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Sample records for adverse physiological responses

  1. Mechanistic and dose considerations for supporting adverse pulmonary physiology in response to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Chad M. Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Grafstroem, Roland C.

    2008-12-15

    Induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma from formaldehyde inhalation exposure remains a debated and controversial issue. Yet, recent evidences on pulmonary biology and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of formaldehyde lend support for such adverse effects. Specifically, altered thiol biology from accelerated enzymatic reduction of the endogenous bronchodilator S-nitrosoglutathione and pulmonary inflammation from involvement of Th2-mediated immune responses might serve as key events and cooperate in airway pathophysiology. Understanding what role these mechanisms play in various species and lifestages (e.g., child vs. adult) could be crucial for making more meaningful inter- and intra-species dosimetric extrapolations in human health risk assessment.

  2. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of discharge in anesthetized swine model.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Ahn, Jung-Hwan; Min, Young-Gi

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to investigate the dose-response relationship of the TASER X26 discharge duration in an anesthetized swine model. Fourteen swines were anesthetized and then exposed to TASER X26 discharge for 5 sec (n = 5) or for 10 sec (n = 6). The sham control group (n = 3) was anesthetized and studied using the same protocol except TASER X26 discharges during the experiments. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased significantly after TASER discharge and returned to baseline value at 15 min after 5 sec of TASER discharge but did not return to baseline values during the 30-min observation period after 10 sec of TASER discharge. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of TASER X26 discharge in an anesthetized swine model. PMID:23066880

  3. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  4. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  5. Neuronal responses to physiological stress.

    PubMed

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  6. Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  7. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  8. Physiological response to aerosol propellants.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, R D; Newton, P E; Baretta, E D; Herrmann, A A; Forster, H V; Soto, R J

    1978-01-01

    Acute exposures to isobutane, propane, F-12, and F-11 in concentrations of 250, 500, or 1000 ppm for periods of 1 min to 8 hr did not produce any untoward physiological effects as determined by the methods employed which included serial EKG's and continuous monitoring of modified V5 by telemetry during exposure. Repetitive exposures to these four propellants were also without measurable untoward physiological effect with the exception of the eight male subjects repetitively exposed to 1000 ppm, F-11, who did show minor decrements in several of the cognitive tests. Of particular importance is the observation that none of the subjects showed any decrement in pulmonary function or alteration in cardiac rhythm as the result of exposure to concentrations of the gases or vapors far greater than encountered in the normal use of aerosol products in the home. PMID:214300

  9. Physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters. PMID:15684559

  10. Physiology of the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Denburg, J. A.; Bienenstock, J.

    1979-01-01

    The established mechanisms of immune responsiveness to foreign or self components are reviewed, with particular reference to relevant clinical problems and current research. A multitiered immunological system of cellular and subcellular elements are involved when the body deals with perturbations from without or within. The concept exists that a delicate balance between positive ('helper') and negative ('suppressor') forces is essential to maintaining health. Brief discussion is given to diagnosis of immune abnormalities in the light of these facts. PMID:21297689

  11. Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

    2007-01-01

    We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

  12. Physiologic Responses to Treadmill and Water Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Phillip A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the physiological responses of uninjured runners to running on a treadmill and in water. Water running may lessen an injured athlete's rate of deconditioning, but indications are that the metabolic cost of water running is not significantly greater than that of treadmill running. (SM)

  13. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  14. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth. PMID:27098210

  15. Psychological and Physiological Responses following Repeated Peer Death

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Judith Pizarro; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Stewart, Brandon; Koperwas, Billie; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Objective Undergraduates at a university in the United States were exposed – directly and indirectly – to 14 peer deaths during one academic year. We examined how individual and social factors were associated with psychological (e.g., anxiety, depression, somatization) and physiological (i.e., cortisol) distress responses following this unexpected and repeated experience with loss. Method Two to three months after the final peer death, respondents (N = 122, 61% female, 18–23 years, M = 20.13, SD = 1.14) reported prior adverse experiences, degree of closeness with the deceased, acute responses to the peer deaths, ongoing distress responses, social support, support seeking, and media viewing. A subset (n = 24) returned hair samples for evaluation of cortisol responses during the previous 3 months. Results Ongoing psychological distress was associated with a) prior interpersonal trauma, b) fewer social supports, and c) media exposure to news of the deaths (p's<.05). Participants who had no prior bereavements showed, on average, high cortisol (>25 p/mg) compared to individuals with one or two prior bereavement experiences (who were, on average, within the normal range, 10 to 25 p/mg) (p<.05). Only 8% of the sample utilized available university psychological or physical health resources and support groups. Conclusions Limited research has examined the psychological and physiological impact of exposure to chronic, repeated peer loss, despite the fact that there are groups of individuals (e.g., police, military soldiers) that routinely face such exposures. Prior adversity appears to play a role in shaping psychological and physiological responses to repeated loss. This topic warrants further research given the health implications of repeated loss for individuals in high-risk occupations and university settings. PMID:24086655

  16. An upside to adversity?: moderate cumulative lifetime adversity is associated with resilient responses in the face of controlled stressors.

    PubMed

    Seery, Mark D; Leo, Raphael J; Lupien, Shannon P; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Almonte, Jessica L

    2013-07-01

    Despite common findings suggesting that lack of negative life events should be optimal, recent work has revealed a curvilinear pattern, such that some cumulative lifetime adversity is instead associated with optimal well-being. This work, however, is limited in that responses to specific stressors as they occurred were not assessed, thereby precluding investigation of resilience. The current research addressed this critical gap by directly testing the relationship between adversity history and resilience to stressors. Specifically, we used a multimethod approach across two studies to assess responses to controlled laboratory stressors (respectively requiring passive endurance and active instrumental performance). Results revealed hypothesized U-shaped relationships: Relative to a history of either no adversity or nonextreme high adversity, a moderate number of adverse life events was associated with less negative responses to pain and more positive psychophysiological responses while taking a test. These results provide novel evidence in support of adversity-derived propensity for resilience that generalizes across stressors. PMID:23673992

  17. Spatiotemporal hemodynamic response functions derived from physiology.

    PubMed

    Aquino, K M; Robinson, P A; Drysdale, P M

    2014-04-21

    Probing neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) relies upon understanding the hemodynamic response to changes in neural activity. Although existing studies have extensively characterized the temporal hemodynamic response, less is understood about the spatial and spatiotemporal hemodynamic responses. This study systematically characterizes the spatiotemporal response by deriving the hemodynamic response due to a short localized neural drive, i.e., the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response function (stHRF) from a physiological model of hemodynamics based on a poroelastic model of cortical tissue. In this study, the model's boundary conditions are clarified and a resulting nonlinear hemodynamic wave equation is derived. From this wave equation, damped linear hemodynamic waves are predicted from the stHRF. The main features of these waves depend on two physiological parameters: wave propagation speed, which depends on mean cortical stiffness, and damping which depends on effective viscosity. Some of these predictions were applied and validated in a companion study (Aquino et al., 2012). The advantages of having such a theory for the stHRF include improving the interpretation of spatiotemporal dynamics in fMRI data; improving estimates of neural activity with fMRI spatiotemporal deconvolution; and enabling wave interactions between hemodynamic waves to be predicted and exploited to improve the signal to noise ratio of fMRI. PMID:24398024

  18. Correction of Adverse Response to Suxamethonium of Susceptible Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lister, David

    1973-01-01

    The adverse response to suxamethonium in susceptible pigs has been shown to be associated with changes in serum free thyroxine index. Pyrexia and acidosis can be controlled by the cautious administration of L-triiodo-thyronine (T-3). Successful correction has been achieved in eight episodes, and in six of these, where it was intended, rapid, uneventful, and complete recovery occurred. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4686556

  19. Early physiologic responses to hemorrhagic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Torres Filho, Ivo P; Torres, Luciana N; Pittman, Roland N

    2010-02-01

    The identification of early indicators of hemorrhagic hypotension (HH) severity may support early therapeutic approaches and bring insights into possible mechanistic implications. However, few systematic investigations of physiologic variables during early stages of hemorrhage are available. We hypothesized that, in certain subjects, early physiologic responses to blood loss are associated with the ability to survive hemorrhage levels that are lethal to subjects that do not present the same responses. Therefore, we examine the relevance of specific systemic changes during and after the bleeding phase of HH. Stepwise hemorrhage, representing prehospital situations, was performed in 44 rats, and measurements were made after each step. Heart and respiratory rates, arterial and venous blood pressures, gases, acid-base status, glucose, lactate, electrolytes, hemoglobin, O(2) saturation, tidal volume, and minute volume were measured before, during, and after bleeding 40% of the total blood volume. Fifty percent of rats survived 100 min (survivors, S) or longer; others were considered nonsurvivors (NS). Our findings were as follows: (1) S and NS subjected to a similar hemorrhage challenge showed significantly different responses during nonlethal levels of bleeding; (2) survivors showed higher blood pressure and ventilation than NS; (3) although pH was lower in NS at later stages, changes in bicarbonate and base excess occurred already during the hemorrhage phase and were higher in NS; and (4) plasma K(+) levels and glucose extraction were higher in NS. We conclude that cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses, essential for the survival at HH, can differentiate between S and NS even before a lethal bleeding was reached. PMID:20129488

  20. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  1. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  2. Evaluation of ethyl acetate on three dimensions: investigation of behavioral, physiological and psychological indicators of adverse chemosensory effects.

    PubMed

    Kleinbeck, Stefan; Juran, Stephanie A; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, Michael; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Brüning, Thomas; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-11-10

    A variety of national occupational exposure limits for ethyl acetate exist based on different studies, mostly relying on subjective evaluations of ethyl acetate as an irritant. Only one study also used physiological methods with inconsistent results in subjective and objective data. The present study was designed to investigate ethyl acetate on three different dimensions: behavioral, physiological and psychological indicators of adverse chemosensory effects were investigated during acute exposures to different concentrations of ethyl acetate. Twenty-four subjects were challenged with ethyl acetate in three exposure patterns (2 ppm, 400 ppm, 400 ppm including peaks of 800 ppm). While the odor intensity is rated "strong", trigeminal perceptions were rated less than "moderate". The absence of substantial trigeminal ratings was supported by physiological data. There was neither an effect of concentration on blinking frequency nor on nasal resistance which both are indicators of irritation. Furthermore, there are no effects of ethyl acetate concentration on behavioral measures indicating no olfactory or trigeminally mediated disturbance of cognitive processing. In conclusion, the results of this multilevel approach revealed no adverse chemosensory effects at ethyl acetate concentrations as recommended by the German MAK-value. PMID:18812215

  3. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 3 of 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Steven J.; Kraemer, William J.

    1988-01-01

    The physiological responses and adaptations which occur as a result of resistance training, such as cardiovascular responses, serum lipid count, body composition, and neural adaptations are discussed. Changes in the endocrine system are also described. (JL)

  4. Students' Misconceptions about Perceived Physiological Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Joel A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores faulty models that students have for physiological processes. Undergraduate students (N=393) in three different research universities predicted the changes in heart rate, strength of cardiac contraction, breathing frequency, and depth of breathing under conditions that result in increased cardiac output. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  5. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. PMID:26752207

  6. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Physiological procedures and instrumentation developed for the measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are described along with the physiological response of monkeys to weightlessness. Specific areas examined include: cardiovascular studies; thyroid function; blood oxygen transport; growth and reproduction; excreta analysis for metabolic balance studies; and electrophoretic separation of creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes in human blood.

  7. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  8. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO FILM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASE, HARRY W.; LEVONIAN, EDWARD

    THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM WHICH WOULD ALLOW THE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF STUDENTS VIEWING FILM MATERIAL UNDER CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM CONDITIONS. THE GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE (GSR) WAS MEASURED BY SENSORS AND USED AS AN INDICATOR OF STUDENT INTERACTION WITH THE FILM MATERIAL. IN…

  9. Measuring Physiological Stress Responses in Children: Lessons from a Novice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author describes challenges associated with integrating physiological measures of stress into developmental research, especially in the domains of memory and cognition. An initial critical challenge concerns how to define stress, which can refer to one or a series of events, a response, the consequence of that response, an…

  10. Physiological Roles and Adverse Effects of the Two Cystine Importers of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chonoles Imlay, Karin R.; Korshunov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT When cystine is added to Escherichia coli, the bacterium becomes remarkably sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. This effect is due to enlarged intracellular pools of cysteine, which can drive Fenton chemistry. Genetic analysis linked the sensitivity to YdjN, a secondary transporter that along with the FliY-YecSC ABC system is responsible for cystine uptake. FliY-YecSC has a nanomolar Km and is essential for import of trace cystine, whereas YdjN has a micromolar Km and is the predominant importer when cystine is more abundant. Oddly, both systems are strongly induced by the CysB response to sulfur scarcity. The FliY-YecSC system can import a variety of biomolecules, including diaminopimelate; it is therefore vulnerable to competitive inhibition, presumably warranting YdjN induction under low-sulfur conditions. But the consequence is that if micromolar cystine then becomes available, the abundant YdjN massively overimports it, at >30 times the total sulfur demand of the cell. The imported cystine is rapidly reduced to cysteine in a glutathione-dependent process. This action avoids the hazard of disulfide stress, but it precludes feedback inhibition of YdjN by cystine. We conjecture that YdjN possesses no cysteine allosteric site because the isostructural amino acid serine might inappropriately bind in its place. Instead, the cell partially resolves the overaccumulation of cysteine by immediately excreting it, completing a futile import/reduction/export cycle that consumes a large amount of cellular energy. These unique, wasteful, and dangerous features of cystine metabolism are reproduced by other bacteria. We propose to rename ydjN as tcyP and fliY-yecSC as tcyJLN. IMPORTANCE In general, intracellular metabolite pools are kept at steady, nontoxic levels by a sophisticated combination of transcriptional and allosteric controls. Surprisingly, in E. coli allosteric control is utterly absent from the primary importer of cystine. This flaw allows massive overimport

  11. Environmental cadmium exposure impacts physiological responses in Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Jian; Xu, Xian; Wang, Hua; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-06-01

    The physiological responses of marine bivalves to chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure at sub-lethal concentrations have been well documented. As of now, few studies have examined the effect of Cd exposure and subsequent recovery period at environmentally realistic concentrations. In this study, environmentally, Cd exposures were performed to assess the physiological responses of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The clams were exposed to waterborne Cd at two environmentally realistic concentrations (4 and 40 μg L(-1)) for 35 days and then allowed to recover for another 35 days. The accumulation and elimination of Cd in R. philippinarum were tissue-specific and dose- and time-dependent. Cd accumulation increased sharply in the digestive gland, and Cd elimination was rapid in the gill. Major physiological responses, including clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, oxygen to nitrogen ratio, and scope for growth, were significantly affected by Cd exposure. Yet, the clams exposed to 4-μg L(-1) Cd were able to quickly recover their normal physiological processes and clearly exhibited catch-up growth once they were transferred to clean seawater. Hence, R. philippinarum can exhibit good physiological plasticity when confronted with moderately environmental Cd exposure. All physiological responses measured exhibited a highly significant and generally predictable correlation with tissue Cd concentration, which in turn, reflected environmentally realistic exposure conditions. Our results further confirm that the measurement of physiological responses is a sensitive method for assessing stress at environmentally realistic metal concentrations. PMID:24771311

  12. Physiological responses to prolonged bed rest and fluid immersion in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    For many centuries, physicians have used prolonged rest in bed and immersion in water in the treatment of ailments and disease. Both treatments have positive remedial effects. However, adverse physiological responses become evident when patients return to their normal daily activities. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the physiological changes during bed rest and the effects produced by water immersion. It is found that abrupt changes in body position related to bed rest cause acute changes in fluid compartment volumes. Attention is given to fluid shifts and body composition, renal function and diuresis, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and orthostatic tolerance. In a discussion of water immersion, fluid shifts are considered along with cardiovascular-respiratory responses, renal function, and natriuretic and diuretic factors.

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and physiological wear-and-tear in midlife: Findings from the 1958 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Barboza Solís, Cristina; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Fantin, Romain; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Torrisani, Jérôme; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2015-01-01

    Allostatic load (AL) is a measure of overall physiological wear-and-tear over the life course, which could partially be the consequence of early life exposures. AL could allow a better understanding of the potential biological pathways playing a role in the construction of the social gradient in adult health. To explore the biological embedding hypothesis, we examined whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with elevated AL in midlife. We used imputed data on 3,782 women and 3,753 men of the National Child Development Study in Britain followed up seven times. ACEs were measured using prospective data collected at ages 7, 11, and 16. AL was operationalized using data from the biomedical survey collected at age 44 on 14 parameters representing four biological systems. We examined the role of adult health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and socioeconomic status as potential mediators using a path analysis. ACEs were associated with higher AL for both men and women after adjustment for early life factors and childhood pathologies. The path analysis showed that the association between ACEs and AL was largely explained by early adult factors at age 23 and 33. For men, the total mediated effect was 59% (for two or more ACEs) via health behaviors, education level, and wealth. For women, the mediated effect represented 76% (for two or more ACEs) via smoking, BMI, education level, and wealth. Our results indicate that early psychosocial stress has an indirect lasting impact on physiological wear-and-tear via health behaviors, BMI, and socioeconomic factors in adulthood. PMID:25646470

  14. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

  15. An integrated physiology model to study regional lung damage effects and the physiologic response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This work expands upon a previously developed exercise dynamic physiology model (DPM) with the addition of an anatomic pulmonary system in order to quantify the impact of lung damage on oxygen transport and physical performance decrement. Methods A pulmonary model is derived with an anatomic structure based on morphometric measurements, accounting for heterogeneous ventilation and perfusion observed experimentally. The model is incorporated into an existing exercise physiology model; the combined system is validated using human exercise data. Pulmonary damage from blast, blunt trauma, and chemical injury is quantified in the model based on lung fluid infiltration (edema) which reduces oxygen delivery to the blood. The pulmonary damage component is derived and calibrated based on published animal experiments; scaling laws are used to predict the human response to lung injury in terms of physical performance decrement. Results The augmented dynamic physiology model (DPM) accurately predicted the human response to hypoxia, altitude, and exercise observed experimentally. The pulmonary damage parameters (shunt and diffusing capacity reduction) were fit to experimental animal data obtained in blast, blunt trauma, and chemical damage studies which link lung damage to lung weight change; the model is able to predict the reduced oxygen delivery in damage conditions. The model accurately estimates physical performance reduction with pulmonary damage. Conclusions We have developed a physiologically-based mathematical model to predict performance decrement endpoints in the presence of thoracic damage; simulations can be extended to estimate human performance and escape in extreme situations. PMID:25044032

  16. Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...

  17. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  18. Coupling of metabolism and cardiovascular response represents normal physiology.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Helmut O

    2003-12-01

    In this issue of Clinical Science, Fugmann and co-workers demonstrate a highly integrated cardiovascular response to changes in plasma concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols (triglycerides), fatty acids and insulin. Since the different substrates, alone and combined, evoked these changes, this response is likely to be a physiological one and directed towards minimizing the extent and duration of substrate elevations that could cause vascular dysfunction. PMID:12917009

  19. Physiological responses to simulated firefighter exercise protocols in varying environments.

    PubMed

    Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Motl, Robert W; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Petrucci, Matthew N; Fernhall, Bo; Rosengren, Karl S

    2015-01-01

    For decades, research to quantify the effects of firefighting activities and personal protective equipment on physiology and biomechanics has been conducted in a variety of testing environments. It is unknown if these different environments provide similar information and comparable responses. A novel Firefighting Activities Station, which simulates four common fireground tasks, is presented for use with an environmental chamber in a controlled laboratory setting. Nineteen firefighters completed three different exercise protocols following common research practices. Simulated firefighting activities conducted in an environmental chamber or live-fire structures elicited similar physiological responses (max heart rate: 190.1 vs 188.0 bpm, core temperature response: 0.047°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and accelerometry counts. However, the response to a treadmill protocol commonly used in laboratory settings resulted in significantly lower heart rate (178.4 vs 188.0 bpm), core temperature response (0.037°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and physical activity counts compared with firefighting activities in the burn building. Practitioner Summary: We introduce a new approach for simulating realistic firefighting activities in a controlled laboratory environment for ergonomics assessment of fire service equipment and personnel. Physiological responses to this proposed protocol more closely replicate those from live-fire activities than a traditional treadmill protocol and are simple to replicate and standardise. PMID:25597759

  20. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  1. Physiological responses to simulated and on-road driving.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michel J; Chahal, Tammem; Stinchcombe, Arne; Mullen, Nadia; Weaver, Bruce; Bédard, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Driving simulators have become an increasingly popular tool to study and assess drivers. Physiological measurements not only provide an important index of an individual's presence in the virtual environment, but they also permit us to compare simulated and on-road experiences. However, at this point, few studies examining the ecological validity of simulated driving have included physiological variables. In a first study, we embedded three surprising events into a typical simulated road circuit. The first event consisted of a car pulling out suddenly from the shoulder of the road, while the remaining two events consisted of a green traffic light changing to amber as the driver approached the intersection. We noted statistically significant elevations in the mean heart rate (MHR) response to virtual events of about 4beats per minute (bpm) during the 15s immediately following the events. In a second study, we directly compared heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO(2)), and mean ventilation (MV(E)) responses to similar simulated and on-road drives. The change in physiological variables from baseline to driving was similar between simulated and on-road conditions, and a very strong correlation between simulated and on-road driving values for MV(E) (r=0.90) was observed. MHR and maximum heart rate (HR(max)) were nonetheless significantly higher during on-road drives. These studies suggest that the level of immersion of a fixed base simulator is great enough to elicit presence, and achieve both relative and absolute validity for certain physiological parameters. Nonetheless, the absolute responses between virtual and real world experiences remain different. For both research and evaluation purposes, it is critical that we better understand the impact of the driver's perceived level of risk or difficulty during simulation on their driving behaviour and physiological responses. PMID:21726587

  2. Physiological responses induced by emotion-eliciting films.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cristina; Pascual, Juan C; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Portella, Maria J; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    Emotion-eliciting films are commonly used to evoke subjective emotional responses in experimental settings. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether a set of film clips with discrete emotions were capable to elicit measurable objective physiological responses. The convergence between subjective and objective measures was evaluated. Finally, the effect of gender on emotional responses was investigated. A sample of 123 subjects participated in the study. Individuals were asked to view a set of emotional film clips capable to induce seven emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement, tenderness and neutral state. Skin conductance level (SCL), heart rate (HR) and subjective emotional responses were measured for each film clip. In comparison with neutral films, SCL was significantly increased after viewing fear films, and HR was also significantly incremented for anger and fear films. Physiological variations were associated with arousal measures indicating a convergence between subjective and objective reactions. Women appeared to display significantly greater SCL and HR responses for films inducing sadness. The findings suggest that physiological activation would be more easily induced by emotion-eliciting films that tap into emotions with higher subjective arousal such as anger and fear. PMID:22311202

  3. A combined application of biochar and phosphorus alleviates heat-induced adversities on physiological, agronomical and quality attributes of rice.

    PubMed

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Tanveer, Mohsin; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Shah, Adnan Noor; Ullah, Abid; Nasrullah; Khan, Fahad; Ullah, Sami; Alharby, Hesham; Nasim, Wajid; Wu, Chao; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Present study examined the influence of high-temperature stress and different biochar and phosphorus (P) fertilization treatments on the growth, grain yield and quality of two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan). Plants were subjected to high day temperature-HDT (35 °C ± 2), high night temperature-HNT (32 °C ± 2), and control temperature-CT (28 °C ± 2) in controlled growth chambers. The different fertilization treatments were control, biochar alone, phosphorous (P) alone and biochar + P. High-temperature stress severely reduced the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except for number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more destructive for grain yield. High temperature stress also hampered the grain appearance and milling quality traits in both rice cultivars. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high-temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Different soil fertilization treatments were helpful in ameliorating the detrimental effects of high temperature. Addition of biochar alone improved some growth and yield parameters but such positive effects were lower when compared with the combined application of biochar and P. The biochar+P application recorded 7% higher grain yield (plant(-1)) of rice compared with control averaged across different temperature treatments and cultivars. The highest grain production and better grain quality in biochar+P treatments might be due to enhanced photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and grain size, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. PMID:26995314

  4. Applications of Flow Cytometry to Characterize Bacterial Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Garduño, Jorge A.; Pedraza-Reyes, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Although reports of flow cytometry (FCM) applied to bacterial analysis are increasing, studies of FCM related to human cells still vastly outnumber other reports. However, current advances in FCM combined with a new generation of cellular reporter probes have made this technique suitable for analyzing physiological responses in bacteria. We review how FCM has been applied to characterize distinct physiological conditions in bacteria including responses to antibiotics and other cytotoxic chemicals and physical factors, pathogen-host interactions, cell differentiation during biofilm formation, and the mechanisms governing development pathways such as sporulation. Since FCM is suitable for performing studies at the single-cell level, we describe how this powerful technique has yielded invaluable information about the heterogeneous distribution of differently and even specialized responding cells and how it may help to provide insights about how cell interaction takes place in complex structures, such as those that prevail in bacterial biofilms. PMID:25276788

  5. Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response

    PubMed Central

    BERNAT, EDWARD; PATRICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; BENNING, STEPHEN D.; TELLEGEN, AUKE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of affective intensity and thematic content of foreground photographic stimuli on various physiological response systems. This was accomplished by assessing responses to pictures that varied systematically in these parameters. Along with overall effects of picture valence reported in previous work, we found effects of thematic content (i.e., specific nature of objects/events depicted) for all measures except heart rate. In addition, we found that the magnitude of startle blink, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle reactions increased with increasing affective intensity of pictures. Additionally, for these three measures, intensity effects also interacted with effects of picture content. These results indicate that stimulus parameters of intensity and thematic content exert separate—and in some cases interactive—modulatory effects on physiological reactions to emotional pictures. PMID:16629689

  6. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  7. Bordetella bronchiseptica responses to physiological reactive nitrogen and oxygen stresses

    PubMed Central

    Omsland, Anders; Miranda, Katrina M.; Friedman, Richard L.; Boitano, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica can establish prolonged airway infection consistent with a highly developed ability to evade mammalian host immune responses. Upon initial interaction with the host upper respiratory tract mucosa, B. bronchiseptica are subjected to antimicrobial reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), effector molecules of the innate immune system. However, the responses of B. bronchiseptica to redox species at physiologically relevant concentrations (nM-µM) have not been investigated. Using predicted physiological concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O2.−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) of B. bronchiseptica, all redox active species displayed dose-dependent antimicrobial activity. Susceptibility to individual redox active species was significantly increased upon introduction of a second species at sub-antimicrobial concentrations. An increased bacteriostatic activity of NO was observed relative to H2O2. The understanding of Bordetella responses to physiologically relevant levels of exogenous RNS and ROS will aid in defining the role of endogenous production of these molecules in host innate immunity against Bordetella and other respiratory pathogens. PMID:18462394

  8. Baby on board: do responses to stress in the maternal brain mediate adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    Stress and adverse environmental surroundings result in suboptimal conditions in a pregnant mother such that she may experience poor pregnancy outcome including complete pregnancy failure and preterm labor. Furthermore her developing baby is at risk of adverse programming, which confers susceptibility to long term ill health. While some mechanisms at the feto-maternal interface underlying these conditions are understood, the underlying cause for their adverse adaptation is often not clear. Progesterone plays a key role at many levels, including control of neuroendocrine responses to stress, procuring the required immune balance and controlling placental and decidual function, and lack of progesterone can explain many of the unwanted consequences of stress. How stress that is perceived by the mother inhibits progesterone secretion and action is beginning to be investigated. This overview of maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress throughout pregnancy analyses how they interact to compromise progesterone secretion and precipitate undesirable effects in mother and offspring. PMID:20546772

  9. Interpreting physiological responses to environmental change through gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Andrew Y

    2007-05-01

    Identification of differentially expressed genes in response to environmental change offers insights into the roles of the transcriptome in the regulation of physiological responses. A variety of methods are now available to implement large-scale gene expression screens, and each method has specific advantages and disadvantages. Construction of custom cDNA microarrays remains the most popular route to implement expression screens in the non-model organisms favored by comparative physiologists, and we highlight some factors that should be considered when embarking along this path. Using a carp cDNA microarray, we have undertaken a broad, system-wide gene expression screen to investigate the physiological mechanisms underlying cold and hypoxia acclimation. This dataset provides a starting point from which to explore a range of specific mechanistic hypotheses at all levels of organization, from individual biochemical pathways to the level of the whole organism. We demonstrate the utility of two data analysis methods, Gene Ontology profiling and rank-based statistical methods, to summarize the probable physiological function of acclimation-induced gene expression changes, and to prioritize specific genes as candidates for further study. PMID:17449823

  10. Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

  11. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  12. Perceptual and Physiological Responses to Jackson Pollock's Fractals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Richard P; Spehar, Branka; Van Donkelaar, Paul; Hagerhall, Caroline M

    2011-01-01

    Fractals have been very successful in quantifying the visual complexity exhibited by many natural patterns, and have captured the imagination of scientists and artists alike. Our research has shown that the poured patterns of the American abstract painter Jackson Pollock are also fractal. This discovery raises an intriguing possibility - are the visual characteristics of fractals responsible for the long-term appeal of Pollock's work? To address this question, we have conducted 10 years of scientific investigation of human response to fractals and here we present, for the first time, a review of this research that examines the inter-relationship between the various results. The investigations include eye tracking, visual preference, skin conductance, and EEG measurement techniques. We discuss the artistic implications of the positive perceptual and physiological responses to fractal patterns. PMID:21734876

  13. Nutritional implications and physiologic response to pediatric diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Santos, J I

    1986-01-01

    As depicted in Figure 1 acute diarrhea causes the host to undergo a sequence of hormonal, metabolic and immunologic responses, all of which have a nutritional cost. The impact will be more significant in the debilitated or marginally nourished child. From a nutritional point of view this process of nutrient loss and redistribution has the potential for being exploited to the benefit of the host. Two treatment techniques could be used to improve the host response to infection. Nutrients which are essential for optimal immune function and which are rapidly being metabolized may be selectively replaced, while nutrients that the offending organism needs may be withdrawn or temporarily withheld. A better understanding of the physiologic response and nutritional consequences of diarrhea should permit us to further improve the outcome of this and other infectious diseases. PMID:3945585

  14. Physiological responses to exercise at altitude : an update.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    Studies performed over the past decade have yielded new information related to the physiological and metabolic adjustments made in response to both short- and long-term high-altitude exposure. These investigations have examined the potential mechanisms responsible for the alterations observed in such key variables as heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, muscle blood flow, substrate utilization and mitochondrial function, both at rest and during exercise of varying intensities. Additionally, the occurrence and mechanisms related to the 'lactate paradox' continues to intrigue investigators. It is apparent that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a robust sympathoadrenal response that contributes to many of the critical adjustments and adaptations mentioned above. Furthermore, as some of these important physiological adaptations are known to enhance performance, it has become popular to incorporate an aspect of altitude living/training into the training regimens of endurance athletes (e.g. 'live high-train low'). Finally, it is important to note that many factors influence the extent to which individuals adjust and adapt to the stress imposed by exposure to high altitude. Included among these are (i) the degree of hypoxia; (ii) the duration of exposure to hypoxic conditions; (iii) the exercise intensity (absolute vs relative workload); and (iv) the inter-individual variability in adapting to hypoxic environments ('responders' vs 'non-responders'). PMID:18081363

  15. Contributions of Socialization of Coping to Physiological Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    The messages mothers communicate to their children about coping may play an important role in children’s emotional development by shaping children’s responses to stress. Building on prior research demonstrating associations between maternal socialization of coping (SOC) and children’s self-reported coping and emotional functioning (Abaied & Rudolph, 2010; 2011), we examined the contribution of SOC to children’s physiological responses to stress. Mothers completed a measure of SOC with peer victimization. Children (N = 118; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer victimization and participated in a laboratory social challenge task. Saliva samples were collected prior to and following the task and were assayed for alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that SOC contributed to sAA reactivity. Peer victimization predicted greater sAA reactivity when mothers made few engagement suggestions (orienting toward stress and associated emotions and cognitions) but not when mothers made many engagement suggestions. Mothers’ distress responses predicted greater sAA reactivity. These findings provide novel evidence that the messages parents communicate about coping have implications for children’s physiological reactivity to stress during middle childhood. PMID:26973351

  16. Ethnic Differences in Physiological Responses to Fear Conditioned Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Karen G.; Franco-Chaves, José A.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The idea that emotional expression varies with ethnicity is based largely on questionnaires and behavioral observations rather than physiological measures. We therefore compared the skin conductance responses (SCR) of Hispanic (Puerto Rican) and White non-Hispanic subjects in a fear conditioning and fear extinction task. Subjects were recruited from two sites: San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR), and Boston, Massachusetts (MA), using identical methods. A total of 78 healthy subjects (39 from PR, 39 from MA) were divided by sex and matched for age and educational level. Females from the two sites did not differ in their SCRs during any experimental phase of fear conditioning (habituation, conditioning, or extinction). In contrast, PR males responded significantly to the conditioned stimulus than MA males or PR females. Subtracting ethnic differences observed during the habituation phase (prior to conditioning) eliminated differences from subsequent phases, suggesting that PR males are elevated in their response to novelty rather than fear learning. Our findings suggest that, in addition to sex differences, there are ethnic differences in physiological responses to novel stimuli at least in males, which could be relevant for the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25501365

  17. Ethnic differences in physiological responses to fear conditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Karen G; Franco-Chaves, José A; Milad, Mohammed R; Quirk, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that emotional expression varies with ethnicity is based largely on questionnaires and behavioral observations rather than physiological measures. We therefore compared the skin conductance responses (SCR) of Hispanic (Puerto Rican) and White non-Hispanic subjects in a fear conditioning and fear extinction task. Subjects were recruited from two sites: San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR), and Boston, Massachusetts (MA), using identical methods. A total of 78 healthy subjects (39 from PR, 39 from MA) were divided by sex and matched for age and educational level. Females from the two sites did not differ in their SCRs during any experimental phase of fear conditioning (habituation, conditioning, or extinction). In contrast, PR males responded significantly to the conditioned stimulus than MA males or PR females. Subtracting ethnic differences observed during the habituation phase (prior to conditioning) eliminated differences from subsequent phases, suggesting that PR males are elevated in their response to novelty rather than fear learning. Our findings suggest that, in addition to sex differences, there are ethnic differences in physiological responses to novel stimuli at least in males, which could be relevant for the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25501365

  18. Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jonathan D

    2014-06-01

    Circadian rhythms act to optimise many aspects of our biology and thereby ensure that physiological processes are occurring at the most appropriate time. The importance of this temporal control is demonstrated by the strong associations between circadian disruption, morbidity and disease pathology. There is now a wealth of evidence linking the circadian timing system to metabolic physiology and nutrition. Relationships between these processes are often reciprocal, such that the circadian system drives temporal changes in metabolic pathways and changes in metabolic/nutritional status alter core molecular components of circadian rhythms. Examples of metabolic rhythms include daily changes in glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and postprandial response. Time of day alters lipid and glucose profiles following individual meals whereas, over a longer time scale, meal timing regulates adiposity and body weight; these changes may occur via the ability of timed feeding to synchronise local circadian rhythms in metabolically active tissues. Much of the work in this research field has utilised animal and cellular model systems. Although these studies are highly informative and persuasive, there is a largely unmet need to translate basic biological data to humans. The results of such translational studies may open up possibilities for using timed dietary manipulations to help restore circadian synchrony and downstream physiology. Given the large number of individuals with disrupted rhythms due to, for example, shift work, jet-lag, sleep disorders and blindness, such dietary manipulations could provide widespread improvements in health and also economic performance. PMID:24666537

  19. Physiological imaging of electrical trauma and therapeutic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Matthews, K.; Aarsvold, John N.; Mintzer, Robert A.; Yasillo, Nicholas J.; Hannig, Jurgen; Capelli-Schellpfefer, M.; Cooper, Malcolm; Lee, Raphael C.

