Hence, we have employed ensembles of weather scenarios, which are based on the NCAR WRF-ARW modelling system. The set of ensemble members was composed with variations in the choices of physics and parameterization schemes, and source of background fields for initial

  7. Fully Electrical Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators with Contact Thermal Resistance Under Different Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siouane, Saima; Jovanović, Slaviša; Poure, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply electronic circuits by converting the waste thermal into electrical energy. This generated electrical power is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the TEG module's hot and cold sides. Depending on the applications, TEGs can be used either under constant temperature gradient between heat reservoirs or constant heat flow conditions. Moreover, the generated electrical power of a TEG depends not only on these operating conditions, but also on the contact thermal resistance. The influence of the contact thermal resistance on the generated electrical power have already been extensively reported in the literature. However, as reported in Park et al. (Energy Convers Manag 86:233, 2014) and Montecucco and Knox (IEEE Trans Power Electron 30:828, 2015), while designing TEG-powered circuit and systems, a TEG module is mostly modeled with a Thévenin equivalent circuit whose resistance is constant and voltage proportional to the temperature gradient applied to the TEG's terminals. This widely used simplified electrical TEG model is inaccurate and not suitable under constant heat flow conditions or when the contact thermal resistance is considered. Moreover, it does not provide realistic behaviour corresponding to the physical phenomena taking place in a TEG. Therefore, from the circuit designer's point of view, faithful and fully electrical TEG models under different operating conditions are needed. Such models are mainly necessary to design and evaluate the power conditioning electronic stages and the maximum power point tracking algorithms of a TEG power supply. In this study, these fully electrical models with the contact thermal resistance taken into account are presented and the analytical expressions of the Thévenin equivalent circuit parameters are provided.

  8. A review of skin conditions in modern warfare and peacekeeping operations.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Ari B; Norton, Scott A; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the most exposed organ of the body, and military personnel face many external skin threats. As a result, skin disease is an important source of morbidity among military personnel deployed on combat or peacekeeping operations. This article reviews the most common conditions seen by deployed military dermatologists. A PubMed search was used to identify articles in English, written between 1965 and 2014, using medical subject headings "military medicine" AND "skin disease" or "military personnel" AND "skin disease." The five most common reasons for physician consultation for skin conditions in wartime since the Vietnam War were warts (10.7%), fungal infections (10.4%), acne (9.0%), nonspecific eczematous conditions (7.1%), and sexually transmitted diseases (6.1%). There was a significant difference in the skin conditions seen in the hot and humid climates of Vietnam and East Timor, where bacterial and fungal infections were more common reasons for consultation, and the dry climates of Bosnia and Iraq, where eczematous conditions made up a larger part of the dermatologic caseload. PMID:25562855

  9. Anaerobic digestion of raw and thermally hydrolyzed wastewater solids under various operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Christopher A; Tanneru, Charan T; Banjade, Sarita; Murthy, Sudhir N; Novak, John T

    2011-09-01

    In this study, high-solids anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated wastewater solids (THD) was compared with conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD). Operational conditions, such as pretreatment temperature (150 to 170 degrees C), solids retention time (15 to 20 days), and digestion temperature (37 to 42 degrees C), were varied for the seven THD systems operated. Volatile solids reduction (VSR) by THD ranged from 56 to 62%, compared with approximately 50% for MAD. Higher VSR contributed to 24 to 59% increased biogas production (m3/kg VSR-d) from THD relative to MAD. The high-solids conditions of the THD feed resulted in high total ammonia-nitrogen (proportional to solids loading) and total alkalinity concentrations in excess of 14 g/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Increased pH in THD reactors caused 5 to 8 times more un-ionized ammonia to be present than in MAD, and this likely led to inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens, resulting in accumulation of residual volatile fatty acids between 2 and 6 g/L as acetic acid. The THD produced biosolids cake that possessed low organic sulfur-based biosolids odor and dewatered to between 33 and 39% total solids. Dual conditioning with cationic polymer and ferric chloride was shown to be an effective strategy for mitigating dissolved organic nitrogen and UV-quenching compounds in the return stream following centrifugal dewatering of THD biosolids. PMID:22073729

  10. Anaerobic digestion of raw and thermally hydrolyzed wastewater solids under various operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Christopher A; Tanneru, Charan T; Banjade, Sarita; Murthy, Sudhir N; Novak, John T

    2011-09-01

    In this study, high-solids anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated wastewater solids (THD) was compared with conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD). Operational conditions, such as pretreatment temperature (150 to 170 degrees C), solids retention time (15 to 20 days), and digestion temperature (37 to 42 degrees C), were varied for the seven THD systems operated. Volatile solids reduction (VSR) by THD ranged from 56 to 62%, compared with approximately 50% for MAD. Higher VSR contributed to 24 to 59% increased biogas production (m3/kg VSR-d) from THD relative to MAD. The high-solids conditions of the THD feed resulted in high total ammonia-nitrogen (proportional to solids loading) and total alkalinity concentrations in excess of 14 g/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Increased pH in THD reactors caused 5 to 8 times more un-ionized ammonia to be present than in MAD, and this likely led to inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens, resulting in accumulation of residual volatile fatty acids between 2 and 6 g/L as acetic acid. The THD produced biosolids cake that possessed low organic sulfur-based biosolids odor and dewatered to between 33 and 39% total solids. Dual conditioning with cationic polymer and ferric chloride was shown to be an effective strategy for mitigating dissolved organic nitrogen and UV-quenching compounds in the return stream following centrifugal dewatering of THD biosolids.

  11. Relationship between Prevailing Oceanographic conditions on the fishing operations in the Northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazzam Khan, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Marked seasonality in fishing operation and catch composition was observed in the Northern Indian Ocean. These variations are more pronounced and noticeable in case of trawling for fish and shrimp as well as in the surface gillnetting for tuna and large pelagics. Although oceanographic conditions of the Northern Indian Ocean has been studied comprehensively, some facets of these are not well understood especially their relation with the fish distribution and abundance. Important oceanographic factors especially migration of oxygen minimum layer towards coastal areas after the cessation of South-West Monsoon seems to the most important factor responsible for the seasonal variation in the fishing intensity and species composition. Distribution and abundance of some of the commercially important marine animals especially billfishes was observed to be associated with the physical features of the area especially their abundance was noticed along continental margin and on the ridges in the Arabian Sea. The paper describes seasonal variation in abundance and catch composition of various fishing operations in the Indian Ocean and relates its to prevailing oceanographic conditions. Fishermen traditional knowledge about the seasonality of these conditions is also documented in the paper.

  12. Health hazards in areas of military operations conducted in different climatic and sanitary conditions.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the most common health hazards occurring among personnel of peacekeeping and stabilization missions functioning within armed conflicts in the contemporary world. Military operations have been executed in diverse climatic and sanitary conditions, which are frequently unfamiliar for their participants. Some of them, e.g. the UN peacekeeping missions in the Middle East (Lebanon, the Golan Heights), have been carried out in a relatively stable geopolitical environment; whereas, stabilization missions in Iraq and Afghanistan, which are actually combat activities, undoubtedly fall into the group of the most perilous military operations in the world. Hot or cold climate, poor sanitary and hygienic conditions along with warfare facilitate the occurrence of numerous diseases and body injuries not only among the local people but also among peacekeepers, who represent the population of immigrants. Health hazards which pose major epidemiological threats in combat zones are arthropod-borne, food and water-borne, respiratory tract diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, enzootic diseases, battle injuries, and non- -battle injuries, e.g. traffic accidents. Another considerable health problem are psychiatric disorders, which can either appear directly after the occurrence of a traumatic event in a combat zone or indirectly, after some time had elapsed. In addition to the health hazards listed above, environmental factors such as changeable weather conditions and local fauna may also be life threatening. PMID:21534225

  13. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, Richard H.; Chai, Jangbom; Lang, Jeffrey H.; Hagman, Wayne H.; Umans, Stephen D.; Saarela, Olli J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit.

  14. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, R.H.; Chai, J.; Lang, J.H.; Hagman, W.H.; Umans, S.D.; Saarela, O.J.

    1997-01-14

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit. 28 figs.

  15. Effects of Operating Conditions during Low-Alcohol Beer Production by Osmotic Distillation.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, Giovanni; Freeman, Gary; Lee, Eung; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2014-03-28

    Osmotic distillation (OD) is a membrane technology most commonly used for liquid concentration, but recently there has been an increased interest in ethanol removal from alcoholic beverages. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the variation of some operating conditions (temperature, flow rate, type and amount of stripping solution), specifically in regard to the effect on quality and sensory properties of the dealcoholized beers. The results indicated that temperature and flow rate variation showed no significant effect, whereas stripping solution variation had substantial effects mainly in terms of the ethanol removed. A cost appraisal showed that the operating costs were high mainly because of the cost of the stripping water. However, it is important to consider the final stripping solution, which is slightly alcoholic and enriched in flavor. For this reason, it could be reused in the manufacture of beverages, for instance as high gravity beer dilution water. PMID:24620924

  16. Bacteriology of Air-Conditioning Ducts with Special Reference to Operating Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Peter; Doherty, Jane

    1963-01-01

    The number of bacteria in air, before filtration with five different easily available filters in the low positive-pressure type of airconditioning system of the Winnipeg General Hospital, was between 3 and 4/cu. ft., and after filtration between 1 and 2/cu. ft. with all types of filters. Cl. welchii contributed about 1% and Staph. pyogenes about 0.1% of this total. Sampling the exhaust air from an operating room during an operation showed that the bacterial count fluctuated with the degree of activity in the room and was from two to 10 times as high as in the air delivered to the room. Atlhough every reasonable attempt should be made to diminish the bacterial count of air in hospitals, if much energy and money is to be spent it would probably be wiser to investigate sources of hospital infection other than the type of air-conditioning system described in this report. PMID:13998955

  17. Advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) progress with respect to remote operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyo Jik; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2007-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing an Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) to reduce the volume of spent fuel, and the construction of the ACP facility (ACPF) for a demonstration of its technical feasibility has been completed. In 2006 two inactive demonstrations were performed with simulated fuels in the ACPF. Accompanied by process equipment performance tests, its remote operability and maintainability were also tested during that time. Procedures for remote operation tasks are well addressed in this study and evaluated thoroughly. Also, remote maintenance and repair tasks are addressed regarding some important modules with a high priority order. The above remote handling test's results provided a lot of information such as items to be revised to improve the efficiency of the remote handling tasks. This paper deals with the current status of ACP and the progress of remote handling of ACPF. (authors)

  18. The effects of arcjet thruster operating condition constrictor geometry on the plasma plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Lynnette M.; Sankovic, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of plasma number density and electron temperature were obtained in the plumes of lab arcjet thrusters using electrostatic probes of both spherical and cylindrical geometry. The two arcjet thrusters used had different constrictor and/or nozzle geometries and operated on mixtures of nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia to simulate the decomposition products of hydrazine and ammonia. An increase in the measured electron density was observed for both geometries with increasing arc power at a constant mass flow rate and with increasing mass flow rate at a constant arc current. For a given operating condition, the electron number density decreased exponentially off centerline and followed an inverse distance squared relationship along the thrust axis. Typical measured electron temperatures ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 eV.

  19. The effects of arcjet operating condition and constrictor geometry on the plasma plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Lynnette M.; Sankovic, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of plasma number density and electron temperature were obtained in the plumes of lab arcjet thrusters using electrostatic probes of both spherical and cylindrical geometry. The two arcjet thrusters used had different constrictor and/or nozzle geometries and operated on mixtures of nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia to simulate the decomposition products of hydrazine and ammonia. An increase in the measured electron density was observed for both geometries with increasing arc power at a constant mass flow rate and with increasing mass flow rate at a constant arc current. For a given operating condition, the electron number density decreased exponentially off centerline and followed an inverse distance squared relationship along the thrust axis. Typical measured electron temperatures ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 eV.

  20. Evaluation of operational numerical weather predictions in relation to the prevailing synoptic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Karacostas, Theodore; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Kartsios, Stergios; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The Thessaly plain, which is located in central Greece, has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The aim of DAPHNE project (http://www.daphne-meteo.gr) is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification in convective clouds. This problem is reinforced by the increase of population and the water demand for irrigation, especially during the warm period of the year. The nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), is utilized for research and operational purposes of DAPHNE project. The WRF output fields are employed by the partners in order to provide high-resolution meteorological guidance and plan the project's operations. The model domains cover: i) Europe, the Mediterranean sea and northern Africa, ii) Greece and iii) the wider region of Thessaly (at selected periods), at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km, respectively, using 2-way telescoping nesting. The aim of this research work is to investigate the model performance in relation to the prevailing upper-air synoptic circulation. The statistical evaluation of the high-resolution operational forecasts of near-surface and upper air fields is performed at a selected period of the operational phase of the project using surface observations, gridded fields and weather radar data. The verification is based on gridded, point and object oriented techniques. The 10 upper-air circulation types, which describe the prevailing conditions over Greece, are employed in the synoptic classification. This methodology allows the identification of model errors that occur and/or are maximized at specific synoptic conditions and may otherwise be obscured in aggregate statistics. Preliminary analysis indicates that the largest errors are associated with cyclonic conditions. Acknowledgments This research work of Daphne project (11SYN_8_1088) is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund

  1. Using operant conditioning and desensitization to facilitate veterinary care with captive reptiles.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Heidi; Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara; Hope, Katharine

    2012-09-01

    In addition to being a large component of most zoological collections, reptile species are becoming more popular as family pets. Reptiles have the cognitive ability to be trained to facilitate daily husbandry and veterinary care. Desensitization and operant conditioning can alleviate some of the behavioral and physiological challenges of treating these species. A survey of reptile training programs at zoos in the United States and worldwide reveals that there are many successful training programs to facilitate veterinary care and minimize stress to the animal. Many of the techniques being used to train reptiles in zoological settings are transferable to the exotic pet clinician.

  2. Learning by operant conditioning as a nonlinear self-organized process.

    PubMed

    Pascual, M A; Rodríguez, M A

    2006-07-01

    Responses of individuals have been rewarded in fixed ratio operant conditioning experiments throughout the last 5 years. The long numerical series of performance rates so obtained have been analyzed by using Fourier spectra, obtaining 1/f noise, and wavelet techniques for the analysis of local variability. These techniques reveal that the evolution of data in each individual is nonlinear but it fluctuates showing self-organized patterns in successive time scales, which leads to a long term logarithmic growth. Based on these observations a model has been developed. It can simulate with a great accuracy the rate of response exhibited by our subjects in all time scales.

  3. Safe operating conditions for NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Amundsen, C.; Ha, K.; Hussein, A.

    2015-04-02

    The NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends are designed to safely accept the synchrotron radiation fan produced by respective insertion device when the electron beam orbit through the ID is locked inside the predefined Active Interlock Envelope. The Active Interlock is getting enabled at a particular beam current known as AI safe current limit. Below such current the beam orbit can be anywhere within the limits of the SR beam acceptance. During the FE commissioning the beam orbit is getting intentionally disturbed in the particular ID. In this paper we explore safe operating conditions for the Frontends commissioning.

  4. Descent strategy comparisons for TNAV-equipped aircraft under airplane-preferred operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    Three 4-D descent strategies were evaluated which were employed by TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering air traffic control environment. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to assess performance using three criteria when traffic enters the simulation under preferred cruise operating conditions (altitude and speed): throughput, fuel usage, and conflict probability. In comparison to an evaluation previously performed under NASA contract, the current analysis indicates that the optimal descent strategy is preferred over the clean-idle and constant descent angle (CFPA) strategies when all three criteria are considered.

  5. Operant conditioning methodology in the assessment of food preferences: introductory comments.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, M E; Smith, J C

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a general introduction to the methodology used in the next three papers of this monograph to test dogs' food preferences. This "operant conditioning" methodology was developed in behavioral laboratories concerned with learning in animals. The logic of the methodology is described, some technical and practical aspects of the methodology are summarized, and its application in the hedonic-scaling of qualitatively different foods is discussed. The relation between this new methodology and the traditional two-bowl preference test is reviewed.

  6. Using operant conditioning and desensitization to facilitate veterinary care with captive reptiles.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Heidi; Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara; Hope, Katharine

    2012-09-01

    In addition to being a large component of most zoological collections, reptile species are becoming more popular as family pets. Reptiles have the cognitive ability to be trained to facilitate daily husbandry and veterinary care. Desensitization and operant conditioning can alleviate some of the behavioral and physiological challenges of treating these species. A survey of reptile training programs at zoos in the United States and worldwide reveals that there are many successful training programs to facilitate veterinary care and minimize stress to the animal. Many of the techniques being used to train reptiles in zoological settings are transferable to the exotic pet clinician. PMID:22998960

  7. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Poore, III, Willis P.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  8. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke

    2012-06-06

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and {sup 208}Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  9. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke

    2012-06-01

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and 208Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  10. Differential rearing conditions and alcohol-preferring rats: consumption of and operant responding for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Deehan, Gerald A; Palmatier, Matthew I; Cain, Mary E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2011-04-01

    Exposing rats to differential rearing conditions during early postweaning development has been shown to produce changes in a number of behaviors displayed during adulthood. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate whether rearing alcohol-preferring (P) and nonpreferring (NP) rats in an environmental enrichment condition (EC), a social condition (SC), or an impoverished condition (IC) would differentially affect self-administration of 10% ethanol. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for consumption of 10% ethanol in limited- and free-access tests. For Experiment 2, rats were trained to respond in an operant chamber for ethanol and then provided concurrent access to 10% ethanol and water. Each solution was presented in a separate liquid dipper after meeting the schedule of reinforcement on distinct levers. After concurrent access tests, the water lever/dipper was inactivated and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule was initiated. Three successive solutions (10% ethanol, 15% ethanol, and 10% sucrose) were tested under the PR. For P rats, rearing in an EC reduced ethanol consumption, preference, and motivation to obtain ethanol, relative to P rats reared in an IC. Thus, exposure to a novel environment immediately after weaning acted to decrease the reinforcing properties of ethanol in an animal model for alcoholism.

  11. 34 CFR 222.142 - What terms and conditions apply to minimum school facilities operated under section 8008 by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What terms and conditions apply to minimum school facilities operated under section 8008 by another agency? 222.142 Section 222.142 Education Regulations of... What terms and conditions apply to minimum school facilities operated under section 8008 by...

  12. Modeling of oil spills in ice conditions in the Gulf of finland on the basis of an operative forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanovoy, V. V.; Eremina, T. R.; Isaev, A. V.; Neelov, I. A.; Vankevich, R. E.; Ryabchenko, V. A.

    2012-11-01

    A brief description of the GULFOOS operative forecasting oceanographic system of the Gulf of Finland and the OilMARS operative forecasting oil spill model is presented. Special attention is focused on oil spill simulation in ice conditions. All the assumptions and parameterizations used are described. Modeling results of training simulations for the ice conditions of January 2011 are presented.

  13. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  14. Energy capability improvement of power DMOS transistors operating in pulsed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costachescu, Dragos; Pfost, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Modern power DMOS transistors greatly benefit from the continuous advances of the technology, which yield devices with very low area-specific RDS,on figures of merit and therefore allow for significantly reduced active areas. However, in many applications, where the devices must dissipate high amounts of energy and thus are subjected to significant self-heating, the active area is not dictated by RDS,on requirements, but by the energy constraints. In this paper, a simple method of improving the energy capability and reliability of power DMOS transistors operating in pulsed conditions is proposed and experimentally verified. The method consists in redistributing the power density from the hotter to the cooler device regions, hence achieving a more homogeneous temperature distribution and a reduced peak temperature. To demonstrate the principle, a simple gate offset circuit is used to redistribute the current density to the cooler DMOS parts. No technology changes are needed for the implementation, only minor changes to the driver circuit are necessary, with a minimal impact on the additional required active area. Improvements in the energy capability from 9.2% up to 39% have been measured. Furthermore, measurements have shown that the method remains effective also if the operating conditions change significantly. The simplicity and the effectiveness of the implementation makes the proposed method suitable to be used in a wide range of applications.

  15. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  16. Review of Operational Challenges and Changing Conditions associated with Offshore Submerged Vertical Pumping Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsudin, M. L.; Munisamy, K. M.; Thangaraju, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    Cooling water system is one of the essential auxiliary systems for a power generating plant. The decision to have an offshore pumping station, instead of onshore station, may have been driven by the scarcity in land area or for direct water supply access. However, the design has several disadvantages such as tendency for sediment intakes, limited condition monitoring activities and inaccessible sump for maintenance and modification. The paper reviews and lists several potential operational challenges and difficulties experienced with the offshore station. The influences of changing conditions such as varying seawater tide level, clogged intake screen, intake sedimentation issues and marine fouling on the sump walls and structures, are discussed and mitigating solutions are identified. While it is impractical to conduct physical model test for studying flow pattern, the CFD method can be an attractive assessment tools. In addition to this, a review of plant operating parameters can assist in identifying flow anomalies to anticipate potential deterioration. Finally the difficulty in incorporating the solutions to vortex and sediment problems within the sump is highlighted with preference for those which can be managed by limited access or those which are moveable with the vertical pump.

  17. Effects of Operating Conditions on Internal Resistances in Enzyme Fuel Cells Studied via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, D; Borole, Abhijeet P; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme fuel cells (EFCs) offer some advantages over traditional precious-metal-catalyzed fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, EFCs exhibit far less power output than PEMFCs and have relatively short life spans before materials must be replaced. In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to analyze the internal resistances throughout the EFC at a variety of operating conditions. EIS analysis is focused primarily on the resistances of the anode, solution/membrane, and cathode. Increased enzyme loading results in improved power output and reductions in internal resistance. Conditions are identified for which enzyme loading does not limit the EFC performance. EIS experiments are also reported for EFCs operated continuously for 2 days; power output declines sharply over time, while all internal resistances increase. Drying of the cathode and enzyme/mediator degradation are believed to have contributed to this behavior. Finally, experiments are performed at varying air-humidification temperatures. Little effect on internal resistances or power output is observed. However, it is anticipated that increased air humidification can improve longevity by delivering more water to the cathode. Improvements to the enzymatic cathode are needed for EFC development. These improvements need to focus on improving transport rather than increasing enzyme loading.

  18. Coexistence of reward and unsupervised learning during the operant conditioning of neural firing rates.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Robert R; Grayden, David B; Thomas, Doreen A; Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony N

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to understand how cognitive processes, such as operant conditioning, are performed by the brain. Typical and well studied examples of operant conditioning, in which the firing rates of individual cortical neurons in monkeys are increased using rewards, provide an opportunity for insight into this. Studies of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity (RSTDP), and of other models such as R-max, have reproduced this learning behavior, but they have assumed that no unsupervised learning is present (i.e., no learning occurs without, or independent of, rewards). We show that these models cannot elicit firing rate reinforcement while exhibiting both reward learning and ongoing, stable unsupervised learning. To fix this issue, we propose a new RSTDP model of synaptic plasticity based upon the observed effects that dopamine has on long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD). We show, both analytically and through simulations, that our new model can exhibit unsupervised learning and lead to firing rate reinforcement. This requires that the strengthening of LTP by the reward signal is greater than the strengthening of LTD and that the reinforced neuron exhibits irregular firing. We show the robustness of our findings to spike-timing correlations, to the synaptic weight dependence that is assumed, and to changes in the mean reward. We also consider our model in the differential reinforcement of two nearby neurons. Our model aligns more strongly with experimental studies than previous models and makes testable predictions for future experiments. PMID:24475240

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

  20. Effect of Operating Conditions on Tribological Response of Al Al Sliding Electrical Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Streator, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum is widely used in electrical contacts due to its electrical properties and inexpensiveness when compared to copper. In this study, we investigate the influence of operating conditions like contact load (pressure), sliding speed, current, and surface roughness on the electrical and tribological behavior of the interface. The tests are conducted on a linear, pin-on-flat tribo-simulator specially designed to investigate electrical contacts under high contact pressures and high current densities. Control parameters include sliding speed, load, current, and surface roughness. The response of the interface is evaluated in the light of coefficient of friction, contact resistance, contact voltage, mass loss of pins, and interfacial temperature rise. As compared to sliding speed, load, and roughness, current is found to have the greatest influence on the various measured parameters. Under certain test conditions, the interface operates in a voltage saturation regime, wherein increase in current do not result in any increase in contact voltage. Within the voltage saturation regime the coefficient of friction tends to be lower, a result that is attributed to the higher temperatures associated with the higher voltage (and resulting material softening). Higher interfacial temperatures also appear to be responsible for the higher wear rates observed at higher current levels as well as lower coefficients of friction for smoother surfaces in the presence of current.

  1. Coexistence of reward and unsupervised learning during the operant conditioning of neural firing rates.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Robert R; Grayden, David B; Thomas, Doreen A; Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony N

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to understand how cognitive processes, such as operant conditioning, are performed by the brain. Typical and well studied examples of operant conditioning, in which the firing rates of individual cortical neurons in monkeys are increased using rewards, provide an opportunity for insight into this. Studies of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity (RSTDP), and of other models such as R-max, have reproduced this learning behavior, but they have assumed that no unsupervised learning is present (i.e., no learning occurs without, or independent of, rewards). We show that these models cannot elicit firing rate reinforcement while exhibiting both reward learning and ongoing, stable unsupervised learning. To fix this issue, we propose a new RSTDP model of synaptic plasticity based upon the observed effects that dopamine has on long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD). We show, both analytically and through simulations, that our new model can exhibit unsupervised learning and lead to firing rate reinforcement. This requires that the strengthening of LTP by the reward signal is greater than the strengthening of LTD and that the reinforced neuron exhibits irregular firing. We show the robustness of our findings to spike-timing correlations, to the synaptic weight dependence that is assumed, and to changes in the mean reward. We also consider our model in the differential reinforcement of two nearby neurons. Our model aligns more strongly with experimental studies than previous models and makes testable predictions for future experiments.

  2. Effect of operating conditions and membrane quality on the separation performance of composite silicalite-1 membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Graaf, J.M. van de; Bijl, E. van der; Stol, A.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulign, J.A.

    1998-10-01

    The separation capacity of silicalite-1 membranes for various hydrocarbon mixtures is determined as a function of membrane quality, operating conditions, and orientation of the composite membrane with respect to the feed side. The quality of the membranes is judged on the basis of the n-butane/i-butane permselectivity. Membranes with a different n-butane/i-butane permselectivity showed an identical separation capacity for ethane/methane mixtures, but the quality difference was affecting separation of hydrogen from the butane isomers. The selectivity of the membrane is significantly affected by the operating conditions, such as mixture composition, temperature, and absolute pressure. These effects are shown for ethane/methane, propene/ethene, and n-butane/i-butane mixtures. The selectivity for ethane in ethane/methane mixtures, found when the zeolite layer is facing the feed side, is completely lost when the orientation of the composite membrane is reversed, due to concentration polarization. Depending on the membrane orientation, the major resistance of the composite is in the support layer or in the zeolite layer.