    2000-04-01

    In victims of electrical trauma, electroporation of cell membrane, in which lipid bilayer is permeabilized by thermal and electrical forces, is thought to be a substantial cause of tissue damage. It has been suggested that certain mild surfactant in low concentration could induce sealing of permeabilized lipid bilayers, thus repairing cell membranes that had not been extensively damaged. With an animal model of electrically injured hind limb of rats, we have demonstrated and validated the use of radiotracer imaging technique to assess the physiology of the damaged tissues after electrical shock and of their repairs after applying surfactant as a therapeutic strategy. For example, using Tc-99m labeled pyrophosphate (PYP), which follows calcium in cellular function and is known to accumulate in damaged tissues, we have established a physiological imaging approach for assessment of the extent of tissue injury for diagnosis and surgical planning, as well as for evaluation of responses to therapy. With the use of a small, hand-held, miniature gamma camera, this physiological imaging method can be employed at patient's bedside and even in the field, for example, at accident site or during transfer for emergency care, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment in order to maximize the chance for tissue survival.

  20. Circadian rhythms of visual accommodation responses and physiological correlations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Williams, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Use of a recently developed servocontrolled infrared optometer to continuously record the state of monocular focus while subjects viewed a visual target for which the stimulus to focus was systematically varied. Calculated parameters form recorded data - e.g., speeds of accommodation to approaching and receding targets, magnitude of accommodation to step changes in target distance, and amplitude and phase lag of response to sinusoidally varying stimuli were submitted to periodicity analyses. Ear canal temperature (ECT) and heart rate (HR) rhythms were also recorded for physiological correlation with accommodation rhythms. HR demonstrated a 24-hr rhythm, but ECT data did not.

  1. Physiological responses of three marine microalgae exposed to cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Hui; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Yue, Wen-Jie; Li, Xin

    2012-10-01

    The effects of cypermethrin on physiological responses of three typical marine microalgal species Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyceae), Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae), and Chattonella marina (Raphidophyceae), were investigated by 96-h growth tests in a batch-culture system. The 96-h median inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) were 71.4, 205, and 191 μg L(-1) for S. costatum, S. trochoidea, and C. marina, respectively. Quick and significant physiological responses occurred when algal cells were exposed to cypermethrin, and all biochemical parameters varied significantly within 6- or 12-h exposure. Cypermethrin affected algal growth, protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by stimulation at low concentrations (1, 5 μg L(-1)) and inhibition at high concentrations (>50 μg L(-1)). A general increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level was observed in all test groups, which suggested that the toxic effects of cypermethrin were probably exerted through free radical generation. These results suggest that the activation of SOD and promotion of protein at early exposure are important to counteract the oxidative stress induced by cypermethrin, and the inactivation of SOD may be crucial to the growth inhibition of microalgae by cypermethrin. PMID:21374785

  2. Influence of Ergometer Design on Physiological Responses during Rowing.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J; Piponnier, E; Vincent, L; Samozino, P; Messonnier, L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses and rowing efficiency on 2 different rowing ergometers: stationary vs. dynamic ergometers manufactured by Concept2. 11 oarswomen and oarsmen rowed 4 min at 60% and 70% of peak power output on both ergometers (randomized order). Power output, stroke rate, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, lactate accumulation and rating of perceived exertion were recorded at each stage on the 2 ergometers. Gross and net efficiencies were computed. Exercise intensity was associated with increases in all parameters. Rowing on dynamic ergometer was associated with higher heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and stroke rate, concomitantly to lower blood lactate accumulation but also to lower gross and net efficiencies. The present study showed that rowing efficiency and blood lactate accumulation were lower on the Concept2 dynamic ergometer than on its stationary counterpart. If the use of the Concept2 dynamic ergometer may provide some advantages (reduced risk of injuries), its utilization requires a specific evaluation of physiological responses during an incremental exercise for an adapted management of training. PMID:26212249

  3. Condition-dependent physiological and behavioural responses to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Purser, Julia; Bruintjes, Rick; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic (man-made) noise, a global pollutant of international concern, is known to affect the physiology and behaviour of a range of organisms. However, experimental studies have tended to focus on trait means; intra-population variation in responses are likely, but have rarely been explored. Here we use established experimental methods to demonstrate a condition-dependent effect of additional noise. We show that juvenile European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in good condition do not respond differently to playbacks of ambient coastal noise and coastal noise with passing ships. By contrast, the additional noise of ship passes caused an increase in ventilation rate and a decrease in startling to a looming predatory stimulus in poor condition eels. Intra-population variation in responses to noise has important implications both for population dynamics and the planning of mitigation measures. PMID:26686756

  4. The fetal brain sparing response to hypoxia: physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Dino A

    2016-03-01

    How the fetus withstands an environment of reduced oxygenation during life in the womb has been a vibrant area of research since this field was introduced by Joseph Barcroft, a century ago. Studies spanning five decades have since used the chronically instrumented fetal sheep preparation to investigate the fetal compensatory responses to hypoxia. This defence is contingent on the fetal cardiovascular system, which in late gestation adopts strategies to decrease oxygen consumption and redistribute the cardiac output away from peripheral vascular beds and towards essential circulations, such as those perfusing the brain. The introduction of simultaneous measurement of blood flow in the fetal carotid and femoral circulations by ultrasonic transducers has permitted investigation of the dynamics of the fetal brain sparing response for the first time. Now we know that major components of fetal brain sparing during acute hypoxia are triggered exclusively by a carotid chemoreflex and that they are modified by endocrine agents and the recently discovered vascular oxidant tone. The latter is determined by the interaction between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. The fetal brain sparing response matures as the fetus approaches term, in association with the prepartum increase in fetal plasma cortisol, and treatment of the preterm fetus with clinically relevant doses of synthetic steroids mimics this maturation. Despite intense interest into how the fetal brain sparing response may be affected by adverse intrauterine conditions, this area of research has been comparatively scant, but it is likely to take centre stage in the near future. PMID:26496004

  5. Modeling physiological responses of soil microbes to drought (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Schimel, J.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical models predict soil carbon (C) under varying environmental conditions, aiming to disentangle the effects of predicted changes in temperature and moisture regimes on C storage. While much work focuses on temperature sensitivity of decomposition, relatively less is known about decomposer responses to changes in soil moisture. Heterotrophic respiration is known to decline as soils become drier, but the underlying physiological mechanisms are not clear and rarely accounted for in models. In particular, we ask: what are the effects of different drought response strategies on C storage potential and the shape of the respiration-moisture relation? We have developed a process-based model to address these questions, including the main physiological responses thought to play a role under varying moisture conditions: i) dormancy, ii) patterns of extra-cellular enzyme production, and iii) osmoregulation. We show that these different drought response strategies play a major role in the long-term partitioning of soil C among stable and labile pools. In very dry conditions, microbes shifting to dormant state tend to favor long-term (steady state) accumulation of stable C at the expenses of microbial biomass, while increasing investment in enzymes leads to accumulation of dissolved organic C, which in turn may partly overcome the diffusion limitations imposed by dry soils. In contrast, entering a dormant state early during a dry down allows microbes to save C by respiring less (due to lowered active biomass), avoid C starvation when substrate diffusion breaks down, and use available C for growth and maintenance rather than osmoregulation. Hence, this strategy explains why little osmolytes are found in microbial biomass subjected to experimental drought. We conclude by highlighting how our results can be implemented in Earth System Models without excessively increasing their complexity.

  6. Adverse health consequences of US Government responses to the 2001 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2011-09-01

    In response to the attacks on Sept 11, 2001 (9/11), and the related security concerns, the USA and its coalition partners began a war in Afghanistan and subsequently invaded Iraq. The wars caused many deaths of non-combatant civilians, further damaged the health-supporting infrastructure and the environment (already adversely affected by previous wars), forced many people to migrate, led to violations of human rights, and diverted resources away from important health needs. After 9/11 and the anthrax outbreak shortly afterwards, the USA and other countries have improved emergency preparedness and response capabilities, but these actions have often diverted attention and resources from more urgent health issues. The documentation and dissemination of information about the adverse health effects of these wars and about the diversion of resources could help to mitigate these consequences and prevent their recurrence. PMID:21890059

  7. Physiological responses of mules on prolonged exposure to high altitude (3 650 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riar, S. S.; Shankar Bhat, K.; Sen Gupta, J.

    1982-06-01

    Eight healthy male animals were inducted and kept for 2 1/2 years at 3 650 m altitude and subjected to normal work schedules. Physiological measurements viz. heart rate, blood pressure, minute ventilation, oxygen consumption, respiration rate, hemoglobin, packed cell haematocrit volume and eosinophil count were made on these animals at periodic intervals. On acute induction to an altitude of 3 650 m these animals demonstrated a sudden increase in tidal volume, a decrease in Rf and no change in VE, suggesting a decreased dead space/tidal volume ratio at altitude. However, all these changes stabilised within 3 weeks but on prolongation of stay, the physical state of these animals was adversely affected. The respiratory adjustments occurring on return to sea level appear to be a response to thermal stress. The initial increase in heart rate and blood pressure stabilised by the 2nd week.

  8. Proteomic and Physiological Responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to Copper

    PubMed Central

    Bagwell, Christopher E.; Hixson, Kim K.; Milliken, Charles E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K.

    2010-01-01

    Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal; consequently, transport of this metal within the cell is tightly regulated. Intriguingly, the actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans has been shown to not only accumulate soluble copper to high levels within the cytoplasm, but the phenotype also correlated with enhanced cell growth during chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. This study offers a first glimpse into the physiological and proteomic responses of K. radiotolerans to copper at increasing concentration and distinct growth phases. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations (0–1.5 mM) in complex medium. Copper uptake coincided with active cell growth and intracellular accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R2 = 0.7). Approximately 40% of protein coding ORFs on the K. radiotolerans genome were differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Interestingly, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase was repressed by low to moderate concentrations of copper during exponential growth, and activity was unresponsive to perturbation with paraquot. The biochemical response pathways invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations are exceptionally complex; though integral cellular functions are preserved, in part, through the coordination of defense enzymes, chaperones, antioxidants and protective osmolytes that likely help maintain cellular redox. This study extends our understanding of the ecology and physiology of this unique actinobacterium that could potentially inspire new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration. PMID:20865147

  9. Proteomic and physiological responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to copper.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, Christopher E; Hixson, Kim K; Milliken, Charles E; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K

    2010-01-01

    Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal; consequently, transport of this metal within the cell is tightly regulated. Intriguingly, the actinobacterium Kineococcus radiotolerans has been shown to not only accumulate soluble copper to high levels within the cytoplasm, but the phenotype also correlated with enhanced cell growth during chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. This study offers a first glimpse into the physiological and proteomic responses of K. radiotolerans to copper at increasing concentration and distinct growth phases. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations (0-1.5 mM) in complex medium. Copper uptake coincided with active cell growth and intracellular accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R(2)=0.7). Approximately 40% of protein coding ORFs on the K. radiotolerans genome were differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Interestingly, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase was repressed by low to moderate concentrations of copper during exponential growth, and activity was unresponsive to perturbation with paraquot. The biochemical response pathways invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations are exceptionally complex; though integral cellular functions are preserved, in part, through the coordination of defense enzymes, chaperones, antioxidants and protective osmolytes that likely help maintain cellular redox. This study extends our understanding of the ecology and physiology of this unique actinobacterium that could potentially inspire new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration. PMID:20865147

  10. Physiological and Pathological Responses to Head Rotations in Toddler Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nicole G.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Closed head injury is the leading cause of death in children less than 4 years of age, and is thought to be caused in part by rotational inertial motion of the brain. Injury patterns associated with inertial rotations are not well understood in the pediatric population. To characterize the physiological and pathological responses of the immature brain to inertial forces and their relationship to neurological development, toddler-age (4-week-old) piglets were subjected to a single non-impact head rotation at either low (31.6 ± 4.7 rad/sec2, n = 4) or moderate (61.0 ± 7.5 rad/sec2, n = 6) angular acceleration in the axial direction. Graded outcomes were observed for both physiological and histopathological responses such that increasing angular acceleration and velocity produced more severe responses. Unlike low-acceleration rotations, moderate-acceleration rotations produced marked EEG amplitude suppression immediately post-injury, which remained suppressed for the 6-h survival period. In addition, significantly more severe subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemia, and axonal injury by β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) were observed in moderate-acceleration animals than low-acceleration animals. When compared to infant-age (5-day-old) animals subjected to similar (54.1 ± 9.6 rad/sec2) acceleration rotations, 4-week-old moderate-acceleration animals sustained similar severities of subarachnoid hemorrhage and axonal injury at 6 h post-injury, despite the larger, softer brain in the older piglets. We conclude that the traditional mechanical engineering approach of scaling by brain mass and stiffness cannot explain the vulnerability of the infant brain to acceleration-deceleration movements, compared with the toddler. PMID:20560753

  11. Differential physiological responses to environmental change promote woody shrub expansion.

    PubMed

    Heskel, Mary; Greaves, Heather; Kornfeld, Ari; Gough, Laura; Atkin, Owen K; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaver, Gaius; Griffin, Kevin L

    2013-05-01

    Direct and indirect effects of warming are increasingly modifying the carbon-rich vegetation and soils of the Arctic tundra, with important implications for the terrestrial carbon cycle. Understanding the biological and environmental influences on the processes that regulate foliar carbon cycling in tundra species is essential for predicting the future terrestrial carbon balance in this region. To determine the effect of climate change impacts on gas exchange in tundra, we quantified foliar photosynthesis (A net), respiration in the dark and light (R D and R L, determined using the Kok method), photorespiration (PR), carbon gain efficiency (CGE, the ratio of photosynthetic CO2 uptake to total CO2 exchange of photosynthesis, PR, and respiration), and leaf traits of three dominant species - Betula nana, a woody shrub; Eriophorum vaginatum, a graminoid; and Rubus chamaemorus, a forb - grown under long-term warming and fertilization treatments since 1989 at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Under warming, B. nana exhibited the highest rates of A net and strongest light inhibition of respiration, increasing CGE nearly 50% compared with leaves grown in ambient conditions, which corresponded to a 52% increase in relative abundance. Gas exchange did not shift under fertilization in B. nana despite increases in leaf N and P and near-complete dominance at the community scale, suggesting a morphological rather than physiological response. Rubus chamaemorus, exhibited minimal shifts in foliar gas exchange, and responded similarly to B. nana under treatment conditions. By contrast, E. vaginatum, did not significantly alter its gas exchange physiology under treatments and exhibited dramatic decreases in relative cover (warming: -19.7%; fertilization: -79.7%; warming with fertilization: -91.1%). Our findings suggest a foliar physiological advantage in the woody shrub B. nana that is further mediated by warming and increased soil nutrient availability, which may facilitate shrub expansion and

  12. Differential physiological responses to environmental change promote woody shrub expansion

    PubMed Central

    Heskel, Mary; Greaves, Heather; Kornfeld, Ari; Gough, Laura; Atkin, Owen K; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaver, Gaius; Griffin, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of warming are increasingly modifying the carbon-rich vegetation and soils of the Arctic tundra, with important implications for the terrestrial carbon cycle. Understanding the biological and environmental influences on the processes that regulate foliar carbon cycling in tundra species is essential for predicting the future terrestrial carbon balance in this region. To determine the effect of climate change impacts on gas exchange in tundra, we quantified foliar photosynthesis (Anet), respiration in the dark and light (RD and RL, determined using the Kok method), photorespiration (PR), carbon gain efficiency (CGE, the ratio of photosynthetic CO2 uptake to total CO2 exchange of photosynthesis, PR, and respiration), and leaf traits of three dominant species – Betula nana, a woody shrub; Eriophorum vaginatum, a graminoid; and Rubus chamaemorus, a forb – grown under long-term warming and fertilization treatments since 1989 at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Under warming, B. nana exhibited the highest rates of Anet and strongest light inhibition of respiration, increasing CGE nearly 50% compared with leaves grown in ambient conditions, which corresponded to a 52% increase in relative abundance. Gas exchange did not shift under fertilization in B. nana despite increases in leaf N and P and near-complete dominance at the community scale, suggesting a morphological rather than physiological response. Rubus chamaemorus, exhibited minimal shifts in foliar gas exchange, and responded similarly to B. nana under treatment conditions. By contrast, E. vaginatum, did not significantly alter its gas exchange physiology under treatments and exhibited dramatic decreases in relative cover (warming: −19.7%; fertilization: −79.7%; warming with fertilization: −91.1%). Our findings suggest a foliar physiological advantage in the woody shrub B. nana that is further mediated by warming and increased soil nutrient availability, which may facilitate shrub

  13. Physiological responses of Houbara bustards to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B; LaCroix, Frédéric; Paillat, Patrick

    2002-02-01

    Desert birds often experience a scarcity of drinking water and food and must survive episodes of high ambient temperature (T(a)). The physiological mechanisms that promote survival during extended periods of high T(a) have received little attention. We investigated the physiological responses of wild-caught and captive-reared Houbara bustards, Chlamydotis macqueenii, to T(a) values ranging from below 0 degrees C to 55 degrees C, well above those in most previous studies of birds. Captive-reared Houbara bustards (mass 1245+/-242 g, N=7, mean +/- S.D.) in summer have a resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 261.4 kJ day(-1), 26 % below allometric predictions, and a total evaporative water loss (TEWL) at 25 degrees C of 25.8 g day(-1), 31 % below predictions. When T(a) exceeded body temperature (T(b)), the dry heat transfer coefficient decreased, a finding supporting the prediction that birds should minimize dry heat gain from the environment at high T(a) values. Houbara bustards withstand high T(a) values without becoming hyperthermic; at 45 degrees C, T(b) was on average 0.9 degrees C higher than at 25 degrees C. RMR and TEWL of captive-bred Houbara bustards were 23 % and 46 % higher in winter than in summer, respectively. Captive-reared Houbara bustards had a 17 % lower RMR and a 28 % lower TEWL than wild-born birds with similar genetic backgrounds. Differences in body composition between wild-caught and captive-reared birds were correlated with differences in physiological performance. PMID:11893764

  14. Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic(PBPK) Models Application to Screen Environmental Hazards Related to Adverse Outcome Pathways(AOPs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PBPK models are useful in estimating exposure levels based on in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) calculations. Linkage of large sets of chemically screened vitro signature effects to in vivo adverse outcomes using IVIVE is central to the concepts of toxicology in the 21st ...

  15. Cardiovascular recovery from psychological and physiological challenge and risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality

    PubMed Central

    Panaite, Vanessa; Salomon, Kristen; Jin, Alvin; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exaggerated cardiovascular (CV) reactivity to laboratory challenge has been shown to predict future CV morbidity and mortality. CV recovery, has been less studied, and has yielded inconsistent findings, possibly due to presence of moderators. Reviews on the relationship between CV recovery and CV outcomes have been limited to cross-sectional studies and have not considered methodological factors. We performed a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the prospective literature investigating CV recovery to physical and psychological challenge and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Methods We searched PsycINFO and PubMed for prospective studies investigating the relationship between CV recovery and adverse CV outcomes. Studies were coded for variables of interest and for effect sizes (ES). We conducted a random effects weighted meta-analysis. Moderators were examined with ANOVA-analog and meta-regression analyses. Results Thirty seven studies met inclusion criteria (N=125386). Impaired recovery from challenge predicted adverse cardiovascular outcomes (summary effect, r = .17, p < .001). Physical challenge was associated with larger predictive effects than psychological challenge. Moderator analyses revealed that recovery measured at 1 minute post-exercise, passive recovery, use of mortality as an outcome measure, and older sample age were associated with larger effects. Conclusions Poor recovery from laboratory challenges predicts adverse CV outcomes, with recovery from exercise serving as a particularly strong predictor of CV outcomes. The overall ES for recovery and CV outcomes is similar to that observed for CV reactivity and suggests that the study of recovery may have incremental value for understanding adverse CV outcomes. PMID:25829236

  16. Personality Correlates of Physiological Response to Stress Among Incarcerated Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Karnik, Niranjan S.; Popma, Arne; Blair, Robert James Richard; Khanzode, Leena; Miller, Samantha P.; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the relationship between personality type and physiological response to stress among juvenile delinquents. Methods Delinquent males (N=42, mean age 16.5, SD=1) recruited from a convenience sample at local juvenile detention facility were compared to a male control sample from a local high school (N=79; mean age 16.1, SD=0.8). All participants completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory and a Stress Inducing Speech Task while having heart rate measured. Results Delinquent youths showed significantly lower heart rates under both free association and stress conditions than controls (p<0.05) and a lower rate of increase during stressful stimuli (p<0.05). Among delinquents, those with a non-reactive personality type appeared to show consistently lower levels of physiological arousal as measured by heart rate. Conclusions Delinquents consistently had lower overall levels of arousal as measured by heart rate. In delinquent boys, we found a persistently low arousal group with a non-reactive psychological pattern. This combination may be a forerunner of future psychopathy or a product of the developmental trajectory that leads to and results from psychopathic behavior. PMID:18622978

  17. [Physiological responses of Gracilaria lemaneiformis to copper stress].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi-Feng; Zou, Ding-Hui; Jian, Jian-Bo; Chen, Wei-Zhou; Liu, Hui-Hui; Du, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Gracilaria lemaneiformis was exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 microg x L(-1) of Cu2+ to study its physiological responses to Cu2+ stress. When the Cu2+ concentration was > or = 50 microg x L(-1), the relative growth rate (RGR) of G. lemaneiformis decreased significantly, and the optimal quantum yield (Fv/Fm), the maximum relative electron transfer rate (rETRmax), and the relative electron transfer efficiency (alpha) exhibited the same variation trend, compared with the control. With the increase of Cu2+ concentration, the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax) and light saturation point (LSP) decreased significantly, light compensation point (LCP) had a significant increase, while chlorophyll a, carotenoid, and phycobiliprotein contents decreased after an initial increase. When the Cu2+ concentration reached 500 microg x L(-1), the chlorophyll a, carotenoid, and phycobiliprotein contents decreased significantly. It was suggested that G. lemaneiformis could tolerate low concentration Cu2+ stress, but its physiological activities were inhibited markedly when exposed to > or =50 microg x L(-1) of Cu2+. PMID:19795656

  18. Molecular and physiological responses of trees to waterlogging stress.

    PubMed

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    One major effect of global climate change will be altered precipitation patterns in many regions of the world. This will cause a higher probability of long-term waterlogging in winter/spring and flash floods in summer because of extreme rainfall events. Particularly, trees not adapted at their natural site to such waterlogging stress can be impaired. Despite the enormous economic, ecological and social importance of forest ecosystems, the effect of waterlogging on trees is far less understood than the effect on many crops or the model plant Arabidopsis. There is only a handful of studies available investigating the transcriptome and metabolome of waterlogged trees. Main physiological responses of trees to waterlogging include the stimulation of fermentative pathways and an accelerated glycolytic flux. Many energy-consuming, anabolic processes are slowed down to overcome the energy crisis mediated by waterlogging. A crucial feature of waterlogging tolerance is the steady supply of glycolysis with carbohydrates, particularly in the roots; stress-sensitive trees fail to maintain sufficient carbohydrate availability resulting in the dieback of the stressed tissues. The present review summarizes physiological and molecular features of waterlogging tolerance of trees; the focus is on carbon metabolism in both, leaves and roots of trees. PMID:24611781

  19. Physiological and genetic responses of bacteria to osmotic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, L N

    1989-01-01

    The capacity of organisms to respond to fluctuations in their osmotic environments is an important physiological process that determines their abilities to thrive in a variety of habitats. The primary response of bacteria to exposure to a high osmotic environment is the accumulation of certain solutes, K+, glutamate, trehalose, proline, and glycinebetaine, at concentrations that are proportional to the osmolarity of the medium. The supposed function of these solutes is to maintain the osmolarity of the cytoplasm at a value greater than the osmolarity of the medium and thus provide turgor pressure within the cells. Accumulation of these metabolites is accomplished by de novo synthesis or by uptake from the medium. Production of proteins that mediate accumulation or uptake of these metabolites is under osmotic control. This review is an account of the processes that mediate adaptation of bacteria to changes in their osmotic environment. PMID:2651863

  20. Physiologic Responsiveness Should Guide Entry into Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Goligher, Ewan C; Kavanagh, Brian P; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Ferguson, Niall D

    2015-12-15

    Most randomized trials in critical care report no mortality benefit; this may reflect competing pathogenic mechanisms, patient heterogeneity, or true ineffectiveness of interventions. We hypothesize that in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), randomizing only those patients who show a favorable physiological response to an intervention would help ensure that only those likely to benefit would be entered into the study. If true, this would decrease study "noise" and reduce required sample size, thereby increasing the chances of finding true-positive outcomes. It would also lessen the chances of exposing patients to treatments that are unlikely to help or that could cause harm. We present a reanalysis of randomized clinical trials of positive end-expiratory pressure in ARDS that support this hypothesis. PMID:25580530

  1. Psycho-physiological responses to expressive piano performance.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hidehiro; Furuya, Shinichi; Francis, Peter R; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined selected autonomic and cardio-respiratory responses of nine elite pianists during solo performances of the same single musical piece. The subjects performed the piece with and without self-perceived emotional expression, and with and without free ancillary body movements during expressive performance. Autonomic nervous system and cardio-respiratory parameters were continuously monitored during all experimental conditions. These parameters were heart rate (HR), sweating rate, the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD) of heart rate variability and respiratory measurements such as oxygen consumption (VO(2)), minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate. Kinematics of the trunk and arms were recorded during all conditions. The subjects also provided subjective rating of the emotions that they experienced during their performances for each experimental condition. Analysis revealed that expressive performance clearly produced higher levels of valence and arousal than the non-expressive condition. This observation is consistent with current embodiment theory. The expressive condition also had significantly higher levels of HR, sweating rate, minute ventilation, and tidal volume, and lower levels of RMSSD and respiratory rate than the non-expressive condition. No difference was found for VO(2) between these conditions. The expressive condition with ancillary body movements did not significantly differentiate any of the physiological measures except for respiratory rate from those observed without such body movements. These findings suggested that expressive musical performance could modulate the emotion-related autonomic and cardio-respiratory responses that are independent of the effect of physiological load due to expressive ancillary body movements in playing the selected music on the piano. PMID:20025907

  2. Proteomic and Physiological Responses of Kineococcus radiotolerans to Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, Christopher E.; Hixson, Kim K.; Milliken, Charles E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Weitz, Karl K.

    2010-08-26

    Copper is a highly reactive, toxic metal whose transport into the cell is tightly regulated. Kineococcus radiotolerans was previously shown to specifically accumulate soluble copper in the cytoplasm and cell growth was significantly enhanced by copper during chronic irradiation. This study provides a systematic investigation of copper accumulation, toxicity, and homeostasis in K. radiotolerans through combined physiological experimentation and quantitative shot-gun proteomics. Aerobic growth rates and biomass yields were similar over a range of Cu(II) concentrations, though intracellular metal accumulation was positively correlated with Cu(II) concentration in the growth medium (R2 = 0.7). Global proteomics analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the total number of response proteins and their abundance with copper concentration and culture age. Approximately 40% of the K. radiotolerans genome was differentially expressed in response to the copper treatments imposed. Copper accumulation coincided with increased abundance of proteins involved in oxidative stress and defense, DNA stabilization and repair, and protein turnover. Concomitant production of antioxidants and protective osmolytes signifies an important adaptation for maintenance of cellular redox; few known metal binding proteins were detected. This study offers a first glimpse into the complexity of coordinated biochemical response pathways in K. radiotolerans invoked by sub-lethal copper concentrations that may be pertinent for new biotechnologies in metal recovery and sequestration, and environmental restoration.

  3. Thermal stress and the physiological response to environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Leon, Lisa R

    2005-01-01

    Most toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in laboratory animals maintained under comfortable environmental conditions. Yet, the exposure to environmental toxicants as well as many drugs can occur under stressful environmental conditions during rest or while exercising. The intake and biological efficacy of many toxicants is exacerbated by exposure to heat stress, which can occur in several ways. The increase in pulmonary ventilation during exposure to hot environments results in an increase in the uptake of airborne toxicants. Furthermore, the transcutaneous absorption of pesticides on the skin as well as drugs delivered by skin patches is increased during heat stress because of the combined elevation in skin blood flow coupled with moist skin from sweat. The thermoregulatory response to toxicant exposure, such as hypothermia in relatively small rodents and fever in humans, also modulates the physiological response to most chemical agents. This paper endeavors to review the issue of environmental heat stress and exercise and how they influence thermoregulatory and related pathophysiological responses to environmental toxicants, as well as exposure to drugs. PMID:16422347

  4. Characterization of the physiological stress response in lingcod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milston, R.H.; Davis, M.W.; Parker, S.J.; Olla, B.L.; Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the duration and magnitude of the physiological stress response in lingcod Ophiodon elongatus after exposure to brief handling and sublethal air stressors. The response to these stressors was determined during a 24-h recovery period by measuring concentrations of plasma cortisol, lactate, glucose, sodium, and potassium. Lingcod were subjected to brief handling followed by either a 15-min or a 45-min air stressor in the laboratory. After the 15-min stressor, an increase in cortisol or glucose could not be detected until after 5 min of recovery. Peak concentrations were measured after 30 min for cortisol and after 60 min for glucose and lactate. Glucose and lactate had returned to basal levels after 12 h, whereas cortisol did not return to basal levels until after 24 h of recovery. Immediately following a 45-min air stressor, all measured parameters were significantly elevated over levels in prestressor control fish. Cortisol concentrations tended to increase and reached a measured peak after 8 h of recovery, whereas glucose and lactate reached a measured peak after 1 h of recovery. Cortisol and lactate returned to basal levels within 24 h. Glucose, however, remained elevated even after 24 h of recovery. Plasma ions initially increased during the first hour of recovery, and the concentrations then declined to a level below that measured in control fish for the remainder of the 24-h recovery period. In addition, we evaluated the effect of fish size on the stress response. There was no significant difference between the stress response of smaller (41-49-cm [total length] and larger (50-67-cm) lingcod after 45 min air exposure. In general, both the magnitude and duration of the primary and secondary stress responses in lingcod are comparable to those of salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  5. Management of immune-related adverse events and kinetics of response with ipilimumab.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jeffrey S; Kähler, Katharina C; Hauschild, Axel

    2012-07-20

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against the immune checkpoint protein cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4; CD152)-ipilimumab and tremelimumab-have been investigated in metastatic melanoma and other cancers and have shown promising results. Recently, ipilimumab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. We review the literature on managing the adverse effects and kinetics of tumor regression with ipilimumab and provide guidelines on their management. During treatment with these antibodies, a unique set of adverse effects may occur, called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These include rashes, which may rarely progress to life-threatening toxic epidermal necrolysis, and colitis, characterized by a mild to moderate, but occasionally also severe and persistent diarrhea. Hypophysitis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, iridocyclitis, lymphadenopathy, neuropathies, and nephritis have also been reported with ipilimumab. Early recognition of irAEs and initiation of treatment are critical to reduce the risk of sequelae. Interestingly, irAEs correlated with treatment response in some studies. Unique kinetics of response have been observed with CTLA-4 blockade with at least four patterns: (1) response in baseline lesions by week 12, with no new lesions seen; (2) stable disease, followed by a slow, steady decline in total tumor burden; (3) regression of tumor after initial increase in total tumor burden; and (4) reduction in total tumor burden during or after the appearance of new lesion(s) after week 12. We provide a detailed description of irAEs and recommendations for practicing oncologists who are managing them, along with the unusual kinetics of response associated with ipilimumab therapy. PMID:22614989

  6. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during indoor rock climbing.

    PubMed Central

    Mermier, C M; Robergs, R A; McMinn, S M; Heyward, V H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report the physiological responses of indoor rock climbing. METHODS: Fourteen experienced climbers (nine men, five women) performed three climbing trials on an indoor climbing wall. Subjects performed three trials of increasing difficulty: (a) an easy 90 degrees vertical wall, (b) a moderately difficult negatively angled wall (106 degrees), and (c) a difficult horizontal overhang (151 degrees). At least 15 minutes separated each trial. Expired air was collected in a Douglas bag after four minutes of climbing and heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a telemetry unit. Arterialised blood samples were obtained from a hyperaemised ear lobe at rest and one or two minutes after each trial for measurement of blood lactate. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between trials for HR, lactate, oxygen consumption (VO2), and energy expenditure, but not for respiratory exchange ratio. Analysis of the HR and VO2 responses indicated that rock climbing does not elicit the traditional linear HR-VO2 relationship characteristic of treadmill and cycle ergometry exercise. During the three trials, HR increased to 74-85% of predicted maximal values and energy expenditure was similar to that reported for running at a moderate pace (8-11 minutes per mile). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that indoor rock climbing is a good activity to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance. In addition, the traditional HR-VO2 relationship should not be used in the analysis of this sport, or for prescribing exercise intensity for climbing. PMID:9298558

  7. Physiological and perceptual responses to Latin partnered social dance.

    PubMed

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Easton, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and perceptual responses to Latin partnered social dance to salsa music when performed as a self-selected activity within an ecologically valid setting. Eighteen non-professional adult Latin dancers undertook a laboratory-based graded exercise test for determination of maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate. The dancers then attended two Latin partnered social dance sessions in established salsa venues in London, UK over a 2 wk period. Physiological data were collected using a wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometer with accompanying heart rate monitor. Perceived benefits of dance were assessed via the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale, and measurement of state intrinsic motivation during dance was undertaken using the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. Total step count during 2h of dance was not different (t16 = -.39, p = .71) between females and males (9643 ± 1735 step); however, women expended a significantly lower (t16 = -2.57, p < .05) total energy expenditure when compared to men (479 ± 125 versus 651 ± 159 kcal). Dancers of both genders considered interest-enjoyment to be the motivator of primary importance. The highest rated perceived benefit of dance was psychological outlook. Latin partnered social dance to salsa music demands moderate to vigorous physical activity intensity levels, and further, fosters interest, enjoyment, and a positive psychological outlook among novice to advanced adult Latin dancers taking part primarily for leisure purposes. These findings may be of use for those interested in the efficacy of Latin social dancing as an expressive medium for the promotion of community health. PMID:25058624

  8. Ethephon induced abscission in mango: physiological fruitlet responses.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Michael H; Winterhagen, Patrick; Hegele, Martin; Wünsche, Jens N

    2015-01-01

    Fruitlet abscission of mango is typically very severe, causing considerable production losses worldwide. Consequently, a detailed physiological and molecular characterization of fruitlet abscission in mango is required to describe the onset and time-dependent course of this process. To identify the underlying key mechanisms of abscission, ethephon, an ethylene releasing substance, was applied at two concentrations (600 and 7200 ppm) during the midseason drop stage of mango. The abscission process is triggered by ethylene diffusing to the abscission zone where it binds to specific receptors and thereby activating several key physiological responses at the cellular level. The treatments reduced significantly the capacity of polar auxin transport through the pedicel at 1 day after treatment and thereafter when compared to untreated pedicels. The transcript levels of the ethylene receptor genes MiETR1 and MiERS1 were significantly upregulated in the pedicel and pericarp at 1, 2, and 3 days after the ethephon application with 7200 ppm, except for MiETR1 in the pedicel, when compared to untreated fruitlet. In contrast, ethephon applications with 600 ppm did not affect expression levels of MiETR1 in the pedicel and of MiERS1 in the pericarp; however, MiETR1 in the pericarp at day 2 and MiERS1 in the pedicel at days 2 and 3 were significantly upregulated over the controls. Moreover, two novel short versions of the MiERS1 were identified and detected more often in the pedicel of treated than untreated fruitlets at all sampling times. Sucrose concentration in the fruitlet pericarp was significantly reduced to the control at 2 days after both ethephon treatments. In conclusion, it is postulated that the ethephon-induced abscission process commences with a reduction of the polar auxin transport capacity in the pedicel, followed by an upregulation of ethylene receptors and finally a decrease of the sucrose concentration in the fruitlets. PMID:26442021

  9. Ethephon induced abscission in mango: physiological fruitlet responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Michael H.; Winterhagen, Patrick; Hegele, Martin; Wünsche, Jens N.

    2015-01-01

    Fruitlet abscission of mango is typically very severe, causing considerable production losses worldwide. Consequently, a detailed physiological and molecular characterization of fruitlet abscission in mango is required to describe the onset and time-dependent course of this process. To identify the underlying key mechanisms of abscission, ethephon, an ethylene releasing substance, was applied at two concentrations (600 and 7200 ppm) during the midseason drop stage of mango. The abscission process is triggered by ethylene diffusing to the abscission zone where it binds to specific receptors and thereby activating several key physiological responses at the cellular level. The treatments reduced significantly the capacity of polar auxin transport through the pedicel at 1 day after treatment and thereafter when compared to untreated pedicels. The transcript levels of the ethylene receptor genes MiETR1 and MiERS1 were significantly upregulated in the pedicel and pericarp at 1, 2, and 3 days after the ethephon application with 7200 ppm, except for MiETR1 in the pedicel, when compared to untreated fruitlet. In contrast, ethephon applications with 600 ppm did not affect expression levels of MiETR1 in the pedicel and of MiERS1 in the pericarp; however, MiETR1 in the pericarp at day 2 and MiERS1 in the pedicel at days 2 and 3 were significantly upregulated over the controls. Moreover, two novel short versions of the MiERS1 were identified and detected more often in the pedicel of treated than untreated fruitlets at all sampling times. Sucrose concentration in the fruitlet pericarp was significantly reduced to the control at 2 days after both ethephon treatments. In conclusion, it is postulated that the ethephon-induced abscission process commences with a reduction of the polar auxin transport capacity in the pedicel, followed by an upregulation of ethylene receptors and finally a decrease of the sucrose concentration in the fruitlets. PMID:26442021

  10. Adverse events to monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy: Focus on hypersensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A

    2013-10-01

    Fifteen monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently registered and approved for the treatment of a range of different cancers. These mAbs are specific for a limited number of targets (9 in all). Four of these molecules are indeed directed against the B-lymphocyte antigen CD20; 3 against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ErbB2), 2 against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and 1 each against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD30, CD52, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 11 (TNFSF11, best known as RANKL), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4). Collectively, the mAbs provoke a wide variety of systemic and cutaneous adverse events including the full range of true hypersensitivities: Type I immediate reactions (anaphylaxis, urticaria); Type II reactions (immune thrombocytopenia, neutopenia, hemolytic anemia); Type III responses (vasculitis, serum sickness; some pulmonary adverse events); and Type IV delayed mucocutaneous reactions as well as infusion reactions/cytokine release syndrome (IRs/CRS), tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and cardiac events. Although the term "hypersensitivity" is widely used, no common definition has been adopted within and between disciplines and the requirement of an immunological basis for a true hypersensitivity reaction is sometimes overlooked. Consequently, some drug-induced adverse events are sometimes incorrectly described as "hypersensitivities" while others that should be described are not. PMID:24251081

  11. 41 CFR 102-78.40 - What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... guidance on the protection of historic and cultural properties in 36 CFR part 800. ... Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a historic or cultural property? 102-78.40...-78.40 What responsibilities do Federal agencies have when an undertaking adversely affects a...

  12. Effect of Tributyltin, Cadmium, and Their Combination on Physiological Responses in Juvenile Grass Carp.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wei-Na; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and cadmium (Cd) are two common pollutants in aquatic environments. This study was designed to examine the physiological responses of juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to TBT, Cd, and their combination. Fish were apportioned into a control group, a TBT group (7.5 μg/L), a Cd group (2.97 mg/L), and a TBT-Cd group (7.5 μg/L TBT, 2.97 mg/L Cd(2+)) for 7 d. The following activities were measured: Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in gill tissues; nitric oxide synthase (NOS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in brain tissues; and lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues. Cadmium-induced stress was suggested by alterations in antioxidant responses (MDA, LPO, and T-AOC) and neurological parameters (AChE, MAO, and NOS). Cadmium also induced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and GSH activity. Compared with the responses among the Cd group, the combination of TBT and Cd not only decreased the level of GSH and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase but also increased the levels of MDA, LPO, AChE, MAO, and NOS. These results suggest that a combination of TBT and Cd could reduce the adverse effects of Cd on Grass Carp. However, the exact mechanisms for the combined effects TBT and Cd on these biomarkers require further investigation. Received September 28, 2015; accepted April 17, 2016. PMID:27484920

  13. Analysis of the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Dunaliella salina to Macronutrient Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hexin; Cui, Xianggan; Wahid, Fazli; Xia, Feng; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    The halotolerant chlorophyte Dunaliella salina can accumulate up to 10% of its dry weight as β-carotene in chloroplasts when subjected to adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation. However, the mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, the physiological and molecular responses to the deprivation of nitrogen (-N), sulfur (-S), phosphorus (-P) and different combinations of those nutrients (-N-P, -N-S, -P-S and -N-P-S) were compared to gain insights into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that both the growth and photosynthetic rates of cells were decreased during nutrient deprivation, accompanied by lipid globule accumulation and reduced chlorophyll levels. The SOD and CAT activities of the cells were altered during nutrient deprivation, but their responses were different. The total carotenoid contents of cells subjected to multiple nutrient deprivation were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation and non-stressed cells. The β-carotene contents of cells subjected to -N-P, -N-S and -N-P-S were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation. Cells subjected to sulfur deprivation accumulated more lutein than cells subjected to nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation. In contrast, no cumulative effects of nutrient deprivation on the transcription of genes in the carotenogenic pathway were observed because MEP and carotenogenic pathway genes were up-regulated during single nutrient deprivation but were downregulated during multiple nutrient deprivation. Therefore, we proposed that the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of D. salina is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that a complex crosstalk occurs at the physiological and molecular levels in response to the deprivation of different nutrients. PMID:27023397

  14. Analysis of the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Dunaliella salina to Macronutrient Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hexin; Cui, Xianggan; Wahid, Fazli; Xia, Feng; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    The halotolerant chlorophyte Dunaliella salina can accumulate up to 10% of its dry weight as β-carotene in chloroplasts when subjected to adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation. However, the mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, the physiological and molecular responses to the deprivation of nitrogen (-N), sulfur (-S), phosphorus (-P) and different combinations of those nutrients (-N-P, -N-S, -P-S and -N-P-S) were compared to gain insights into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that both the growth and photosynthetic rates of cells were decreased during nutrient deprivation, accompanied by lipid globule accumulation and reduced chlorophyll levels. The SOD and CAT activities of the cells were altered during nutrient deprivation, but their responses were different. The total carotenoid contents of cells subjected to multiple nutrient deprivation were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation and non-stressed cells. The β-carotene contents of cells subjected to -N-P, -N-S and -N-P-S were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation. Cells subjected to sulfur deprivation accumulated more lutein than cells subjected to nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation. In contrast, no cumulative effects of nutrient deprivation on the transcription of genes in the carotenogenic pathway were observed because MEP and carotenogenic pathway genes were up-regulated during single nutrient deprivation but were downregulated during multiple nutrient deprivation. Therefore, we proposed that the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of D. salina is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that a complex crosstalk occurs at the physiological and molecular levels in response to the deprivation of different nutrients. PMID:27023397

  15. Physiological responses in potato plants under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    The physiological responses of four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars to continuous irradiation were determined in a controlled environment. Under a constant 18C and a constant photoperiod of 470 micromoles s-1 m-2 of photosynthetic photon flux, 'Denali' and 'Haig' grew well and produced large plant and tuber dry weights when harvested 56 days after transplanting. 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' were severely stunted, producing only 10% of the plant dry matter produced by 'Denali' and 'Haig'. The differences in leaf chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance were not consistent between these two groups of cultivars. The leaf net CO2 assimilation rates in 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' were lower, and intercellular CO2 partial pressures were higher than in 'Denali' and 'Haig'. These results indicate that inhibition of net CO2 assimilation in 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' was not due to a limiting amount of chlorophyll or to CO2 in the leaf tissues. Concentrations of starch in leaflets of 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' plants were only 10% of those in 'Denali' and 'Haig' plants, although soluble sugar concentrations were similar in the four cultivars. Therefore, the lower net CO2 assimilation rates in stunted 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' plants were not associated with an excess carbohydrate accumulation in the leaves.

  16. Relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup and physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Egashira, Yuka; Kishida, Fumi; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between mtDNA polymorphism and physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia. The study included 28 healthy male students, consisting of 18 students in haplogroup D and 10 in haplogroup M7+G. Measurement sensors were attached to the participants for approximately 30 min in an environment with a temperature of 28 °C. After resting for 15 min, the programmed operation of the hypobaric chamber decreased the atmospheric pressure by 11.9 Torr every minute to simulate an increase in altitude of 150 m until 9.7 Torr (equivalent to 2500 m) and then decreased 9.7 Torr every minute until 465 Torr (equivalent to 4000 m). At each altitude, the pressure was maintained for 15 min and various measurements were taken. Haplogroup D showed higher SpO2 (p < 0.05) and significantly higher SpO2 during the pressure recovery period when compared with haplogroup M7+G. The distal skin temperature was higher in haplogroup D when compared with M7+G. These results suggested that haplogroup D maintained SpO2 at a higher level with higher peripheral blood flow during acute hypobaric exposure. PMID:27130215

  17. Effect of pedalling rates on physiological response during endurance cycling.

    PubMed

    Lepers, R; Millet, G Y; Maffiuletti, N A; Hausswirth, C; Brisswalter, J

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of different pedalling cadences upon various physiological responses during endurance cycling exercise. Eight well-trained triathletes cycled three times for 30 min each at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their maximal aerobic power output. The first test was performed at a freely chosen cadence (FCC); two others at FCC - 20% and FCC + 20%, which corresponded approximately to the range of cadences habitually used by road racing cyclists. The mean (SD) FCC, FCC - 20% and FCC + 20% were equal to 86 (4), 69 (3) and 103 (5) rpm respectively. Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), minute ventilation (VE) and respiratory exchange ratio (R) were analysed during three periods: between the 4th and 5th, 14th and 15th, and 29th and 30th min. A significant effect of time (P < 0.01) was found at the three cadences for HR, VO2. The VE and R were significantly (P < 0.05) greater at FCC + 20% compared to FCC - 20% at the 5th and 15th min but not at the 30th min. Nevertheless, no significant effect of cadence was observed in HR and VO2. These results suggest that, during high intensity exercise such as that encountered during a time-trial race, well-trained triathletes can easily adapt to the changes in cadence allowed by the classical gear ratios used in practice. PMID:11560096

  18. [Physiological responses of tubificidae to heavy metal chromium stress].

    PubMed

    Lou, Ju-Qing; Yang, Dong-Ye; Cao, Yong-Qing; Sun, Pei-De; Zheng, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Tubificidae is now used in the wastewater treatment systems to successfully minimize the sludge production, which has been proved an effective, economical and sustainable technology. But the excess sludge inevitably contains a variety of heavy metals, especially the sludge from industrial wastewater treatment plant. In order to apply tubificidae to these systems, Chromium was selected as pollutant object and the physiological responses of tubificidae to Chromium were studied in this paper. Acute toxicity was analyzed and Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined over 96 h periods for Cr. Results indicated that 24 h LC50 and 96 h LC50 were 7.94 mg x L(-1) and 0.49 mg x L(-1), respectively. The duration f tubificidae in Cr solution decreased with increasing Cr concentration. Under the Cr stress, a highest respiration rate was obtained when the concentration of Cr(VI), temperature, pH and DO was 2.50 mg x L(-1), 26 degrees C, 6.0 and 6.0 mg x L(-1), respectively. The order of these factors was the concerntration of Cr(VI), temperature, DO and pH. The respiration experiments demonstrated that low concentration (< 2.50 mg x L(-1)) of Cr could promote the respiration rate of tubificidaes. On the other hand, when the concentration of Cr was 8.00 mg x L(-1), it could remarkably inhibit the respiratory rates of tubificidae. PMID:25639096

  19. Physiological and Perceived Exertion Responses during International Karate Kumite Competition

    PubMed Central

    Tabben, Montassar; Sioud, Rim; Haddad, Monoem; Franchini, Emerson; Chaouachi, Anis; Coquart, Jeremy; Chaabane, Helmi; Chamari, Karim; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Investigate the physiological responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elite karate athletes and examine the relationship between a subjective method (Session-RPE) and two objective heart-rate (HR)-based methods to quantify training-load (TL) during international karate competition. Methods Eleven karatekas took part in this study, but only data from seven athletes who completed three matches in an international tournament were used (four men and three women). The duration of combat was 3 min for men and 2 min for women, with 33.6±7.6 min for the first interval period (match 1–2) and 14.5±3.1 min for the second interval period (match 2–3). HR was continuously recorded during each combat. Blood lactate [La-] and (RPE) were measured just before the first match and immediately after each match. Results Means total fights time, HR, %HRmax, [La-], and session-RPE were 4.7±1.6 min, 182±9 bpm, 91±3%, 9.02±2.12 mmol.L-1 and 4.2±1.2, respectively. No significant differences in %HRmax, [La-], and RPE were noticed across combats. Significant correlations were observed between RPE and both resting HR (r=0.60; P=0.004) and mean HR (r=0.64; P=0.02), session-RPE and Banister training-impulse (TRIMP) (r=0.84; P<0.001) and Edwards TL (r=0.77; P<0.01). Conclusion International karate competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses and high [La-]. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate the zone between 90 and 100% HRmax. Karate coaches could use the RPE-method to follow competitor's competition loads and consider it in their technical and tactical training. PMID:24800001

  20. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. PMID:26267512

  1. Physiological response to submaximal isometric contractions of the paravertebral muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. R.; Jorgensen, K.; Hargens, A. R.; Nielsen, P. K.; Nicolaisen, T.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Brief (30-second) isometric trunk extensions at 5%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 3 minutes of prolonged trunk extension (20% MVC) in erect position were studied in nine healthy male subjects. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the intercorrelation between intramuscular pressure and tissue oxygenation of the paravertebral muscles during submaximal isometric contractions and further, to evaluate paravertebral electromyogram and intramuscular pressure as indicators of force development. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Local physiologic responses to muscle contraction are incompletely understood. METHODS: Relative oxygenation was monitored with noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy, intramuscular pressure was measured with a transducer-tipped catheter, and surface electromyogram was monitored at three recording sites. RESULTS: The root mean square amplitudes of the paravertebral electromyogram (L4, left and right; T12, right) and intramuscular pressure measured in the lumbar multifidus muscle at L4 increased with greater force development in a curvilinear manner. A significant decrease in the oxygenation of the lumbar paravertebral muscle in response to muscle contraction was found at an initial contraction level of 20% MVC. This corresponded to a paravertebral intramuscular pressure of 30-40 mm Hg. However, during prolonged trunk extension, no further decrease in tissue oxygenation was found compared with the tissue oxygenation level at the end of the brief contractions, indicating that homeostatic adjustments (mean blood pressure and heart rate) over time were sufficient to maintain paravertebral muscle oxygen levels. CONCLUSION: At a threshold intramuscular pressure of 30-40 mm Hg during muscle contraction, oxygenation in the paravertebral muscles is significantly reduced. The effect of further increase in intramuscular pressure on tissue oxygenation over time may be compensated for by an increase in blood pressure and heart

  2. Physiologic Responses Produced by Active and Passive Personal Cooling Vests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Luna, Bernadette

    2000-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to document and compare the subjects' response to three cooling vests in their recommended configurations. The Life Enhancement Tech (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems Change of Phase garment (MCS), and the Steele Vest were each used to cool the chest regions of 12 male and 8 female Healthy subjects (21 to 69 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx. 22 C), were tested for 60 min. with one of the cooling garments. The LET active garment had an initial coolant fluid inlet temperature of 60 F, and was ramped down to 50 F. Oral, right and left ear canal temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. For men, all three vests had similar, significant cooling effects. Decreases in the average rectal temperature, oral temperature, and ear canal temperatures were approximately 0.2 C, 0.2 C and 0.1 C, respectively. In contrast to the men, the female subjects wearing the MCS and Steel vests had similar cooling responses in which the core temperature remained elevated and oral and ear canal temperatures did not drop. The LET active garment cooled most of the female subjects in this study; rectal, oral and ear temperature decreased about 0.2 C, 0.3 C and 0.3 C, respectively. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all subjects. A gender difference is evident. The LET active garment configuration was most effective in decreasing temperatures of the female subjects; the MCS

  3. History of Childhood Adversity is Positively Associated with Ventral Striatal Dopamine Responses to Amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Lynn M.; Wand, Gary S.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F.; Zhu, Shijun; Brasic, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood exposure to severe or chronic trauma is an important risk factor for the later development of adult mental health problems, such as substance abuse. Even in nonclinical samples of healthy adults, persons with a history of significant childhood adversity seem to experience greater psychological distress than those without this history. Evidence from rodent studies suggests that early life stress may impair dopamine function in ways that increase risks for drug abuse. However, the degree to which these findings translate to other species remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine associations between childhood adversity and dopamine and subjective responses to amphetamine in humans. Following intake assessment, 28 healthy male and female adults, ages 18–29 years, underwent two consecutive 90-minute positron emission tomography (PET) studies with high specific activity [11C]raclopride. The first scan was preceded by intravenous saline; the second by amphetamine (AMPH 0.3 mg/kg). Consistent with prior literature, findings showed positive associations between childhood trauma and current levels of perceived stress. Moreover, greater number of traumatic events and higher levels of perceived stress were each associated with higher ventral striatal dopamine responses to AMPH. Findings of mediation analyses further showed that a portion of the relationship between childhood trauma and dopamine release may be mediated by perceived stress. Overall, results are consistent with preclinical findings suggesting that early trauma may lead to enhanced sensitivity to psychostimulants and that this mechanism may underlie increased vulnerability for drug abuse. PMID:24448898

  4. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.

    1972-01-01

    The research is reported for establishing physiological base line data, and for developing procedures and instrumentation necessary for the automatic measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The work in the following areas is discussed: biochemistry, bioinstrumentation, nutrition, physiology, experimental surgery, and animal colony.

  5. Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

  6. Stressed out? Associations between perceived and physiological stress responses in adolescents: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan; Bosch, Nienke M; Bouma, Esther M C; Van Roon, Arie M; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Riese, Harriëtte

    2011-04-01

    Studies regarding the interrelation of perceived and physiological stress indices have shown diverging results. Using a population sample of adolescents (N=715, 50.9% girls, mean age 16.11 years, SD=0.59), we tested three hypotheses: (1) perceived responses during social stress covary with concurrent physiological stress responses; (2) high pretest levels of perceived stress predict large physiological responses; and (3) large physiological responses to social stress predict low posttest perceived stress levels. Perceived arousal, unpleasantness, and dominance were related to heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and cortisol responses to a laboratory social stress test. Although effect sizes were small, the results suggest covariation of perceived stress and concurrent physiological stress responses in both the ANS and the HPA axis, as well as inverse associations between heart rate responsiveness and the subsequent appraisal of stress. PMID:21361964

  7. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these

  8. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Adults: Physiological Benefits, Indication, Clinical Benefits, and Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2016-04-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is carried out using an air/oxygen blender, active humidifier, single heated tube, and nasal cannula. Able to deliver adequately heated and humidified medical gas at flows up to 60 L/min, it is considered to have a number of physiological advantages compared with other standard oxygen therapies, including reduced anatomical dead space, PEEP, constant FIO2 , and good humidification. Although few large randomized clinical trials have been performed, HFNC has been gaining attention as an alternative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Published data are mostly available for neonates. For critically ill adults, however, evidence is uneven because the reports cover various subjects with diverse underlying conditions, such as hypoxemic respiratory failure, exacerbation of COPD, postextubation, preintubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, and conditions entailing do-not-intubate orders. Even so, across the diversity, many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces the need for respiratory support escalation. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as definitive indications for HFNC and criteria for timing the starting and stopping of HFNC and for escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC has emerged as an innovative and effective modality for early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases. PMID:27016353

  9. Physiological and psychological responses to outdoor vs. laboratory cycling.

    PubMed

    Mieras, Molly E; Heesch, Matthew W S; Slivka, Dustin R

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological and psychological responses to laboratory vs. outdoor cycling. Twelve recreationally trained male cyclists participated in an initial descriptive testing session and 2 experimental trials consisting of 1 laboratory and 1 outdoor session, in a randomized order. Participants were given a standardized statement instructing them to give the same perceived effort for both the laboratory and outdoor 40-km trials. Variables measured include power output, heart rate (HR), core temperature, skin temperature, body weight, urine specific gravity (USG), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), attentional focus, and environmental conditions. Wind speed was higher in the outdoor trial than in the laboratory trial (2.5 ± 0.6 vs. 0.0 ± 0.0 m·s-1, p = 0.02) whereas all other environmental conditions were similar. Power output (208.1 ± 10.2 vs. 163.4 ± 11.8 W, respectively, p < 0.001) and HR (152 ± 4 and 143 ± 6 b·min-1, respectively, p = 0.04) were higher in the outdoor trial than in the laboratory trial. Core temperature was similar, whereas skin temperature was cooler during the outdoor trial than during the laboratory trial (31.4 ± 0.3 vs. 33.0 ± 0.2° C, respectively, p < 0.001), thus creating a larger thermal gradient between the core and skin outdoors. No significant differences in body weight, USG, RPE, or attentional focus were observed between trials. These data indicate that outdoor cycling allows cyclists to exercise at a higher intensity than in laboratory cycling, despite similar environmental conditions and perceived exertion. In light of this, cyclists may want to ride at a higher perceived exertion in indoor settings to acquire the same benefit as they would from an outdoor ride. PMID:24476776

  10. Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K+ Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na+ retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na+ removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat. PMID:25074914

  11. Physiological responses of heat-stressed broilers fed nicarbazin.

    PubMed

    Beers, K W; Raup, T J; Bottje, W G; Odom, T W

    1989-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine physiological responses in heat-stressed broilers fed a control diet or one containing 125 ppm Nicarbazin. Male birds were surgically implanted with a carotid catheter and fitted with a chest movement transducer and rectal probe. In Experiment 1, birds were exposed to an abrupt change from thermoneutral (22.5 C, 70% relative humidity [RH]) to heat stress (37 C and 40 to 50% RH) conditions within 10 min and maintained in this environment for 120 min. In Experiment 2, birds were exposed to a gradual change from thermoneutral to heat stress (38 C, 68% RH) conditions over 4 h and maintained in this environment for an additional 1 h. Heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), and body temperature (Tb) were monitored throughout each experiment, and arterial samples were obtained for determination of acid-base balance and lactate. Birds fed Nicarbazin had higher (P less than .05) Tb and lower (P less than .05) blood PCO2 and bicarbonate during heat stress than controls in both experiments. Thermal polypnea was observed in both experiments, but, although there were no treatment differences in Experiment 1, RR was lower (P less than .05) in the last hour of heat stress for Nicarbazin-fed birds in Experiment 2. In the second experiment, birds fed Nicarbazin exhibited higher (P less than .05) HR and blood lactate during heat stress than control-fed birds. The results of this study indicate that Nicarbazin, by an as yet unidentified mechanism, increases Tb in heat-stressed birds, which results in greater deviations in blood acid-base balance, blood lactate, and HR than in control-fed birds. PMID:2704700

  12. Physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, S; Armstrong, G; Sutherland, R; Wilson, J; Aitchison, T; Paul, E; Henderson, S

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session entitled 'popmobility'. A popmobility session consists of 20 min of aerobic activities, 5 min of local muscular endurance exercises and 5 min of flexibility exercises. Ten regular participants of these sessions, women of mean(s.d.) age 21.2(1.5) years, took part in the study. A maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) treadmill test was performed by each subject to obtain VO2max and maximum heart rate values. In a laboratory, heart rate and VO2 were measured throughout a popmobility session for each subject. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 5 min throughout the session. The mean intensity of the aerobic part of the session ranged from 67.7-82.6% of the subject's VO2max (mean of 76.4% VO2max). The mean heart rate reserve for the aerobic section was 75.6%. While the relative oxygen consumption remained fairly static during the aerobic section, the RPE score rose. The mean(s.d.) total energy expenditure was 236.6(28.4) kcal (range 203-288). The popmobility session is of adequate intensity to improve the aerobic fitness of its participants. Heart rate, as used as a measure of intensity during a popmobility session, would appear to be a fairly accurate indicator of intensity. However, the use of RPE for exercise prescription in popmobility sessions is inappropriate. Popmobility could also be useful in a weight-reduction programme. PMID:8242271

  13. Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

    2014-08-12

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na(+) retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na(+) removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat. PMID:25074914

  14. Physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session.

    PubMed

    Grant, S; Armstrong, G; Sutherland, R; Wilson, J; Aitchison, T; Paul, E; Henderson, S

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and psychological responses to a university fitness session entitled 'popmobility'. A popmobility session consists of 20 min of aerobic activities, 5 min of local muscular endurance exercises and 5 min of flexibility exercises. Ten regular participants of these sessions, women of mean(s.d.) age 21.2(1.5) years, took part in the study. A maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) treadmill test was performed by each subject to obtain VO2max and maximum heart rate values. In a laboratory, heart rate and VO2 were measured throughout a popmobility session for each subject. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 5 min throughout the session. The mean intensity of the aerobic part of the session ranged from 67.7-82.6% of the subject's VO2max (mean of 76.4% VO2max). The mean heart rate reserve for the aerobic section was 75.6%. While the relative oxygen consumption remained fairly static during the aerobic section, the RPE score rose. The mean(s.d.) total energy expenditure was 236.6(28.4) kcal (range 203-288). The popmobility session is of adequate intensity to improve the aerobic fitness of its participants. Heart rate, as used as a measure of intensity during a popmobility session, would appear to be a fairly accurate indicator of intensity. However, the use of RPE for exercise prescription in popmobility sessions is inappropriate. Popmobility could also be useful in a weight-reduction programme. PMID:8242271

  15. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 2 of 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Stephen J.; Kraerner, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Resistance training causes a variety of physiological reactions, including changes in muscle size, connective tissue size, and bone mineral content. This article summarizes data from a variety of studies and research. (JL)

  16. Acute effects of heat on neuropsychological changes and physiological responses under noise condition.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Tripathi, S R; Pradhan, C K; Kashyap, S K

    1990-09-01

    To examine the effects of heat and noise individually and jointly on certain physiological responses and cognitive and neuromotor based functions, 12 male participants were tested under 6 experimental conditions which resulted by combining 3 levels of heat (25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C) and 2 levels of white noise (70 and 100 dB). The experiment was carried out in a controlled climatic chamber following two 6 x 6 latin square designs. The results indicated elevations in heart rate, oxygen uptake and body temperature due to the independent effect of heat or the combined effects of heat and noise. The independent action of noise was found to be depressive on the first two responses. On the neuropsychological effects, the heat adversely affected the speed in card sorting (by design configuration) and digit symbol tests, and also the accuracy and error rate in the reasoning ability test. The noise caused performance improvements in critical flicker frequency (simultaneous) and in error rates in card sorting (by design configuration). The combined effects of heat and noise indicated higher error rates in card sorting (by face value), decreased accuracy in reasoning ability and improvements in performance in accuracy scores and error rates in digit symbol test. PMID:2279778

  17. Examining the Attitudes and Physiological Responses Preservice Learners Have towards Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouvousis, Aphroditi; Heilmann, John; Golden, Jeanne; Kalinowski, Joseph; Hudson, Suzanne; Hough, Monica Strauss

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes and physiological responses demonstrated by preservice learners towards young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) and two physiological measures (skin conductance and heart rate responses) were obtained. Four behaviors (two control and two problematic) depicting…

  18. Estimating human-equivalent no observed adverse-effect levels for VOCs (volatile organic compounds) based on minimal knowledge of physiological parameters. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Jarabek, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. EPA advocates the assessment of health-effects data and calculation of inhaled reference doses as benchmark values for gauging systemic toxicity to inhaled gases. The assessment often requires an inter- or intra-species dose extrapolation from no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) exposure concentrations in animals to human equivalent NOAEL exposure concentrations. To achieve this, a dosimetric extrapolation procedure was developed based on the form or type of equations that describe the uptake and disposition of inhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models. The procedure assumes allometric scaling of most physiological parameters and that the value of the time-integrated human arterial-blood concentration must be limited to no more than to that of experimental animals. The scaling assumption replaces the need for most parameter values and allows the derivation of a simple formula for dose extrapolation of VOCs that gives equivalent or more-conservative exposure concentrations values than those that would be obtained using a PB-PK model in which scaling was assumed.

  19. Personality, emotion, and individual differences in physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Gerhard; Wacker, Jan

    2010-07-01

    A dominant paradigm in biopsychological personality research seeks to establish links between emotional and motivational traits and habitual, transsituationally consistent individual differences in measures of physiological activity. An alternative approach conceptualizes traits as dispositions that are only operative in certain situational contexts and consequently predicts associations between emotional and motivational traits and physiological activity only for trait-relevant situational contexts in which the physiological systems underlying the traits in question are engaged. In the present paper we first examine and contrast these personistic and interactionistic conceptualizations of personality and personality-physiology associations and then present data from several large studies (N>100) in which electrocortical (e.g., frontal alpha asymmetry) and somatovisceral parameters were measured in various situational contexts (e.g., after the induction of either anger, or fear, or anxiety). As predicted by the interactionistic conceptualization of traits as dispositions the situational context and its subjective representation by the participants moderated the personality-physiology relationships for measures of both central and peripheral nervous system activity. We conclude by outlining the implications of the interactionistic approach for biopsychological personality research. PMID:19800934

  20. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  1. Physiological genomics of abiotic stress responses in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) accessions from the U.S. mini-core collection were independently evaluated for heat and water-deficit stress tolerance using a battery of physiological assays including leaf-level gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence yield, membrane thermostability, leaf sugar content,...

  2. Mineral nutrition influences physiological responses of pear in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological disorders such as callus, shoot tip necrosis and hyperhydricity are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation and their causes are not well understood. A comprehensive medium optimization study to improve the growth of pear shoot cultures was also designed to determine ...

  3. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  4. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  5. Psychological and physiological responses during an exam and their relation to personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Spangler, G

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare emotional and physiological responses to real and control examinations and to assess their relation to personality characteristics. Emotional responses were assessed by state anxiety and perceived stress. The assessment of physiological responses included the activity of the cardiac system (heart periods, vagal tone), the adrenocortical system (cortisol) and the immune system (immune globulin A, sIgA). Emotional and physiological responses of 23 students (12 males, 11 females) were assessed during an oral exam at the end of a basic course in psychology which was a prerequisite for the students' final exams. For the control condition physiological responses were assessed one week before the examination during a memory test. The findings of the study demonstrate different emotional and physiological response patterns to examinations as compared to the control condition. Heightened anxiety was observed only before the exam. Whereas within-situation physiological responses (higher heart periods, cortisol, and sIgA; lower vagal tone) were observed both under the exam and control condition, responses to exam condition indicated pre-exam anticipatory activation and post-exam restricted recovery responses. With regard to personality characteristics subjects with high ego-resiliency showed more flexible adaptation than subjects with low ego-resiliency both on the emotional level (anxiety down-regulation after exam) and on the physiological level (situation-specific responses, quick recovery). Subjects with high ego-control exhibited a lower physiological reactivity under both conditions, i.e. they seemed to maintain longer their control also on a physiological level independent of the type of situation. PMID:9364621

  6. Molecular call and response: the physiology of bacterial small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gregory R.; Vanderpool, Carin K.

    2011-01-01

    The vital role of bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) in cellular regulation is now well-established. Although many diverse mechanisms by which sRNAs effect changes in gene expression have been thoroughly described, comparatively less is known about their biological roles and effects on cell physiology. Nevertheless, for some sRNAs, insight has been gained into the intricate regulatory interplay that is required to sense external environmental and internal metabolic cues and turn them into physiological outcomes. Here, we review examples of regulation by selected sRNAs, emphasizing signals and regulators required for sRNA expression, sRNA regulatory targets, and the resulting consequences for the cell. We highlight sRNAs involved in regulation of the processes of iron homeostasis (RyhB, PrrF, and FsrA) and carbon metabolism (Spot 42, CyaR, and SgrS). PMID:21843668

  7. Molecular call and response: the physiology of bacterial small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gregory R; Vanderpool, Carin K

    2011-10-01

    The vital role of bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) in cellular regulation is now well-established. Although many diverse mechanisms by which sRNAs bring about changes in gene expression have been thoroughly described, comparatively less is known about their biological roles and effects on cell physiology. Nevertheless, for some sRNAs, insight has been gained into the intricate regulatory interplay that is required to sense external environmental and internal metabolic cues and turn them into physiological outcomes. Here, we review examples of regulation by selected sRNAs, emphasizing signals and regulators required for sRNA expression, sRNA regulatory targets, and the resulting consequences for the cell. We highlight sRNAs involved in regulation of the processes of iron homeostasis (RyhB, PrrF, and FsrA) and carbon metabolism (Spot 42, CyaR, and SgrS). PMID:21843668

  8. Physiological responses to rock climbing in young climbers

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Audry Birute; Schöffl, Volker Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Key questions regarding the training and physiological qualities required to produce an elite rock climber remain inadequately defined. Little research has been done on young climbers. The aim of this paper was to review literature on climbing alongside relevant literature characterising physiological adaptations in young athletes. Evidence‐based recommendations were sought to inform the training of young climbers. Of 200 studies on climbing, 50 were selected as being appropriate to this review, and were interpreted alongside physiological studies highlighting specific common development growth variables in young climbers. Based on injury data, climbers younger than 16 years should not participate in international bouldering competitions and intensive finger strength training is not recommended. The majority of climbing foot injuries result from wearing too small or unnaturally shaped climbing shoes. Isometric and explosive strength improvements are strongly associated with the latter stages of sexual maturation and specific ontogenetic development, while improvement in motor abilities declines. Somatotyping that might identify common physical attributes in elite climbers of any age is incomplete. Accomplished adolescent climbers can now climb identical grades and compete against elite adult climbers aged up to and >40 years. High‐intensity sports training requiring leanness in a youngster can result in altered and delayed pubertal and skeletal development, metabolic and neuroendocrine aberrations and trigger eating disorders. This should be sensitively and regularly monitored. Training should reflect efficacious exercises for a given sex and biological age. PMID:18037632

  9. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight. [hemodynamic and metabolic responses to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    Physiological base line data are established, and physiological procedures and instrumentation necessary for the automatic measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are developed.