  3. Impacts of operating conditions on nanofiltration of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ochando Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martínez Férez, Antonio

    2015-09-15

    In the present paper, a thin-film composite polymeric nanofiltration (NF) membrane is examined for the tertiary treatment of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater, in substitution of the reverse osmosis membrane used in previous work by the Authors. Overcoming the deleterious fouling phenomena persistently encountered in membrane processes managing wastewater streams was indeed pursued. Setting the adequate parameters of the operating variables - that is, operating at ambient temperature upon a net pressure equal to 13 bar (Pc), tangential crossflow in the order of 2.55 m s(-1) to attain enough turbulence over the membrane, and above the point of zero charge (pH > 5.8) of the membrane - ensured high steady-state permeate productivity (59.6 L h(-1) m(-2)), also economically sustainable in time owed to minimization of the fouling-build up rate (0.91 h(-1)). Moreover, these conditions also provided high feed recovery (90%) and significant rejection efficiencies for the electroconductivity (58.1%) and organic matter (76.1%). This led to a purified permeate stream exiting the NF membrane operation exhibiting average EC and COD values equal to 1.4 mS cm(-1) and 45 mg L(-1). This permits complying with the water quality parameters established by different regulations for discharge public waterways and irrigation purposes. PMID:26186549

  4. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    PubMed

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures.

  5. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25°C up to 55°C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007d(-1) at room temperature that increased to 0.03-0.05d(-1) at 37°C and to 0.04-0.11d(-1) at 55°C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions change continuously and vary significantly depending on the climate, the landfill operative management strategies in place (e.g. leachate recirculation, waste disposal methods), the hydraulic characteristics of disposed

  6. Methamphetamine enhances memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Colin D; Houmes, Stephen W; Wyrick, Katherine L; Kammerzell, Samuel M; Lukowiak, Ken; Sorg, Barbara A

    2010-06-15

    Amphetamines have been used as cognitive enhancers to promote learning and memory. Amphetamines are also drugs of abuse that may promote the initiation of strong memories that ultimately lead to addiction. To understand how methamphetamine (Meth) may be augmenting learning and memory, we chose a relatively simple system, the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We studied the effects of Meth exposure on the long-term memory (LTM), extinction and reinstatement of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea. We first determined doses of Meth that would acutely alter respiratory behavior. Next, we measured the impact of training snails in Meth solution or water (control group) using a training procedure that produces LTM (>6 h) in control conditions. Meth exposure impaired the expression of LTM 21 h after two training sessions, but this appeared to be a context-dependent effect only. However, snails exposed to 3.3 mumol l(-1) Meth during training had a decreased rate of extinction of the operantly conditioned memory. We then tested whether this decreased ability of snails to extinguish memory was due to enhanced LTM or impaired extinction of that memory. Snails were operantly conditioned in water and exposed to Meth 16 h after their last trial but 4-5 h prior to extinction. Meth produced an increase rather than a decrease in extinction rate. Thus, Meth impaired extinction only when snails were exposed to Meth during training. Last, we tested the effect of Meth on the ability to form LTM using a single training procedure that is suboptimal for LTM formation. Control snails did not demonstrate LTM, as expected, but pre-exposure of snails to 3.3 micromol l(-1) Meth 24 h prior to the single training session produced LTM 24 h later, indicating that Meth pre-exposure primed snails for LTM formation. Taken together, our studies suggest that LTM is strengthened by Meth such that extinction training is less effective. Lymnaea provides a simple and useful model

  7. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25°C up to 55°C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007d(-1) at room temperature that increased to 0.03-0.05d(-1) at 37°C and to 0.04-0.11d(-1) at 55°C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions change continuously and vary significantly depending on the climate, the landfill operative management strategies in place (e.g. leachate recirculation, waste disposal methods), the hydraulic characteristics of disposed

  8. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carson O; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin; Smets, Barth; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip

    2014-11-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification rates and safe operating windows of rapid sand filters, a pilot scale rapid sand filter was used to test short-term increased ammonium loads, set by varying either influent ammonium concentrations or hydraulic loading rates. Ammonium and iron (flock) removal were consistent between the pilot and the full-scale filter. Nitrification rates and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were quantified throughout the depth of the filter. The ammonium removal capacity of the filter was determined to be 3.4 g NH4-N m(-3) h(-1), which was 5 times greater than the average ammonium loading rate under reference operating conditions. The ammonium removal rate of the filter was determined by the ammonium loading rate, but was independent of both the flow and influent ammonium concentration individually. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were almost equally abundant in the filter. Both ammonium removal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria density were strongly stratified, with the highest removal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria densities at the top of the filter. Cell specific ammonium oxidation rates were on average 0.6 × 10(2) ± 0.2 × 10(2) fg NH4-N h(-1) cell(-1). Our findings indicate that these rapid sand filters can safely remove both nitrite and ammonium over a larger range of loading rates than previously assumed.

  9. Conditional Monthly Weather Resampling Procedure for Operational Seasonal Water Resources Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.; Weerts, A.; Tijdeman, E.; Welles, E.; McManamon, A.

    2013-12-01

    To provide reliable and accurate seasonal streamflow forecasts for water resources management several operational hydrologic agencies and hydropower companies around the world use the Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) procedure. The ESP in its original implementation does not accommodate for any additional information that the forecaster may have about expected deviations from climatology in the near future. Several attempts have been conducted to improve the skill of the ESP forecast, especially for areas which are affected by teleconnetions (e,g. ENSO, PDO) via selection (Hamlet and Lettenmaier, 1999) or weighting schemes (Werner et al., 2004; Wood and Lettenmaier, 2006; Najafi et al., 2012). A disadvantage of such schemes is that they lead to a reduction of the signal to noise ratio of the probabilistic forecast. To overcome this, we propose a resampling method conditional on climate indices to generate meteorological time series to be used in the ESP. The method can be used to generate a large number of meteorological ensemble members in order to improve the statistical properties of the ensemble. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated in a real-time operational hydrologic seasonal forecasts system for the Columbia River basin operated by the Bonneville Power Administration. The forecast skill of the k-nn resampler was tested against the original ESP for three basins at the long-range seasonal time scale. The BSS and CRPSS were used to compare the results to those of the original ESP method. Positive forecast skill scores were found for the resampler method conditioned on different indices for the prediction of spring peak flows in the Dworshak and Hungry Horse basin. For the Libby Dam basin however, no improvement of skill was found. The proposed resampling method is a promising practical approach that can add skill to ESP forecasts at the seasonal time scale. Further improvement is possible by fine tuning the method and selecting the most

  10. Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganó, Davide; Kenny, Robert P.; Müllejans, Harald; Alimonti, Gianluca

    2014-12-01

    The performance of a PV module at STC [1] is a useful indicator for comparing the peak performance of different module types, but on its own is not sufficient to accurately predict how much energy a module will deliver in the field when subjected to a wide range of real operating conditions [2]. An Energy Rating approach has to be preferred for that aim. It is currently under development the standard series IEC 61853 on Energy Rating, for which only part 1 [3] has been issued. It describes methods to characterize the module performance as a function of irradiance and temperature. The reproducibility of the power matrix measurements obtained by the three different methods specified in the standard, namely: under natural sunlight using a tracking system; under natural sunlight without tracker; and a large area pulsed solar simulator of Class AAA were evaluated and discussed [4,5]. The work here presented is focused on the second method listed above, which explores the real working conditions for a PV device and therefore it represents the situation where Energy Rating procedures are expected to give the largest deviations from the STC predictions. The system for continuous monitoring of module performances, already implemented at ESTI, has been recently replaced with a new system having a number of improvements described in the following. The two system results have been compared showing a discrete compatibility. The two power matrices are then merged together using a weighted average and compared to those acquired with the other two remaining "ideal" systems. An interesting tendency seems to come up from this comparison, making the power rating under real operating conditions an essential procedure for energy rating purposes.

  11. Preparation and characterisation of chemical manganese dioxide: Effect of the operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnanelli, F.; Sambenedetto, C.; Furlani, G.; Vegliò, F.; Toro, L.

    In this study MnO 2 preparation by chemical methods is investigated for possible applications in dry cell batteries of chemical manganese dioxide (CMD) instead of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD). Three preparation procedures were tested: precipitation-oxidation by air plus acid activation (two-step-air), precipitation-oxidation by H 2O 2 plus acid activation (two-step-H 2O 2), precipitation-oxidation by KClO 3 (single-step-ClO 3). Replicated factorial designs and related statistical analysis of experimental data by analysis of variance were performed in order both to obtain a preliminary optimization of the operating conditions and to take into account the intrinsic sample heterogeneity associated to each specific procedure. Comparisons among three different preparations denoted that in the investigated conditions two-step preparations give larger yields of activated solid in comparison with single-step preparation. Preliminary optimized conditions denoted final solid yields (80-86%) for both two-step procedures. The effect of operating conditions on the chemical, structural and electrochemical properties of CMDs produced in preliminary optimised conditions was investigated and compared with those of a commercial EMD sample by acid and acid-reducing leaching for Mn speciation in solid phase, potentiometric titrations, X-ray and IR spectra and cyclic voltammetry. These characterisation tests denoted the significant effect of acid activation in both preparation procedures to obtain CMD samples with high % of Mn(IV)oxides. Potentiometric titrations of solid samples obtained by first and second steps denoted that both procedures gives two CMD samples with the same acid-base properties, which in comparison with commercial EMD present a residual dissociation in the basic pH range (similar structure and proton insertion properties for CMDs and EMD, but different structural defects). X-ray and IR spectra of solid samples by first and second steps denoted highly

  12. Integration of Thermal Indoor Conditions into Operational Heat Health Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppe, C.; Becker, P.; Pfafferott, J.

    2009-09-01

    The 2003 heat wave in Western Europe with altogether 35,000 to 50,000 deaths in Europe, several thousands of which occurred in Germany, has clearly pointed out the danger arising from long periods with high heat load. As a consequence, Germany, as many other European countries, has started to implement a Heat Health Warning System (HHWS). The German HHWS is based on the ‘Perceived Temperature'. The 'Perceived Temperature' is determined through a heat budget model of the human organism which includes the main thermophysiologically relevant mechanisms of heat exchange with the atmosphere. The most important meteorological ambience parameters included in the model are air temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation fluxes in the short-wave and long-wave ranges. In addition to using a heat budget model for the assessment of the thermal load, the German HHWS also takes into account that the human body reacts in different ways to its thermal environment due to physiological adaptation (short-term acclimatisation) and short-term behavioural adaptation. The restriction of such an approach, like the majority of approaches used to issue heat warnings, is that the threshold for a warning is generally derived from meteorological observations and that warnings are issued on the basis of weather forecasts. Both, the observed data and the weather forecasts are only available for outside conditions. The group of people who are most at risk of suffering from a heat wave, however, are the elderly and frail who mainly stay inside. The indoor situation, which varies largely from the conditions outside, is not taken into account by most of the warning systems. To overcome this limitation the DWD, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, has developed a model which simulates the thermal conditions in the indoor environment. As air-conditioning in private housing in Germany is not very common, the thermal indoor conditions depend on the outside

  13. Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Structural Component Successfully Tested Under Pseudo-Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    A fabrication feasibility demonstration component for the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program was evaluated under prototypical engine loading conditions at the Structural Benchmark Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose for this test was to verify EPM casting, joining, coating, and life-prediction methods. Electron beam welding techniques developed in the EPM program were used to join two large superalloy cast sections of an exhaust nozzle flap to fabricate the demonstration component. After the joints were inspected, the component was coated with an oxidation-resistant barrier coating and was sent to Lewis for testing. The special test fixture shown in the photo (the Structural Benchmark Test Facility) was designed and built at Lewis to produce a biaxial bending condition similar to the loading condition this part would encounter during engine operation. Several finite element analyses were conducted to validate the mechanical test method. A floating furnace was then designed to provide prototypical thermal profiles in the component. An isothermal low-cycle fatigue test was used to evaluate the component at a cyclic load of 13 kN (maximum) to 1 kN (minimum) at a frequency of 1 Hz. Component failure was defined as a 30-percent increase in the component's compliance. On the basis of this definition, the low-cycle fatigue life of this component would be 35,000 cycles.

  14. Learning and memory in Rhodnius prolixus: habituation and aversive operant conditioning of the proboscis extension response.

    PubMed

    Vinauger, Clément; Lallement, Hélène; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2013-03-01

    It has been largely accepted that the cognitive abilities of disease vector insects may have drastic consequences on parasite transmission. However, despite the research effort that has been invested in the study of learning and memory in haematophagous insects, hitherto few conclusive results have been obtained. Adapting procedures largely validated in Drosophila, honeybees and butterflies, we demonstrate here that the proboscis extension response (PER) of the haematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus can be modulated by non-associative (habituation) and associative (aversive conditioning) learning forms. Thermal stimuli were used as both unconditional stimulus (appetitive temperatures) and negative reinforcement (thermal shock). In the first part of this work, the PER was habituated and dishabituated to thermal stimuli, demonstrating the true central processing of information and discarding motor fatigue or sensory adaptation. Habituation was revealed to be modulated by the spatial context. In the second part, bugs that were submitted to aversive operant conditioning stopped responding with PER to thermal stimulation more quickly than by habituation. They were able to use their training experience when tested up to 72 h later. Our work constitutes the first demonstration of PER habituation and conditioning in a blood-sucking insect and provides reproducible experimental tools for the study of the mechanisms underlying learning and memory in disease vectors. PMID:23408803

  15. Operating conditions for the continuous bioremediation of free cyanide contaminated wastewater using Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Santos, B A Q; Ntwampe, S K O; Doughari, J H; Muchatibaya, G

    2014-01-01

    Generation of cyanide-containing wastewater is a growing problem worldwide as numerous cyanide complexes are highly unstable and degrade to form free cyanide (F-CN), the most toxic form of cyanide. Agro-waste materials, such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) waste from the citrus industry, are rich in readily metabolisable carbohydrates that can supplement microbial activity and thus support biodegradation of toxic compounds in wastewater. This study reports on optimal operating conditions for the continuous biodegradation of F-CN in wastewater using an Aspergillus awamori isolate in a process supported solely using C. sinensis waste extract. The optimal degradation conditions were pH 8.75 and 37.02 °C with the isolate's F-CN tolerance being observed up to 430 mg F-CN/L. Furthermore, the ammonium produced as a by-product of F-CN degradation was also metabolised by the A. awamori, with negligible residual citric acid and formate being observed in the effluent post treatment. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using agricultural waste as a primary and sole carbon source for the cultivation of a cyanide-degrading A. awamori species for F-CN degradation under alkaline conditions. PMID:24622547

  16. Design and flight evaluation of an integrated navigation and near-terrain helicopter guidance system for night-time and adverse weather operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Dearing, Munro G.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Clark, Raymond; Davis, Tom; Amatrudo, Gary; Zirkler, Andre

    1994-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army have designed, developed, and flight evaluated a Computer Aiding for Low Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. This system provides guidance to the pilot for near terrain covert helicopter operations. It automates the processing of precision navigation information, helicopter mission requirements, and terrain flight guidance. The automation is presented to the pilot through symbology on a helmet-mounted display. The symbology is a 'pilot-centered' design which preserves pilot flexibility and authority over the CALAHF system's automation. An extensive flight evaluation of the system has been conducted using the U.S. Army's NUH-60 STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) research helicopter. The evaluations were flown over a multiwaypoint helicopter mission in rugged mountainous terrain, at terrain clearance altitudes from 300 to 125 ft and airspeeds from 40 to 110 knots. The results of these evaluations showed that the pilots could precisely follow the automation symbology while maintaining a high degree of situational awareness.

  17. Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform bench scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).

  18. Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this program was to perform bench-scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).

  19. Reward-timing-dependent bidirectional modulation of cortical microcircuits during optical single-neuron operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hira, Riichiro; Ohkubo, Fuki; Masamizu, Yoshito; Ohkura, Masamichi; Nakai, Junichi; Okada, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Masanori

    2014-11-24

    Animals rapidly adapt to environmental change. To reveal how cortical microcircuits are rapidly reorganized when an animal recognizes novel reward contingency, we conduct two-photon calcium imaging of layer 2/3 motor cortex neurons in mice and simultaneously reinforce the activity of a single cortical neuron with water delivery. Here we show that when the target neuron is not relevant to a pre-trained forelimb movement, the mouse increases the target neuron activity and the number of rewards delivered during 15-min operant conditioning without changing forelimb movement behaviour. The reinforcement bidirectionally modulates the activity of subsets of non-target neurons, independent of distance from the target neuron. The bidirectional modulation depends on the relative timing between the reward delivery and the neuronal activity, and is recreated by pairing reward delivery and photoactivation of a subset of neurons. Reward-timing-dependent bidirectional modulation may be one of the fundamental processes in microcircuit reorganization for rapid adaptation.

  20. Shaping attention span: an operant conditioning procedure to improve neurocognition and functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, S M; Menditto, A A; Stuve, P

    2001-01-01

    The high prevalence of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and their association with poorer outcomes, has created interest in treatments that can improve neurocognitive functioning in this illness. While a variety of rehabilitation interventions have been developed, many are not appropriate for the most severely ill patients, whose attention spans are so short that they cannot attend to the material being presented. For this population, the only neurocognitive rehabilitation methods with demonstrated effectiveness are those that involve the operant conditioning technique known as shaping. In this article, we review the rationale for the use of shaping-based methods as neurocognitive retraining techniques for treatment-refractory schizophrenia patients, review published reports using this intervention, and offer suggestions for the future development of this method from both clinical and research perspectives.

  1. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  2. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS BASED INVESTIGATION OF SENSITIVITY OF FURNACE OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS TO BURNER FLOW CONTROLS

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Cremer; Zumao Chen; Dave Wang; Paul Wolff

    2004-06-01

    This is the extended second Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts.

  3. Optimal operational conditions for supercontinuum-based ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wu; Mavadia-Shukla, Jessica; Xi, Jiefeng; Liang, Wenxuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Shaoyong; Li, Xingde

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the optimal operational conditions for utilizing a broadband supercontinuum (SC) source in a portable 800 nm spectral-domain (SD) endoscopic OCT system to enable high resolution, high-sensitivity, and high-speed imaging in vivo. A SC source with a 3-dB bandwidth of ∼246  nm was employed to obtain an axial resolution of ∼2.7  μm (in air) and an optimal detection sensitivity of ∼-107  dB with an imaging speed up to 35 frames/s (at 70 k A-scans/s). The performance of the SC-based SD-OCT endoscopy system was demonstrated by imaging guinea pig esophagus in vivo, achieving image quality comparable to that acquired with a broadband home-built Ti:sapphire laser. PMID:26766686

  4. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053.

  5. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  6. Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Sterman, M B

    2000-01-01

    Two issues concerning sensorimotor EEG operant conditioning, or biofeedback, as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of seizure disorders are the focus of this review. The first relates to the question of whether relevant physiological changes are associated with this procedure. This question is addressed through review of an extensive neurophysiological literature that is likely unfamiliar to many clinicians but that documents both immediate and sustained functional changes that are consistent with elevation of seizure thresholds. The second focuses on the clinical efficacy of this method and whether it should carry the designation of "experimental". This designation is challenged through an assessment of over 25 years of peer-reviewed research demonstrating impressive EEG and clinical results achieved with the most difficult subset of seizure patients.

  7. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Lueptow, R M

    2001-02-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053. PMID:11594378

  8. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1996-09-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents.

  9. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  10. Simulating the dynamic behavior of a vertical axis wind turbine operating in unsteady conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.; Soraperra, G.; Raciti Castelli, M.

    2016-09-01

    The present work aims at assessing the reliability of a simulation tool capable of computing the unsteady rotational motion and the associated tower oscillations of a variable speed VAWT immersed in a coherent turbulent wind. As a matter of fact, since the dynamic behaviour of a variable speed turbine strongly depends on unsteady wind conditions (wind gusts), a steady state approach can't accurately catch transient correlated issues. The simulation platform proposed here is implemented using a lumped mass approach: the drive train is described by resorting to both the polar inertia and the angular position of rotating parts, also considering their speed and acceleration, while rotor aerodynamic is based on steady experimental curves. The ultimate objective of the presented numerical platform is the simulation of transient phenomena, driven by turbulence, occurring during rotor operation, with the aim of supporting the implementation of efficient and robust control algorithms.

  11. Impact of cell design and operating conditions on the performances of SOFC fuelled with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencin, J.; Lefebvre-Joud, F.; Delette, G.

    An in-house-model has been developed to study the thermal and electrochemical behaviour of a planar SOFC fed directly with methane and incorporated in a boiler. The usual Ni-YSZ cermet has been considered for the anode material. It has been found that methane reforming into hydrogen occurs only at the cell inlet in a limited depth within the anode. A sensitivity analysis has allowed establishing that anode thicknesses higher than ∼400-500 μm are required to achieve both the optimal methane conversion and electrochemical performances. The direct internal reforming (DIR) mechanisms and the impact of operating conditions on temperature gradients and SOFC electrical efficiencies have been investigated considering the anode supported cell configuration. It has been shown that the temperature gradient is minimised in the autothermal mode of cell operation. Thermal equilibrium in the stack has been found to be strongly dependent on radiative heat losses with the stack envelope. Electrochemical performance and cell temperature maps have been established as a function of methane flow rates and cell voltages.

  12. Does arousal interfere with operant conditioning of spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats?

    PubMed

    Osterhagen, Lasse; Breteler, Marinus; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2010-06-01

    One of the ways in which brain computer interfaces can be used is neurofeedback (NF). Subjects use their brain activation to control an external device, and with this technique it is also possible to learn to control aspects of the brain activity by operant conditioning. Beneficial effects of NF training on seizure occurrence have been described in epileptic patients. Little research has been done about differentiating NF effectiveness by type of epilepsy, particularly, whether idiopathic generalized seizures are susceptible to NF. In this experiment, seizures that manifest themselves as spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG were reinforced during 10 sessions in 6 rats of the WAG/Rij strain, an animal model for absence epilepsy. EEG's were recorded before and after the training sessions. Reinforcing SWDs let to decreased SWD occurrences during training; however, the changes during training were not persistent in the post-training sessions. Because behavioural states are known to have an influence on the occurrence of SWDs, it is proposed that the reinforcement situation increased arousal which resulted in fewer SWDs. Additional tests supported this hypothesis. The outcomes have implications for the possibility to train SWDs with operant learning techniques.

  13. [Air conditioning units and warm air blankets in the operating room].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby.

  14. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  15. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  16. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  17. Numerical investigation of a high head Francis turbine under steady operating conditions using foam-extend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenarcic, M.; Eichhorn, M.; Schoder, S. J.; Bauer, Ch

    2015-01-01

    In this work the incompressible turbulent flow in a high head Francis turbine under steady operating conditions is investigated using the open source CFD software package FOAM-extend- 3.1. By varying computational domains (cyclic model, full model), coupling methods between stationary and rotating frames (mixing-plane, frozen-rotor) and turbulence models (kω-SST, κɛ), numerical flow simulations are performed at the best efficiency point as well as at operating points in part load and high load. The discretization is adjusted according the y+-criterion with y+mean > 30. A grid independence study quantifies the discretization error and the corresponding computational costs for the appropriate simulations, reaching a GCI < 1% for the chosen grid. Specific quantities such as efficiency, head, runner shaft torque as well as static pressure and velocity components are computed and compared with experimental data and commercial code. Focusing on the computed results of integral quantities and static pressures, the highest level of accuracy is obtained using FOAM in combination with the full model discretization, the mixing-plane coupling method and the κω-SST turbulence model. The corresponding relative deviations regarding the efficiency reach values of Δηrel ~ 7% at part load, Δηrel ~ 0.5% at best efficiency point and Δηrel ~ 5.6% at high load. The computed static pressures deviate from the measurements by a maximum of Δprel = 9.3% at part load, Δprel = 4.3% at best efficiency point and Δprel = 6.7% at high load. Commercial code in turn yields slightly better predictions for the velocity components in the draft tube cone, reaching a good accordance with the measurements at part load. Although FOAM also shows an adequate correspondence to the experimental data at part load, local effects near the runner hub are captured less accurate at best efficiency point and high load. Nevertheless, FOAM is a reasonable alternative to commercial code that makes it

  18. Stability of attenuated live virus rabies vaccine in baits targeted to wild foxes under operational conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, K F; Bachmann, P

    2001-01-01

    The viability of an attenuated live virus rabies vaccine in a bait targeted to red foxes was examined under various operational conditions in a series of experiments in Ontario. The virus was relatively stable over a 28-day period in the field, losing a mean 0.5, s = 0.2 log10 of virus titer. The micro-environment into which the bait was placed (open cultivated field, grassy meadow, wooded grove, sun or shade) did not make an appreciable difference in the viability of the virus. There was no significant difference (P < or = 0.05) between mean ambient temperatures and the temperature of fluids in blister packs of baits placed in sun or shade. Sixty-three percent of foxes fed baits exposed to sun and shade conditions for 21 days (titer 10(6.2) tissue culture infective doses per 1 mL) developed rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. Storage of vaccine baits at -30 degrees C prior to bait distribution was important in maintaining virus viability. PMID:11360859

  19. Comparison of carbon stripper foils under operational conditions at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Spickerman, Thomas; Borden, Michael J; Macek, Robert J; Sugai, Isao

    2008-01-01

    At the 39{sup th} ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop HB 2006 and the 23{sup rd} INTDS World Conference we reported on first results of a test of nanocrystalline diamond foils developed at ORNL under operational conditions at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). We have continued these tests during the 2006 and 2007 run cycles and have been able to compare the diamond foils with the foils that are normally in use in PSR, which were originally developed by Sugai at KEK. We have gathered valuable information regarding foil lifetime, foil related beam losses and electron emission at the foil. Additional insight was gained under unusual beam conditions where the foiIs are subjected to higher temperatures. In the 2007 run cycle we also tested a Diamond-like-Carbon foil developed at TRIUMF. A Hybrid-Boron-Carbon foil, also developed by Sugai, is presently in use with the PSR production beam. We will summarize our experience with these different foil types.