  10. Free radical functionalization of surfaces to prevent adverse responses to biomedical devices

    PubMed Central

    Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Bax, Daniel V.; Kondyurin, Alexey; Yin, Yongbai; Nosworthy, Neil J.; Fisher, Keith; Waterhouse, Anna; Weiss, Anthony S.; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; McKenzie, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Immobilizing a protein, that is fully compatible with the patient, on the surface of a biomedical device should make it possible to avoid adverse responses such as inflammation, rejection, or excessive fibrosis. A surface that strongly binds and does not denature the compatible protein is required. Hydrophilic surfaces do not induce denaturation of immobilized protein but exhibit a low binding affinity for protein. Here, we describe an energetic ion-assisted plasma process that can make any surface hydrophilic and at the same time enable it to covalently immobilize functional biological molecules. We show that the modification creates free radicals that migrate to the surface from a reservoir beneath. When they reach the surface, the radicals form covalent bonds with biomolecules. The kinetics and number densities of protein molecules in solution and free radicals in the reservoir control the time required to form a full protein monolayer that is covalently bound. The shelf life of the covalent binding capability is governed by the initial density of free radicals and the depth of the reservoir. We show that the high reactivity of the radicals renders the binding universal across all biological macromolecules. Because the free radical reservoir can be created on any solid material, this approach can be used in medical applications ranging from cardiovascular stents to heart-lung machines. PMID:21844370

  11. Cardiocirculatory responses to exercise - Physiologic study by noninvasive techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pigott, V. M.; Spodick, D. H.; Rectra, E. H.; Khan , A. H.

    1971-01-01

    The changes from rest to exercise were determined for certain phases of the cardiac cycle in ten healthy male subjects who underwent submaximal, physiologically paced bicycle ergometry. ECGs, phonocardiograms, and carotid pu lse tracings were recorded. The preejection period and isovolumic contraction time decreased with exercise. Changes in left ventricular ejection time appeared to depend on the severity or the duration of stress. Pulse transmission time did not change significantly. The data obtained in the study and comparison of these results to those obtained by invasive methods indicate that noninvasive techniques, when used in the manner suggested, are appropriate means for detecting a variety of cardiocirculatory changes during exercise.

  12. Automated system for integration and display of physiological response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The system analysis approach was applied in a study of physiological systems in both 1-g and weightlessness, for short and long term experiments. A whole body, algorithm developed as the first step in the construction of a total body simulation system is described and an advanced biomedical computer system concept including interactive display/command consoles is discussed. The documentation of the design specifications, design and development studies, and user's instructions (which include program listings) for these delivered end-terms; the reports on the results of many research and feasibility studies; and many subcontract reports are cited in the bibliography.

  13. Low Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles in Biosolids Cause Adverse Ecosystem Responses under Realistic Field Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Benjamin P.; Arnaout, Christina L.; Anciaux, Sarah; Gunsch, Claudia K.; Hochella, Michael F.; Kim, Bojeong; Lowry, Gregory V.; McGill, Bonnie M.; Reinsch, Brian C.; Richardson, Curtis J.; Unrine, Jason M.; Wright, Justin P.; Yin, Liyan; Bernhardt, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    A large fraction of engineered nanomaterials in consumer and commercial products will reach natural ecosystems. To date, research on the biological impacts of environmental nanomaterial exposures has largely focused on high-concentration exposures in mechanistic lab studies with single strains of model organisms. These results are difficult to extrapolate to ecosystems, where exposures will likely be at low-concentrations and which are inhabited by a diversity of organisms. Here we show adverse responses of plants and microorganisms in a replicated long-term terrestrial mesocosm field experiment following a single low dose of silver nanoparticles (0.14 mg Ag kg−1 soil) applied via a likely route of exposure, sewage biosolid application. While total aboveground plant biomass did not differ between treatments receiving biosolids, one plant species, Microstegium vimeneum, had 32 % less biomass in the Slurry+AgNP treatment relative to the Slurry only treatment. Microorganisms were also affected by AgNP treatment, which gave a significantly different community composition of bacteria in the Slurry+AgNPs as opposed to the Slurry treatment one day after addition as analyzed by T-RFLP analysis of 16S-rRNA genes. After eight days, N2O flux was 4.5 fold higher in the Slurry+AgNPs treatment than the Slurry treatment. After fifty days, community composition and N2O flux of the Slurry+AgNPs treatment converged with the Slurry. However, the soil microbial extracellular enzymes leucine amino peptidase and phosphatase had 52 and 27% lower activities, respectively, while microbial biomass was 35% lower than the Slurry. We also show that the magnitude of these responses was in all cases as large as or larger than the positive control, AgNO3, added at 4-fold the Ag concentration of the silver nanoparticles. PMID:23468930

  14. The effect of conspecific removal on behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica K; Arney, David R; Waran, Natalie K; Handel, Ian G; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-12-01

    Adverse social and welfare implications of mixing dairy cows or separating calves from their mothers have been documented previously. Here we investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of individuals remaining after conspecifics were removed. We conducted a series of 4 experiments incorporating a range of types of different dairy cattle groupings [experiment 1 (E1), 126 outdoor lactating dairy cows; experiment 2 (E2), 120 housed lactating dairy cows; experiment 3 (E3), 18 housed dairy calves; and experiment 4 (E4), 22 housed dairy bulls] from which a subset of individuals were permanently removed (E1, n=7; E2, n=5; E3, n=9; E4, n=18). Associations between individuals were established using near-neighbor scores (based upon identities and distances between animals recorded before removal) in E1, E2, and E3. Behavioral recordings were taken for 3 to 5 d, before and after removal on a sample of cattle in all 4 experiments (E1, n=20; E2, n=20; E3, n=9; E4, n=4). In 2 experiments with relatively large groups of dairy cows, E1 and E2, the responses of cows that did and did not associate with the removed cows were compared. An increase in time that both nonassociates and associates spent eating was observed after conspecific removal in E1. In E2, this increase was restricted to cows that had not associated with the removed cows. A reduction in ruminating in remaining cattle was observed in E3 and eating in E4. Immunoglobulin A concentrations increased after separation in both E3 and E4 cattle, but did not differ significantly between associates and nonassociates in E2. Blood and milk cortisol concentrations were not affected by conspecific removal. These findings suggest that some animals had affected feeding behavior and IgA concentrations after removal of conspecifics. PMID:26454304

  15. Physiological responses of plant leaves to atmospheric ammonia and ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J.; Soares, A.

    Misting of leaves of several plant species with 3 mM aqueous NH +4 at pH 5, or fumigation with 3000 μg m -3 gaseous NH 3 for 1 h, elicits similar biochemical and physiological changes in the species tested. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) was shown to increase its activity in all species, while that of nitrate reductase (NR) was inhibited, at least in those species which possessed the ability to induce foliar NR. At the same time there were marked changes in organic anion concentrations, with malate and citrate in particular being reduced in concentration, following either NH +4 or NH 3 application to leaves. The changes in organic anions are also discussed in the light of pH regulation by the cell. A stimulation of photosynthesis was also evident when leaves were treated with either NH 3 or NH +4. It is argued that, because of the differences in solution chemistry of the two ammonia forms, the aqueous form applied at pH 5 and the gaseous form being an alkali in solution, these changes can only have occurred through the ability of the leaves to readily assimilate both forms of the ammonia. The biochemical changes might have potential as markers for the onset of physiological perturbation by atmospheric ammonia pollution, particularly changes in organic acid concentration; their use in an index of pollution stress is briefly discussed.

  16. Behavioral and physiological responses in felids to exhibit construction.

    PubMed

    Chosy, Julia; Wilson, Megan; Santymire, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature examining the welfare of zoo-housed animals, little standardized work has been published on the effect of construction and environmental disruption on the physiology and behavior of affected animals. When Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL), embarked on a renovation project for its Kovler Lion House, the opportunity was taken to perform a scientific study of behavioral and physiological markers in the resident felids to determine the effect of construction and environmental disruption. Fecal samples and behavioral observations were collected on four felid species (five individuals) before, during, and after the period of construction. As a group, the average z-score for fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentration increased during construction relative to baseline. Levels remained elevated after construction, but trended toward baseline. All individuals demonstrated a significant decrease in the frequency of pacing and time spent visible during construction. Overall activity levels also showed a significant decrease relative to baseline measures. As zoological institutions continue to recognize the importance of habitat design, construction and renovation become inevitable. It is important to be aware of the potential consequences this can have on animals in the vicinity and to work toward minimizing negative effects. One recommendation is the availability of ample retreat and hiding space for felids during disruption to their environment. PMID:25042703

  17. Physiologically responsive, mechanically adaptive bio-nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Roberts, Matthew N; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    We report mechanically adaptive bionanocomposites based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), whose mechanical properties change significantly upon exposure to simulated physiological conditions. These nanocomposites were made using CNCs derived from tunicates (t-CNCs) and cotton (c-CNCs) to explore how aspect ratio, surface charge density, and filler content influence the mechanical properties. Dynamic mechanical analysis data reveal a significant enhancement of the tensile storage modulus (E') upon introduction of CNCs, which scaled with the CNC type and content. For example, in the dry, glassy state at 25 °C, E' increased up to 23% (for c-CNCs) and 88% (for t-CNCs) compared to the neat polymer. Exposing the materials to simulated physiological conditions caused a drastic softening of the materials, from 9.0 GPa to 1 MPa for c-CNCs and from 13.7 GPa to 160 MPa for t-CNCs. The data show that the swelling characteristics of the nanocomposites and the extent of mechanical switching could be influenced via the amount and type of CNCs and also the processing conditions. The high stiffness in the dry state and the ability to tailor the mechanical contrast via composition and processing makes the new materials particularly useful as basis for adaptive biomedical implants. PMID:23379302

  18. Adverse cardiometabolic response to aerobic exercise training: Should this be a concern?

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Eric S.; Church, Timothy S.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Karavirta, Laura; Kraus, William E.; Mikus, Catherine; Resnick, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    .36) for SBP. Conclusion Compared to control subjects, exercise subjects were not at an increased risk for meeting the AC thresholds for SBP, FI, TG, or HDL-C and significantly fewer exercise subjects met AC thresholds for FI, and HDL. Exercise subjects also had significantly more favorable mean changes in FI, TG, and HDL-C than control subjects. These findings do not support the concept that aerobic exercise training increases the risk of adverse changes in CV risk factors. and that, with respect to group responses PMID:26258860

  19. Physiological responses of Daphnia pulex to acid stress

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Anna K; Pirow, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Background Acidity exerts a determining influence on the composition and diversity of freshwater faunas. While the physiological implications of freshwater acidification have been intensively studied in teleost fish and crayfish, much less is known about the acid-stress physiology of ecologically important groups such as cladoceran zooplankton. This study analyzed the extracellular acid-base state and CO2 partial pressure (PCO2), circulation and ventilation, as well as the respiration rate of Daphnia pulex acclimated to acidic (pH 5.5 and 6.0) and circumneutral (pH 7.8) conditions. Results D. pulex had a remarkably high extracellular pH of 8.33 and extracellular PCO2 of 0.56 kPa under normal ambient conditions (pH 7.8 and normocapnia). The hemolymph had a high bicarbonate concentration of 20.9 mM and a total buffer value of 51.5 meq L-1 pH-1. Bicarbonate covered 93% of the total buffer value. Acidic conditions induced a slight acidosis (ΔpH = 0.16–0.23), a 30–65% bicarbonate loss, and elevated systemic activities (tachycardia, hyperventilation, hypermetabolism). pH 6.0 animals partly compensated the bicarbonate loss by increasing the non-bicarbonate buffer value from 2.0 to 5.1 meq L-1 pH-1. The extracellular PCO2 of pH 5.5 animals was significantly reduced to 0.33 kPa, and these animals showed the highest tolerance to a short-term exposure to severe acid stress. Conclusion Chronic exposure to acidic conditions had a pervasive impact on Daphnia's physiology including acid-base balance, extracellular PCO2, circulation and ventilation, and energy metabolism. Compensatory changes in extracellular non-bicarbonate buffering capacity and the improved tolerance to severe acid stress indicated the activation of defense mechanisms which may result from gene-expression mediated adjustments in hemolymph buffer proteins and in epithelial properties. Mechanistic analyses of the interdependence between extracellular acid-base balance and CO2 transport raised the question of

  20. Developing a Gene Biomarker at the Tipping Point of Adaptive and Adverse Responses in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Currier, Jenna M; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Menendez, Daniel; Conolly, Rory; Chorley, Brian N

    2016-01-01

    Determining mechanism-based biomarkers that distinguish adaptive and adverse cellular processes is critical to understanding the health effects of environmental exposures. Shifting from in vivo, low-throughput toxicity studies to high-throughput screening (HTS) paradigms and risk assessment based on in vitro and in silico testing requires utilizing toxicity pathway information to distinguish adverse outcomes from recoverable adaptive events. Little work has focused on oxidative stresses in human airway for the purposes of predicting adverse responses. We hypothesize that early gene expression-mediated molecular changes could be used to delineate adaptive and adverse responses to environmentally-based perturbations. Here, we examined cellular responses of the tracheobronchial airway to zinc (Zn) exposure, a model oxidant. Airway derived BEAS-2B cells exposed to 2-10 μM Zn2+ elicited concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Normal, adaptive, and cytotoxic Zn2+ exposure conditions were determined with traditional apical endpoints, and differences in global gene expression around the tipping point of the responses were used to delineate underlying molecular mechanisms. Bioinformatic analyses of differentially expressed genes indicate early enrichment of stress signaling pathways, including those mediated by the transcription factors p53 and NRF2. After 4 h, 154 genes were differentially expressed (p < 0.01) between the adaptive and cytotoxic Zn2+ concentrations. Nearly 40% of the biomarker genes were related to the p53 signaling pathway with 30 genes identified as likely direct targets using a database of p53 ChIP-seq studies. Despite similar p53 activation profiles, these data revealed widespread dampening of p53 and NRF2-related genes as early as 4 h after exposure at higher, unrecoverable Zn2+ exposures. Thus, in our model early increased activation of stress response pathways indicated a recoverable adaptive event. Overall, this study highlights the

  1. Developing a Gene Biomarker at the Tipping Point of Adaptive and Adverse Responses in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Jenna M.; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Menendez, Daniel; Conolly, Rory; Chorley, Brian N.

    2016-01-01

    Determining mechanism-based biomarkers that distinguish adaptive and adverse cellular processes is critical to understanding the health effects of environmental exposures. Shifting from in vivo, low-throughput toxicity studies to high-throughput screening (HTS) paradigms and risk assessment based on in vitro and in silico testing requires utilizing toxicity pathway information to distinguish adverse outcomes from recoverable adaptive events. Little work has focused on oxidative stresses in human airway for the purposes of predicting adverse responses. We hypothesize that early gene expression-mediated molecular changes could be used to delineate adaptive and adverse responses to environmentally-based perturbations. Here, we examined cellular responses of the tracheobronchial airway to zinc (Zn) exposure, a model oxidant. Airway derived BEAS-2B cells exposed to 2–10 μM Zn2+ elicited concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Normal, adaptive, and cytotoxic Zn2+ exposure conditions were determined with traditional apical endpoints, and differences in global gene expression around the tipping point of the responses were used to delineate underlying molecular mechanisms. Bioinformatic analyses of differentially expressed genes indicate early enrichment of stress signaling pathways, including those mediated by the transcription factors p53 and NRF2. After 4 h, 154 genes were differentially expressed (p < 0.01) between the adaptive and cytotoxic Zn2+ concentrations. Nearly 40% of the biomarker genes were related to the p53 signaling pathway with 30 genes identified as likely direct targets using a database of p53 ChIP-seq studies. Despite similar p53 activation profiles, these data revealed widespread dampening of p53 and NRF2-related genes as early as 4 h after exposure at higher, unrecoverable Zn2+ exposures. Thus, in our model early increased activation of stress response pathways indicated a recoverable adaptive event. Overall, this study highlights the

  2. Moderating role of FKBP5 genotype in the impact of childhood adversity on cortisol stress response during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker, Regina; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Recent research suggests an important role of FKBP5, a glucocorticoid receptor regulating co-chaperone, in the development of stress-related diseases such as depression and anxiety disorders. The present study aimed to replicate and extend previous evidence indicating that FKBP5 polymorphisms moderate hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function by examining whether FKBP5 rs1360780 genotype and different measures of childhood adversity interact to predict stress-induced cortisol secretion. At age 19 years, 195 young adults (90 males, 105 females) participating in an epidemiological cohort study completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to assess cortisol stress responsiveness and were genotyped for the FKBP5 rs1360780. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and by a standardized parent interview yielding an index of family adversity. A significant interaction between genotype and childhood adversity on cortisol response to stress was demonstrated for exposure to childhood maltreatment as assessed by retrospective self-report (CTQ), but not for prospectively ascertained objective family adversity. Severity of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with attenuated cortisol levels among carriers of the rs1360780 CC genotype, while no such effect emerged in carriers of the T allele. These findings point towards the functional involvement of FKBP5 in long-term alterations of neuroendocrine stress regulation related to childhood maltreatment, which have been suggested to represent a premorbid risk or resilience factor in the context of stress-related disorders. PMID:24411633

  3. Coping With Adults' Angry Behavior: Behavioral, Physiological, and Verbal Responses in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated 34 4- and 5-year-olds and their parents to determine the children's behavioral, physiological, and verbal responses to adults' angry behavior. Findings indicate behavioral and verbal responses of distress and an increase in systolic blood pressure in response to anger. (RJC)

  4. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  5. Physiological responses of estuarine animals to cadmium pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theede, H.

    1980-03-01

    Toxic effects of cadmium contamination may be observed at all levels of organismic organization. In estuarine areas the sensitivity of euryhaline species to acute Cd toxicity is strongly modified by various abiotic factors, whereas long-term threshold values are less dependent on environmental parameters. Experiments with larval stages of the mollusc Mytilus edulis reveal that Cd effects on life functions such as development and growth are differentially modified by temperature and salinity. High Cd concentrations can be accumulated by adult bivalves of coastal areas without signs of physiological damage. Mechanisms of heavy-metal detoxication in these molluscs seem to be quite different from those known to exist in vertebrates. Among decapod crustaceans, stenoecous species tend to exhibit higher rates of Cd uptake than euryoecous ones. Rates of Cd uptake and of accumulation depend on external and internal factors. In adult Nereis succinea individuals sublethal Cd effects have been recorded on growth and food conversion (in terms of energy content).

  6. Physiological responses to Tai Chi in stable patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhi-Hui; Guo, Hong-Xi; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Ning; He, Bai-Ting; Zhou, Lian; Luo, Y M; Polkey, M I

    2016-01-15

    We compared the physiological work, judged by oxygen uptake, esophageal pressure swing and diaphragm electromyography, elicited by Tai Chi compared with that elicited by constant rate treadmill walking at 60% of maximal load in eleven patients with COPD (Mean FEV1 61% predicted, FEV1/FVC 47%). Dynamic hyperinflation was assessed by inspiratory capacity and twitch quadriceps tension (TwQ) elicited by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve was also measured before and after both exercises. The EMGdi and esophageal pressure at the end of exercise were similar for both treadmill exercise and Tai Chi (0.109±0.047 mV vs 0.118±0.061 mV for EMGdi and 22.3±7.1 cmH2O vs 21.9±8.1 cmH2O for esophageal pressure). Moreover the mean values of oxygen uptake during Tai Chi and treadmill exercise did not differ significantly: 11.3 ml/kg/min (51.1% of maximal oxygen uptake derived from incremental exercise) and 13.4 ml/kg/min (52.5%) respectively, p>0.05. Respiratory rate during Tai Chi was significantly lower than that during treadmill exercise. Both Tai Chi and treadmill exercise elicited a fall in IC at end exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation, but this was statistically significant only after treadmill exercise. TwQ decreased significantly after Tai Chi but not after treadmill. We conclude that Tai Chi constitutes a physiologically similar stimulus to treadmill exercise and may therefore be an acceptable modality for pulmonary rehabilitation which may be culturally more acceptable in some parts of the world. PMID:26549554

  7. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure e.g., cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardised laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the TSST. Individuals with high Agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high Communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25036730

  8. Physiological Responses and Tolerance Mechanisms to Cadmium in Conyza canadensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuifan; Zhang, Kai; Lin, Jingwen; Li, Ying; Chen, Nailian; Zou, Xianhua; Hou, Xiaolong; Ma, Xiangqing

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different concentrations of Cd on the performance of the Cd accumulator Conyza canadensis. Cd accumulation in roots and leaves (roots>leaves) increased with increasing Cd concentration in soil. High Cd concentration inhibited plant growth, increased the membrane permeability of leaves, and caused a significant decline in plant height and chlorophyll [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and total Chl] content. Leaf ultrastructural analysis of spongy mesophyllic cells revealed that excessive Cd concentrations cause adverse effects on the chloroplast and mitochondrion ultrastructures of C. canadensis. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, total non-protein SH compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin (PC) concentrations, showed an overall increase. Specifically, the increase in enzyme activities demonstrated that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating the toxicity of Cd in C. canadensis. Furthermore, results demonstrate that PC synthesis in plant cells is related to Cd concentration and that PC production levels in plants are related to the toxic effects caused by soil Cd level. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these compounds in supporting Cd tolerance in C. canadensis. PMID:25397987

  9. Psychological Well-Being and the Human Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Grewen, Karen M.; Algoe, Sara B.; Firestine, Ann M.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Research in human social genomics has identified a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by up-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulated expression of Type I interferon- and antibody-related genes. This report seeks to identify the specific aspects of positive psychological well-being that oppose such effects and predict reduced CTRA gene expression. In a new confirmation study of 122 healthy adults that replicated the approach of a previously reported discovery study, mixed effect linear model analyses identified a significant inverse association between expression of CTRA indicator genes and a summary measure of eudaimonic well-being from the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form. Analyses of a 2- representation of eudaimonia converged in finding correlated psychological and social subdomains of eudaimonic well-being to be the primary carriers of CTRA associations. Hedonic well-being showed no consistent CTRA association independent of eudaimonic well-being, and summary measures integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being showed less stable CTRA associations than did focal measures of eudaimonia (psychological and social well-being). Similar results emerged from analyses of pooled discovery and confirmation samples (n = 198). Similar results also emerged from analyses of a second new generalization study of 107 healthy adults that included the more detailed Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being and found this more robust measure of eudaimonic well-being to also associate with reduced CTRA gene expression. Five of the 6 major sub-domains of psychological well-being predicted reduced CTRA gene expression when analyzed separately, and 3 remained distinctively prognostic in mutually adjusted analyses. All associations were independent of demographic characteristics, health-related confounders, and RNA indicators of leukocyte subset distribution. These results identify specific sub-dimensions of eudaimonic

  10. Psychological well-being and the human conserved transcriptional response to adversity.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L; Grewen, Karen M; Algoe, Sara B; Firestine, Ann M; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Research in human social genomics has identified a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by up-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulated expression of Type I interferon- and antibody-related genes. This report seeks to identify the specific aspects of positive psychological well-being that oppose such effects and predict reduced CTRA gene expression. In a new confirmation study of 122 healthy adults that replicated the approach of a previously reported discovery study, mixed effect linear model analyses identified a significant inverse association between expression of CTRA indicator genes and a summary measure of eudaimonic well-being from the Mental Health Continuum - Short Form. Analyses of a 2- representation of eudaimonia converged in finding correlated psychological and social subdomains of eudaimonic well-being to be the primary carriers of CTRA associations. Hedonic well-being showed no consistent CTRA association independent of eudaimonic well-being, and summary measures integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being showed less stable CTRA associations than did focal measures of eudaimonia (psychological and social well-being). Similar results emerged from analyses of pooled discovery and confirmation samples (n = 198). Similar results also emerged from analyses of a second new generalization study of 107 healthy adults that included the more detailed Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being and found this more robust measure of eudaimonic well-being to also associate with reduced CTRA gene expression. Five of the 6 major sub-domains of psychological well-being predicted reduced CTRA gene expression when analyzed separately, and 3 remained distinctively prognostic in mutually adjusted analyses. All associations were independent of demographic characteristics, health-related confounders, and RNA indicators of leukocyte subset distribution. These results identify specific sub-dimensions of eudaimonic well

  11. Fully optimized discrimination of physiological responses to auditory stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kruglikov, Stepan Y; Chari, Sharmila; Rapp, Paul E; Weinstein, Steven L; Given, Barbara K; Schiff, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    The use of multivariate measurements to characterize brain activity (electrical, magnetic, optical) is widespread. The most common approaches to reduce the complexity of such observations include principal and independent component analyses (PCA and ICA), which are not well suited for discrimination tasks. We addressed two questions: first, how do the neurophysiological responses to elongated phonemes relate to tone and phoneme responses in normal children, and, second, how discriminable are these responses. We employed fully optimized linear discrimination analysis to maximally separate the multi-electrode responses to tones and phonemes, and classified the response to elongated phonemes. We find that discrimination between tones and phonemes is dependent upon responses from associative regions of the brain apparently distinct from the primary sensory cortices typically emphasized by PCA or ICA, and that the neuronal correlates corresponding to elongated phonemes are highly variable in normal children (about half respond with neural correlates of tones and half as phonemes). Our approach is made feasible by the increase in computational power of ordinary personal computers and has significant advantages for a wide range of neuronal imaging modalities. PMID:18430975

  12. Assessing physiological tipping points in response to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S. T.; Dorey, N.; Lançon, P.; Thorndyke, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Impact of near-future ocean acidification on marine invertebrates was mostly assessed in single-species perturbation experiment. Moreover, most of these experiments are short-term, only consider one life-history stage and one or few parameters. They do not take into account important processes such as natural variability and acclimation and evolutionary processes. In many studies published so far, there is a clear lack between the observed effects and individual fitness, most of the deviation from the control being considered as potentially negative for the tested species. However, individuals are living in a fluctuating world and changes can also be interpreted as phenotypic plasticity and may not translate into negative impact on fitness. For example, a vent mussel can survive for decades in very acidic waters despite a significantly reduced calcification compare to control (Tunnicliffe et al. 2009). This is possible thanks to the absence of predatory crabs as a result of acidic conditions that may also inhibit carapace formation. This illustrates the importance to take into account ecological interactions when interpreting single-species experiments and to consider the relative fitness between interacting species. To understand the potential consequence of ocean acidification on any given ecosystem, it is then critical to consider the relative impact on fitness for every interactive species and taking into account the natural fluctuation in environment (e.g. pH, temperature, food concentration, abundance) and discriminate between plasticity with no direct impact on fitness and teratology with direct consequence on survival. In this presentation, we will introduce the concept of "physiological tipping point" in the context of ocean acidification. This will be illustrated by some work done on sea urchin development. Embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis were exposed to a range of pH from 8.1 to 6.5. When exposed to low pH, growth

  13. Roles of Gibberellin Catabolism and Signaling in Growth and Physiological Response to Drought and Short-Day Photoperiods in Populus Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zawaski, Christine; Busov, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    Survival and productivity of perennial plants in temperate zones are dependent on robust responses to prolonged and seasonal cycles of unfavorable conditions. Here we report whole-genome microarray, expression, physiological, and transgenic evidence in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) showing that gibberellin (GA) catabolism and repressive signaling mediates shoot growth inhibition and physiological adaptation in response to drought and short-day (SD) induced bud dormancy. Both water deprivation and SDs elicited activation of a suite of poplar GA2ox and DELLA encoding genes. Poplar transgenics with up-regulated GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) and DELLA domain proteins showed hypersensitive growth inhibition in response to both drought and SDs. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed greater drought resistance as evidenced by increased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll and carotenoid) and reductions in electrolyte leakage (EL). Comparative transcriptome analysis using whole-genome microarray showed that the GA-deficiency and GA-insensitivity, SD-induced dormancy, and drought response in poplar share a common regulon of 684 differentially-expressed genes, which suggest GA metabolism and signaling plays a role in plant physiological adaptations in response to alterations in environmental factors. Our results demonstrate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling represents a major route for control of growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or imminent adverse conditions. PMID:24465967

  14. Genotype and Neuropsychological Response Inhibition as Resilience Promoters for ADHD, ODD, and CD under Conditions of Psychosocial Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Friderici, Karen; Park, Leeyoung; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas child personality, IQ, and family factors have been identified as enabling a resilient response to psychosocial adversity, more direct biological resilience factors have been less well delineated. This is particularly so for child ADHD, which has received less attention from a resilience perspective than have associated externalizing disorders. Children from two independent samples were classified as resilient if they avoided developing ADHD, ODD, or CD in the face of family adversity. Two protective factors were examined for their potential relevance to prefrontal brain development: neuropsychological response inhibition, as assessed by the Stop task, and a composite catecholamine genotype risk score. Resilient children were characterized in both samples by more effective response inhibition, although the effect in the second sample was very small. Genotype was measured in Sample 1, and a composite high risk genotype index was developed by summing presence of risk across markers on three genes expressed in prefrontal cortex: dopamine transporter, dopamine D4 receptor, and noradrenergic alpha 2 receptor. Genotype was a reliable resilience indicator against development of ADHD and CD, but not ODD, in the face of psychosocial adversity. Results illustrate potential neurobiological protective factors related to development of prefrontal cortex that may enable children to avoid developing ADHD and CD in the presence of psychosocial adversity. PMID:17705902

  15. Physiological Responses of Kosteletzkya virginica to Coastal Wetland Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Honglei; Shao, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Effects of salinity on growth and physiological indices of Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings were studied. Plant height, fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) increased at 100 mM NaCl and slightly declined at 200 mM, but higher salinity induced a significant reduction. Chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (E) were not affected under moderate salinities, while markedly decreased at severe salinities except for the increased Ci at 400 mM NaCl. Furthermore, no significant differences of Fv/Fm and ΦPSII were found at lower than 200 mM NaCl, whereas higher salinity caused the declines of Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, and qP similar to Pn, accompanied with higher NPQ. Besides, salt stress reduced the leaf RWC, but caused the accumulation of proline to alleviate osmotic pressure. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes maintained the normal levels of MDA and relative membrane permeability. To sum up, Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings have good salt tolerance and this may be partly attributed to its osmotic regulation and antioxidant capacity which help to maintain water balance and normal ROS level to ensure the efficient photosynthesis. These results provided important implications for Kosteletzkya virginica acting as a promising multiuse species for reclaiming coastal soil. PMID:25853144

  16. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  17. Physiological responses of Kosteletzkya virginica to coastal wetland soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Honglei; Shao, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Effects of salinity on growth and physiological indices of Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings were studied. Plant height, fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) increased at 100 mM NaCl and slightly declined at 200 mM, but higher salinity induced a significant reduction. Chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (E) were not affected under moderate salinities, while markedly decreased at severe salinities except for the increased Ci at 400 mM NaCl. Furthermore, no significant differences of Fv/Fm and ΦPSII were found at lower than 200 mM NaCl, whereas higher salinity caused the declines of Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, and qP similar to Pn, accompanied with higher NPQ. Besides, salt stress reduced the leaf RWC, but caused the accumulation of proline to alleviate osmotic pressure. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes maintained the normal levels of MDA and relative membrane permeability. To sum up, Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings have good salt tolerance and this may be partly attributed to its osmotic regulation and antioxidant capacity which help to maintain water balance and normal ROS level to ensure the efficient photosynthesis. These results provided important implications for Kosteletzkya virginica acting as a promising multiuse species for reclaiming coastal soil. PMID:25853144

  18. Physiological responses of two soybean cultivars to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Marchiol, L.; Leita, L.; Martin, M.; Peressotti, A.

    1996-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities are increasing cadmium (Cd) concentrations in soils. Cadmium can be absorbed by plant roots and modify the physiology of the plant. Carbon exchange rate (CER) and leaf of two soybean (Glycine max [L.]Merr.) cultivars (Illini insensitive and Richland sensitive) for 6 consecutive days; Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} was added to the hydroponic solution to achieve a final concentration of 50 {mu}mol. At the end of the experiment, stomata length and width, mesophyll limitation to photosynthesis, root hydraulic conductance, relative water content (RWC), and Cd concentration in leaves, stems, and roots were measured on treated and control plants. Cadmium progressively reduced CER and g{sub s} to about 50% after 6 d of treatment. This was more evident in Richland than in Illini and was not linked with leaf RWC and mesophyll limitation to photosynthesis. After 6 d, the apparent root hydraulic water conductivity was 67% lower in the Cd-treated plants than in controls. The primary mechanism affected by Cd-induced stress in soybean is root water uptake, and this reduction is consistent with the decrease in stomatal opening and conductance, and therefore, in photosynthesis. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Empathic behavioral and physiological responses to dynamic stimuli in depression.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel; Regenbogen, Christina; Kellermann, Thilo; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Kohn, Nils; Derntl, Birgit; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2012-12-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is strongly linked to social withdrawal and interpersonal problems which characterize the disorder and further aggravate symptoms. Investigating the nature of impaired emotional-social functioning as a basis of interpersonal functioning in MDD has been widely restricted to static stimuli and behavioral emotion recognition accuracy. The present study aimed at examining higher order emotional processes, namely empathic responses and its components, emotion recognition accuracy and affective responses in 28 MDD patients and 28 healthy control participants. The dynamic stimulus material included 96 short video clips depicting actors expressing basic emotions by face, voice prosody, and sentence content. Galvanic skin conductance measurements revealed implicit processes in the multimethod assessment of empathy. Overall, patients displayed lower empathy, emotion accuracy, and affective response rates than controls. Autonomous arousal was higher in patients. A generalized emotion processing deficit is in line with the "emotional context insensitivity" (ECI) theory which proposes decreased overall responsiveness to emotional stimuli. The dissociation between hypo-reactivity in explicit and hyper-reactivity in implicit measures of emotion processing can be related to the "limbic-cortical dysregulation" model of depression. Our findings support the dissociation of autonomic and subjective emotional responses which may account for interpersonal as well as emotional deficits in depression. PMID:22560057

  20. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  1. Early Responsivity to Moral Events: Physiological and Behavioral Correlates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; And Others

    This study investigated toddlers' reactions to morally related events to determine whether age was a factor in emotional reaction, whether the middle of the second year was a salient time for the emergence of emotional reactions to such events, and whether heart rate change could be used as a new measure of moral responsivity. While their heart…

  2. Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression, and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2009-01-01

    A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…

  3. Physiological Response to Drought Stress at Different Stages in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major factor in reducing productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the response patterns of relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry mater content (LDMC) to drought stress at three stages of 30 60, and ...