  20. Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Brechmann, André; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-11-01

    Animal experiments provide evidence that learning to associate an auditory stimulus with a reward causes representational changes in auditory cortex. However, most studies did not investigate the temporal formation of learning-dependent plasticity during the task but rather compared auditory cortex receptive fields before and after conditioning. We here present a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on learning-related plasticity in the human auditory cortex during operant appetitive conditioning. Participants had to learn to associate a specific category of frequency-modulated tones with a reward. Only participants who learned this association developed learning-dependent plasticity in left auditory cortex over the course of the experiment. No differential responses to reward predicting and nonreward predicting tones were found in auditory cortex in nonlearners. In addition, learners showed similar learning-induced differential responses to reward-predicting and nonreward-predicting tones in the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, two core regions of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. This may indicate a dopaminergic influence on the formation of learning-dependent plasticity in auditory cortex, as it has been suggested by previous animal studies.

  1. Bisphenol-A removal in various wastewater treatment processes: operational conditions, mass balance, and optimization.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Teslic, S; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) was analyzed in 499 liquid and 347 solid samples collected from twenty-five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to investigate parameters affecting BPA occurrence, removal, and fate. Lagoons, chemically-assisted primary treatment, secondary treatment, and advanced treatment processes were included. Median BPA concentrations in influent and final effluent were 400 ng/L and 150 ng/L, respectively. Median removal efficiencies ranged from 1 to 77%. Respective median BPA levels in primary sludge, secondary biological sludge, and biosolids were 230, 260, and 460 ng/g with digested biosolids having the highest concentrations. The biological aerated filter and membrane bioreactor processes showed the best performance, while chemically-assisted primary treatment achieved the lowest removal. Biodegradation and sorption contributing to BPA removal were influenced by operational conditions: hydraulic retention time (HRT), solids retention time (SRT), and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). The influence of HRT, SRT, and MLSS in the bioreactor was stronger during cold temperatures. In order to achieve above 80% removal, the required conditions for HRT, SRT, and MLSS were 13 h, 7 days, and 1600 mg/L during summer (median temperature 19 °C) and 13 h, 17 days, and 5300 mg/L during winter (median temperature 10 °C); indicating that longer SRT and higher MLSS were needed during winter. BPA's sorption tendency to sludge was strongly influenced by the degree of nitrification and HRT. PMID:25684568

  2. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes: from basic science to clinical therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    New appreciation of the adaptive capabilities of the nervous system, recent recognition that most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, and progress in enabling regeneration are generating growing interest in novel rehabilitation therapies. Here we review the 35-year evolution of one promising new approach, operant conditioning of spinal reflexes. This work began in the late 1970's as basic science; its purpose was to develop and exploit a uniquely accessible model for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple behavior in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The model was developed first in monkeys and then in rats, mice, and humans. Studies with it showed that the ostensibly simple behavior (i.e., a larger or smaller reflex) rests on a complex hierarchy of brain and spinal cord plasticity; and current investigations are delineating this plasticity and its interactions with the plasticity that supports other behaviors. In the last decade, the possible therapeutic uses of reflex conditioning have come under study, first in rats and then in humans. The initial results are very exciting, and they are spurring further studies. At the same time, the original basic science purpose and the new clinical purpose are enabling and illuminating each other in unexpected ways. The long course and current state of this work illustrate the practical importance of basic research and the valuable synergy that can develop between basic science questions and clinical needs. PMID:24672441

  3. Operational implications of a cloud model simulation of space shuttle exhaust clouds in different atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional cloud model was used to characterize the dominant influence of the environment on the Space Shuttle exhaust cloud. The model was modified to accept the actual heat and moisture from rocket exhausts and deluge water as initial conditions. An upper-air sounding determined the ambient atmosphere in which the cloud would grow. The model was validated by comparing simulated clouds with observed clouds from four actual Shuttle launches. Results are discussed with operational weather forecasters in mind. The model successfully produced clouds with dimensions, rise, decay, liquid water contents, and vertical motion fields very similar to observed clouds whose dimensions were calculated from 16 mm film frames. Once validated, the model was used in a number of different atmospheric conditions ranging from very unstable to very stable. Wind shear strongly affected the appearance of both the ground cloud and vertical column cloud. The ambient low-level atmospheric moisture governed the amount of cloud water in model clouds. Some dry atmospheres produced little or no cloud water. An empirical forecast technique for Shuttle cloud rise is presented and differences between natural atmospheric convection and exhaust clouds are discussed.

  4. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9N, 2.7ms) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via a secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed in these

  5. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  6. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    PubMed

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  7. Hippocampal Homer1 levels influence motivational behavior in an operant conditioning task.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Klaus V; Häusl, Alexander S; Pöhlmann, Max L; Hartmann, Jakob; Labermaier, Christiana; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2014-01-01

    Loss of motivation and learning impairments are commonly accepted core symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Reward-motivated learning is dependent on the hippocampal formation but the molecular mechanisms that lead to functional incentive motivation in this brain region are still largely unknown. Recent evidence implicates neurotransmission via metabotropic glutamate receptors and Homer1, their interaction partner in the postsynaptic density, in drug addiction and motivational learning. As previous reports mainly focused on the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, we now investigated the role of hippocampal Homer1 in operant reward learning in the present study. We therefore tested either Homer1 knockout mice or mice that overexpress Homer1 in the hippocampus in an operant conditioning paradigm. Our results show that deletion of Homer1 leads to a diverging phenotype that either displays an inability to perform the task or outstanding hyperactivity in both learning and motivational sessions. Due to the apparent bimodal distribution of this phenotype, the overall effect of Homer1 deletion in this paradigm is not significantly altered. Overexpression of hippocampal Homer1 did not lead to a significantly altered learning performance in any stage of the testing paradigm, yet may subtly contribute to emerging motivational deficits. Our results indicate an involvement of Homer1-mediated signaling in the hippocampus in motivation-based learning tasks and encourage further investigations regarding the specific molecular underpinnings of the phenotypes observed in this study. We also suggest to cautiously interpret the results of this and other studies regarding the phenotype following Homer1 manipulations in animals, since their behavioral phenotype appears to be highly diverse. Future studies would benefit from larger group sizes that would allow splitting the experimental groups in responders and non-responders.

  8. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Cremer; Kirsi St. Marie; Dave Wang

    2003-04-30

    This is the first Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A project kickoff meeting was held in conjunction with NETL's 2002 Sensors and Control Program Portfolio Review and Roadmapping Workshop, in Pittsburgh, PA during October 15-16, 2002. Dr. Marc Cremer, REI, and Dr. Paul Wolff, EPRI I&C, both attended and met with the project COR, Susan Maley. Following the review of REI's database of wall-fired coal units, the project team selected a front wall fired 150 MW unit with a Riley Low NOx firing system including overfire air for evaluation. In addition, a test matrix outlining approximately 25 simulations involving variations in burner secondary air flows, and coal and primary air flows was constructed. During the reporting period, twenty-two simulations have been completed, summarized, and tabulated for sensitivity analysis. Based on these results, the team is developing a suitable approach for quantifying the sensitivity coefficients associated with the parametric tests. Some of the results of the CFD simulations of the

  10. 46 CFR 35.35-40 - Conditions under which transfer operations shall not be commenced or if started shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... commenced or if started shall be discontinued-TB/ALL. 35.35-40 Section 35.35-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... transfer operations shall not be commenced or if started shall be discontinued—TB/ALL. Cargo transfer operations shall not be started or, if started, shall be discontinued under the following conditions:...

  11. 46 CFR 35.35-40 - Conditions under which transfer operations shall not be commenced or if started shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... commenced or if started shall be discontinued-TB/ALL. 35.35-40 Section 35.35-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... transfer operations shall not be commenced or if started shall be discontinued—TB/ALL. Cargo transfer operations shall not be started or, if started, shall be discontinued under the following conditions:...

  12. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  13. Gas chromatographic quantitative analysis of methanol in wine: operative conditions, optimization and calibration model choice.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosario; Gambino, Grazia Laura; Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2011-12-01

    The influence of the wine distillation process on methanol content has been determined by quantitative analysis using gas chromatographic flame ionization (GC-FID) detection. A comparative study between direct injection of diluted wine and injection of distilled wine was performed. The distillation process does not affect methanol quantification in wines in proportions higher than 10%. While quantification performed on distilled samples gives more reliable results, a screening method for wine injection after a 1:5 water dilution could be employed. The proposed technique was found to be a compromise between the time consuming distillation process and direct wine injection. In the studied calibration range, the stability of the volatile compounds in the reference solution is concentration-dependent. The stability is higher in the less concentrated reference solution. To shorten the operation time, a stronger temperature ramp and carrier flow rate was employed. With these conditions, helium consumption and column thermal stress were increased. However, detection limits, calibration limits, and analytical method performances are not affected substantially by changing from normal to forced GC conditions. Statistical data evaluation were made using both ordinary (OLS) and bivariate least squares (BLS) calibration models. Further confirmation was obtained that limit of detection (LOD) values, calculated according to the 3sigma approach, are lower than the respective Hubaux-Vos (H-V) calculation method. H-V LOD depends upon background noise, calibration parameters and the number of reference standard solutions employed in producing the calibration curve. These remarks are confirmed by both calibration models used. PMID:22312744

  14. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, an severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1997-02-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation was confirmed by further tests at high temperatures, as well as by finite-element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation was confirmed by finite-element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate-sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure was developed and validated by tests under various temperature and pressure loadings that can occur during postulated severe accidents.

  15. A study of the capacitive deionisation performance under various operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Mohamed; Zou, Linda

    2012-04-30

    Capacitive deionisation (CDI) has many advantages over other desalination technologies due to its low energy consumption, less environmental pollution and low fouling potential. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of operational conditions on the CDI electrosorption efficiency and energy consumption, to identify ion selectivity in multi-ionic solutions and to probe the effect of dissolved reactive silica on the treatment efficiency. A series of laboratory scale experiments were conducted using a CDI unit with activated carbon electrodes. The electrosorption removal efficiency was inversely related to solution temperature, initial total dissolved salts (TDS) concentration and the applied flow rate. CDI energy consumption (kWh/m(3)) is directly related to the TDS concentration and inversely related to the flow rate. The kinetics analysis indicated that the electrosorption followed pseudo-first-order kinetics model. Ion selectivity on activated carbon electrodes followed the order of Fe(3+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+)>Na(+) for cations and SO(4)(2-)>Br(-)>Cl(-)>F(-)>NO(3)(-) for anions. It was found that the dissolved silica was not removed by CDI; no silica fouling was found. The deterioration of activated carbon electrodes was not observed at any time during experiment.

  16. Cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions reduce motivation in appetitive operant conditioning and open field exploration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, David J; Kerr, Abigail L; Swain, Rodney A

    2011-02-01

    Recently identified pathways from the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum to the rostral cerebral cortex via the thalamus suggest a cerebellar role in frontal and prefrontal non-motor functioning. Disturbance of cerebellar morphology and connectivity, particularly involving these cerebellothalamocortical (CTC) projections, has been implicated in motivational and cognitive deficits. The current study explored the effects of CTC disruption on motivation in male Long Evans rats. The results of two experiments demonstrate that electrolytic lesions of the cerebellar dentate nuclei lower breaking points on an operant conditioning progressive ratio schedule and decrease open field exploration compared to sham controls. Changes occurred in the absence of motor impairment, assessed via lever pressing frequency and rotarod performance. Similar elevated plus maze performances between lesioned and sham animals indicated that anxiety did not influence task performance. Our results demonstrate hedonic and purposive motivational reduction and suggest a CTC role in global motivational processes. These implications are discussed in terms of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, in which cerebellar damage and motivational deficits often present concomitantly.

  17. Operant conditioning of rat navigation using electrical stimulation for directional cues and rewards.

    PubMed

    Lee, Maan-Gee; Jun, Gayoung; Choi, Hyo-Soon; Jang, Hwan Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Suk, Kyoungho; Jang, Il-Sung; Choi, Byung-Ju

    2010-07-01

    Operant conditioning is often used to train a desired behavior in an animal. The contingency between a specific behavior and a reward is required for successful training. Here, we compared the effectiveness of two different mazes for training turning behaviors in response to directional cues in Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty-three rats were implanted with electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and the left and right somatosensory cortices for reward and cues. Among them, thirteen rats discriminated between the left and right somatosensory stimulations to obtain rewards. They were trained to learn ipsilateral turning response to the stimulation of the left or right somatosensory cortex in either the T-maze (Group T) or the E| maze (Group W). Performance was measured by the navigation speed in the mazes. Performances of rats in Group T were enhanced faster than those in Group W. A significant correlation between performances during training and performance in final testing was observed in Group T starting with the fifth training session while such a correlation was not observed in Group W until the tenth training session. The training mazes did not however affect the performances in the final test. These results suggest that a simple maze is better than a complicated maze for training animals to learn directions and direct cortical stimulation can be used as a cue for direction training.

  18. The development of an operant conditioning training program for new world primates at the Bronx Zoo.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Gina; Hanson, Amy; McCann, Colleen

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the development of an operant conditioning training program for 17 species of New World primates at the Bronx Zoo. To apply less invasive techniques to husbandry protocols, the study introduced behaviors-hand feeding, syringe feeding, targeting, scale and crate training, and transponder reading-for formal training to 86 callitrichids and small-bodied cebids housed in 26 social groups. Individual responses to training varied greatly, but general patterns were noted among species. With the exception of lion tamarins, tamarins responded more rapidly than marmosets, Bolivian gray titi monkeys, and pale-headed saki monkeys in approaching trainers and learning behaviors. Marmosets, in comparison to most tamarins, had longer attention spans. This meant that fewer, lengthier sessions were productive whereas shorter, more frequent sessions were most successful for tamarins. Among the cebids, pale-headed saki monkeys needed relatively few sessions to perform basic and advanced behaviors whereas Bolivian gray titi monkeys were less responsive and progressed at a deliberate pace. Marked changes in the animals' behavior during daily husbandry procedures, their voluntary participation in training activities, and the disappearance of aggressive threats toward care staff indicated that training reduced stress and improved the welfare of the animals. During daily training displays, zoo visitors experienced interactive animals while learning the importance of low-stress animal husbandry.

  19. Operant conditioning and the orbitofrontal cortex in schizophrenic patients: unexpected evidence for intact functioning.

    PubMed

    Wilder, K E; Weinberger, D R; Goldberg, T E

    1998-03-10

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have consistently implicated dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as abnormal in schizophrenia. However, other areas of frontal cortex have received far less attention. In particular, few studies have examined orbital frontal regions with other than olfactory tests. In the present study we wished to assess the functional capability of orbital frontal cortex using a test developed by Bechara et al. (1994) that assesses a subject's capacity to acquire a preference through reward and punishment, using a gambling task that involved gains and losses of play money. Thirty normal subjects and 12 patients with schizophrenia (three undifferentiated, eight paranoid, one schizoaffective) comprised the sample in the present study. We found that patients with schizophrenia exhibited a pattern of findings similar to that of normals and dissimilar to that of patients with known orbital frontal damage. In our study, both normal subjects and schizophrenic patients chose most frequently from decks of cards in which there were frequent rewards and infrequent penalties, as might be expected on the basis of operant conditioning literature. We also found that performance on this task was not correlated with tests of working memory or long-term memory, suggesting that the development of a preference may occur implicitly. Our findings also argue against a general deficit in schizophrenia, as performance on the gambling task appeared relatively uncompromised.

  20. A hybrid approach for damage detection of structures under operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel Miguel, Leandro Fleck; Holdorf Lopez, Rafael; Fadel Miguel, Letícia Fleck

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a hybrid stochastic/deterministic optimisation algorithm to solve the target optimisation problem of vibration-based damage detection. The use of a numerical solution of the representation formula to locate the region of the global solution, i.e., to provide a starting point for the local optimiser, which is chosen to be the Nelder-Mead algorithm (NMA), is proposed. A series of numerical examples with different damage scenarios and noise levels was performed under impact and ambient vibrations. Thereafter, an experimental study of three cantilever beams with several different damage scenarios was conducted. To test the accuracy and efficiency of the optimisation algorithm, its results were compared to previous procedures available in the literature, which employed different solutions such as the genetic algorithm (GA), the harmony search algorithm (HS) and the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm. The performance of the proposed optimisation scheme was more accurate and required a lower computational cost than the GA, HS and PSO algorithms, emphasising the capacity of the proposed methodology for its use in damage diagnosis and assessment. In addition, the methodology was able to handle incomplete measurements and truncated mode shapes, which is of paramount importance for dealing with operational conditions in long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  1. Properties of biomass-derived biochars: Combined effects of operating conditions and biomass types.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lei; Xu, Chuang; Chen, Zien; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-09-01

    Combined effects of operating conditions including heating temperature (200-700 °C), time (1-8h) and rate, and atmosphere (air-flow, air-limited and N2) on the physicochemical properties of biochars with pine sawdust, maize straw and sugarcane bagasse as feedstocks were investigated. The results demonstrated that production temperature and atmosphere acted as the predominant factors that determined the properties of biochars. The X-ray diffraction data confirmed the occurrence of phase transition in the biomass structures at around 400 °C. Heating time and rate showed little effect on the functional group compositions of the biochars within 8h, particularly under N2 atmosphere. In addition, the molecular weights of the biochar-derived dissolved organic carbon tended to increase with increasing temperature. Feedstock type also affected the biochar properties by the compositional differences in mineral salts and cellulose/lignin in the three biomass materials. This work provides important information for optimizing procedures for biochar production with desired properties and high yield. PMID:26022969

  2. The Effects of Workload and Working Conditions on Operating Room Nurses and Technicians.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Ziyafet; Karahan, Azize; Ünlü, Hayriye; Abbasoğlu, Aysel; Özhan Elbaş, Nalan; Avcı Işık, Sevcan; Tepe, Aylin

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted between August 15 and September 20, 2013, to determine the effects of workload and working conditions on operating room (OR) nurses and technicians. The study sample included 74 OR nurses and technicians working in a private university's six hospitals. The Individual Workload Perception Scale and a questionnaire that collected data on risk and environmental factors were used. The mean age of study participants was 29.3 ± 6.7 years, and 62.2% of the participants were female. More than 90% of the nurses and technicians had experienced spills or splashing of blood or other body fluids; anesthetic gases and radiation had affected 63.5% and 71.6% of nurses and technicians, respectively; 63.5% reported lumbar pain; and 46.6% defined the work environment as very stressful. The average workload scale score was 32.4 ± 6.2 (min = 11, max = 55). OR nurses and technicians are exposed to many occupational risks.

  3. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  4. A study of the capacitive deionisation performance under various operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Mohamed; Zou, Linda

    2012-04-30

    Capacitive deionisation (CDI) has many advantages over other desalination technologies due to its low energy consumption, less environmental pollution and low fouling potential. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of operational conditions on the CDI electrosorption efficiency and energy consumption, to identify ion selectivity in multi-ionic solutions and to probe the effect of dissolved reactive silica on the treatment efficiency. A series of laboratory scale experiments were conducted using a CDI unit with activated carbon electrodes. The electrosorption removal efficiency was inversely related to solution temperature, initial total dissolved salts (TDS) concentration and the applied flow rate. CDI energy consumption (kWh/m(3)) is directly related to the TDS concentration and inversely related to the flow rate. The kinetics analysis indicated that the electrosorption followed pseudo-first-order kinetics model. Ion selectivity on activated carbon electrodes followed the order of Fe(3+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+)>Na(+) for cations and SO(4)(2-)>Br(-)>Cl(-)>F(-)>NO(3)(-) for anions. It was found that the dissolved silica was not removed by CDI; no silica fouling was found. The deterioration of activated carbon electrodes was not observed at any time during experiment. PMID:22402342

  5. Pressure retarded osmosis for energy production: membrane materials and operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Choi, J-S; Lee, S

    2012-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a novel membrane process to produce energy. PRO has the potential to convert the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water (i.e. river water) and seawater to electricity. Moreover, it can recover energy from highly concentrated brine in seawater desalination. Nevertheless, relatively little research has been undertaken for fundamental understanding of the PRO process. In this study, the characteristics of the PRO process were examined using a proof-of-concept device. Forward osmosis (FO), reverse osmosis (RO), and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were compared in terms of flux rate and concentration polarization ratio. The results indicated that the theoretical energy production by PRO depends on the membrane type as well as operating conditions (i.e. back pressure). The FO membrane had the highest energy efficiency while the NF membrane had the lowest efficiency. However, the energy production rate was low due to high internal concentration polarization (ICP) in the PRO membrane. This finding suggests that the control of the ICP is essential for practical application of PRO for energy production.

  6. Terfenol-D elastomagnetic properties under varied operating conditions using hysteresis loop analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faidley, LeAnn E.; Lund, Brian J.; Flatau, Alison B.; Calkins, Frederick T.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the effects of varied magnetic bias, AC magnetic field amplitude and frequency on the characteristics of hysteresis loops produced in a magnetostrictive transducer. The study uses a magnetostrictive transducer designed at Iowa State University that utilizes an 11.5 cm (4.54 in) long by 1.27 cm (0.5 in) diameter cylindrical Terfenol-D rod. This transducer allows controlled variation of the following operating conditions: mechanical prestress, magnitude and frequency of AC magnetic field, and magnetic bias. By performing extensive experimental tests, material property trends can be developed for use in the optimization of transducer design parameters for different applications. For the results presented, the magnetic bias, the AC magnetic field amplitude, and the frequency of excitation were independently varied while temperature, mass load and prestress were kept constant. The minor hysteresis loops of the strain versus applied magnetic field, flux density versus applied magnetic field, and magnetization versus applied magnetic field are presented and compared. Material property trends identified from the minor loops are presented for the axial strain coefficient, permeability, susceptibility, and energy losses.

  7. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of operating conditions on acid loss

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1 MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY conducted by NEDO, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. As part of this project, this work has been performed to clarify basic phenomena of the performance degradation at PAFCs jointly by Yamanashi University, PAFC-TRA and PAFC manufacturers. The acid loss into exhaust gases is one of life limiting factors in PAFCs. To design the cells of long-life, it is important to estimate the phosphoric acid loss and to contrive ideas eliminating it. With the objective of obtaining basic data for simulating the acid loss in the large size cells, the effect of the operating conditions on the acid loss into exhaust gases has been studied experimentally by using a single cell with an active electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}.

  8. Retinoid signaling is necessary for, and promotes long-term memory formation following operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Cailin M; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acid, a metabolite of vitamin A, is proposed to play an important role in vertebrate learning and memory, as well as hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, it has not yet been determined whether retinoic acid plays a similar role in learning and memory in invertebrates. In this study, we report that retinoid signaling in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, is required for long-term memory formation following operant conditioning of its aerial respiratory behaviour. Animals were exposed to inhibitors of the RALDH enzyme (which synthesizes retinoic acid), or various retinoid receptor antagonists. Following exposure to these inhibitors, neither learning nor intermediate-term memory (lasting 2 h) was affected, but long-term memory formation (tested at either 24 or 72 h) was inhibited. We next demonstrated that various retinoid receptor agonists promoted long-term memory formation. Using a training paradigm shown only to produce intermediate-term memory (lasting 2 h, but not 24 h) we found that exposure of animals to synthetic retinoids promoted memory formation that lasted up to 30 h. These findings suggest that the role of retinoids in memory formation is ancient in origin, and that retinoid signaling is also important for the formation of implicit memories, in addition to its previously demonstrated role in hippocampal-dependent memories.

  9. [Working conditions in the operating room: surgeons surveyed during the annual meeting of the German society of surgery 2004].

    PubMed

    Matern, U; Koneczny, S

    2006-10-01

    For the evaluation of working place conditions in the operating room a survey was conducted among the surgeons working in German hospitals. Questions regarded the personal profile, the architectural situation, the devices and instruments as well as the working posture. The answers to the 60 questions display a high potential for improvement within all fields. Every single group working in the operating room, as well as their professional organizations are asked to work on the optimization of the working place conditions in the operating room in terms of improvement of quality and efficiency. PMID:17089288

  10. Pseudo-differential operators, heat calculus and index theory of groupoids satisfying the Lauter-Nistor condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Bing Kwan

    2010-06-01

    In this thesis, we study singular pseudo-differential operators defined by groupoids satisfying the Lauter-Nistor condition, by a method parallel to that of manifolds with boundary and edge differential operators. The example of the Bruhat sphere is studied in detail. In particular, we construct an extension to the calculus of uniformly supported pseudo-differential operators that is analogous to the calculus with bounds defined on manifolds with boundary. We derive a Fredholmness criterion for operators on the Bruhat sphere, and prove that their parametrices up to compact operators lie inside the extended calculus; we construct the heat kernel of perturbed Laplacian operators; and prove an Atiyah-Singer type renormalized index formula for perturbed Dirac operators on the Bruhat sphere using the heat kernel method.

  11. Functionally Pooled models for the global identification of stochastic systems under different pseudo-static operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of identifying a single global model for stochastic dynamical systems operating under different conditions is considered within a novel Functionally Pooled (FP) identification framework. Within it a specific value of a measurable scheduling variable characterizes each operating condition that has pseudo-static effects on the dynamics. The FP framework incorporates parsimonious FP models capable of fully accounting for cross correlations among the operating conditions, functional pooling for the simultaneous treatment of all data records, and statistically optimal estimation. Unlike seemingly related Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) model identification leading to suboptimal accuracy in this context, the postulated FP model estimators are shown to achieve optimal statistical accuracy. An application case study based on a simulated railway vehicle under various mass loading conditions serves to illustrate the high achievable accuracy of FP modelling and the improvements over local models employed within LPV-type identification.

  12. A thermal model for analysis of hermetic reciprocating compressors under the on-off cycling operating condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohn, S. K.; Diniz, M. C.; Deschamps, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    The on-off cycling operating condition of compressors is very common in low capacity refrigeration systems, being characterized by alternate periods in which the compressor is either operating (on) or idle (off). Thermal interactions between the compressor components affect its performance during the operating period and establish the initial condition for the compressor start up from idle condition. This paper presents a numerical model to predict the temperature field of hermetic reciprocating compressors under on-off cycling conditions. The model adopts a lumped formulation for control volumes formed in the fluid solution domain and the finite volume method to solve heat conduction in the solid components. Some required heat transfer coefficients were experimentally adjusted. Predictions for temperature were compared to measurements and good agreement was observed, especially for the thermal transient during the period in which the compressor is off.