  4. Physiological environment induces quick response - slow exhaustion reactions.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Noriko; Lu, James; Iba, Keisuke; Tabira, Akito; Yamashita, Shuji; Okada, Yasunori; Flamm, Christoph; Oka, Kotaro; Köhler, Gottfried; Funahashi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    In vivo environments are highly crowded and inhomogeneous, which may affect reaction processes in cells. In this study we examined the effects of intracellular crowding and an inhomogeneity on the behavior of in vivo reactions by calculating the spectral dimension (d(s)), which can be translated into the reaction rate function. We compared estimates of anomaly parameters obtained from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) data with fractal dimensions derived from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis. FCS analysis indicated that the anomalous property was linked to physiological structure. Subsequent TEM analysis provided an in vivo illustration; soluble molecules likely percolate between intracellular clusters, which are constructed in a self-organizing manner. We estimated a cytoplasmic spectral dimension d(s) to be 1.39 ± 0.084. This result suggests that in vivo reactions initially run faster than the same reactions in a homogeneous space; this conclusion is consistent with the anomalous character indicated by FCS analysis. We further showed that these results were compatible with our Monte-Carlo simulation in which the anomalous behavior of mobile molecules correlates with the intracellular environment, leading to description as a percolation cluster, as demonstrated using TEM analysis. We confirmed by the simulation that the above-mentioned in vivo like properties are different from those of homogeneously concentrated environments. Additionally, simulation results indicated that crowding level of an environment might affect diffusion rate of reactant. Such knowledge of the spatial information enables us to construct realistic models for in vivo diffusion and reaction systems. PMID:21960972

  5. Physiological Environment Induces Quick Response – Slow Exhaustion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hiroi, Noriko; Lu, James; Iba, Keisuke; Tabira, Akito; Yamashita, Shuji; Okada, Yasunori; Flamm, Christoph; Oka, Kotaro; Köhler, Gottfried; Funahashi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    In vivo environments are highly crowded and inhomogeneous, which may affect reaction processes in cells. In this study we examined the effects of intracellular crowding and an inhomogeneity on the behavior of in vivo reactions by calculating the spectral dimension (ds), which can be translated into the reaction rate function. We compared estimates of anomaly parameters obtained from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) data with fractal dimensions derived from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis. FCS analysis indicated that the anomalous property was linked to physiological structure. Subsequent TEM analysis provided an in vivo illustration; soluble molecules likely percolate between intracellular clusters, which are constructed in a self-organizing manner. We estimated a cytoplasmic spectral dimension ds to be 1.39 ± 0.084. This result suggests that in vivo reactions initially run faster than the same reactions in a homogeneous space; this conclusion is consistent with the anomalous character indicated by FCS analysis. We further showed that these results were compatible with our Monte-Carlo simulation in which the anomalous behavior of mobile molecules correlates with the intracellular environment, leading to description as a percolation cluster, as demonstrated using TEM analysis. We confirmed by the simulation that the above-mentioned in vivo like properties are different from those of homogeneously concentrated environments. Additionally, simulation results indicated that crowding level of an environment might affect diffusion rate of reactant. Such knowledge of the spatial information enables us to construct realistic models for in vivo diffusion and reaction systems. PMID:21960972

  6. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions. PMID:22899923

  7. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology. PMID:27227066

  8. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology. PMID:27227066

  9. Excluded and behaving unethically: social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion--measured using galvanic skin response--mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed. PMID:25314369

  10. Physiological response of BSC phototrophic community to EPS removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adessi, Alessandra; Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; Silvestre, Susana; Rossi, Federico; Mugnai, Gianmarco; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Branquinho, Cristina; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are associations between soil particles and varying proportions of cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, algae, fungi, lichens and mosses. BSCs play a major role in soil stabilization, and in drylands have been well acknowledged for mitigating desertification effects. Amongst the wide diversity of organisms that compose BSCs, cyanobacteria are the first primary producers: they colonize nutrient-limited soils, modifying the micro-environment through the excretion of large amounts of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs represent a huge carbon and nitrogen source for other inhabitants of the crust, are three-dimensionally spread through the first millimeters of the soil, and have a recognized role in influencing the hydrological behavior of the crust. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role that EPSs play in the physiology of the phototrophic community residing on a light crust (without mosses or lichens, thus mainly inhabited by cyanobacteria and algae). In particular it was investigated whether the three-dimensional matrix in which EPSs are organized allowed light distribution and diffusion inside the crust, thus influencing photosynthesis. Non-invasive techniques were used to extract the polymeric matrix and to analyze photosynthetic performances in native and extracted BSC samples. Preliminary results suggested that the mild extraction protocol allowed to remove a portion of the matrix, and that this treatment revealed highly significant differences in the optical properties of the crusts comparing native and extracted samples. The extraction did not affect cell viability, as samples after the extraction were still photosynthetically active. However, chlorophyll variable fluorescence was significantly lower in the extracted samples than in native ones, and susceptibility to photoinhibition was significantly modified. Evaluating the role of the EPSs in the community is essential to further understand the

  11. Physiological-Cognitive-Emotional Responses to Defense-Arousing Communication: Overview and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    A 328-item checklist, suitable for the self-reporting of responses to any stimulus event, was administered to 107 upper division college students in an attempt to investigate the physiological-cognitive-emotional responses to defense arousing communication and to discover a greater range of the key features of the phenomena of "defensiveness."…

  12. Student Response (Clicker) Systems: Preferences of Biomedical Physiology Students in Asian Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Isabel; Wong, Kevin; Lam, Shun Leung; Lam, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Student response systems (commonly called "clickers") are valuable tools for engaging students in classroom interactions. In this study, we investigated the use of two types of response systems (a traditional clicker and a mobile device) by students in human physiology courses. Our results showed high student satisfaction with the use of…

  13. The Role of Emotional Responses and Physiological Reactivity in the Marital Conflict-Child Functioning Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems. Method: One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument,…

  14. Study of physiological and behavioral response to transitions between rotating and nonrotating environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Future manned space missions may require transition between artificial gravity and weightlessness environments. The frequency and rate of such transition will influence the psychophysiological responses of man. Abrupt transfers are examined between such rotating and nonrotating environments to determine the physiological and behavioral responses of man. Five subjects were tested using rates of rotation up to 5 rpm.

  15. Tail docking in pigs: acute physiological and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Bryer, P J; Krebs, N; McGlone, J J

    2008-02-01

    Tail docking of piglets is a routine procedure on farms to control tail-biting behaviour; however, docking can cause an acute stress response. The objectives of this research were to determine the stress responses to tail docking in piglets and to compare two methods of tail docking; cautery iron (CAUT) and the more commonly used blunt trauma cutters (BT). At approximately 6 days of age, piglets were tail docked using CAUT (n = 20), BT (n = 20) or sham tail docked with their tails remaining intact (CON; n = 40). Blood samples were taken prior to tail docking and at 30, 60 and 90 min after tail docking to evaluate the effect of tail docking on white blood cell (WBC) measures and cortisol concentrations. The above experiment was repeated to observe behaviour without the periodic blood sampling, so as not to confound the effects of blood sampling on piglet behaviour. Piglet behaviour was recorded in the farrowing crate using 1 min scan-samples via live observations for 60 min prior to and 90 min after tail docking. Total WBC counts were reduced (P > 0.05) among BT and CAUT compared with CON piglets 30 min after tail docking. Cortisol concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) among BT compared with CON and CAUT piglets 60 min after tail docking. Cautery and BT-docked piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time posterior scooting compared with CON piglets between 0 and 15 min, and 31 and 45 min after tail docking. Piglets tail docked using CAUT and BT tended to spend more (P < 0.07) time sitting than CON piglets between 0 and 15 min post tail docking. Elevated blood cortisol can be reduced by the use of the CAUT rather than the BT method of tail docking. Although the tail docking-induced rise in cortisol was prevented by using CAUT, the behavioural response to BT and CAUT docking methods was similar. PMID:22445023

  16. Cardiovascular responses to glucagon - Physiologic measurement by external recordings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, M. J.; Pigott, V.; Spodick, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    Assessment by noninvasive polygraphic techniques of the cardiovascular responses of normal subjects to intravenous injections of glucagon and glucagon diluent. A blinding procedure which eliminated observer bias was used during the reading of tracings. Analysis of group results showed that glucagon provoked uniformly significant changes, including increase in heart rate, blood pressure, pressure-rate product, and ejection time index, and decrease in prejection period, mechanical and electromechanical systole, left ventricular ejection time, and the ratio PEP/LVET. The principal results correlated well with those of previous studies of the hemodynamic effects of glucagon.

  17. Physiological responses at five estimates of critical velocity.

    PubMed

    Bull, Anthony J; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Rana, Sharon R

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare critical velocity (CV) estimates from five mathematical models, and to examine the oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) responses during treadmill runs at the five estimates of CV. Ten subjects (six males and four females) performed one incremental test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and four or five randomly ordered constant-velocity trials on a treadmill for the estimation of CV. Five mathematical models were used to estimate CV for each subject including two linear, two nonlinear, and an exponential model. Up to five randomly ordered runs to exhaustion were performed by each subject at treadmill velocities that corresponded to the five CV estimates, and VO(2) and HR responses were monitored throughout each trial. The 3-parameter, nonlinear (Non-3) model produced CV estimates that were significantly (P < 0.05) less than the other four models. During runs at CV estimates, five subjects did not complete 60 min at the their estimate from the Non-3 model, nine did not complete 60 min at their estimate from the Non-2 model, and no subjects completed 60 min at any estimate from the other three models. The mean HR value (179 +/- 18 beats min(-1), HR(peak)) at the end of runs at CV using the Non-3 model was significantly less than the maximal HR (195 +/- 7 beats min(-1), HR(max)) achieved during the incremental trial to exhaustion. However, mean HR(peak) values from runs at all other CV estimates were not significantly different from HR(max). Furthermore, data indicated that mean HR(peak) values increased during runs at CV estimates from the third minute to the end of exercise for all models, and that these increases in VO(2) (range = 367-458 ml min(-1)) were significantly greater than that typically associated with O(2) drift ( approximately 200 ml min(-1)) for all but the exponential model, indicating a VO(2) slow component associated with CV estimates from four of the five models. However, the mean VO(2

  18. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response in mammalian physiology

    PubMed Central

    Mottis, Adrienne; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Auwerx, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the main site of cellular energy harvesting, are derived from proteobacteria that evolved within our cells in endosymbiosis. Mitochondria retained vestiges of their proteobacterial genome, the circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes 13 subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) multiprotein complexes in the electron transport chain (ETC), while the remaining ~80 ETC components are encoded in the nuclear DNA (nDNA). A further ~1,400 proteins, which are essential for mitochondrial function are also encoded in nDNA. Thus the majority of mitochondrial proteins are translated in the cytoplasm, then imported, processed, and assembled in the mitochondria. An intricate protein quality control (PQC) network, constituted of chaperones and proteases that refold or degrade defective proteins, maintains mitochondrial proteostasis and ensures the cell and organism health. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is a relatively recently discovered PQC pathway, which senses the proteostatic disturbances specifically in the mitochondria and resolves the stress by retrograde signaling to the nucleus and consequent transcriptional activation of protective genes. This PQC system does not only transiently resolves the local stress, but can have long lasting effects on whole body metabolism, fitness and longevity. A delicate tuning of its activation levels might constitute a treatment of various diseases, such as metabolic diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24898297

  19. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  20. Effects of coping and cooperative instructions on guilty and informed innocents' physiological responses to concealed information.

    PubMed

    Zvi, Liza; Nachson, Israel; Elaad, Eitan

    2012-05-01

    Previous research on the Concealed Information Test indicates that knowledge of the critical information of a given event is sufficient for the elicitation of strong physiological reactions, thus facilitating detection by the test. Other factors that affect the test's efficacy are deceptive verbal responses to the test's questions and motivation of guilty examinees to avoid detection. In the present study effects of coping and cooperative instructions - delivered to guilty and innocent participants - on detection were examined. In a mock-theft experiment guilty participants who actually committed a mock-crime, and informed innocent participants who handled the critical items of the crime in an innocent context, were instructed to adopt either a coping or a cooperative attitude toward the polygraph test. Results indicated that both, guilt and coping behavior, were associated with enhanced physiological responses to the critical information, whereas innocence and cooperative behavior attenuated physiological responses. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22330977

  1. Growth, physiological and biochemical response of ponderosa pine pinus ponderosa' to ozone. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989 and 1990, the effects of multi-year ozone exposures on growth, foliar injury and physiological responses in ponderosa pine were examined. Two-year old seedlings were exposed to four ozone treatments in open-top chambers: clean air (subambient levels of oxidants and particles); ambient ozone; twice-ambient ozone; or ambient air. The study was performed at Shirley Meadow in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both years, ambient ozone levels were representative of other forests in the region. While ozone is the most phytotoxic air pollutant, seedlings also experienced elevated concentrations of nitric acid and ammonia. In 1990, ambient ozone significantly increased injury to previous year needles. Premature senescence and alterations in physiological responses were also noted. Exposure to twice-ambient ozone reduced seedling biomass, increased injury and caused decreases in a variety of physiological responses.

  2. Physiological responses to water stress and waterlogging in Nothofagus species.

    PubMed

    Sun, O J; Sweet, G B; Whitehead, D; Buchan, G D

    1995-10-01

    Gas exchange and water relations were investigated in Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (Hook. f.) Poole (mountain beech) and Nothofagus menziesii (Hook. f.) Oerst (silver beech) seedlings in response to water stress and waterlogging. At soil matric potentials (Psi(soil)) above -0.005 MPa, N. solandri had significantly higher photosynthetic rates (A), and stomatal and residual conductances (g(sw) and g(rc)), and lower predawn xylem water potentials (Psi(predawn)) than N. menziesii. The relative tolerance of plants to water stress was defined in terms of critical soil matric potential (Psi(cri)) and lethal xylem water potential (Psi(lethal)). The estimated values of Psi(cri) and Psi(lethal) were -1.2 and -7 MPa, respectively, for N. solandri, and -0.7 and -4 MPa, respectively, for N. menziesii. Photosynthesis was sustained to a xylem water potential (Psi(xylem)) of -7 MPa in N. solandri compared with -4 MPa in N. menziesii. Following rewatering, both A and Psi(xylem) recovered quickly in N. solandri, whereas the two variables recovered more slowly in N. menziesii. During the development of water stress, nonstomatal inhibition significantly affected A in both N. solandri and N. menziesii. Nothofagus menziesii was more susceptible to inhibition of A by waterlogging than N. solandri. However, the tolerance of N. solandri to severe waterlogging was also limited as a result of a failure to form adventitious roots, suggesting a lack of adaptation to these conditions. The differences in tolerance to water stress and waterlogging between the two species are consistent with the distribution patterns of N. solandri and N. menziesii in New Zealand. PMID:14965996

  3. Striking a Balance in Communicating Pharmacogenetic Test Results: Promoting Comprehension and Minimizing Adverse Psychological and Behavioral Response

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Susanne B.; Mills, Rachel; Bosworth, Hayden

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing can provide information about a patient’s likelihood to respond to a medication or experience an adverse event, and be used to inform medication selection and/or dosing. Promoting patient comprehension of PGx test results will be important to improving engagement and understanding of treatment decisions Methods The discussion in this paper is based on our experiences and the literature on communication of genetic test results for disease risk and broad risk communication strategies. Results Clinical laboratory reports often describe PGx test results using standard terminology such as ‘poor metabolizer’ or ‘ultra-rapid metabolizer.’ While this type of terminology may promote patient recall with its simple, yet descriptive nature, it may be difficult for some patients to comprehend and/or cause adverse psychological or behavioral responses. Conclusion The language used to communicate results and their significance to patients will be important to consider in order to minimize confusion and potential psychological consequences such as increased anxiety that can adversely impact medication-taking behaviors. Practice Implications Due to patients’ unfamiliarity with PGx testing and the potential for confusion, adverse psychological effects, and decreased medication adherence, health providers need to be cognizant of the language used in discussing PGx test results with patients. PMID:24985359

  4. Deciphering the metabolic pathways influencing heat and cold responses during post-harvest physiology of peach fruit.

    PubMed

    Lauxmann, Martin A; Borsani, Julia; Osorio, Sonia; Lombardo, Verónica A; Budde, Claudio O; Bustamante, Claudia A; Monti, Laura L; Andreo, Carlos S; Fernie, Alisdair R; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V

    2014-03-01

    Peaches are highly perishable and deteriorate quickly at ambient temperature. Cold storage is commonly used to prevent fruit decay; however, it affects fruit quality causing physiological disorders collectively termed 'chilling injury' (CI). To prevent or ameliorate CI, heat treatment is often applied prior to cold storage. In the present work, metabolic profiling was performed to determine the metabolic dynamics associated with the induction of acquired CI tolerance in response to heat shock. 'Dixiland' peach fruits exposed to 39 °C, cold stored, or after a combined treatment of heat and cold, were compared with fruits ripening at 20 °C. Dramatic changes in the levels of compatible solutes such as galactinol and raffinose were observed, while amino acid precursors of the phenylpropanoid pathway were also modified due to the stress treatments, as was the polyamine putrescine. The observed responses towards temperature stress in peaches are composed of both common and specific response mechanisms to heat and cold, but also of more general adaptive responses that confer strategic advantages in adverse conditions such as biotic stresses. The identification of such key metabolites, which prime the fruit to cope with different stress situations, will likely greatly accelerate the design and the improvement of plant breeding programs. PMID:23937123

  5. Assessing cross-partner associations in physiological responses via coupled oscillator models.

    PubMed

    Helm, Jonathan L; Sbarra, David; Ferrer, Emilio

    2012-08-01

    A host of theoretical frameworks suggest associations of physiological signals between two individuals within a romantic relationship. However, few studies have provided empirical evidence of such associations using physiological reactivity from both partners in the dyad. In this study we use measures of respiration and heart rate from romantic partners recorded across three laboratory tasks. We examine the interrelations of each measure between both dyad members using coupled linear oscillators (Boker & Nesselroade, 2002). These models were used to capture oscillations in respiration and heart rate, and to examine interdependence in the physiological signals between both partners. Results show that associations were detectable within all three tasks, with different patterns of coupling within each task. Discussion centers on ways to investigate the synchrony of physiological responses across within relationships, including the promises of and obstacles for doing so. PMID:21910541

  6. [Physiological and growth responses of Sabina vulgaris to disturbance of leaf removal].

    PubMed

    He, W

    2001-04-01

    To examine the physiological and growth responses to Sabina vulgaris to natural disturbance, a field experiment to simulate the grazing and pest disturbance was conducted in Maowusu sandy land through artificially removing leaves. The disturbance of leaf removal could modify the species' diurnal physiological dynamics through changing the timing of extreme values, and moreover, change the average daily values of physiological indexes significantly. Leaf removal could affect the growth traits, but not biomass allocation significantly. The consequences of the disturbance were confined by its means and intensity, and there existed significant differences in sensitivity of different physiological and growth characteristics e.g., net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate to leaf removal. The disturbance of leaf removal, especially that of old leaf removal, had compensation effects. Therefore, moderately removing the leaves on the shoots with less than 2 years old could enhance the growth and the biomass accumulation of current-year shoots. PMID:11757356

  7. Physiological Responses to Salinity Vary with Proximity to the Ocean in a Coastal Amphibian.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Gareth R; Brodie, Edmund D; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Brusch, George A; Hopkins, Zoë M; French, Susannah S

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater organisms are increasingly exposed to elevated salinity in their habitats, presenting physiological challenges to homeostasis. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to osmotic stress and yet are often subject to high salinity in a variety of inland and coastal environments around the world. Here, we examine the physiological responses to elevated salinity of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) inhabiting a coastal stream on the Pacific coast of North America and compare the physiological responses to salinity stress of newts living in close proximity to the ocean with those of newts living farther upstream. Although elevated salinity significantly affected the osmotic (body weight, plasma osmolality), stress (corticosterone), and immune (bactericidal ability) responses of newts, animals found closer to the ocean were generally less reactive to salt stress than those found farther upstream. Our results provide possible evidence for some physiological tolerance in this species to elevated salinity in coastal environments. As freshwater environments become increasingly saline and more stressful, understanding the physiological tolerances of vulnerable groups such as amphibians will become increasingly important to our understanding of their abilities to respond, to adapt, and, ultimately, to survive. PMID:27327182

  8. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference. PMID:10519843

  9. Physiological correlates of the big 5: autonomic responses to video presentations.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, Claudia Chloe; Kothuri, Ravi; Marci, Carl; Siefert, Caleb; Pfaff, Donald D

    2013-12-01

    Personality's link to emotional experience has been demonstrated, but specific biological responses to emotion as a function of personality have not been well-established. Here, the association between personality and physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance, and respiration) to emotional videos was assessed. One-hundred sixty-nine participants self-reported on their Big 5 personality traits and underwent ambulatory monitoring as they watched four brief video clips from primetime television content showing scenes containing violence, fear, sadness, and tension. Generally, the negatively-toned emotional scenes provoked increases in skin conductance response and declines in heart rate. We found that physiological outcomes depended on the particular emotional scene and on personality, most notably Extraversion and Neuroticism. Extraversion, and to a lesser degree, Neuroticism, were associated with increases in autonomic arousal responses to the scenes. Gender also interacted with personality to predict responses, such that women who scored higher on measures of Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientious tended to show more physiological arousal than men. Overall, the emotional scenes evoked increases in arousal and more controlled attention. The findings are discussed in context of the limited capacity model and shed light on how personality and gender affect physiological reactions to emotional experiences in everyday life. PMID:24129901

  10. Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Kunz, Hawley; Sams, Clarence F.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the effect of space travel on the human immune system has proven to be extremely challenging. Limited opportunities for in-flight studies, varying mission durations, technical and logistical obstacles, small subject numbers, and a broad range of potential assays have contributed to this problem. Additionally, the inherent complexity of the immune system, with its vast array of cell populations, sub-populations, diverse regulatory molecules, and broad interactions with other physiological systems, makes determining precise variables to measure very difficult. There is also the challenge of determining the clinical significance of any observed immune alterations. Will such a change lead to disease, or is it a transient subclinical observation related to short-term stress? The effect of this problem may be observed by scanning publications associated with immunity and spaceflight, which began to appear during the 1970s. Although individually they are each valid studies, the comprehensive literature to date suffers from widely varying sampling methods and assay techniques, low subject counts, and sometimes a disparate focus on narrow aspects of immunity. The most clinically relevant data are derived from in-flight human studies, which have demonstrated altered cell-mediated immunity and reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Much more data are available from post-flight testing of humans, with clear evidence of altered cytokine production patterns, altered leukocyte distribution, continued latent viral reactivation, and evidence of dramatically altered virus-specific immunity. It is unknown if post-flight assessments relate to the in-flight condition or are a response to landing stress and readaptation. In-flight culture of cells has clearly demonstrated that immune cells are gravity-sensitive and display altered functional characteristics. It is unknown if these data are related to in vivo immune cell function or are an artifact of microgravity culture

  11. Virological Response and Muscular Adverse Events during Long-Term Clevudine Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Kook; Ko, Soon Young; Kwon, So Young; Park, Eugene; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Lee, Chang Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, several reports issued clevudine induced myopathy in the long term use. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate antiviral effects and adverse events of clevudine monotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Patients and Methods The subjects were 110 treatment-naïve CHB patients. They were treated with 30 mg clevudine/day for more than six months. Virological and biochemical tests, including that for serum creatine kinase (CK), were monitored at baseline and at 3-month intervals during treatment period. Results In HBeAg-positive patients, the cumulative rates of virological response were 74.0 %, 68.5 %, and 67.3 % after one, two, and three years of clevudine treatment, respectively. Cumulative rates of HBeAg loss or seroconversion were 17.8 %, 30 %, and 31.5 % after one, two and, three years of clevudine treatment, respectively. In HBeAg-negative patients, the cumulative rates of virological response were 97.3 %, 100 %, and 94.6 %, respectively. Virological breakthrough occurred in 27 patients. The rtM204I mutation in HBV polymerase was predominantly detected. Muscular adverse events were observed in 15 patients. All patients with myopathy recovered after the cessation of clevudine monotherapy. Fluctuations in CK level during the clevudine treatment period were frequently observed irrespective of development of myopathy. Multiple episodes of CK elevation were significantly related to the development of myopathy. Conclusions Long-term clevudine monotherapy is effective for suppression of serum HBV DNA level and normalization of serum alanine amino transaminase levels, but associated with occurrence of rtM204I mutation. Clevudine-induced muscular adverse events are not uncommon, although they are totally reversible after cessation of the treatment. Muscular adverse events and serum CK level should be carefully monitored during long-term treatment with clevudine. PMID:23805155

  12. Maternal separation modulates short-term behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response.

    PubMed

    Litvin, Yoav; Tovote, Philip; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Zeyda, Thomas; King, Lanikea B; Vasconcellos, Amy J; Dunlap, Christopher; Spiess, Joachim; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-07-01

    Early-life stress produces an anxiogenic profile in adulthood, presumably by activating the otherwise quiescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the vulnerable 'stress hyporesponsive period'. While the long-term effects of such early-life manipulations have been extensively characterized, little is known of the short-term effects. Here, we compared the short-term effects of two durations of maternal separation stress and one unseparated group (US) on behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response in rat pups. Separations included 3h on each of 12days, from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 13 (MS2-13) and 3days of daily, 6-h separation from PND11-13 (MS11-13). On PND14 (Experiment 1), both MS2-13 and MS11-13 produced marked reductions in freezing toward an adult male conspecific along with reduced levels of glucocorticoid type 2 (GR) and CRF type-1 (CRF(1)) receptor mRNA in the hippocampus. Group MS2-13 but not MS11-13 produced deficits in stressor-induced corticosterone secretion, accompanied by reductions in body weight. Our results suggest that GR and/or CRF(1) levels, not solely the magnitude of corticosterone secretion, may be involved in the modulation of freezing. In a second experiment, we aimed to extend these findings by testing male and female separated and unseparated pups' unconditioned defensive behaviors to cat odor on PND26, and subsequent cue+context conditioning and extinction throughout postnatal days 27-32. Our results show that maternal separation produced reductions in unconditioned freezing on PND26, with MS2-13 showing stronger deficits than MS11-13. However, separation did not affect any other defensive behaviors. Furthermore, separated rats failed to show conditioned freezing, although they did avoid the no-odor block conditioned cue. There were no sex differences other than weight. We suggest that maternal separation may have produced these changes by disrupting normal development of hippocampal regions involved in

  13. FDG-PET imaging for the assessment of physiologic volume response during radiotherapy in cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lilie L.; Yang Zhiyun; Mutic, Sasa; Miller, Tom R.; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the physiologic tumor volume response during treatment in cervical cancer using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of 32 patients. Physiologic tumor volume in cubic centimeters was determined from the FDG-PET images using the 40% threshold method. Results: The mean pretreatment tumor volume was 102 cm{sup 3}. The mean volume by clinical Stages I, II, and III were 54, 79, and 176 cm{sup 3}, respectively. After 19.8 Gy external irradiation to the pelvis, the reduction in tumor volume was 29% (72 cm{sup 3}). An additional 13 Gy from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy reduced the mean volume to 15.4 cm{sup 3}, and this was subsequently reduced to 8.6 cm{sup 3} with 13 Gy additional HDR brachytherapy (26 Gy, HDR). Four patients had physiologic FDG uptake in the cervix at 3 months after the completion of therapy. The mean time to the 50% reduction in physiologic tumor volume was 19.9 days and after combined external irradiation and HDR to 24.9 Gy. Conclusion: These results indicate that physiologic tumor volume determination by FDG-PET is feasible and that a 50% physiologic tumor volume reduction occurs within 20 days of starting therapy.

  14. Molecular and physiological responses to long-term sublethal ammonia exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the underlying physiological and molecular responses to long-term sublethal ammonia exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Previous studies have pre- dominately focused on mechanisms during acute, short-term exposure. For that purpose Atlantic s...

  15. Sugarcane growth and physiological responses to water deficit stress on organic and sand soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotype selection has been more successful for organic (muck) than sand soils in Florida, perhaps due to differences in water availability. A greenhouse study was conducted at Canal Point, Florida to compare sugarcane physiological responses to water deficit stress during...

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI') TO ACUTE FENVALERATE INTOXICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physiological responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to fenvalerate intoxication during aqueous exposure were examined to provide information about the pyrethroid mode of action in fish. Trout (n = 4) were exposed to 412 + or - 50 micro/liter fenvalerate and died in 10....

  17. Integrated analysis of the genomic, biochemical, and physiological responses of a model ecosystem to global change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim is to understand and integrate the molecular, biochemical, physiological and ecological responses of plants in the field to factors of global climate change. This research used Free Air-gas Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology to enrich [CO2] and [O3] to levels predicted for 2050, in a...

  18. Renal Response to Volume Expansion: Learning the Experimental Approach in the Context of Integrative Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Robert L.; Dukacz, Stephen A. W.; Stavraky, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experience for upper-level science students that provides a hands-on approach to understanding the basics of experimental physiology. Students design an experiment to determine the relative importance of dilution of plasma proteins in the overall renal excretory response following volume expansion with intravenous saline.…

  19. PLANT CULTURAL SYSTEM FOR MONITORING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plant culture system incorporating the water-table root-screen method for controlling plant water status was adapted for use in open-top field exposure chambers for studying the effects of drought stress on physiological responses. The daily transpiration rates of the plants we...

  20. The Physiologic Response to Stress and its Effects on Swine Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When exposed to a stressor, swine invoke behavioral and physiologic responses which are designed to enable the individual to cope with the negative effects of the stressor. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is increased resulting in elevated corticotropic releasing factor (CRF)...

  1. PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

  2. Different Behavioral and Physiological Response in two Genetic Lines of Laying Hens Following Transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and behavioral response to transportation stress were examined in chickens selected for high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) resulting from reduced cannibalism and flightiness in colony cages and in chickens from Dekalb XL (DXL) commercial strain. At 13 wks of age, 96 pulle...

  3. Physiologic Responses of Able-Bodied and Paraplegic Males to Maximal Arm Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    A study compared physiologic responses of healthy paraplegic males to those of healthy, able-bodied males during maximal arm ergometry. Fifteen able-bodied, healthy adult males and 13 healthy adult male paraplegics followed an exercise program involving heart rate, increased exercise loads, and oxygen uptake. Results from an analysis of the data…

  4. Physiological and metabolic responses of gestating Brahaman cows to repeated transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and metabolic responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows into temperament groups of Calm, Intermediate, or Temperamental. Brahman cows (n = 48) were subjected to 2 hours of transport (TRA...

  5. Physiological responses of hard red winter wheat to infection by wheat streak mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) causes significant yield loss in hard red winter wheat in the U.S. Southern High Plains. Despite the prevalence of this pathogen, little is known about the physiological response of wheat to WSMV infection. A 2-year study was initiated to (i) investigate the effect o...

  6. Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GROWTH RESPONSES OF DIFFERENTIALLY IRRIGATED COTTON TO OZONE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to determine the physiological and growth responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to the interaction of ozone (O3) and drought stress. Cotton (cv SJ-2) was grown in open-top chambers in the field at three levels of soil water and exposed to charcoal-fi...

  8. Plant physiological response of strawberry fruit to chlorine dioxide gas treatment during postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine dioxide, a strong oxidizing and sanitizing agent, is used as a postharvest sanitizer for fruits and vegetables and generally applied on a packing line using a chlorine dioxide generator. The objective of this research was to study the physiological responses of strawberries to ClO2 when app...

  9. Effects of camelina meal supplementation on ruminal forage degradability, performance, and physiological responses of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments compared ruminal, physiological, and performance responses of beef steers consuming hay ad libitum and receiving grain-based supplements without (CO) or with (CAM) the inclusion of camelina meal. In Exp. 1, 9 steers fitted with ruminal cannulas received CAM (2.04 kg of DM/d; n = 5)...

  10. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  11. Physiological Responses to Child Stimuli in Mothers with and without a Childhood History of Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanova, Gisele M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological responses of 13 mothers with and 17 mothers without a childhood history of physical abuse to videotape presentations of an infant smiling or crying. Mothers who had been abused showed increased skin conductance while viewing the smiling infant, whereas mothers without a history of abuse showed increased…

  12. The effects of autism and alexithymia on physiological and verbal responsiveness to music.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rory; Davis, Rob; Hill, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    It has been suggested that individuals with autism will be less responsive to the emotional content of music than typical individuals. With the aim of testing this hypothesis, a group of high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum was compared with a group of matched controls on two measures of emotional responsiveness to music, comprising physiological and verbal measures. Impairment in participants ability to verbalize their emotions (type-II alexithymia) was also assessed. The groups did not differ significantly on physiological responsiveness, but the autism group was significantly lower on the verbal measure. However, inclusion of the alexithymia score as a mediator variable nullified this group difference, suggesting that the difference was due not to absence of underlying emotional responsiveness to music in autism, but to a reduced ability to articulate it. PMID:22752845

  13. The physiological response of the Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi) to longline capture.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Edward J; Mandelman, John W; Sloman, Katherine A; Liss, Stephanie; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J; Skomal, Gregory B; Philipp, David P; Sims, David W; Suski, Cory D

    2012-06-01

    Longline fishing is the most common elasmobranch capture method around the world, yet the physiological consequences of this technique are poorly understood. To quantify the sub-lethal effects of longline capture in the commonly exploited Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi), 37 individuals were captured using standard, mid-water longlines. Hook timers provided hooking duration to the nearest minute. Once sharks were landed, blood samples were taken and used to measure a suite of physiological parameters. Control data were obtained by sampling an additional three unrestrained Caribbean reef sharks underwater at an established shark feeding site. The greatest level of physiological disruption occurred after 120-180min of hooking, whereas sharks exposed to minimal and maximal hook durations exhibited the least disturbed blood chemistry. Significant relationships were established between hooking duration and blood pH, pCO(2), lactate, glucose, plasma calcium and plasma potassium. Longline capture appears more benign than other methods assessed to date, causing a shift in the stress response from acute at the onset of capture to a sub-acute regime as the capture event progresses, apparently facilitating a degree of physiological recovery. Continued investigation into the physiological response of elasmobranchs to longline capture is vital for the effective management of such fisheries. PMID:21601646

  14. Acute Physiological Responses to Strongman Training Compared to Traditional Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel K; Woulfe, Colm J; Wood, Matthew R; Dulson, Deborah K; Gluchowski, Ashley K; Keogh, Justin B

    2016-05-01

    Harris, NK, Woulfe, CJ, Wood, MR, Dulson, DK, Gluchowski, AK, and Keogh, JB. Acute physiological responses to strongman training compared to traditional strength training. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1397-1408, 2016-Strongman training (ST) has become an increasingly popular modality, but data on physiological responses are limited. This study sought to determine physiological responses to an ST session compared to a traditional strength exercise training (RST) session. Ten healthy men (23.6 ± 27.5 years, 85.8 ± 10.3 kg) volunteered in a crossover design, where all participants performed an ST session, an RST session, and a resting session within 7 days apart. The ST consisted of sled drag, farmer's walk, 1 arm dumbbell clean and press, and tire flip at loads eliciting approximately 30 seconds of near maximal effort per set. The RST consisted of squat, deadlift, bench press, and power clean, progressing to 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Sessions were equated for approximate total set duration. Blood lactate and salivary testosterone were recorded immediately before and after training sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were measured throughout the resting session, both training protocols and for 80 minutes after training sessions. Analyses were conducted to determine differences in physiological responses within and between protocols. No significant changes in testosterone occurred at any time point for either session. Lactate increased significantly immediately after both sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were all elevated significantly during ST and RST. Heart rate and fat expenditure were significantly elevated compared to resting in both sessions' recovery periods; calorie and carbohydrate expenditures were not. Compared to RST, ST represents an equivalent physiological stimulus on key parameters indicative of potential training-induced adaptive responses. Such adaptations could conceivably

  15. How Attributional Ambiguity Shapes Physiological and Emotional Responses to Social Rejection and Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Wendy Berry; McCoy, Shannon; Major, Brenda; Blascovich, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined White and Black participants’ emotional, physiological, and behavioral responses to same-race or different-race evaluators, following rejecting social feedback or accepting social feedback. As expected, in ingroup interactions, the authors observed deleterious responses to social rejection and benign responses to social acceptance. Deleterious responses included cardiovascular (CV) reactivity consistent with threat states and poorer performance, whereas benign responses included CV reactivity consistent with challenge states and better performance. In intergroup interactions, however, a more complex pattern of responses emerged. Social rejection from different-race evaluators engendered more anger and activational responses, regardless of participants’ race. In contrast, social acceptance produced an asymmetrical race pattern—White participants responded more positively than did Black participants. The latter appeared vigilant and exhibited threat responses. Discussion centers on implications for attributional ambiguity theory and potential pathways from discrimination to health outcomes. PMID:18211177

  16. Mechanosignaling in the vasculature: emerging concepts in sensing, transduction and physiological responses

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Keigi; Pérez, Néstor Gustavo; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Fisher, Aron B.

    2015-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to mechanical forces that play a role in modulating cellular structure and function. The cardiovascular system experiences physical forces in the form of shear stress and stretch associated with blood flow and contraction, respectively. These forces are sensed by endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes and lead to responses that control vascular and cardiac homeostasis. This was highlighted at the Pan American Physiological Society meeting at Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in a symposium titled “Mechanosignaling in the Vasculature.” This symposium presented recent research that showed the existence of a vital link between mechanosensing and downstream redox sensitive signaling cascades. This link helps to transduce and transmit the physical force into an observable physiological response. The speakers showcased how mechanosensors such as ion channels, membrane receptor kinases, adhesion molecules, and other cellular components transduce the force via redox signals (such as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide) to receptors (transcription factors, growth factors, etc.). Receptor activated pathways then lead to cellular responses including cellular proliferation, contraction, and remodeling. These responses have major relevance to the physiology and pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases. Thus an understanding of the complex series of events, from the initial sensing through the final response, is essential for progress in this field. Overall, this symposium addressed some important emerging concepts in the field of mechanosignaling and the eventual pathophysiological responses. PMID:25862828

  17. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient

  18. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sweety; Krug, Susanne; Skurk, Thomas; Halama, Anna; Stank, Antonia; Artati, Anna; Prehn, Cornelia; Malek, Joel A; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Adamski, Jerzy; Hauner, Hans; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient

  19. Physiological responses of the European cockle Cerastoderma edule (Bivalvia: Cardidae) as indicators of coastal lagoon pollution.

    PubMed

    Nilin, Jeamylle; Pestana, João Luís Teixeira; Ferreira, Nuno Gonçalo; Loureiro, Susana; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2012-10-01

    Physiological responses can be used as effective parameters to identify environmentally stressful conditions. In this study, physiology changes such as oxygen consumption, clearance rate, survival in air, condition index and energy reserves were measured on natural populations of cockles collected from different sites at Ria de Aveiro, Portugal. At those sites, sediment samples were collected for Hg concentration analysis. Cockles were used for the evaluation of both the Hg concentration and physiological response. Mercury was detected in the cockle tissue and in the sediment collected from the sampling points both nearby and distant from the main mercury contamination source. The energy content was negatively correlated with both Hg concentration in cockle tissues and survival in air. Nonetheless, the energy content was positively correlated with the condition index, and there was a positive correlation between the survival in air test and the tissue mercury concentration. A PCA-factor analysis explained 86.8% of the total variance. The principal factor (62.7%) consisted of the air survival, the Hg in soft tissues (positive) and the condition index (negative). The second factor (24.1%) consisted of a negative correlation between the oxygen consumption and the clearance rate. Due to their sensitivity to environmental conditions, the physiological responses of cockles can be used to assess the ecological status of aquatic environments. More effort should be invested in investigating the effects of environmental perturbations on cockle health once they are a good reporter organism. PMID:22846762

  20. Responding to information about children in adversity: ten years of a differential response model in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Harries, Maria; Cant, Rosemary L; Bilson, Andy; Thorpe, David

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a comprehensive database about children in adversity collected over the 16-year period from 1990 to 2005 in the state of Western Australia. The focus of this interrogation is the effect of major changes in responses to information about children brought to the attention of the Western Australian statutory authority in a 10-year period during this 16 years. The initiative for these changes was termed New Directions, and its associated policy and practice changes were aimed at differentiating information expressing concerns about children and families from allegations of child maltreatment. They emphasized the provision of supportive and empowering services to families experiencing difficulties - a form of differential response to children in adversity. The article covers the period leading up to the policy and practice change and the 10 years during which these changes were implemented. It examines some effects of the new policy and comments on whether the changes resulted in missed opportunities to protect children from harm, which in turn, might have led to higher rates of re-reporting. The authors present an overall picture of the nature of the information accepted by the statutory authority and how the interpretation of that information might have affected subsequent outcomes for children. In doing so, it shows that the policy and consequential practice changes associated with a differential response mechanism had long lasting positive effects that, despite dire warnings, did not compromise the protection of the small group of children identified as requiring protective interventions. PMID:25043920

  1. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    PubMed Central

    Buades-Rotger, Macià; Gallardo-Pujol, David

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. PMID:25114607

  2. Physiological Responses and Partisan Bias: Beyond Self-Reported Measures of Party Identification

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Giessing, Ann; Nielsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    People are biased partisans: they tend to agree with policies from political parties they identify with, independent of policy content. Here, we investigate how physiological reactions to political parties shape bias. Using changes in galvanic skin conductance responses to the visual presentation of party logos, we obtained an implicit and physiological measure of the affective arousal associated with political parties. Subsequently, we exposed subjects to classical party cue experiments where the party sponsors of specific policies were experimentally varied. We found that partisan bias only obtains among those exhibiting a strong physiological reaction to the party source; being a self-reported party identifier is not sufficient on its own. This suggests that partisan bias is rooted in implicit, affective reactions. PMID:26010527

  3. Summer and fall ants have different physiological responses to food macronutrient content.

    PubMed

    Cook, Steven C; Eubanks, Micky D; Gold, Roger E; Behmer, Spencer T

    2016-04-01

    Seasonally, long-lived animals exhibit changes in behavior and physiology in response to shifts in environmental conditions, including food abundance and nutritional quality. Ants are long-lived arthropods that, at the colony level, experience such seasonal shifts in their food resources. Previously we reported summer- and fall-collected ants practiced distinct food collection behavior and nutrient intake regulation strategies in response to variable food protein and carbohydrate content, despite being reared in the lab under identical environmental conditions and dietary regimes. Seasonally distinct responses were observed for both no-choice and choice dietary experiments. Using data from these same experiments, our objective here is to examine colony and individual-level physiological traits, colony mortality and growth, food processing, and worker lipid mass, and how these traits change in response to variable food protein-carbohydrate content. For both experiments we found that seasonality per se exerted strong effects on colony and individual level traits. Colonies collected in the summer maintained total worker mass despite high mortality. In contrast, colonies collected in the fall lived longer, and accumulated lipids, including when reared on protein-biased diets. Food macronutrient content had mainly transient effects on physiological responses. Extremes in food carbohydrate content however, elicited a compensatory response in summer worker ants, which processed more protein-biased foods and contained elevated lipid levels. Our study, combined with our previously published work, strongly suggests that underlying physiological phenotypes driving behaviors of summer and fall ants are likely fixed seasonally, and change circannually. PMID:26860359

  4. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Schluter, Philip J; Macey, Katherine E; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes-of-interest (VOI) during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function "lme". Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex response patterns. PMID

  5. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Schluter, Philip J.; Macey, Katherine E.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes-of-interest (VOI) during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function “lme”. Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex response patterns

  6. Physiological changes in response to apnea impact the timing of motor representations: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced physiological arousal in response to breath-holding affects internal clock processes, leading swimmers to underestimate the time spent under apnea. We investigated whether reduced physiological arousal during static apnea was likely to affect the temporal organization of motor imagery (MI). Methods Fourteen inter-regional to national breath-holding athletes mentally and physically performed two 15 m swimming tasks of identical durations. They performed the two sequences in a counterbalanced order, the first while breathing normally using a scuba, the second under apnea. We assessed MI duration immediately after completion of the corresponding task. Athletes performed MI with and without holding breath. Results MI durations (26.1 s ± 8.22) were significantly shorter than actual durations (29.7 s ± 7.6) without holding breath. Apnea increased MI durations by 10% (± 5%). Heart rate decrease in response to breath-holding correlated with MI durations increase (p < .01). Under apnea, participants achieved temporal congruence between MI and PP only when performing MI of the apnea swimming task. Self-report data indicated greater ease when MI was performed in a physiological arousal state congruent with that of the corresponding motor task. Conclusions Physiological arousal affected the durations of MI through its effects on internal clock processes and by impacting the congruency in physiological body states between overt and covert motor performance. Present findings have potential implications with regards to the possibility of preventing underestimation of durations spent under a state of reduced physiological arousal. PMID:24773625

  7. Study of physiological responses to acute carbon monoxide exposure with a human patient simulator.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Whitney A; Caruso, Dominique M; Zyka, Enela L; Schroff, Stuart T; Evans, Charles H; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K

    2006-12-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design, conduct, and present (orally and in written form) their project testing physiological adaptation to an extreme environment. This article is a student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought. While the course instructors remain available for consultation throughout the project, the relatively unstructured framework of the assignment drives the students to create an experiment independently, troubleshoot problems, and interpret the results. The only stipulation of the project is that the students must generate an experiment that is physiologically realistic and that requires them to search out and incorporate appropriate data from primary scientific literature. In this context, the human patient simulator is a viable educational tool for teaching integrative physiology in a laboratory environment by bridging textual information with experiential investigation. PMID:17108253

  8. Physiological and behavioral responses in Drosophila melanogaster to odorants present at different plant maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Versace, Elisabetta; Eriksson, Anna; Rocchi, Federico; Castellan, Irene; Sgadò, Paola; Haase, Albrecht

    2016-09-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds and oviposits on fermented fruit, hence its physiological and behavioral responses are expected to be tuned to odorants abundant during later stages of fruit maturation. We used a population of about two-hundred isogenic lines of D. melanogaster to assay physiological responses (electroantennograms (EAG)) and behavioral correlates (preferences and choice ratio) to odorants found at different stages of fruit maturation. We quantified electrophysiological and behavioral responses of D. melanogaster for the leaf compound β-cyclocitral, as well as responses to odorants mainly associated with later fruit maturation stages. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses were modulated by the odorant dose. For the leaf compound we observed a steep dose-response curve in both EAG and behavioral data and shallower curves for odorants associated with later stages of maturation. Our data show the connection between sensory and behavioral responses and are consistent with the specialization of D. melanogaster on fermented fruit and avoidance of high doses of compounds associated with earlier stages of maturation. Odor preferences were modulated in a non-additive way when flies were presented with two alternative odorants, and combinations of odorants elicited higher responses than single compounds. PMID:27195459

  9. Inflammatory Cytokines as Preclinical Markers of Adverse Responses to Chemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The in vivo cytokine response to chemical stressors is a promising mainstream tool used to assess potential systemic inflammation and immune function changes. Notably, new instrumentation and statistical analysis provide the selectivity and sensitivity to rapidly diff...

  10. Biomechanical and Physiological Response to a Contemporary Soccer Match-Play Simulation.

    PubMed

    Page, Richard M; Marrin, Kelly; Brogden, Chris M; Greig, Matt

    2015-10-01

    The intermittent activity profile of soccer match play increases the complexity of the physical demands. Laboratory models of soccer match play have value in controlled intervention studies, developed around manipulations of the activity profile to elicit a desired physiological or biomechanical response. Contemporary notational analyses suggest a profile comprising clusters of repeat sprint efforts, with implications for both biomechanical and physiological load. Eighteen male soccer players completed a 90-minute treadmill protocol based on clusters of repeat sprint efforts. Each 15-minute bout of exercise was quantified for uniaxial (medial-lateral [PLML], anterior-posterior [PLAP], and vertical [PLV]) and triaxial PlayerLoad (PLTotal). The relative contributions of the uniaxial PlayerLoad vectors (PLML%, PLAP%, and PLV%) were also examined. In addition to rating of perceived exertion, the physiological response comprised heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and both peak and average oxygen consumption. Triaxial PlayerLoad increased (p = 0.02) with exercise duration (T0-15 = 206.26 ± 14.37 a.u. and T45-60 = 214.51 ± 14.97 a.u.) and remained elevated throughout the second half. This fatigue effect was evident in both the PLML and PLAP movement planes. The mean relative contributions of PLV%:PLAP%:PLML% were consistent at ∼48:28:23. The physiological response was comparable with match play, and a similar magnitude of increase at ∼5% was observed in physiological parameters. Changes in PlayerLoad might reflect a change in movement quality with fatigue, with implications for both performance and injury risk, reflecting observations of match play. The high frequency of speed change elicits a 23% contribution from mediolateral load, negating the criticism of treadmill protocols as "linear." PMID:25875368

  11. Social anxiety and response to touch: incongruence between self-evaluative and physiological reactions.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, F H; Kochar, A S; Roth, W T; Gross, J J

    2001-12-01

    Touch is an important form of social interaction, and one that can have powerful emotional consequences. Appropriate touch can be calming, while inappropriate touch can be anxiety provoking. To examine the impact of social touching, this study compared socially high-anxious (N=48) and low-anxious (N=47) women's attitudes concerning social touch, as well as their affective and physiological responses to a wrist touch by a male experimenter. Compared to low-anxious participants, high-anxious participants reported greater anxiety to a variety of social situations involving touch. Consistent with these reports, socially anxious participants reacted to the experimenter's touch with markedly greater increases in self-reported anxiety, self-consciousness, and embarrassment. Physiologically, low-anxious and high-anxious participants showed a distinct pattern of sympathetic-parasympathetic coactivation, as reflected by decreased heart rate and tidal volume, and increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia, skin conductance, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, stroke volume, and respiratory rate. Interestingly, physiological responses were comparable in low and high-anxious groups. These findings indicate that social anxiety is accompanied by heightened aversion towards social situations that involve touch, but this enhanced aversion and negative-emotion report is not reflected in differential physiological responding. PMID:11698114

  12. Physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted bicycle versus a classical bicycle.

    PubMed

    Theurel, J; Theurel, A; Lepers, R

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the physiological responses and the subsequent cognitive performance when riding an electrically assisted (EB) versus a classical (CB) bicycle. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and leg extensor muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded in 10 subjects during a 30-min intermittent cycling exercise performed with EB versus CB. Cognitive performance was evaluated by a mail sorting test, performed at rest and after each cycling session. Averaged oxygen uptake and heat rate were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during EB cycling than during CB cycling. The EMG activities of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were significantly (P < 0.001) greater during CB cycling than during EB cycling. The time to complete the mail sorting test was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter after EB cycling than after CB cycling. Because EB cycling reduced muscle strains and physiological stress, it might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study compared physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted versus a classical bicycle. The results showed that the electrically assisted bicycle led to reduced muscle strains and physiological stress and, therefore, might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. PMID:22506555

  13. The association between supra-physiological levels of estradiol and response patterns to experimental pain.

    PubMed

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Ohel, Gonen; Aronson, Doron; Granot, Michal

    2010-09-01

    The precise mechanism by which gonadal hormones influence pain perception is still obscure. However, no studies have examined experimental pain responses at supra-physiological hormone levels. This study explored the influence of pharmacological estradiol (E2) levels on the stability of pain perception obtained via quantitative sensory testing. A repeated measures design was used with 31 women, treated by a same In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) protocol. Patterns of experimental pain response were assessed in three different sessions (baseline, down regulation, maximal ovarian stimulation). Correlations between hormonal levels (E2, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH)) and pain perceptions were assessed at each session. While in the entire sample the pattern of response to pain stimulations remained unchanged regardless of hormonal manipulations, a greater pain sensitivity was associated with supra-physiological levels of E2 during the maximal ovarian stimulation session (for 47 degrees C stimulation: r=.383, p=0.044). Mixed model repeated measures ANOVA indicated that participants who over-responded to the ovarian stimulation session (E2 > 10,500 pmol/l) showed significant enhanced pain responses under this condition (p=0.004). No correlations between progesterone, LH and experimental pain perception were found in any of the study sessions. Although pain perceptions at different E2 levels remained constant, the enhancement of pain scoring at supra-physiological E2 levels, underscore the possible role of sex hormones in pain modulation and experience. PMID:20194038

  14. Activation of physiological stress responses by a natural reward: Novel vs. repeated sucrose intake.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ann E; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2015-10-15

    Pharmacological rewards, such as drugs of abuse, evoke physiological stress responses, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is not clear to what extent the natural reward of palatable foods elicits similar physiological responses. In order to address this question, HPA axis hormones, heart rate, blood pressure and brain pCREB immunolabeling were assessed following novel and repeated sucrose exposure. Briefly, adult, male rats with ad libitum food and water were given either a single (day 1) or repeated (twice-daily for 14 days) brief (up to 30 min) exposure to a second drink bottle containing 4 ml of 30% sucrose drink vs. water (as a control for bottle presentation). Sucrose-fed rats drank more than water-fed on all days of exposure, as expected. On day 1 of exposure, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma corticosterone, and locomotion were markedly increased by presentation of the second drink bottle regardless of drink type. After repeated exposure (day 14), these responses habituated to similar extents regardless of drink type and pCREB immunolabeling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) also did not vary with drink type, whereas basolateral amygdala pCREB was increased by sucrose intake. Taken together, these data suggest that while sucrose is highly palatable, physiological stress responses were evoked principally by the drink presentation itself (e.g., an unfamiliar intervention by the investigators), as opposed to the palatability of the offered drink. PMID:25747321

  15. Physiological Responses During Matches and Profile of Elite Pencak Silat Exponents

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Tan, Benedict; Teh, Kong Chuan

    2002-01-01

    This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study describing the physiological responses during competitive matches and profile of elite exponents of an emerging martial art sport, pencak silat. Thirty exponents (21 males and 9 females) were involved in the study. Match responses (i.e. heart rate (HR) throughout match and capillary blood lactate concentration, [La], at pre-match and at the end of every round) were obtained during actual competitive duels. Elite silat exponents’ physiological attributes were assessed via anthropometry, vertical jump, isometric grip strength, maximal oxygen uptake, and the Wingate 30 s anaerobic test of the upper and lower body, in the laboratory. The match response data showed that silat competitors’ mean HR was > 84% of estimated HR maximum and levels of [La] ranged from 6.7 - 18.7 mMol-1 during matches. This suggests that competitive silat matches are characterised by high aerobic and anaerobic responses. In comparison to elite taekwondo and judo athletes’ physiological characteristics, elite silat exponents have lower aerobic fitness and grip strength, but greater explosive leg power (vertical jump). Generally, they also possessed a similar anaerobic capability in the lower but markedly inferior anaerobic capability in the upper body. PMID:24748847

  16. Physiological and gene expression responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants differ according to irrigation placement.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Ana; Capote, Nieves; Romero, Fernando; Dodd, Ian C; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on plant physiology and gene expression in roots and leaves, three treatments were implemented in sunflower plants growing with roots split between two compartments: a control (C) treatment supplying 100% of plant evapotranspiration, and two treatments receiving 50% of plant evapotranspiration, either evenly distributed to both compartments (deficit irrigation - DI) or unevenly distributed to ensure distinct wet and dry compartments (partial rootzone drying - PRD). Plants receiving the same amount of water responded differently under the two irrigation systems. After 3 days, evapotranspiration was similar in C and DI, but 20% less in PRD, concomitant with decreased leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and increased leaf xylem ABA concentration. Six water-stress responsive genes were highly induced in roots growing in the drying soil compartment of PRD plants, and their expression was best correlated with local soil water content. On the other hand, foliar gene expression differed significantly from that of the root and correlated better with xylem ABA concentration and Ψleaf. While the PRD irrigation strategy triggered stronger physiological and molecular responses, suggesting a more intense and systemic stress reaction due to local dehydration of the dry compartment of PRD plants, the DI strategy resulted in similar water savings without strongly inducing these responses. Correlating physiological and molecular responses in PRD/DI plants may provide insights into the severity and location of water deficits and may enable a better understanding of long-distance signalling mechanisms. PMID:25219304

  17. Is prenatal childbirth preparation effective in decreasing adverse maternal and neonatal response to labor? A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Hee; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Kim, Sun Kyung; Kim, Seo Hui; Kim, Yun Ju; Han, Jung Yeol; Ahn, Hyun Kyong; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Yang, Jae Hyug; Kim, Moon Young

    2008-04-01

    Sophrology, based on a combination of Western relaxation therapy and Eastern yoga and meditation might decrease maternal stress during labor. This study aimed to evaluate whether prenatal sophrologic childbirth preparation may decrease maternal and neonatal adverse response associated with delivery. In a nested case-control study, 69 nulliparous, singleton pregnant women who underwent an educational course of sophrologic childbirth preparation were compared to 69 nulliparous, singleton, age- and gestational age-matched pregnant women who did not receive any childbirth preparation. All babies were vaginally delivered. Groups were not different (P > 0.05) in the number of neonates born with meconium-stained amniotic fluid as well as in the number of babies with Apgar score < or = 7 at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Duration of labor was not different between groups. The number of women requiring oxytocin and delivering babies with low pH blood levels tended to be lower in the group undergoing sophrologic childbirth preparation, i.e. 58.0% vs 72.5% (P = 0.07) and 1.4% vs 10.9% (P = 0.06), respectively. In conclusion, we were unable to confirm that prenatal sophrologic childbirth preparation has a definitive role in decreasing adverse maternal and fetal response to pain or in shortening labor. Prospective cohort studies with a larger sample size or randomized trials may help to clarify this gap. PMID:18551817

  18. Selenium toxicity from a misformulated dietary supplement, adverse health effects, and the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor.

    PubMed

    Morris, John Steven; Crane, Stacy B

    2013-04-01

    Use of dietary supplements in the U.S. has increased steadily over the last 25 years. While misformulation is uncommon, the consequences can be serious. A March 2008 voluntary market recall removed supplement products responsible for the most serious selenium toxicity outbreak that has occurred in the U.S. We quantified selenium concentrations in the misformulated supplement products, measured the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor, and associated exposure to self-reported selenosis symptoms. Subjects recruited through state health departments and referrals provided samples of the misformulated supplement products, exposure information, monthly toenail and or fingernail clippings or onycholysitic nail fragments, and listed their newly onset adverse health effects attributed to selenium toxicity. Ninety-seven subjects enrolled and submitted at least one test sample. Peak selenium concentrations (up to 18.3 and 44.1 μg/g for toenails and fingernails, respectively) were measured. Multiple samples (52 total) of all six recalled supplement lots were analyzed ranging from 22,300 to 32,200 μg selenium per daily dose. Average consumption was 30.9 ± 13.9 doses; 73 subjects provided follow-up data on selenosis symptoms at 2.50 ± 0.14 years. Nail samples accurately reflect exposure in this selenium toxicity outbreak, which resulted in long-term/permanent adverse health effects. PMID:23538937

  19. Selenium Toxicity from a Misformulated Dietary Supplement, Adverse Health Effects, and the Temporal Response in the Nail Biologic Monitor

    PubMed Central

    Morris, John Steven; Crane, Stacy B.

    2013-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements in the U.S. has increased steadily over the last 25 years. While misformulation is uncommon, the consequences can be serious. A March 2008 voluntary market recall removed supplement products responsible for the most serious selenium toxicity outbreak that has occurred in the U.S. We quantified selenium concentrations in the misformulated supplement products, measured the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor, and associated exposure to self-reported selenosis symptoms. Subjects recruited through state health departments and referrals provided samples of the misformulated supplement products, exposure information, monthly toenail and or fingernail clippings or onycholysitic nail fragments, and listed their newly onset adverse health effects attributed to selenium toxicity. Ninety-seven subjects enrolled and submitted at least one test sample. Peak selenium concentrations (up to 18.3 and 44.1 μg/g for toenails and fingernails, respectively) were measured. Multiple samples (52 total) of all six recalled supplement lots were analyzed ranging from 22,300 to 32,200 μg selenium per daily dose. Average consumption was 30.9 ± 13.9 doses; 73 subjects provided follow-up data on selenosis symptoms at 2.50 ± 0.14 years. Nail samples accurately reflect exposure in this selenium toxicity outbreak, which resulted in long-term/permanent adverse health effects. PMID:23538937

  20. Physiological controversies and methods used to determine fluid responsiveness: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ansari, B M; Zochios, V; Falter, F; Klein, A A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of intravascular fluid status and measurement of fluid responsiveness have become increasingly important in peri-operative medicine and critical care. The objectives of this systematic review and narrative synthesis were to discuss current controversies surrounding fluid responsiveness and describe the merits and limitations of the major cardiac output monitors in clinical use today in terms of usefulness in measuring fluid responsiveness. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (2002-2015); inclusion criteria included comparison with an established reference standard such as pulmonary artery catheter, transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography. Examples of clinical measures include static (such as central venous pressure) and dynamic (such as stroke volume variation and pulse pressure variation) parameters. The static parameters measured were described as having little value; however, the dynamic parameters were shown to be good physiological determinants of fluid responsiveness. Due to heterogeneity of the methods and patient characteristics, we did not perform a meta-analysis. In most studies, precision and limits of agreement (bias ±1.96SD) between determinants of fluid responsiveness measured by different devices were not evaluated, and the definition of fluid responsiveness varied across studies. Future research should focus on the physiological principles that underlie the measurement of fluid responsiveness and the effect of different volume expansion strategies on outcomes. PMID:26459299

  1. Behavioral Avoidance - Will Physiological Insecticide Resistance Level of Insect Strains Affect Their Oviposition and Movement Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Nansen, Christian; Baissac, Olivier; Nansen, Maria; Powis, Kevin; Baker, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural organisms, such as insect herbivores, provide unique opportunities for studies of adaptive evolutionary processes, including effects of insecticides on movement and oviposition behavior. In this study, Brassica leaves were treated with one of two non-systemic insecticides and exposed to two individual strains (referred to as single or double resistance) of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) (DBM) exhibiting physiological resistance. Behavioral responses by these two strains were compared as part of characterizing the relative effect of levels of physiological resistance on the likelihood of insects showing signs of behavioral avoidance. For each DBM strain, we used choice bioassays to quantify two possible types of behavioral avoidance: 1) females ovipositing predominantly on leaf surfaces without insecticides, and 2) larvae avoiding insecticide-treated leaf surfaces. In three-choice bioassays (leaves with no pesticide, 50% coverage with pesticide, or 100% coverage with pesticide), females from the single resistance DBM strain laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% insecticide coverage (both gamma-cyhalothrin and spinetoram). Females from the double resistance DBM strain also laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% gamma-cyhalothrin, while moths did not adjust their oviposition behavior in response to spinetoram. Larvae from the single resistance DBM strain showed a significant increase in mobility in response to both insecticides and avoided insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. On the other hand, DBM larvae from the double resistance strain showed a significant decrease in mobility in response to insecticides, and they did not avoid insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. Our results suggest that pest populations with physiological resistance may show behavioral avoidance, as resistant females avoided oviposition on

  2. The effects of cadence, impact, and step on physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise.

    PubMed

    Darby, L A; Browder, K D; Reeves, B D

    1995-09-01

    The physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise of varied impact (high, low), step (less arm movement vs. more arm movement), and cadence (124 vs. 138 beats.min-1) were investigated. Experienced, female aerobic dancers (N = 16) performed activities that combined the levels of impact and step for 3 trials of 8-min each. Dependent variables included heart rate, percentage of maximal heart rate, oxygen consumption, percentage of maximal oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant Impact x Step interaction whereby oxygen consumption was greater for the high impact-less arm movement activity (jog), while the low impact-more arm movement activity (power jack) was greater for heart rate. The interaction of aerobic dance characteristics (e.g., impact, arm movement) that may alter physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise should be identified in future aerobic dance routines and studies. PMID:7481084

  3. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  4. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Hirut; Abbas, Hamed K.; Fisher, Daniel K.; Bellaloui, Nacer

    2012-01-01

    Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54) at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination. PMID:23202322

  5. Physiological and growth responses to water deficit in the bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Ings, Jennifer; Mur, Luis A. J.; Robson, Paul R. H.; Bosch, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    High yielding perennial biomass crops of the species Miscanthus are widely recognized as one of the most promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and bioproducts. Miscanthus is a C4 grass and thus has relatively high water use efficiency. Cultivated Miscanthus comprises primarily of a single clone, Miscanthus x giganteus, a sterile hybrid between M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis. M. x giganteus is high yielding and expresses desirable combinations of many traits present in the two parental species types; however, it responds poorly to low water availability. To identify the physiological basis of the response to water stress in M. x giganteus and to identify potential targets for breeding improvements we characterized the physiological responses to water-deficit stress in a pot experiment. The experiment has provided valuable insights into the temporal aspects of drought-induced responses of M. x giganteus. Withholding water resulted in marked changes in plant physiology with growth-associated traits among the first affected, the most rapid response being a decline in the rate of stem elongation. A reduction in photosynthetic performance was among the second set of changes observed; indicated by a decrease in stomatal conductance followed by decreases in chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content. Measures reflecting the plant water status were among the last affected by the drought treatment. Metabolite analysis indicated that proline was a drought stress marker in M. x giganteus, metabolites in the proline synthesis pathway were more abundant when stomatal conductance decreased and dry weight accumulation ceased. The outcomes of this study in terms of drought-induced physiological changes, accompanied by a proof-of-concept metabolomics investigation, provide a platform for identifying targets for improved drought-tolerance of the Miscanthus bioenergy crop. PMID:24324474

  6. Similarity in physiological and perceived exertion responses to exercise at continuous and intermittent critical power.

    PubMed

    Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; Okuno, Nilo Massaru; Magalhães Sales, Marcelo; Campbell, Carmen Sílvia Grubert; Simões, Herbert Gustavo; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses [oxygen uptake (VO(2)), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate concentrations ([BLa])] and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) response until exhaustion (TTE) at the continuous (CP(c)) and intermittent (CP(i)) critical power workloads. Ten moderately active men (25.5 ± 4.2 years, 74.1 ± 8.0 kg, 177.6 ± 4.9 cm) participated in this study. The incremental test was applied to determine the highest values of oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), heart rate (HR(max)), blood lactate concentrations ([BLa(max)]), and maximal aerobic power (MAP). Continuous and intermittent exhaustive predictive trials were performed randomly. The hyperbolic relation between power and time was used to estimate CP(c) and CP(i). CP(i) was derived from predictive trial results at an effort and recovery ratio of 30:30 s. Exercise at CP(c) and CP(i) as well as the physiological and RPE responses were measured until exhaustion. The values of physiological variables during CP(c) and CP(i) did not differ in either TTE test and were lower than the VO(2max), HR(max) and [BLa(max)] values. RPE was maximal at the end of exercise at CP(c) and CP(i). There was a high correlation between VO(2max) (L min(-1)) and CP(c) and CP(i) intensities (r ≥ 0.90) and between MAP, CP(c) and CP(i) (r ≥ 0.95). Similar physiological and RPE responses were found at CP(c) and CP(i) for the times analyzed. PMID:21874553

  7. The effect of melody on the physiological responses of heel sticks pain in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Marofi, Maryam; Nikobakht, Farzaneh; Badiee, Zohreh; Golchin, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Background: During health care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), infants undergo extremely painful procedures, which may cause problems, if not controlled, such as changes in the pattern of respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation. The present study aimed to find the effect of melody on the physiological responses of neonates’ heel stick pain. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) for 5 months. Fifty infants were selected through convenient sampling method and were randomly assigned in equal numbers to two groups (n = 25). In the melody group (intervention), a selected melody was played for the infants at a distance of 1 m from them, with a sound intensity of 65 dB, from 3 minutes before, during, and after the heel stick procedure, respectively, and their physiological responses were observed with a monitoring system and recorded at the afore-mentioned time periods. Physiological responses were also recorded in the control group (no intervention) 3 min before, during, and after the heel stick procedure, respectively. Results: Means of respiratory and pulse rates in the melody and control groups showed a significant difference at different time points. But the mean blood oxygen saturation in the melody group showed no significant difference at different time points, although the difference was significant in the control group. Conclusions: The results showed that melody could maintain more balance in some physiological responses of infants, such as the respiratory rate and pulse rate during the Guthrie test. Therefore, melody is recommended to be used to prevent the destructive effects of pain in infants during painful procedures. PMID:26120343

  8. Physiologic responses to water immersion in man: A compendium of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollias, J.; Vanderveer, D.; Dorchak, K. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 221 reports published through December 1973 in the area of physiologic responses to water immersion in man were summarized. The author's abstract or summary was used whenever possible. Otherwise, a detailed annotation was provided under the subheadings: (1) purpose, (2) procedures and methods, (3) results, and (4) conclusions. The annotations are in alphabetical order by first author; author and subject indexes are included. Additional references are provided in the selected bibliography.