  13. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  14. Effect of operating conditions in soil aquifer treatment on the removals of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2016-09-15

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an alternative advanced treatment for wastewater reclamation, and it has the potential to control micropollutants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, the relationship of operating conditions in SAT and removals of micropollutants was not clear. In this study, the effects of operating conditions on the removals of PPCPs were evaluated by using lab-scale columns and plant pilot-scale reactors under different operating conditions. Firstly, weathered granite soil (WGS), standard sand (SAND) and Toyoura standard sand (TS) have different soil characteristics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). In the columns with these packing materials, the removals of carboxylic analgesics and antilipidemics were effective regardless packing materials. The removals of antibiotics were more effective in WGS than in TS and SAND, indicating high TOC and CEC enhance the sorption in SAT. Secondly, with the extension of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removals of sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, crotamiton, and antipyrine were improved in WGS columns, and adaptable biodegradation for moderately removable PPCPs was formed. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and crotamiton were higher in the WGS column under vadose condition than in the WGS column under saturated condition, because of aerobic condition in WGS column under vadose condition. Though long HRT and vadose condition had positive influence on the removals of several PPCPs such as sulfamethoxazole, WGS column with an HRT of 7days under saturated condition removed most PPCPs. PMID:27213846

  15. Effect of operating conditions in soil aquifer treatment on the removals of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2016-09-15

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an alternative advanced treatment for wastewater reclamation, and it has the potential to control micropollutants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, the relationship of operating conditions in SAT and removals of micropollutants was not clear. In this study, the effects of operating conditions on the removals of PPCPs were evaluated by using lab-scale columns and plant pilot-scale reactors under different operating conditions. Firstly, weathered granite soil (WGS), standard sand (SAND) and Toyoura standard sand (TS) have different soil characteristics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). In the columns with these packing materials, the removals of carboxylic analgesics and antilipidemics were effective regardless packing materials. The removals of antibiotics were more effective in WGS than in TS and SAND, indicating high TOC and CEC enhance the sorption in SAT. Secondly, with the extension of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removals of sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, crotamiton, and antipyrine were improved in WGS columns, and adaptable biodegradation for moderately removable PPCPs was formed. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and crotamiton were higher in the WGS column under vadose condition than in the WGS column under saturated condition, because of aerobic condition in WGS column under vadose condition. Though long HRT and vadose condition had positive influence on the removals of several PPCPs such as sulfamethoxazole, WGS column with an HRT of 7days under saturated condition removed most PPCPs.

  16. Effects of organic phase, fermentation media, and operating conditions on lactic Acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Monwar; Maisuria, J L

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid has extensive uses in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industry. Lately, its use in producing biodegradable polymeric materials (polylactate) makes the production of lactic acid from fermentation broths very important. The major part of the production cost accounts for the cost of separation from very dilute reaction media where productivity is low as a result of the inhibitory nature of lactic acid. The current method of extraction/separation is both expensive and unsustainable. Therefore, there is great scope for development of alternative technology that will offer efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid-liquid extraction. In this paper the extraction and recovery of lactic acid based on reactive processes is examined and the performance of a hydrophobic microporous hollow-fiber membrane module (HFMM) is evaluated. First, equilibrium experiments were conducted using organic solutions consisting of Aliquat 336/trioctylamine (as a carrier) and tri-butyl phosphate (TBP)/sunflower oil (as a solvent) The values of the distribution coefficient were obtained as a function of feed pH, composition of the organic phase (ratio of carrier to solvent), and temperature (range 8-40 degrees C). The optimum extraction was obtained with the organic phase consisting of a mixture of 15 wt % tri-octylamine (TOA) and 15% Aliquat 336 and 70% solvent. The organic phase with TBP performed best but is less suitable because of its damaging properties (toxicity and environmental impact) and cost. Sunflower oil, which performed moderately, can be regarded as a better option as it has many desirable characteristics (nontoxic, environment- and operator-friendly) and it costs much less. The percentage extraction was approximately 33% at pH 6 and at room temperature (can be enhanced by operating at higher temperatures) at a feed flow rate of 15-20 L

  17. Operant conditioning and discrimination of alpha: some methodological limitations inherent in response-discrimination experiments.

    PubMed

    Cott, A; Pavloski, R P; Black, A H

    1981-09-01

    Studies on the operant conditioning of central nervous system activity have produced results interpreted as demonstrating that responses, certain properties of responses, or response-produced stimuli can function as discriminative stimuli. It is assumed that the feedback stimulus in biofeedback makes the subject aware of the internal response and that by becoming aware of the response, the subject can acquire voluntary control over it. In this context, awareness is operationally defined as the ability to use the response as a discriminative stimulus. Since direct evidence for the assumed relationship between control and discrimination is lacking, an attempt was made to test the hypothesis that discrimination of a response automatically leads to control over that response. The discriminative stimuli were the presence and absence of occipital alpha electroencephalograph (EEG) activity. Data from two experiments are reported. The first study, employing naive subjects, was designed to answer the following questions: (a) Since pilot data indicated that subjects seemed to match their responses to the more probable type of trial, would increases in the probability of a correct response result when the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha trials were held near .50? (b) If correct responding does increase, would performance of these subjects in an alpha feedback task be enhanced relative to that of subjects not previously given discrimination training? and (c) If subjects could not learn the discrimination task, would feedback training enhance their performance in a subsequent discrimination task? Results from this study indicate that holding the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha discrimination trials near .50 results in an absence of learning curves, but leaves open the possibility that sophisticated subjects are capable of discriminating alpha and nonalpha activity. The second study deals with two questions: (a) Can sophisticated subjects learn to discriminate occipital

  18. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshio; Song, Kichan; Tachibana, Shota; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface (BMI). We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  19. The effects of operator position, pallet orientation, and palletizing condition on low back loads in manual bag palletizing operations

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Sean; Heberger, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Many mining commodities are packaged and shipped using bags. Small bags are typically loaded onto pallets for transport and require a significant amount of manual handling by workers. This specific task of manual bag handling has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), especially low back disorders. This study evaluates the biomechanical demands of different work layouts when performing manual palletizing of small bags, and evaluates the biomechanical stresses associated with different stacking techniques. Results indicate that peak forward bending moments as well as spinal compression and shear forces are higher when the pallet is situated at the side of the conveyor as opposed to the end of the conveyor. At low levels of the pallet, controlled bag placement results in higher peak forward bending moments than stacking at higher levels and when dropping the bag to lower levels. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of an audit tool for bagging operations in the mining industry. Relevance to industry In many cases for workers loading small bags, compression forces exceed the NIOSH criterion of 3400 N. Orientation of the pallet has a significant impact on spinal compression, and positioning the pallet at the end of the conveyor reduces the estimated compressive loading on the lumbar spine by approximately 800 N. PMID:26190879

  20. Influence of different operating conditions on irrigation uniformity with microperforated tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Pizani, María Alejandra; Jesús Farías Ramírez, Asdrúbal

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a safe alternative to meet the growing demand for food. Numerous studies show that proper management of localized irrigation can increase crop yields and reduce soil salinization. Therefore, periodic field systems irrigation assessments are needed in order to optimize the use efficiency of irrigation water, as well as, to increase the agricultural area covered by the same amount of water and to reduce the environmental impact. It was assessed the behavior of micro perforated tapes under different operating conditions, crops and regions of Venezuela. Evaluations were made on irrigated areas using Santeno ® Type I tape with the following crops: Banana (Musa sp), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L) and forage sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). In the other hand, Santeno ® Type II tape was used with papaya (Carica papaya L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops (the last crop using inverted irrigation tape). The procedures used for sampling and determining the uniformity indices of the system were performed using a series of adjustments to the methodology proposed by Keller and Karmeli (1975), Deniculi (1980) and De Santa and De Juan (1993), in order to increase the number of observations as a function of irrigation time. The calculated irrigation uniformity indices were as follow: Distribution Coefficient (UD), Uniformity Coefficient (CUC), Coefficient of Variation of Flows (CV) and Statistical Uniformity Coefficient (Us). The indices characterization was made according to Merrian and Keller (1978); Bralts (1986); Pizarro (1990) y ASAE (1996), respectively. The results showed that the irrigation uniformity for the evaluated systems varied from excellent to unacceptable, mainly due to the lack of maintenance and the absent of manometric connectors. Among the findings, it is possible to highlight the need for technical support to farmers, both in the installation, management and maintenance of irrigation systems. In this sense

  1. Social interaction, languaging and the operational conditions for the emergence of observing

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    In order to adequately understand the foundations of human social interaction, we need to provide an explanation of our specific mode of living based on linguistic activity and the cultural practices with which it is interwoven. To this end, we need to make explicit the constitutive conditions for the emergence of the phenomena which relate to language and joint activity starting from their operational-relational matrix. The approach presented here challenges the inadequacy of mentalist models to explain the relation between language and interaction. Recent empirical studies concerning joint attention and language acquisition have led scholars such as Tomasello et al. (2005) to postulate the existence of a universal human “sociocognitive infrastructure” that drives joint social activities and is biologically inherited. This infrastructure would include the skill of precocious intention-reading, and is meant to explain human linguistic development and cultural learning. However, the cognitivist and functionalist assumptions on which this model relies have resulted in controversial hypotheses (i.e., intention-reading as the ontogenetic precursor of language) which take a contentious conception of mind and language for granted. By challenging this model, I will show that we should instead turn ourselves towards a constitutive explanation of language within a “bio-logical” understanding of interactivity. This is possible only by abandoning the cognitivist conception of organism and traditional views of language. An epistemological shift must therefore be proposed, based on embodied, enactive and distributed approaches, and on Maturana’s work in particular. The notions of languaging and observing that will be discussed in this article will allow for a bio-logically grounded, theoretically parsimonious alternative to mentalist and spectatorial approaches, and will guide us towards a wider understanding of our sociocultural mode of living. PMID:25177308

  2. Comparison of mouse minimum audible angle determined in prepulse inhibition and operant conditioning procedures.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Derik; Klump, Georg M

    2016-03-01

    Both reward based operant conditioning (OC) and reflex-based prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedures are used in sound localisation studies in mice. Since the results of both procedures are compared in the literature, it is important to assess whether they provide similar results if the same stimulus paradigm is applied. Here, we compare the sensitivity of C57BL/6 mice in OC and PPI procedures for detecting a switch in speaker location using broadband and narrowband noise stimuli and determined their minimum audible angle (MAA). In the OC procedure, we calculated d' values from the hit and false alarm rates. In the PPI procedure, we calculated the area under ROC curves from the startle response amplitudes and derived da values to obtain a sensitivity measure that corresponds to d'. For both procedures, the mean sensitivity to the speaker switch increased with an increase in angular separation. For broadband noise stimuli, a d' of up to 3.3 (OC) and a da of up to 1.1 (PPI) were observed at large speaker separations. Narrowband noise stimuli resulted in lower sensitivities in both procedures, resulting in a maximum d' of 2.0 (OC) and a maximum da of 0.3 (PPI). Using a sensitivity of 1.0 as the threshold criterion, broadband noise MAAs in the range from 32° to 46° were observed in the OC procedure whereas a broadband noise MAAs of 108° or higher were observed in the PPI procedure. In the OC procedure, narrowband noise MAAs in the range from 37° to 62° were observed. In the PPI procedure, no narrowband noise MAA could be determined since none of the subjects reached the threshold. Thus, OC procedures result in a better performance of the subjects in the sound localization task than PPI procedures, challenging the view that both procedures can be used interchangeably.

  3. Complex matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2014-02-11

    Mechanisms for performing a complex matrix multiplication operation are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the complex matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. The first vector operand comprises a real and imaginary part of a first complex vector value. A complex load and splat operation is performed to load a second complex vector value of a second vector operand and replicate the second complex vector value within a second target vector register. The second complex vector value has a real and imaginary part. A cross multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the complex matrix multiplication operation. The partial product is accumulated with other partial products and a resulting accumulated partial product is stored in a result vector register.

  4. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prohibit the flight will not be encountered during the flight because of changed weather conditions since... known or forecast severe icing conditions. (d) If current weather reports and briefing...

  5. 40 CFR 201.12 - Standard for locomotive operation under moving conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 96 dB when moving at any time or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration, or deceleration... levels in excess of 90 dB when moving at any time or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration, or... or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration or deceleration, and when measured in...

  6. 40 CFR 201.12 - Standard for locomotive operation under moving conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 96 dB when moving at any time or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration, or deceleration... levels in excess of 90 dB when moving at any time or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration, or... or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration or deceleration, and when measured in...

  7. Monitoring Attention During Operant Conditioning in Six and Seven Month Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Barbara; Vietze, Peter M.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate more directly the effects of content and repetition of contingent visual feedback on a discrete operant pulling response and accompanying visual attention in 24 six- to seven-month old infants. Simultaneous recording was made of infant operant behavior and visual attention. Results indicated…

  8. Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results.