  9. Serum Response Factor Mediated Gene Activity in Physiological and Pathological Processes of Neuronal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Knöll, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) was shown to contribute to various physiological processes linked to neuronal motility. The latter include cell migration, axon guidance, and, e.g., synapse function relying on cytoskeletal dynamics, neurite outgrowth, axonal and dendritic differentiation, growth cone motility, and neurite branching. SRF teams up with myocardin related transcription factors (MRTFs) and ternary complex factors (TCFs) to mediate cellular actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the immediate-early gene (IEG) response, a bona fide indicator of neuronal activation. Herein, I will discuss how SRF and cofactors might modulate physiological processes of neuronal motility. Further, potential mechanisms engaged by neurite growth promoting molecules and axon guidance cues to target SRF’s transcriptional machinery in physiological neuronal motility will be presented. Of note, altered cytoskeletal dynamics and rapid initiation of an IEG response are a hallmark of injured neurons in various neurological disorders. Thus, SRF and its MRTF and TCF cofactors might emerge as a novel trio modulating peripheral and central axon regeneration. PMID:22164132

  10. Adaptive Physiological Response to Perceived Scarcity as a Mechanism of Sensory Modulation of Life Span.

    PubMed

    Waterson, Michael J; Chan, Tammy P; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Chemosensation is a potent modulator of organismal physiology and longevity. In Drosophila, loss of recognition of diverse tastants has significant and bidirectional life-span effects. Recently published results revealed that when flies were unable to taste water, they increased its internal generation, which may have subsequently altered life span. To determine whether similar adaptive responses occur in other contexts, we explored the impact of sensory deficiency of other metabolically important molecules. Trehalose is a major circulating carbohydrate in the fly that is recognized by the gustatory receptor Gr5a. Gr5a mutant flies are short lived, and we found that they specifically increased whole-body and circulating levels of trehalose, but not other carbohydrates, likely through upregulation of de novo synthesis. dILP2 transcript levels were increased in Gr5a mutants, a possible response intended to reduce hypertrehalosemia, and likely a contributing factor to their reduced life span. Together, these data suggest that compensatory physiological responses to perceived environmental scarcity, which are designed to alleviate the ostensive shortage, may be a common outcome of sensory manipulation. We suggest that future investigations into the mechanisms underlying sensory modulation of aging may benefit by focusing on direct or indirect consequences of physiological changes that are designed to correct perceived disparity with the environment. PMID:25878032

  11. The Power of an Infant's Smile: Maternal Physiological Responses to Infant Emotional Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Mizugaki, Sanae; Maehara, Yukio; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Infant emotional expressions, such as distress cries, evoke maternal physiological reactions. Most of which involve accelerated sympathetic nervous activity. Comparatively little is known about effects of positive infant expressions, such as happy smiles, on maternal physiological responses. This study investigated how physiological and psychological maternal states change in response to infants’ emotional expressions. Thirty first-time mothers viewed films of their own 6- to 7-month-old infants’ affective behavior. Each observed a video of a distress cry followed by a video showing one of two expressions (randomly assigned): a happy smiling face (smile condition) or a calm neutral face (neutral condition). Both before and after the session, participants completed a self-report inventory assessing their emotional states. The results of the self-report inventory revealed no effects of exposure to the infant videos. However, the mothers in the smile condition, but not in the neutral condition, showed deceleration of skin conductance. These findings demonstrate that the mothers who observed their infants smiling showed decreased sympathetic activity. We propose that an infant’s positive emotional expression may affect the branch of the maternal stress-response system that modulates the homeostatic balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. PMID:26065903

  12. Rain influences the physiological and metabolic responses to exercise in hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Eiko; Matsumoto, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor exercise often proceeds in rainy conditions. However, the cooling effects of rain on human physiological responses have not been systematically studied in hot conditions. The present study determined physiological and metabolic responses using a climatic chamber that can precisely simulate hot, rainy conditions. Eleven healthy men ran on a treadmill at an intensity of 70% VO2max for 30 min in the climatic chamber at an ambient temperature of 33°C in the presence (RAIN) or absence (CON) of 30 mm · h(-1) of precipitation and a headwind equal to the running velocity of 3.15 ± 0.19 m · s(-1). Oesophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, blood parameters, volume of expired air and sweat loss were measured. Oesophageal and mean skin temperatures were significantly lower from 5 to 30 min, and heart rate was significantly lower from 20 to 30 min in RAIN than in CON (P < 0.05 for all). Plasma lactate and epinephrine concentrations (30 min) and sweat loss were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in RAIN compared with CON. Rain appears to influence physiological and metabolic responses to exercise in heat such that heat-induced strain might be reduced. PMID:25555077

  13. Physiological Imaging-Defined, Response-Driven Subvolumes of a Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Farjam, Reza; Tsien, Christina I.; Feng, Felix Y.; Gomez-Hassan, Diana; Hayman, James A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To develop an image analysis framework to delineate the physiological imaging-defined subvolumes of a tumor in relating to treatment response and outcome. Methods and Materials: Our proposed approach delineates the subvolumes of a tumor based on its heterogeneous distributions of physiological imaging parameters. The method assigns each voxel a probabilistic membership function belonging to the physiological parameter classes defined in a sample of tumors, and then calculates the related subvolumes in each tumor. We applied our approach to regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and Gd-DTPA transfer constant (K{sup trans}) images of patients who had brain metastases and were treated by whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). A total of 45 lesions were included in the analysis. Changes in the rCBV (or K{sup trans})–defined subvolumes of the tumors from pre-RT to 2 weeks after the start of WBRT (2W) were evaluated for differentiation of responsive, stable, and progressive tumors using the Mann-Whitney U test. Performance of the newly developed metrics for predicting tumor response to WBRT was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The percentage decrease in the high-CBV-defined subvolumes of the tumors from pre-RT to 2W was significantly greater in the group of responsive tumors than in the group of stable and progressive tumors (P<.007). The change in the high-CBV-defined subvolumes of the tumors from pre-RT to 2W was a predictor for post-RT response significantly better than change in the gross tumor volume observed during the same time interval (P=.012), suggesting that the physiological change occurs before the volumetric change. Also, K{sup trans} did not add significant discriminatory information for assessing response with respect to rCBV. Conclusion: The physiological imaging-defined subvolumes of the tumors delineated by our method could be candidates for boost target, for which further development and evaluation

  14. Analysis of physiological response to two virtual environments: driving and flying simulation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong P; Kim, In Y; Nam, Sang W; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D; Kim, Sun I

    2002-02-01

    As virtual reality technology continues to attract significant attention in clinical psychology, especially in the treatment of phobias, physiological monitoring is increasingly considered as an objective measurement tool for studying participants. There are few studies, however, of the normal physiological response to virtual environments or reactions to different virtual environments. The goal of this study is to analyze nonphobic participants' physiological reactions to two virtual environments: driving and flying. Eleven nonphobic participants were exposed to each virtual environment for 15 min. Heart rate, skin resistance, and skin temperature were measured during physiological monitoring, and the Presence and Simulator Sickness Questionnaire scores were obtained after each exposure. This study found that skin resistance and heart rate variability can be used to show arousal of participants exposed to the virtual environment experience and that such measures generally returned to normal over time. The data suggest that skin resistance and heart rate can be used as objective measures in monitoring the reaction of non-phobic participants to virtual environments. We also noted that heart rate variability could be useful for assessing the emotional states of participants. PMID:11990971

  15. Growth and physiological responses of neotropical mangrove seedlings to root zone hypoxia.

    PubMed

    McKee, Karen L.

    1996-01-01

    Seedlings of Rhizophora mangle L., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. were cultured in aerated or N(2)-purged solution for 12 weeks to assess their relative responses to low oxygen tensions. All three species responded to low oxygen treatment by modifying physiological and morphological patterns to decrease carbon loss by root respiration. However, the extent to which seedling physiology and morphology were altered by low oxygen treatment differed among species. Maintenance of root oxygen concentrations, root respiration rates and root extension rates by R. mangle demonstrated an ability to avoid low oxygen stress with minimal changes in root morphology and physiology. In contrast, oxygen concentrations in A. germinans and L. racemosa roots declined from 16 to 5% or lower within 6 h of treatment. Root hypoxia led to significant decreases in respiration rates of intact root systems (31 and 53% below controls) and root extension rates (38 and 76% below controls) by A. germinans and L. racemosa, respectively, indicating a greater vulnerability of these species to low oxygen tensions in the root zone compared with R. mangle. I conclude that the relative performance of mangrove seedlings growing in anaerobic soils is influenced by interspecific differences in root aeration and concomitant effects on root morphology and physiology. PMID:14871780

  16. Morpho-Physiological and Proteome Level Responses to Cadmium Stress in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Oh, Myeong-Won; Lee, Moon-Soon; Chung, Keun-Yook; Xin, Zhanguo; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potential associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten-day-old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 μM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. Our study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants. PMID:26919231

  17. Ocean warming and acidification: Unifying physiological principles linking organism response to ecosystem change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Bock, C.; Lannig, G.; Lucassen, M.; Mark, F. C.; Stark, A.; Walther, K.; Wittmann, A.

    2011-12-01

    The effects of ocean warming and acidification on individual species of marine ectothermic animals may be based on some common denominators, i.e. physiological responses that can be assumed to reflect unifying principles, common to all marine animal phyla. Identification of these principles requires studies, which reach beyond the species-specific response, and consider multiple stressors, for example temperature, CO2 or extreme hypoxia. Analyses of response and acclimation include functional traits of physiological performance on various levels of biological organisation, from changes in the transcriptome to patterns of acid-base regulation and whole animal thermal tolerance. Conclusions are substantiated by comparisons of species and phyla from temperate, Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems and also benefit from the interpretation of paleo-patterns based on the use of a unifying physiological concept, suitable to integrate relevant environmental factors into a more comprehensive picture. Studying the differential specialization of animals on climate regimes and their sensitivity to climate leads to improved understanding of ongoing and past ecosystem change and should then support more reliable projections of future scenarios. For example, accumulating CO2 causes disturbances in acid-base status. Resilience to ocean acidification may be reflected in the capacity to compensate for these disturbances or their secondary effects. Ion and pH regulation comprise thermally sensitive active and passive transfer processes across membranes. Specific responses of ion transporter genes and their products to temperature and CO2 were found in fish, crustaceans and bivalves. However, compensation may cause unfavourable shifts in energy budget and beyond that hamper cellular and mitochondrial metabolism, which are directly linked to the animal's aerobic performance window. In crabs, oysters and, possibly, fishes, a narrowing of the thermal window is caused by moderate increases in

  18. Combined effects of toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia on the physiological responses of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii.

    PubMed

    Hu, Menghong; Wu, Fangli; Yuan, Mingzhe; Liu, Qigen; Wang, Youji

    2016-04-01

    The single and combined effects of toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia on the energy budget of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii were determined in terms of scope for growth (SfG). Mussels were exposed to different combinations of toxic M. aeruginosa (0%, 50%, and 100% of total dietary dry weight) and dissolved oxygen concentrations (1, 3, and 6.0mg O2l(-1)) with a 3×3 factorial design for 14 days, followed by a recovery period with normal conditions for 7 days. Microcystin contents in mussel tissues increased with the increase in the exposed M. aeruginosa concentration at each sampling time. Adverse physiological responses of H. cumingii under toxic M. aeruginosa and hypoxic exposure were found in terms of clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, and SfG. Results emphasized the importance of combined effects of hypoxia and toxic cyanobacteria on H. cumingii bioenergetic parameters, highlighted the interactive effects of toxic algae and hypoxia, and implied that the two stressors affected H. cumingii during the exposure period and showed carryover effects later. Thus, if H. cumingii is used as a bioremediation tool to eliminate M. aeruginosa, the waters should be oxygenated. PMID:26686521

  19. First Outbreak Response Using an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Africa: Vaccine Coverage, Acceptability and Surveillance of Adverse Events, Guinea, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Luquero, Francisco J.; Grout, Lise; Ciglenecki, Iza; Sakoba, Keita; Traore, Bala; Heile, Melat; Dialo, Alpha Amadou; Itama, Christian; Serafini, Micaela; Legros, Dominique; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification of two safe and effective oral cholera vaccines (OCV), concerns about the acceptability, potential diversion of resources, cost and feasibility of implementing timely campaigns has discouraged their use. In 2012, the Ministry of Health of Guinea, with the support of Médecins Sans Frontières organized the first mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose OCV (Shanchol) as an additional control measure to respond to the on-going nationwide epidemic. Overall, 316,250 vaccines were delivered. Here, we present the results of vaccination coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional cluster survey and implemented adverse event surveillance. The study population included individuals older than 12 months, eligible for vaccination, and residing in the areas targeted for vaccination (Forécariah and Boffa, Guinea). Data sources were household interviews with verification by vaccination card and notifications of adverse events from surveillance at vaccination posts and health centres. In total 5,248 people were included in the survey, 3,993 in Boffa and 1,255 in Forécariah. Overall, 89.4% [95%CI:86.4–91.8%] and 87.7% [95%CI:84.2–90.6%] were vaccinated during the first round and 79.8% [95%CI:75.6–83.4%] and 82.9% [95%CI:76.6–87.7%] during the second round in Boffa and Forécariah respectively. The two dose vaccine coverage (including card and oral reporting) was 75.8% [95%CI: 71.2–75.9%] in Boffa and 75.9% [95%CI: 69.8–80.9%] in Forécariah respectively. Vaccination coverage was higher in children. The main reason for non-vaccination was absence. No severe adverse events were notified. Conclusions/Significance The well-accepted mass vaccination campaign reached high coverage in a remote area with a mobile population. Although OCV should not be foreseen as the long-term solution for global cholera control, they should be

  20. ECO-physiological response of S. vulgaris to CR(VI): Influence of concentration and genotype.

    PubMed

    Pradas Del Real, Ana E; García-Gonzalo, Pilar; Gil-Díaz, M Mar; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Lobo, Carmen; Pérez-Sanz, Araceli

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to study the response of Silene vulgaris to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr(VI) in order to evaluate its potential use in the phytomanagement of Cr polluted sites. Cuttings of six homogenous genotypes from Madrid (Spain) have been used as plant material. The eco-physiological response of S. vulgaris to Cr(VI) changed with the genotype. The yield dose-response curve was characterized by stimulation at low doses of Cr(VI). The effects of metal concentration were quantified on root dry weight, water content and chlorophyll content, determined by SPAD index. The response was not homogeneous for all studied genotypes. At high doses of Cr(VI), plants increased micronutrient concentration in dry tissues which suggested that nutrient balance could be implicated in the alleviation of Cr toxicity. This work highlights the importance of studying the eco-physiological response of metallophytes under a range of pollutant concentrations to determine the most favorable traits to be employed in the phytomanagement process. PMID:26375321

  1. Bears Show a Physiological but Limited Behavioral Response to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ditmer, Mark A; Vincent, John B; Werden, Leland K; Tanner, Jessie C; Laske, Timothy G; Iaizzo, Paul A; Garshelis, David L; Fieberg, John R

    2015-08-31

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to revolutionize the way research is conducted in many scientific fields. UAVs can access remote or difficult terrain, collect large amounts of data for lower cost than traditional aerial methods, and facilitate observations of species that are wary of human presence. Currently, despite large regulatory hurdles, UAVs are being deployed by researchers and conservationists to monitor threats to biodiversity, collect frequent aerial imagery, estimate population abundance, and deter poaching. Studies have examined the behavioral responses of wildlife to aircraft (including UAVs), but with the widespread increase in UAV flights, it is critical to understand whether UAVs act as stressors to wildlife and to quantify that impact. Biologger technology allows for the remote monitoring of stress responses in free-roaming individuals, and when linked to locational information, it can be used to determine events or components of an animal's environment that elicit a physiological response not apparent based on behavior alone. We assessed effects of UAV flights on movements and heart rate responses of free-roaming American black bears. We observed consistently strong physiological responses but infrequent behavioral changes. All bears, including an individual denned for hibernation, responded to UAV flights with elevated heart rates, rising as much as 123 beats per minute above the pre-flight baseline. It is important to consider the additional stress on wildlife from UAV flights when developing regulations and best scientific practices. PMID:26279232

  2. Relationship between histamine and physiological changes during the early response to nasal antigen provocation.

    PubMed

    Baroody, F M; Ford, S; Proud, D; Kagey-Sobotka, A; Lichtenstein, L; Naclerio, R M

    1999-02-01

    To investigate the temporal relationships of mediator release and physiological changes during the early response to allergen, we challenged allergic individuals intranasally with antigen and followed their responses. This was done by using small filter paper disks to challenge one nostril and collect secretions from both the challenged and the contralateral nostril, thus enabling us to evaluate the nasonasal reflex. There was a significant increase in sneezing after allergen challenge that peaked within 2 min and returned to baseline. The weights of nasal secretions as well as nasal symptoms increased immediately and remained significantly elevated for 20 min in both nostrils. Nasal airway resistance increased slowly, reaching its peak at approximately 6 min after challenge on the ipsilateral side, but it did not change on the contralateral side. Histamine levels peaked 30 s after removal of the allergen disk on the side of challenge, whereas albumin levels peaked after those of histamine. Lactoferrin paralleled the increase in secretion weights and occurred in both nostrils. Increasing doses of antigen produced dose-dependent increases in all parameters, whereas control challenges produced no response. These studies describe a human model for the evaluation of the allergic response that is capable of simultaneously measuring mediator release and the physiological response, including the nasonasal reflex. This model should prove useful in studying the mechanism of allergic rhinitis in humans. PMID:9931205

  3. Responses of calves to acute stress: individual consistency and relations between behavioral and physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Van Reenen, Cornelis G; O'Connell, Niamh E; Van der Werf, Jozef T N; Korte, S Mechiel; Hopster, Hans; Jones, R Bryan; Blokhuis, Harry J

    2005-08-01

    The present study examined the consistency over time of individual differences in behavioral and physiological responsiveness of calves to intuitively alarming test situations as well as the relationships between behavioral and physiological measures. Twenty Holstein Friesian heifer calves were individually subjected to the same series of two behavioral and two hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis reactivity tests at 3, 13 and 26 weeks of age. Novel environment (open field, OF) and novel object (NO) tests involved measurement of behavioral, plasma cortisol and heart rate responses. Plasma ACTH and/or cortisol response profiles were determined after administration of exogenous CRH and ACTH, respectively, in the HPA axis reactivity tests. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to condense correlated measures within ages into principal components reflecting independent dimensions underlying the calves' reactivity. Cortisol responses to the OF and NO tests were positively associated with the latency to contact and negatively related to the time spent in contact with the NO. Individual differences in scores of a principal component summarizing this pattern of inter-correlations, as well as differences in separate measures of adrenocortical and behavioral reactivity in the OF and NO tests proved highly consistent over time. The cardiac response to confinement in a start box prior to the OF test was positively associated with the cortisol responses to the OF and NO tests at 26 weeks of age. HPA axis reactivity to ACTH or CRH was unrelated to adrenocortical and behavioral responses to novelty. These findings strongly suggest that the responsiveness of calves was mediated by stable individual characteristics. Correlated adrenocortical and behavioral responses to novelty may reflect underlying fearfulness, defining the individual's susceptibility to the elicitation of fear. Other independent characteristics mediating reactivity may include activity or coping

  4. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Matthias; Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals' natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating levels

  5. Genotypic differences in architectural and physiological responses to water restriction in rose bush

    PubMed Central

    Li-Marchetti, Camille; Le Bras, Camille; Relion, Daniel; Citerne, Sylvie; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Sakr, Soulaiman; Morel, Philippe; Crespel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The shape and, therefore, the architecture of the plant are dependent on genetic and environmental factors such as water supply. The architecture determines the visual quality, a key criterion underlying the decision to purchase an ornamental potted plant. The aim of this study was to analyze genotypic responses of eight rose bush cultivars to alternation of water restriction and re-watering periods, with soil water potential of -20 and -10 kPa respectively. Responses were evaluated at the architectural level through 3D digitalization using six architectural variables and at the physiological level by measuring stomatal conductance, water content, hormones [abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, cytokinins, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA)], sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), and proline. Highly significant genotype and watering effects were revealed for all the architectural variables measured, as well as genotype × watering interaction, with three distinct genotypic architectural responses to water restriction – weak, moderate and strong – represented by Hw336, ‘Baipome’ and ‘The Fairy,’ respectively. The physiological analysis explained, at least in part, the more moderate architectural response of ‘Baipome’ compared to ‘The Fairy,’ but not that of Hw336 which is an interspecific hybrid. Such physiological responses in ‘Baipome’ could be related to: (i) the maintenance of the stimulation of budbreak and photosynthetic activity during water restriction periods due to a higher concentration in conjugated cytokinins (cCK) and to a lower concentration in SA; (ii) a better resumption of budbreak during the re-watering periods due to a lower concentration in ABA during this period. When associated with the six architectural descriptors, cCK, SA and ABA, which explained the genotypic differences in this study, could be used as selection criteria for breeding programs aimed at improving plant shape and tolerance to water restriction. PMID

  6. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals’ natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating

  7. Genotypic differences in architectural and physiological responses to water restriction in rose bush.

    PubMed

    Li-Marchetti, Camille; Le Bras, Camille; Relion, Daniel; Citerne, Sylvie; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Sakr, Soulaiman; Morel, Philippe; Crespel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The shape and, therefore, the architecture of the plant are dependent on genetic and environmental factors such as water supply. The architecture determines the visual quality, a key criterion underlying the decision to purchase an ornamental potted plant. The aim of this study was to analyze genotypic responses of eight rose bush cultivars to alternation of water restriction and re-watering periods, with soil water potential of -20 and -10 kPa respectively. Responses were evaluated at the architectural level through 3D digitalization using six architectural variables and at the physiological level by measuring stomatal conductance, water content, hormones [abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, cytokinins, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA)], sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), and proline. Highly significant genotype and watering effects were revealed for all the architectural variables measured, as well as genotype × watering interaction, with three distinct genotypic architectural responses to water restriction - weak, moderate and strong - represented by Hw336, 'Baipome' and 'The Fairy,' respectively. The physiological analysis explained, at least in part, the more moderate architectural response of 'Baipome' compared to 'The Fairy,' but not that of Hw336 which is an interspecific hybrid. Such physiological responses in 'Baipome' could be related to: (i) the maintenance of the stimulation of budbreak and photosynthetic activity during water restriction periods due to a higher concentration in conjugated cytokinins (cCK) and to a lower concentration in SA; (ii) a better resumption of budbreak during the re-watering periods due to a lower concentration in ABA during this period. When associated with the six architectural descriptors, cCK, SA and ABA, which explained the genotypic differences in this study, could be used as selection criteria for breeding programs aimed at improving plant shape and tolerance to water restriction. PMID:26074929

  8. Biological responses of workplace particles and their association with adverse health effects on miners.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weihong; Stempelmann, Karin; Rehn, Steffeni; Diederichs, Herbert; Rehn, Bernd; Bruch, Joachim

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated the relationship between exposure to quartz dust and an elevated risk of pneumoconiosis and possible elevated risk of cancer. The current study was designed to evaluate the biological responses of workplace particles containing crystalline silica using an in vitro cell test. Respirable particle samples were sampled from four tin mines, where the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for pneumoconiosis was 51.6 and SMR for lung cancer was 2.2 in dust-exposed miners. Alveolar macrophages (AM) are considered as the target cells for primary dust effects. The samples were then measured at 15, 30, 60 and 120 microg particle per 10(6) AM for cytoxicity with the release of glucuronidase, lactate dehydrogenase, for reactive oxygen damage with H(2)O(2) release, and for ability to induce fibrosis using the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Pure quartz (DQ12) and corundum were used as controls. The results showed the samples from tin mines caused a higher cytoxicity when compared to corundum, yet lower when compared to quartz. However, reactive oxygen species release (148-177 nmol/3 x 10(5) AM in high concentration of 120 microg/10(6) AM) induced by the samples were significantly higher than that induced by quartz (57 nmol/3 x 10(5) AM) and corundum (62 nmol/3 x 10(5) AM). Furthermore, particle samples induced higher TNF-alpha secretion than corundum, the samples from Limu tin mine induced much higher TNF-alpha levels than that induced by DQ12 quartz. The results from the in vitro tests help elucidate the degree of hazard of dust particles in tin mines. The in vitro reaction patterns of AM also constitute a powerful tool to monitor biological and pathogenic responses of humans following dust particle exposure. PMID:15568045

  9. Transcriptome profiles link environmental variation and physiological response of Mytilus californianus between Pacific tides

    PubMed Central

    Place, Sean P.; Menge, Bruce A.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The marine intertidal zone is characterized by large variation in temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and the supply of nutrients and food on seasonal and daily time scales. These oceanic fluctuations drive of ecological processes such as recruitment, competition and consumer-prey interactions largely via physiological mehcanisms. Thus, to understand coastal ecosystem dynamics and responses to climate change, it is crucial to understand these mechanisms. Here we utilize transcriptome analysis of the physiological response of the mussel Mytilus californianus at different spatial scales to gain insight into these mechanisms. We used mussels inhabiting different vertical locations within Strawberry Hill on Cape Perpetua, OR and Boiler Bay on Cape Foulweather, OR to study inter- and intra-site variation of gene expression. The results highlight two distinct gene expression signatures related to the cycling of metabolic activity and perturbations to cellular homeostasis. Intermediate spatial scales show a strong influence of oceanographic differences in food and stress environments between sites separated by ~65 km. Together, these new insights into environmental control of gene expression may allow understanding of important physiological drivers within and across populations. PMID:22563136

  10. Psycho-Physiological Responses by Listening to Some Sounds from Our Daily Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Hayashi, F.; Tsujikawa, M.; Sugiura, S.

    1997-08-01

    This study was made to clarify the relationship between mode of identification, mode of emotion and physiological response to noise. Twenty-six subjects, young females, listened to six different daily sounds for 150 s through head phones. The level of sound was 60-61LAcq. The pulse wave and blood pressure were observed, and pulse wave interval, wave height and maximum and minimum blood pressures were measured. Measurements were taken twice once 30 s before listening and again during the final 30 s of listening. The ratio of the latter value to the former value was used as the index for the evaluation of change. Immediately after the listening session, identification of the sound source and emotional response were surveyed via a questionnaire and the sounds were judged as related to comfort or discomfort. In the case of incorrect identification, physiological functions were not seen to change significantly. However, in the case of correct identification, maximum and minimum blood pressures were significantly increased form the pre-listening values. The physiological functions of the discomfort group did not change significantly. In the comfort group, wave height was decreased and blood pressure was significantly elevated.

  11. Growth and Physiological Responses to Water Depths in Carex schmidtii Meinsh

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hong; Liu, Ruiquan; Liu, Zinan; Wang, Xue; Luo, Wenbo; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate growth and physiological responses to water depth in completely submerged condition of a wetland plant Carex schmidtii Meinsh., one of the dominant species in the Longwan Crater Lake wetlands (China). Growth and physiological responses of C. schmidtii were investigated by growing under control (non-submerged) and three submerged conditions (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm water level). Total biomass was highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm treatment and lowest in the other two submerged treatments. Water depth prominently affected the first-order lateral root to main root mass ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity decreased but malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as water depth increased. The starch contents showed no differences among the various treatments at the end of the experiment. However, soluble sugar contents were highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm and 15 cm treatments and lowest in 25 cm treatment. Our data suggest that submergence depth affected some aspects of growth and physiology of C. schmidtii, which can reduce anoxia damage not only through maintaining the non-elongation strategy in shoot part but also by adjusting biomass allocation to different root orders rather than adjusting root-shoot biomass allocation. PMID:26009895

  12. Meta-analysis of digital game and study characteristics eliciting physiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert-Jan; Van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Digital games have been used as stressors in a range of disciplines for decades. Nonetheless, the underlying characteristics of these stressors and the study in which the stressor was applied are generally not recognized for their moderating effect on the measured physiological stress responses. We have therefore conducted a meta-analysis that analyzes the effects of characteristics of digital game stressors and study design on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in studies carried out from 1976 to 2012. In order to assess the differing quality between study designs, a new scale is developed and presented, coined reliability of effect size. The results show specific and consistent moderating functions of both game and study characteristics, on average accounting for around 43%, and in certain cases up to 57% of the variance found in physiological stress responses. Possible cognitive and physiological processes underlying these moderating functions are discussed, and a new model integrating these processes with the moderating functions is presented. These findings indicate that a digital game stressor does not act as a stressor by virtue of being a game, but rather derives its stressor function from its characteristics and the methodology in which it is used. This finding, together with the size of the associated moderations, indicates the need for a standardization of digital game stressors. PMID:25950613

  13. Detecting plant metabolic responses induced by ground shock using hyperspectral remote sensing and physiological contact measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W.L.; Cater, G.A.

    1996-12-03

    A series of field experiments were done to determine if ground shock could have induced physiological responses in plants and if the level of the response could be observed. The observation techniques were remote sensing techniques and direct contact physiological measurements developed by Carter for detecting pre-visual plant stress. The remote sensing technique was similar to that used by Pickles to detect what appeared to be ground shock induced plant stress above the 1993 Non Proliferation Experiment`s underground chemical explosion. The experiment was designed to provide direct plant physiological measurements and remote sensing ratio images and from the same plants at the same time. The simultaneous direct and remote sensing measurements were done to establish a ground truth dataset to compare to the results of the hyperspectral remote sensing measurements. In addition, the experiment was designed to include data on what was thought to be the most probable interfering effect, dehydration. The experimental design included investigating the relative magnitude of the shock induced stress effects compared to dehydration effects.

  14. Physiological response in pilot/back-seat man during aerial combat maneuvers in F-4E aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverett, S. D., Jr.; Davis, H. M., Jr.; Winter, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of objective/subjective physiological data between the pilot and the back-seat man during training within the G maneuvering envelope. It appears that the psychological requirements for the pilot to be mentally alert and physiologically adapted to a continually changing environment places additional responsibility on him to the extent the physiological signs monitored are indicative of a high stress condition and are increased by a significant amount over the back-seat man who is, in most instances, riding passively.

  15. Traces of unconscious mental processes in introspective reports and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Ivonin, Leonid; Chang, Huang-Ming; Diaz, Marta; Catala, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants' introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs like archetypes than

  16. Traces of Unconscious Mental Processes in Introspective Reports and Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ivonin, Leonid; Chang, Huang-Ming; Diaz, Marta; Catala, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious mental processes have recently started gaining attention in a number of scientific disciplines. One of the theoretical frameworks for describing unconscious processes was introduced by Jung as a part of his model of the psyche. This framework uses the concept of archetypes that represent prototypical experiences associated with objects, people, and situations. Although the validity of Jungian model remains an open question, this framework is convenient from the practical point of view. Moreover, archetypes found numerous applications in the areas of psychology and marketing. Therefore, observation of both conscious and unconscious traces related to archetypal experiences seems to be an interesting research endeavor. In a study with 36 subjects, we examined the effects of experiencing conglomerations of unconscious emotions associated with various archetypes on the participants’ introspective reports and patterns of physiological activations. Our hypothesis for this experiment was that physiological data may predict archetypes more precisely than introspective reports due to the implicit nature of archetypal experiences. Introspective reports were collected using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) technique. Physiological measures included cardiovascular, electrodermal, respiratory responses and skin temperature of the subjects. The subjects were stimulated to feel four archetypal experiences and four explicit emotions by means of film clips. The data related to the explicit emotions served as a reference in analysis of archetypal experiences. Our findings indicated that while prediction models trained on the collected physiological data could recognize the archetypal experiences with accuracy of 55 percent, similar models built based on the SAM data demonstrated performance of only 33 percent. Statistical tests enabled us to confirm that physiological observations are better suited for observation of implicit psychological constructs like archetypes

  17. Physiological stress response to loss of social influence and threats to masculinity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine J

    2014-02-01

    Social influence is an important component of contemporary conceptualizations of masculinity in the U.S. Men who fail to achieve masculinity by maintaining social influence in the presence of other men may be at risk of stigmatization. As such, men should be especially likely to exhibit a stress response to loss of social influence in the presence of other men. This study assesses whether men who lose social influence exhibit more of a stress response than men who gain social influence, using data collected in a laboratory setting where participants were randomly assigned into four-person groups of varying sex compositions. The groups were videotaped working on two problem-solving tasks. Independent raters assessed change in social influence using a well-validated measure borrowed from experimental work in the Status Characteristics Theory tradition. Cortisol is used as a measure of stress response because it is known to increase in response to loss of social esteem. Results show that young men who lose social influence while working with other young men exhibit cortisol response. In contrast women do not exhibit cortisol response to loss of social influence, nor do men working with women. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of social influence in men may be associated with a physiological stress response because maintaining social influence is very important to men while in the presence of other men. This physiological response to loss of social influence underscores the importance to men of achieving masculinity through gaining and maintaining social influence, and avoiding the stigma associated with the failure to do so. PMID:24507910

  18. [THE STATUS OF CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL ADRENERGIC RESPONSES IN ALBINO RATS DURING DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTHYROIDISM].

    PubMed

    Osman, Nizar Salim; Ismail, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of thyroid hormones on the expression of physiological reactions during adrenergic stimulation (20 min at a dose of 2.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during the development of experimental hyperthyroidism. Rats were divided into two groups. The animals in Group 1 were injected woth triiodothyronine. The duration of injection ranged from 1 to 12 days. Consequently, 12 subgroups were formed. The second group was the control group. It is shown that in the process of development of experimental hyperthyroidism all physiological responses vary in accordance with the law, which can be described by a parabola of general form with the value of the degree in the equation equal to three. PMID:26387161

  19. The effects of social context and defensiveness on the physiological responses of repressive copers.

    PubMed

    Barger, S D; Kircher, J C; Croyle, R T

    1997-11-01

    In previous research (T.L. Newton & R.J. Contrada, 1992), social context was found to moderate exaggerated physiological reactivity among individuals identified as using a repressive coping style. In this experiment, 119 undergraduates were classified into low-anxious, high-anxious, repressor, and defensive high-anxious coping categories. All participants completed a stressful speech task under either a public or private social context condition. The experimental social context was related to physiological reactivity and self-reported affect but did not moderate reactivity among repressive copers. Additionally, reactivity among repressive copers was not attributable to high defensiveness alone. Consistent with a theory of emotional inhibition, nonspecific skin conductance responses, but not heart rate, discriminated between repressors and nonrepressors. PMID:9417480

  20. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Tahira M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  1. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  2. Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise

    PubMed Central

    Wale, Matthew A.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise has fundamentally changed the acoustics of terrestrial and aquatic environments, and there is growing empirical evidence that even a single noise exposure can affect behaviour in a variety of vertebrate organisms. Here, we use controlled experiments to investigate how the physiology of a marine invertebrate, the shore crab (Carcinus maenas), is affected by both single and repeated exposure to ship-noise playback. Crabs experiencing ship-noise playback consumed more oxygen, indicating a higher metabolic rate and potentially greater stress, than those exposed to ambient-noise playback. The response to single ship-noise playback was size-dependent, with heavier crabs showing a stronger response than lighter individuals. Repeated exposure to ambient-noise playback led to increased oxygen consumption (probably due to handling stress), whereas repeated exposure to ship-noise playback produced no change in physiological response; explanations include the possibility that crabs exhibited a maximal response on first exposure to ship-noise playback, or that they habituated or become tolerant to it. These results highlight that invertebrates, like vertebrates, may also be susceptible to the detrimental impacts of anthropogenic noise and demonstrate the tractability for more detailed investigations into the effects of this pervasive global pollutant. PMID:23445945

  3. Does physiologic response to loud tones change following cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michael G; Resick, Patricia A; Galovski, Tara E

    2012-02-01

    This study examined responses to loud tones before and after cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four women in a PTSD treatment outcome study for rape-related (n = 54) or physical assault-related PTSD (n = 20) were assessed in an auditory loud tone paradigm. Assessments were conducted before and after a 6-week period of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Physiologic responses to loud tones included heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and eye-blink electromyogram (EMG). Groups were formed based upon treatment outcome and included a treatment responder group (no PTSD at posttreatment) and a nonresponder group (PTSD-positive at posttreatment). Treatment was successful for 53 of 74 women (72%) and unsuccessful for 21 women (28%). Responders and nonresponders were not significantly different from each other at pretreatment on the main outcome variables. Treatment responders showed a significant reduction in loud tone-related EMG, HR, and SC responses from pre- to posttreatment (partial η(2) = .24, .31, and .36, respectively; all p < .001) and the EMG and HR responses were significantly smaller than nonresponders at posttreatment (partial η(2) = .11, p = .004 and .19, p < .001, respectively). Successful cognitive-behavioral treatment of PTSD is associated with a quantifiable reduction in physiological responding to loud tones. PMID:22354505

  4. Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise.