  9. Effect of Operating and Sampling Conditions on the Exhaust Gas Composition of Small-Scale Power Generators

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

  10. Effect of Particle Size and Operating Conditions on Pt3Co PEMFC Cathode Catalyst Durability

    DOE PAGES

    Gummalla, Mallika; Ball, Sarah; Condit, David; Rasouli, Somaye; Yu, Kang; Ferreira, Paulo; Myers, Deborah; Yang, Zhiwei

    2015-05-29

    The initial performance and decay trends of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) cathodes with Pt3Co catalysts of three mean particle sizes (4.9 nm, 8.1 nm, and 14.8 nm) with identical Pt loadings are compared. Even though the cathode based on 4.9 nm catalyst exhibited the highest initial electrochemical surface area (ECA) and mass activity, the cathode based on 8.1 nm catalyst showed better initial performance at high currents. Owing to the low mass activity of the large particles, the initial performance of the 14.8 nm Pt3Co-based electrode was the lowest. The performance decay rate of the electrodes with themore » smallest Pt3Co particle size was the highest and that of the largest Pt3Co particle size was lowest. Interestingly, with increasing number of decay cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V, 50 mV/s), the relative improvement in performance of the cathode based on 8.1 nm Pt3Co over the 4.9 nm Pt3Co increased, owing to better stability of the 8.1 nm catalyst. The electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) of the decayed membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) showed that the amount of Co in the membrane was lower for the larger particles, and the platinum loss into the membrane also decreased with increasing particle size. This suggests that the higher initial performance at high currents with 8.1 nm Pt3Co could be due to lower contamination of the ionomer in the electrode. Furthermore, lower loss of Co from the catalyst with increased particle size could be one of the factors contributing to the stability of ECA and mass activity of electrodes with larger cathode catalyst particles. To delineate the impact of particle size and alloy effects, these results are compared with prior work from our research group on size effects of pure platinum catalysts. The impact of PEMFC operating conditions, including upper potential, relative humidity, and temperature on the alloy catalyst decay trends, along with the EMPA analysis of the decayed MEAs, are reported.« less

  11. Gunite and Associated Tanks Waste Conditioning System: Description and Operational Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Emison, JA

    2002-03-14

    The purpose of this report is to describe and document the function, operational performance, problems encountered, lessons-learned, and overall assessment of the performance of the waste conditioning system (WCS) in the Gunite{trademark} and Associated Tanks (GAAT) remediation project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The GAAT are located in the main plant area of ORNL in the North and South Tank Farms. These tanks were constructed in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. Each tank in the South Tank Farm (STF) has a 50-ft inside diameter and a capacity of {approx}170,000 gal. Each Gunite tank in the North Tank Farm (NTF) has a 25-ft inside diameter with a capacity of {approx}44,000 gal. The GAAT were designed to receive radioactive and chemical wastes from ORNL processes. The tanks were constructed of Gunite, which is created by pneumatically spraying concrete over a wire mesh. Following construction, the site was backfilled so the domes of the tanks were covered with {approx}6 ft of earth. The STF tanks (W-5, -6, -7, -8, -9, and -10) are set in a 2 x 3 array with an east-west axis. The two GAAT in the NTF are on the north side of Central Avenue, and the STF is across the street. One additional Gunite tank, TH-4, is located {approx}300 ft east of the STF. TH-4 is a smaller, 20-ft inside diameter tank with a capacity of {approx}14,000 gal. Approximately 90% of the sludge inventory was removed from the STF tanks during a sluicing campaign in 1982-84 (Autry et al., 1990). Over 95% of the residual from the original sluicing was removed during the GAAT Remediation Project of 1997-2000. The NTF and STF tanks, as well as tank TH-4 were remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) with regulatory oversight by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC).

  12. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Gendler, E

    1987-06-01

    Adverse reactions to cosmetics can be irritant or allergic and are most often caused by fragrances or preservatives. Preservatives include formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and parabens. Other agents that cause allergy are paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes and toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail polishes.

  13. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  14. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Nad, Shreya; Gu, Yajun; Asmussen, Jes

    2015-07-01

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100-260 Torr pressure range and 1.5-2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (η(coup)) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance. PMID:26233399

  15. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Nad, Shreya; Gu, Yajun; Asmussen, Jes

    2015-07-15

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100–260 Torr pressure range and 1.5–2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (η{sub coup}) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance.

  16. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Nad, Shreya; Gu, Yajun; Asmussen, Jes

    2015-07-01

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100-260 Torr pressure range and 1.5-2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (η(coup)) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance.

  17. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nad, Shreya; Gu, Yajun; Asmussen, Jes

    2015-07-01

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100-260 Torr pressure range and 1.5-2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (ηcoup) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance.

  18. Preliminary assessment of accident-tolerant fuels on LWR performance during normal operation and under DB and BDB accident conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, L. J.; Robb, K. R.; Wang, D.

    2014-05-01

    Following the severe accidents at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, the US Department of Energy initiated research and development on the enhancement of the accident tolerance of light water reactors by the development of fuels/cladding that, in comparison with the standard UO2/Zircaloy (Zr) system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations. Analyses are presented that illustrate the impact of these new candidate fuel/cladding materials on the fuel performance at normal operating conditions and on the reactor system under DB and BDB accident conditions.

  19. Analysis of Actual Operating Conditions of an Off-grid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31

    Fuel cells have been proposed as ideal replacements for other technologies in remote locations such as Rural Alaska. A number of suppliers have developed systems that might be applicable in these locations, but there are several requirements that must be met before they can be deployed: they must be able to operate on portable fuels, and be able to operate with little operator assistance for long periods of time. This project was intended to demonstrate the operation of a 5 kW fuel cell on propane at a remote site (defined as one without access to grid power, internet, or cell phone, but on the road system). A fuel cell was purchased by the National Park Service for installation in their newly constructed visitor center at Exit Glacier in the Kenai Fjords National Park. The DOE participation in this project as initially scoped was for independent verification of the operation of this demonstration. This project met with mixed success. The fuel cell has operated over 6 seasons at the facility with varying degrees of success, with one very good run of about 1049 hours late in the summer of 2006, but in general the operation has been below expectations. There have been numerous stack failures, the efficiency of electrical generation has been lower than expected, and the field support effort required has been far higher than expected. Based on the results to date, it appears that this technology has not developed to the point where demonstrations in off road sites are justified.

  20. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate volatilities (boiling points). The data in the Appendix contain: incinerator operating data, laboratory analyses, sampl...

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Cremer; Dave Wang; Connie Senior; Andrew Chiodo; Steven Hardy; Paul Wolff

    2005-07-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project was to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. The focus of this project was to quantify the potential impacts of ''fine level'' controls rather than that of ''coarse level'' controls (i.e. combustion tuning). Although it is well accepted that combustion tuning will generally improve efficiency and emissions of an ''out of tune'' boiler, it is not as well understood what benefits can be derived through active multiburner measurement and control systems in boiler that has coarse level controls. The approach used here was to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner air and fuel flow rates. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center have been active participants in this project. CFD simulations were completed for five coal fired boilers as planned: (1) 150 MW wall fired, (2) 500 MW opposed wall fired, (3) 600 MW T-Fired, (4) 330 MW cyclone-fired, and (5) 200 MW T-Fired Twin Furnace. In all cases, the unit selections were made in order to represent units that were descriptive of the utility industry as a whole. For each unit, between 25 and 44 furnace simulations were completed in order to evaluate impacts of burner to burner variations in: (1) coal and primary air flow rate, and (2) secondary air flow rate. The parametric matrices of cases that were completed were

  2. Influence of heatsink from upper boundary on the industrial premises thermal conditions at gas infrared emitter operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornova, Tatiana A.

    2014-08-01

    The results of mathematical simulation of the heat transfer processes in the closed domain, which corresponds to production accomodation with the gas infrared emitter operation condition are presented. The system of differential Navier-Stokes equations in the approximation of Boussinesq is solved. The comparative analysis of thermal conditions formation in the closed domain is carried out taking into account heat withdrawal through the upper enclosing construction and under the conditions of its heat insulation. The essential transiency of the analyzed heat transfer process and the influence of heat withdrawal from one of the outer boundaries on the mean temperatures values in large-dimension industrial premises are established.

  3. 45 CFR 310.20 - What are the conditions for funding the installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.20 What are the conditions for funding the...

  4. 45 CFR 310.20 - What are the conditions for funding the installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.20 What are the conditions for funding the...

  5. 45 CFR 310.20 - What are the conditions for funding the installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.20 What are the conditions for funding the...

  6. 45 CFR 310.20 - What are the conditions for funding the installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.20 What are the conditions for funding the...

  7. 45 CFR 310.20 - What are the conditions for funding the installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... installation, operation, maintenance and enhancement of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.20 What are the conditions for funding the...

  8. Describing Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Relations Using Conditional Probabilities and the General Operant Contingency Space: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Martens, Brian K.; DiGennaro, Florence D.

    2005-01-01

    Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) recordings are often used in school settings as part of a functional assessment. A number of limitations are associated with A-B-C recordings, and a novel approach for describing data from A-B-C recordings is to compute conditional probabilities that can be graphed in the general operant contingency space to…

  9. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  10. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... at the MEAs of the route to be flown or 5,000 feet MSL, whichever is higher. (b) Notwithstanding the... along the planned route (including takeoff and landing) allows flight under VFR under the ceiling (if...

  11. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... at the MEAs of the route to be flown or 5,000 feet MSL, whichever is higher. (b) Notwithstanding the... along the planned route (including takeoff and landing) allows flight under VFR under the ceiling (if...

  12. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... at the MEAs of the route to be flown or 5,000 feet MSL, whichever is higher. (b) Notwithstanding the... along the planned route (including takeoff and landing) allows flight under VFR under the ceiling (if...

  13. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... at the MEAs of the route to be flown or 5,000 feet MSL, whichever is higher. (b) Notwithstanding the... along the planned route (including takeoff and landing) allows flight under VFR under the ceiling (if...

  14. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dogra, A; Minocha, Y C; Kaur, S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  15. Impact resistance of composite fan blades. [fiber reinforced graphite and boron epoxy blades for STOL operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premont, E. J.; Stubenrauch, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    The resistance of current-design Pratt and Whitney Aircraft low aspect ratio advanced fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite fan blades to foreign object damage (FOD) at STOL operating conditions was investigated. Five graphite/epoxy and five boron/epoxy wide chord fan blades with nickel plated stainless steel leading edge sheath protection were fabricated and impact tested. The fan blades were individually tested in a vacuum whirlpit under FOD environments. The FOD environments were typical of those encountered in service operations. The impact objects were ice balls, gravel, stralings and gelatin simulated birds. Results of the damage sustained from each FOD impact are presented for both the graphite boron reinforced blades. Tests showed that the present design composite fan blades, with wrap around leading edge protection have inadequate FOD impact resistance at 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) tip speed, a possible STOL operating condition.

  16. Optimization of Sinter Plant Operating Conditions Using Advanced Multivariate Statistics: Intelligent Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, Daniel; Martín-Duarte, Ramón; Ruiz-Bustinza, Íñigo; Mochón, Javier; González-Gasca, Carmen; Verdeja, Luis Felipe

    2016-08-01

    Blast furnace operators expect to get sinter with homogenous and regular properties (chemical and mechanical), necessary to ensure regular blast furnace operation. Blends for sintering also include several iron by-products and other wastes that are obtained in different processes inside the steelworks. Due to their source, the availability of such materials is not always consistent, but their total production should be consumed in the sintering process, to both save money and recycle wastes. The main scope of this paper is to obtain the least expensive iron ore blend for the sintering process, which will provide suitable chemical and mechanical features for the homogeneous and regular operation of the blast furnace. The systematic use of statistical tools was employed to analyze historical data, including linear and partial correlations applied to the data and fuzzy clustering based on the Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System to establish relationships among the available variables.

  17. Optimization of Sinter Plant Operating Conditions Using Advanced Multivariate Statistics: Intelligent Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, Daniel; Martín-Duarte, Ramón; Ruiz-Bustinza, Íñigo; Mochón, Javier; González-Gasca, Carmen; Verdeja, Luis Felipe

    2016-06-01

    Blast furnace operators expect to get sinter with homogenous and regular properties (chemical and mechanical), necessary to ensure regular blast furnace operation. Blends for sintering also include several iron by-products and other wastes that are obtained in different processes inside the steelworks. Due to their source, the availability of such materials is not always consistent, but their total production should be consumed in the sintering process, to both save money and recycle wastes. The main scope of this paper is to obtain the least expensive iron ore blend for the sintering process, which will provide suitable chemical and mechanical features for the homogeneous and regular operation of the blast furnace. The systematic use of statistical tools was employed to analyze historical data, including linear and partial correlations applied to the data and fuzzy clustering based on the Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System to establish relationships among the available variables.

  18. Mathematical simulation of the operating emergency conditions for the purpose of energy efficiency increase of thermal power plants management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazizova, O. V.; Malafeyev, A. V.; Kondrashova, Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    The regulations of the energy saving policy, being implemented at present, require an enhanced reliability of the power supply systems and operations of the motive loading, actuating machines and mechanisms, for the purpose of reduction of power inputs under operating emergency conditions. The development of industrial units of the distributed generation enables putting the generators, equipped with motors of the comparable power, into the operation, which is non-parallel to a power system. To provide static stability under such conditions the complex approach is required since it allows estimating the stability of the generators and the load during parallel and non-parallel operations with the power system and a complex circuit configuration. The mathematical models of units of the distributed generation and motive loading considering the character of the given mechanism are developed. They are implemented in the software package allowing the operative-dispatch personnel of the industrial power stations to forecast similar modes and develop special measures to provide a stable operation of electrical machines.

  19. Conditioning Operation by an Encapsulation and Shielding of Spent Sealed Radium Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Il-Sik Kang; Dae-Seok Hong; Kil-Jeong Kim; Jong-Sik Shon; Kwon-Pyo Hong

    2006-07-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could result from an improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for a safe conditioning of spent radium sources by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this paper is to summarize the technology that was adapted by the IAEA for the conditioning of spent radium sources in the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in member states and the actions performed by the Korean expert team as a part of the IAEA's project titled as 'Radium Conditioning in Southeastern Asia'. The whole inventory of the spent radium sources of 8,671.13 mCi was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the guidelines under the supervision of the IAEA's technical officer. The 1,821 sources of spent radium were encapsulated, welded, and conditioned into 18 concrete-shielded drums. (authors)

  20. FIELD OPERATIONS AND METHODS FOR MEASURING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF WADEABLE STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The methods and instructions for field operations presented in this manual for surveys of wadeable streams were developed and tested during 5 years of pilot and demonstration projects (1993 through 1997). These projects were conducted under the sponsorship of the U.S. Environment...