    PubMed

    Wale, Matthew A; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2013-04-23

    Anthropogenic noise has fundamentally changed the acoustics of terrestrial and aquatic environments, and there is growing empirical evidence that even a single noise exposure can affect behaviour in a variety of vertebrate organisms. Here, we use controlled experiments to investigate how the physiology of a marine invertebrate, the shore crab (Carcinus maenas), is affected by both single and repeated exposure to ship-noise playback. Crabs experiencing ship-noise playback consumed more oxygen, indicating a higher metabolic rate and potentially greater stress, than those exposed to ambient-noise playback. The response to single ship-noise playback was size-dependent, with heavier crabs showing a stronger response than lighter individuals. Repeated exposure to ambient-noise playback led to increased oxygen consumption (probably due to handling stress), whereas repeated exposure to ship-noise playback produced no change in physiological response; explanations include the possibility that crabs exhibited a maximal response on first exposure to ship-noise playback, or that they habituated or become tolerant to it. These results highlight that invertebrates, like vertebrates, may also be susceptible to the detrimental impacts of anthropogenic noise and demonstrate the tractability for more detailed investigations into the effects of this pervasive global pollutant. PMID:23445945

  5. Does Physiologic Response to Loud Tones Change Following Cognitive–Behavioral Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michael G.; Resick, Patricia A.; Galovski, Tara E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined responses to loud tones before and after cognitive–behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four women in a PTSD treatment outcome study for rape-related (n = 54) or physical assault-related PTSD (n = 20) were assessed in an auditory loud tone paradigm. Assessments were conducted before and after a 6-week period of cognitive–behavioral therapy. Physiologic responses to loud tones included heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and eye-blink electromyogram (EMG). Groups were formed based upon treatment outcome and included a treatment responder group (no PTSD at posttreatment) and a nonresponder group (PTSD-positive at posttreatment). Treatment was successful for 53 of 74 women (72%) and unsuccessful for 21 women (28%). Responders and nonresponders were not significantly different from each other at pretreatment on the main outcome variables. Treatment responders showed a significant reduction in loud tone-related EMG, HR, and SC responses from pre- to posttreatment (partial η2 = .243, .308, and .365, respectively; all p < .001) and the EMG and HR responses were significantly smaller than nonresponders at posttreatment (partial η22 = .107, p = .004 and .193, p < .001, respectively). Successful cognitive–behavioral treatment of PTSD is associated with a quantifiable reduction in physiological responding to loud tones. PMID:22354505

  6. Subjective, Physiological, and Cognitive Responses to Intravenous Nicotine: Effects of Sex and Menstrual Cycle Phase

    PubMed Central

    DeVito, Elise E; Herman, Aryeh I; Waters, Andrew J; Valentine, Gerald W; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is a serious public health concern. Optimal treatment of nicotine dependence will require greater understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of smoking behaviors. A growing literature indicates sex and menstrual phase differences in responses to nicotine. The aim of this study was to assess sex and menstrual phase influences on a broad range of measures of nicotine response including subjective drug effects, cognition, physiological responses, and symptoms of withdrawal, craving, and affect. Using a well-established intravenous nicotine paradigm and biochemical confirmation of overnight abstinence and menstrual cycle phase, analyses were performed to compare sex (age 18–50 years; 115 male and 45 female) and menstrual cycle phase (29 follicular and 16 luteal) effects. Females had diminished subjective drug effects of, but greater physiological responses to, nicotine administration. Luteal-phase females showed diminished subjective drug effects and better cognition relative to follicular-phase women. These findings offer candidate mechanisms through which the luteal phase, wherein progesterone is dominant relative to estradiol, may be protective against vulnerability to smoking. PMID:24345818

  7. Swimming performance and physiological responses to exhaustive exercise in radio-tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have declined in the Columbia River basin. One factor that may have contributed to this reduction in population size is an excessive use of energy by adult lampreys as they negotiate fishways at dams during spawning migrations. To gain an understanding of the performance capacity of Pacific lampreys, we estimated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and documented physiological responses of radio-tagged and untagged adult lampreys exercised to exhaustion. The mean (??SD) Ucrit of untagged lampreys was 86.2 ?? 7.5 cm/s at 15??C, whereas the Ucrit for radio-tagged lampreys was 81.5 ?? 7.0 cm/s, a speed that was significantly lower than that of untagged fish. The physiological responses of tagged and untagged lampreys subjected to exhaustive exercise included decreases in blood pH of 0.3-0.5 units, a 40% decrease in muscle glycogen levels, a 22% increase in hematocrit for untagged fish only, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in muscle and a 40- to 100-fold increase in plasma lactate concentrations. These physiological changes were significant compared with resting control fish and usually returned to resting levels by 1-4 h after fatigue. Our estimates of Ucrit for Pacific lampreys are the first quantitative measures of their swimming performance and suggest that these fish may have difficulty negotiating fishways at dams on the Columbia River, which can have water velocities approaching 2 m/s. Our physiological results indicate that tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys show similar metabolic dysfunction after exhaustive exercise but recover quickly from a single exposure to such a stressor.

  8. Contrasting physiological plasticity in response to environmental stress within different cnidarians and their respective symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, Daniel. T.; Dodge, Danielle; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Given concerns surrounding coral bleaching and ocean acidification, there is renewed interest in characterizing the physiological differences across the multiple host-algal symbiont combinations commonly found on coral reefs. Elevated temperature and CO2 were used to compare physiological responses within the scleractinian corals Montipora hirsuta ( Symbiodinium C15) and Pocillopora damicornis ( Symbiodinium D1), as well as the corallimorph (a non-calcifying anthozoan closely related to scleractinians) Discosoma nummiforme ( Symbiodinium C3). Several physiological proxies were affected more by temperature than CO2, including photochemistry, algal number and cellular chlorophyll a. Marked differences in symbiont number, chlorophyll and volume contributed to distinctive patterns of chlorophyll absorption among these animals. In contrast, carbon fixation either did not change or increased under elevated temperature. Also, the rate of photosynthetically fixed carbon translocated to each host did not change, and the percent of carbon translocated to the host increased in the corallimorph. Comparing all data revealed a significant negative correlation between photosynthetic rate and symbiont density that corroborates previous hypotheses about carbon limitation in these symbioses. The ratio of symbiont-normalized photosynthetic rate relative to the rate of symbiont-normalized carbon translocation (P:T) was compared in these organisms as well as the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida hosting Symbiodinium minutum, and revealed a P:T close to unity ( D. nummiforme) to a range of 2.0-4.5, with the lowest carbon translocation in the sea anemone. Major differences in the thermal responses across these organisms provide further evidence of a range of acclimation potential and physiological plasticity that highlights the need for continued study of these symbioses across a larger group of host taxa.

  9. Sex Differences in Human Fatigability: Mechanisms and Insight to Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in physiology and anatomy are responsible for profound differences in neuromuscular performance and fatigability between men and women. Women are usually less fatigable than men for similar intensity isometric fatiguing contractions. This sex difference in fatigability, however, is task specific because different neuromuscular sites will be stressed when the requirements of the task are altered, and the stress on these sites can differ for men and women. Task variables that can alter the sex difference in fatigue include the type, intensity and speed of contraction, the muscle group assessed, and the environmental conditions. Physiological mechanisms that are responsible for sex-based differences in fatigability may include activation of the motor neuron pool from cortical and subcortical regions, synaptic inputs to the motor neuron pool via activation of metabolically-sensitive small afferent fibres in the muscle, muscle perfusion, and skeletal muscle metabolism and fibre type properties. Non-physiological factors such as the sex bias of studying more males than females in human and animal experiments can also mask a true understanding of the magnitude and mechanisms of sex-based differences in physiology and fatigability. Despite recent developments, there is a tremendous lack of understanding of sex differences in neuromuscular function and fatigability, the prevailing mechanisms and the functional consequences. This review emphasises the need to understand sex-based differences in fatigability in order to shed light on the benefits and limitations that fatigability can exert for men and women during daily tasks, exercise performance, training and rehabilitation in both health and disease. PMID:24433272

  10. Physiological and psychological responses of young males during spring-time walks in urban parks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that contact with the natural environment can improve physical and mental health. Urban green spaces may provide city residents with these benefits; however, there is a lack of empirical field research on the health benefits of urban parks. Methods This field experiment was performed in May. Seventeen males aged 21.2 ± 1.7 years (mean ± standard deviation) were instructed to walk predetermined 15-minute courses in an urban park and a nearby city area (control). Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured to assess physiological responses. The semantic differential (SD) method, Profile of Mood States (POMS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to measure psychological responses. Results Heart rate was significantly lower while walking in the urban park than while walking in the city street. Furthermore, the urban park walk led to higher parasympathetic nervous activity and lower sympathetic nervous activity compared with the walk through the city street. Subjective evaluations were generally in accordance with physiological reactions, and significantly higher scores were observed for the ‘comfortable’, ‘natural’, and ‘relaxed’ parameters following the urban park walk. After the urban park walk, the score for the ‘vigor’ subscale of the POMS was significantly higher, whereas that for negative feelings such as ‘tension-anxiety’ and ‘fatigue’ was significantly lower. The score for the anxiety dimension of the STAI was also significantly lower after the urban park walk. Conclusions Physiological and psychological results from this field experiment provide evidence for the physiological and psychological benefits of urban green spaces. A brief spring-time walk in an urban park shifted sympathetic/parasympathetic balance and improved mood state. PMID:24887352

  11. Glutathione is involved in physiological response of Candida utilis to acid stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Hui; Zhang, Jun-Li; Dong, Ying-Ying; Wei, Gong-Yuan; Qi, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Candida utilis often encounters an acid stress environment when hexose and pentose are metabolized to produce acidic bio-based materials. In order to reveal the physiological role of glutathione (GSH) in the response of cells of this industrial yeast to acid stress, an efficient GSH-producing strain of C. utilis CCTCC M 209298 and its mutants deficient in GSH biosynthesis, C. utilis Δgsh1 and Δgsh2, were used in this study. A long-term mild acid challenge (pH 3.5 for 6 h) and a short-term severe acid challenge (pH 1.5 for 2 h) were conducted at 18 h during batch culture of the yeast to generate acid stress conditions. Differences in the physiological performances among the three strains under acid stress were analyzed in terms of GSH biosynthesis and distribution; intracellular pH; activities of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase; intracellular ATP level; and ATP/ADP ratio. The intracellular GSH content of the yeast was found to be correlated with changes in physiological data, and a higher intracellular GSH content led to greater relief of cells to the acid stress, suggesting that GSH may be involved in protecting C. utilis against acid stress. Results presented in this manuscript not only increase our understanding of the impact of GSH on the physiology of C. utilis but also help us to comprehend the mechanism underlying the response to acid stress of eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:26346268

  12. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) for the presence of epiphytic algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. SOD activity significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) with the presence of epiphytic algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p < 0.01). However, in the treatments of T1 and T4, SOD activity had no obvious change with the presence of epiphytic algae (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. At the end of the experiment, the effects of epiphytic algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p < 0.001), the effects of epiphytic algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p < 0.001), respectively, and their interaction (p < 0.001). Our observations

  13. M1- and M2-Type Macrophage Responses Are Predictive of Adverse Outcomes in Human Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    de Gaetano, Monica; Crean, Daniel; Barry, Mary; Belton, Orina

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease caused by endothelial injury, lipid deposition, and oxidative stress. This progressive disease can be converted into an acute clinical event by plaque rupture and thrombosis. In the context of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, macrophages uniquely possess a dual functionality, regulating lipid accumulation and metabolism and sustaining the chronic inflammatory response, two of the most well-documented pathways associated with the pathogenesis of the disease. Macrophages are heterogeneous cell populations and it is hypothesized that, during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, macrophages in the developing plaque can switch from a pro-inflammatory (MΦ1) to an anti-inflammatory (MΦ2) phenotype and vice versa, depending on the microenvironment. The aim of this study was to identify changes in macrophage subpopulations in the progression of human atherosclerotic disease. Established atherosclerotic plaques from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with existing coronary artery disease undergoing carotid endarterectomy were recruited to the study. Comprehensive histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to quantify the cellular content and macrophage subsets of atherosclerotic lesion. In parallel, expression of MΦ1 and MΦ2 macrophage markers were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Gross analysis and histological staining demonstrated that symptomatic plaques presented greater hemorrhagic activity and the internal carotid was the most diseased segment, based on the predominant prevalence of fibrotic and necrotic tissue, calcifications, and hemorrhagic events. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both MΦ1 and MΦ2 macrophages are present in human plaques. However, MΦ2 macrophages are localized to more stable locations within the lesion. Importantly, gene and protein expression analysis of MΦ1/MΦ2 markers evidenced that MΦ1 markers and Th1

  14. Effects of Posture and Stimulus Spectral Composition on Peripheral Physiological Responses to Loud Sounds.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jennifer; Flemming, Jan; Zeffiro, Thomas; Rufer, Michael; Orr, Scott P; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In the "loud-tone" procedure, a series of brief, loud, pure-tone stimuli are presented in a task-free situation. It is an established paradigm for measuring autonomic sensitization in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Successful use of this procedure during fMRI requires elicitation of brain responses that have sufficient signal-noise ratios when recorded in a supine, rather than sitting, position. We investigated the modulating effects of posture and stimulus spectral composition on peripheral psychophysiological responses to loud sounds. Healthy subjects (N = 24) weekly engaged in a loud-tone-like procedure that presented 500 msec, 95 dB sound pressure level, pure-tone or white-noise stimuli, either while sitting or supine and while peripheral physiological responses were recorded. Heart rate, skin conductance, and eye blink electromyographic responses were larger to white-noise than pure-tone stimuli (p's < 0.001, generalized eta squared 0.073-0.076). Psychophysiological responses to the stimuli were similar in the sitting and supine position (p's ≥ 0.082). Presenting white noise, rather than pure-tone, stimuli may improve the detection sensitivity of the neural concomitants of heightened autonomic responses by generating larger responses. Recording in the supine position appears to have little or no impact on psychophysiological response magnitudes to the auditory stimuli. PMID:27583659

  15. Pharmacovigilance Analysis of Serious Adverse Events Reported for Biologic Response Modifiers Used as Prophylaxis against Transplant Rejection: a Real-World Postmarketing Experience from the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immunosuppression by biologic response modifiers (BRM) is a crucial component for successful organ transplantation. In addition to their variable effectiveness in the prevention of organ rejection, these medications have safety concerns that complicate therapeutic outcomes in organ transplant patients. Objective: This study aims at identifying and characterizing safety signals of serious adverse events associated with exposure to BRM among organ transplant patients in a real-world environment. Methods: The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System was utilized to apply a pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis to indentify serious adverse events. Associations between drugs and events were measured by empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (EB05–EB95). Associations with EBGM≥2 were considered significant safety signals. Results: From 1997 to 2012, a total of 12,151 serious adverse event reports for BRM were reported; 15.6% of them (n=1,711) met the safety signal threshold of EB05>1, and 11.6% of these signals (n=199) were significant (EBGM≥2). Sirolimus and mycophenolate accounted for the majority of all signals; antithymocyte immunoglobulin (ATI) and cyclosporine contributed to the majority of significant signals. The following significant signals were identified for ATI (reduced therapeutic response, pulmonary edema, hypotension, serum sickness, infusion-related reaction, and anaphylactic reaction); for azathioprine (alternaria infection, fungal skin infection, and lymphoproliferative disorder); for cyclosporine (neurotoxicity, graft vs. host disease, and thyroid cancer); for cyclophosphamide (disease progression); for daclizumab (cytomegalovirus infection); and for tacrolimus (coma and tremor). 33.6% of these events contributed to patient death (n=67); 6.5% were life-threatening (n=13); 32.1% lead to hospitalization (n=64); and 27.6% resulted in other serious outcomes (n=55). Conclusion: Utilization

  16. Physiological reactivity to responsive and unresponsive children as moderated by perceived control.

    PubMed

    Bugental, D B; Cortez, V L

    1988-06-01

    80 undergraduate women, pretested on the Parent Attribution Test (PAT), watched videotapes of responsive and unresponsive children in anticipation of subsequent interaction with them. Physiological measures (heart rate, skin temperature, and skin conductance) were monitored as subjects viewed videotapes and during a postinterview. Subjects who perceived caregiving failure as uncontrollable (on the PAT) were significantly more reactive to variations in child responsiveness than were those who perceived failure as controllable. The highest level of arousal (elevated heart rate and skin conductance) was manifested by "low-control" women anticipating interaction with unresponsive children. The increased arousal level shown in reaction to unresponsive children was accompanied by decreased skin temperature--suggesting the presence of fear or anxiety. Results were interpreted as indicating the importance of social cognitions as moderators of caregiver response to child behavior. PMID:3383677

  17. Young Children’s Affective Responses to Another’s Distress: Dynamic and Physiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A. J.; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children’s affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another’s distress. In two samples (Nstudy1 = 75; Nstudy2 = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952

  18. Young children's affective responses to another's distress: dynamic and physiological features.

    PubMed

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A J; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children's affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another's distress. In two samples (N(study1) = 75; N(study2) = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952

  19. Physiological and Proteomic Investigations to Study the Response of Tomato Graft Unions under Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Wei, Hao; Chen, Yuze; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Background Grafting is an established practice for asexual propagation in horticultural and agricultural crops. The study on graft unions has become of interest for horticulturists using proteomic and genomic techniques to observe transfer of genetic material and signal transduction pathways from root to shoot and shoot to root. Another reason to study the graft unions was potentially to observe resistance against abiotic stresses. Using physiological and proteomic analyses, we investigated graft unions (rootstock and scions) of tomato genotypes exposed to standard-normal (23/23 and 25/18°C day/night) and high-low temperatures (30/15°C day/night). Results Graft unions had varied responses to the diverse temperatures. High-low temperature, but not standard-normal temperature, induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the form of H2O2 and O2-1 in rootstock and scions. However, the expression of many cell protection molecules was also induced, including antioxidant enzymes and their immunoblots, which also show an increase in their activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The graft interfaces thus actively defend against stress by modifying their physiological and proteomic responses to establish a new cellular homeostasis. As a result, many proteins for cellular defense were regulated in graft unions under diverse temperature, in addition to the regulation of photosynthetic proteins, ion binding/transport proteins, and protein synthesis. Moreover, biomass, hardness, and vascular transport activity were evaluated to investigate the basic connectivity between rootstock and scions. Conclusions Our study provides physiological evidence of the grafted plants’ response to diverse temperature. Most notably, our study provides novel insight into the mechanisms used to adapt the diverse temperature in graft unions (rootstock/scion). PMID:27310261

  20. Premature infant responses to noise reduction by earmuffs: effects on behavioral and physiologic measures.

    PubMed

    Zahr, L K; de Traversay, J

    1995-01-01

    The continuous high-intensity noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is both stressful and harmful for the premature infant. Although some researchers have found evidence that loud noise can cause hearing loss and alter physiologic and behavioral responses, no study to date has investigated the benefits of noise reduction by the use of earmuffs. In this study earmuffs were placed over the premature infants' ears to reduce noise intensity in the NICU while physiologic and behavioral responses were measured. Two sites were used to collect data: in the first setting, 17 low birth weight infants were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group, whereas 13 infants from a second hospital acted as their own controls and were tested with and without earmuffs. Earmuffs that reduced the intensity of noise by 7 to 12 dB were worn by infants in the experimental group only during the observation periods. Infants in the control group were exposed to the usual noise in the NICU. The infant's physiologic and behavioral responses were observed for four 2-hour intervals, morning and evening, on two consecutive days. Most of the significant results were from the site at which infants acted as their own controls. When infants wore the earmuffs, they had significantly higher mean oxygen saturation levels and less fluctuation in oxygen saturation. Furthermore, these infants had less frequent behavioral state changes, spent more time in the quiet sleep state, and had longer bouts in the sleep state. It is imperative that NICUs develop aggressive antinoise policies to substantially and consistently reduce noise. PMID:8648453

  1. Physiological and behavioural responses of young horses to hot iron branding and microchip implantation.

    PubMed

    Erber, R; Wulf, M; Becker-Birck, M; Kaps, S; Aurich, J E; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2012-02-01

    Branding is the traditional and well-established method used to mark horses, but recently microchip transponders for implantation have become available. In this study, behaviour, physiological stress variables and skin temperature in foals were determined in response to hot-iron branding (n=7) and microchip implantation (n=7). Salivary cortisol concentrations increased in response to branding (1.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and microchip implantation (1.4 ± 0.1ng/mL), but cortisol release over time did not differ. In response to both manipulations there was a transient increase in heart rate (P<0.001) and heart rate variability (P<0.01). Branding and microchip implantation induced a comparable aversive behaviour (branding, score 3.86 ± 0.85; microchip, score 4.00 ± 0.82). Both techniques thus caused similar physiological and behavioural changes indicative of stress. Acutely, implantation of a microchip was as stressful as branding in foals. Branding caused a necrotising skin burn lasting at least 7 days. Moreover branding, but not microchip implantation (P<0.001), was accompanied by a generalized increase in skin temperature which was comparable to low degree post-burn hypermetabolism in humans. PMID:21917490

  2. Physiological and behavioural responses of a small heterothermic mammal to fire stimuli.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Matthews, Jaya K; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-11-01

    The predicted increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires as a result of climate change could have a devastating impact on many species and ecosystems. However, the particular physiological and behavioural adaptions of animals to survive fires are poorly understood. We aimed to provide the first quantitative data on physiological and behavioural mechanisms used by a small heterothermic marsupial mammal, the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata), that may be crucial for survival during and immediately after a fire. Specifically, we aimed to determine (i) whether captive torpid animals are able to respond to fire stimuli and (ii) which energy saving mechanisms are used in response to fires. The initial response of torpid dunnarts to smoke exposure was to arouse immediately and therefore express shorter and shallower torpor bouts. Dunnarts also increased activity after smoke exposure when food was provided, but not when food was withheld. A charcoal/ash substrate, imitating post-fire conditions, resulted in a decrease in torpor use and activity, but only when food was available. Our novel data suggests that heterothermic mammals are able to respond to fire stimuli, such as smoke, to arouse from torpor as an initial response to fire and adjust torpor use and activity levels according to food availability modulated by fire cues. PMID:26343772

  3. Competitive active video games: Physiological and psychological responses in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. RESULTS: Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (P<0.001). Opponent-based condition revealed lower values for the rate of perceived exertion (P=0.02) and higher affect (P=0.022) when compared with single play. CONCLUSION: Competitive active video games improved children’s psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity. PMID:26526217

  4. Physiological and self-assessed emotional responses to emotion-eliciting films in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Elices, Matilde; Soler, Joaquim; Fernández, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Jesús Portella, María; Pérez, Víctor; Alvarez, Enrique; Carlos Pascual, Juan

    2012-12-30

    According to Linehan's biosocial model, the core characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotional dysregulation. In the present study, we investigated two components of this model: baseline emotional intensity and emotional reactivity. A total of 60 women, 30 with BPD diagnosis and 30 age and sex-matched healthy subjects (HCs), participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated emotional responses to six films designed to elicit discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement and neutral). The second experiment evaluated emotional reactions to three emotion-eliciting films containing BPD-specific content (sexual abuse, emotional dependence and abandonment/separation). Skin conductance level, heart rate, and subjective emotional response were recorded for each film. Although self-reported data indicated that negative emotions at baseline were stronger in the BPD group, physiological measures showed no differences between the groups. Physiological results should be interpreted with caution since most BPD participants were under pharmacological treatment. BPD subjects presented no subjective heightened reactivity to most of the discrete emotion-eliciting films. Subjective responses to amusement and "BPD-specific content" films revealed significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the main characteristic of BPD might be negative emotional intensity rather than heightened emotional reactivity. PMID:22884218

  5. Interaction between intra-oral cinnamaldehyde and nicotine assessed by psychophysical and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tanja K; Andersen, Michelle V; Nielsen, Kent A; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Boudreau, Shellie A

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamaldehyde and nicotine activate the transient receptor potential subtype A1 (TRPA1) channel, which may cause burning sensations. This study investigated whether cinnamaldehyde modulates nicotine-induced psychophysical and physiological responses in oral tissues. Healthy non-smokers (n = 22) received, in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, three different gums containing 4 mg of nicotine, 20 mg of cinnamaldehyde, or a combination thereof. Assessments of orofacial temperature and blood flow, blood pressure, heart rate, taste experience, and intra-oral pain/irritation area and intensity were performed before, during, and after a 10-min chewing regime. Cinnamaldehyde increased the temperature of the tongue and blood flow of the lip, and was associated with pain/irritation, especially in the mouth. Nicotine increased the temperature of the tongue and blood flow of the cheek, and produced pain/irritation in the mouth and throat. The combination of cinnamaldehyde and nicotine did not overtly change the psychophysical or physiological responses. Interestingly, half of the subjects responded to cinnamaldehyde as an irritant, and these cinnamaldehyde responders reported greater nicotine-induced pain/irritation areas in the throat. Whether sensitivity to cinnamaldehyde can predict the response to nicotine-induced oral irritation remains to be determined. A better understanding of the sensory properties of nicotine in the oral mucosa has important therapeutic implications because pain and irritation represent compliance issues for nicotine replacement products. PMID:27282133

  6. Physiological and transcriptional responses and cross protection of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 under acid stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renhui; Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Tao, Xueying; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Acid tolerance responses (ATR) in Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 were investigated at physiological and molecular levels. A comparison of composition of cell membrane fatty acids (CMFA) between acid-challenged and unchallenged cells showed that acid adaptation evoked a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and cyclopropane fatty acids in acid-challenged than in unchallenged cells. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis in acid-adapted cells at different pH values (ranging from 3.0 to 4.0) indicated that several genes were differently regulated, including those related to proton pumps, amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and class I and class III stress response pathways. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and production of alkali was significantly upregulated. Upon exposure to pH 4.5 for 2 h, a higher survival rate (higher viable cell count) of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 was achieved following an additional challenge to 40 mM hydrogen peroxide for 60 min, but no difference in survival rate of cells was found with further challenge to heat, ethanol, or salt. Therefore, we concluded that the physiological and metabolic changes of acid-treated cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 help the cells resist damage caused by acid, and further initiated global response signals to bring the whole cell into a state of defense to other stress factors, especially hydrogen peroxide. PMID:26627851

  7. Transcriptomic Changes Drive Physiological Responses to Progressive Drought Stress and Rehydration in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Iovieno, Paolo; Punzo, Paola; Guida, Gianpiero; Mistretta, Carmela; Van Oosten, Michael J.; Nurcato, Roberta; Bostan, Hamed; Colantuono, Chiara; Costa, Antonello; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Chiusano, Maria L.; Albrizio, Rossella; Giorio, Pasquale; Batelli, Giorgia; Grillo, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a major crop in the Mediterranean basin, where the cultivation in the open field is often vulnerable to drought. In order to adapt and survive to naturally occurring cycles of drought stress and recovery, plants employ a coordinated array of physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses. Transcriptomic studies on tomato responses to drought and subsequent recovery are few in number. As the search for novel traits to improve the genetic tolerance to drought increases, a better understanding of these responses is required. To address this need we designed a study in which we induced two cycles of prolonged drought stress and a single recovery by rewatering in tomato. In order to dissect the complexity of plant responses to drought, we analyzed the physiological responses (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation, and chlorophyll fluorescence), abscisic acid (ABA), and proline contents. In addition to the physiological and metabolite assays, we generated transcriptomes for multiple points during the stress and recovery cycles. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the conditions has revealed potential novel components in stress response. The observed reduction in leaf gas exchanges and efficiency of the photosystem PSII was concomitant with a general down-regulation of genes belonging to the photosynthesis, light harvesting, and photosystem I and II category induced by drought stress. Gene ontology (GO) categories such as cell proliferation and cell cycle were also significantly enriched in the down-regulated fraction of genes upon drought stress, which may contribute to explain the observed growth reduction. Several histone variants were also repressed during drought stress, indicating that chromatin associated processes are also affected by drought. As expected, ABA accumulated after prolonged water deficit, driving the observed enrichment of stress related GOs in the up-regulated gene fractions, which included transcripts

  8. Physiological and behavioural responses to weaning conflict in free-ranging primate infants

    PubMed Central

    Mandalaywala, Tara M.; Higham, James P.; Heistermann, Michael; Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Weaning, characterized by maternal reduction of resources, is both psychologically and energetically stressful to mammalian offspring. Despite the importance of physiology in this process, previous studies have reported only indirect measures of weaning stress from infants, because of the difficulties of collecting physiological measures from free-ranging mammalian infants. Here we present some of the first data on the relationship between weaning and energetic and psychological stress in infant mammals. We collected data on 47 free-ranging rhesus macaque infants on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, showing that faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations were directly related to the frequency of maternal rejection, with fGCM concentrations increasing as rates of rejection increased. Infants with higher fGCM concentrations also engaged in higher rates of mother following, and mother following was associated with increased time on the nipple, suggesting that infants that experienced greater weaning-related stress increased their efforts to maintain proximity and contact with their mothers. Infants experiencing more frequent rejection uttered more distress vocalizations when being rejected; however, there was no relationship between rates of distress vocalizations and fGCM concentrations, suggesting a disassociation between behavioural and physiological stress responses to weaning. Elevated glucocorticoid concentrations during weaning may function to mobilize energy reserves and prepare the infant for continued maternal rejection and shortage of energetic resources. PMID:25431499

  9. Responses of corn physiology and yield to six agricultural practices over three years in middle Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Wang, Junming; Reddy, K. Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT), in combination with nitrogen type (URAN or chicken litter) and application method, biochar, or denitrification inhibitor. A randomized complete block design was applied with six replications. Leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and yield were measured. Results showed that different agricultural practices had significant effects on plant leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, soil respiration, height, and yield, but not on LAI and biomass. The average corn yield in the NT-URAN was 10.03 ton/ha, 28.9% more than in the CT-URAN. Compared to the NT-URAN, the NT-biochar had lower soil respiration and similar yield. All variables measured showed remarkable variations among the three years. Our results indicated that no tillage treatment substantially increased corn yield, probably due to the preservation of soil moisture during drought periods. PMID:27272142

  10. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  11. Physiological and biochemical responses of the Polychaete Diopatra neapolitana to organic matter enrichment.

    PubMed

    Carregosa, Vanessa; Velez, Cátia; Pires, Adília; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that organic matter enrichment may be associated to aquaculture, leading to impoverished benthic communities and species succession with loss of biodiversity, but very few studies have investigated biochemical and physiological alterations that species affected by aquaculture activities undergo. Thus, in the present study, the effects of the organic enrichment originating from an oyster culture were studied in the Polychaete Diopatra neapolitana, a species already shown to be sensitive to inorganic contamination. For this, physiological responses and biochemical alterations were evaluated. The results obtained revealed that individuals from highly organically enriched areas presented lower capacity to regenerate their body but higher glycogen and protein levels. Furthermore, with increasing organic matter D. neapolitana increased the lipid peroxidation (LPO), the oxidized glutathione content (GSSG) and Glutathione S-transferase activity (GSTs) content, and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study evidenced that organic matter enrichment induced biochemical and physiological alterations in D. neapolitana. Thus, this species was shown to be a good sentinel species to monitor organic contamination. PMID:24973779

  12. Near-UV radiation acts as a beneficial factor for physiological responses in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Mitani-Sano, Makiko; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-11-01

    Effects of near-UV radiation on the growth and physiological activity of cucumber plants were investigated morphologically, physiologically and biochemically using 3-week-old seedlings grown under polyvinyl chloride films featuring transmission either above 290 nm or above 400 nm in growth chambers. The hypocotyl length and leaf area of cucumber seedlings were reduced but the thickness of leaves was enhanced by near-UV radiation, due to increased upper/lower epidermis thickness, palisade parenchyma thickness and volume of palisade parenchyma cells. Photosynthetic and respiratory activities were also promoted by near-UV radiation, associated with general enhancement of physiological/biochemical responses. Particularly, metabolic activities in the photosynthetic system of chloroplasts and the respiratory system of mitochondria were analyzed under the conditions of visible light with and without near-UV radiation. For example, the activities of NAD(P)-dependent enzymes such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in chloroplasts and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in mitochondria were elevated, along with levels of pyridine nucleotides (nicotinamide coenzymes) [NAD(H) and NADP(H)] and activity of NAD kinase (NADP forming enzyme). Taken together, these data suggest that promotion of cucumber plant growth by near-UV radiation involves activation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. The findings of this research showed that near-UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface is a beneficial factor for plant growth. PMID:24013482

  13. Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Huang, Min-Sheng; Dai, Ling-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and the physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi were investigated with mesocosm experiments. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in six purifying tanks (aerated, non-aerated) and the characteristics of the plants were measured. Water quality improvements in purifying tanks were evaluated by comparing to the control tanks. The results showed that continuous aeration affected the plant morphology and physiology. The lengths of the roots, petioles and leaf limbs in aeration conditions were shorter than in non-aeration conditions. Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents of the leaf limbs in aerated tanks decreased, while peroxidase and catalase activities of roots tissues increased. In spring and summer, effects of aeration on the plants were less than in autumn. Total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in aerated tanks were lower than in non-aerated tanks, while total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased in spring and summer. In autumn, effects of aeration on the plants became more significant. TN, NH4(+)-N, TP and DP became higher in aerated tanks than in non-aerated tanks in autumn. This work provided evidences for regulating aeration techniques based on seasonal variations of the plant physiology in restoring polluted stagnant water. PMID:23819294

  14. Psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to a lab stressor relative to matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Patrick R.; Fidalgo, Louise; Schmuck, Dominic; Tsui, Yoko; Brown, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences between individuals participating in outpatient psychotherapy and matched controls using an experimental design. Forty-two psychotherapy participants and 48 matched controls were assessed on cardiovascular and cortisol functioning at baseline, during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and during a 20-min recovery period. Psychotherapy participants and matched controls did not differ at baseline or during the TSST on the physiological measures but psychotherapy participants had higher cortisol and heart rate (HR) during the recovery period. In regards to reactivity, cortisol increased during the recovery period for the psychotherapy participants but decreased for those in the matched control group. Psychotherapy participants experiencing clinically significant levels of distress displayed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HR during the TSST when compared to psychotherapy participants not experiencing clinically significant levels of distress. Overall, physiological reactivity to stress appears to be an important issue for those in psychotherapy and directly addressing this issue may help improve psychotherapy outcomes. PMID:25120511

  15. Physiological and Emotional Responses of Disabled Children to Therapeutic Clowns: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kingsnorth, Shauna; Blain, Stefanie; McKeever, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of Therapeutic Clowning on inpatients in a pediatric rehabilitation hospital. Ten disabled children with varied physical and verbal expressive abilities participated in all or portions of the data collection protocol. Employing a mixed-method, single-subject ABAB study design, measures of physiological arousal, emotion and behavior were obtained from eight children under two conditions—television exposure and therapeutic clown interventions. Four peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) signals were recorded as measures of physiological arousal; these signals were analyzed with respect to measures of emotion (verbal self reports of mood) and behavior (facial expressions and vocalizations). Semistructured interviews were completed with verbally expressive children (n = 7) and nurses of participating children (n = 13). Significant differences among children were found in response to the clown intervention relative to television exposure. Physiologically, changes in ANS signals occurred either more frequently or in different patterns. Emotionally, children's (self) and nurses' (observed) reports of mood were elevated positively. Behaviorally, children exhibited more positive and fewer negative facial expressions and vocalizations of emotion during the clown intervention. Content and themes extracted from the interviews corroborated these findings. The results suggest that this popular psychosocial intervention has a direct and positive impact on hospitalized children. This pilot study contributes to the current understanding of the importance of alternative approaches in promoting well-being within healthcare settings. PMID:21799690

  16. Stochastic optimization for modeling physiological time series: application to the heart rate response to exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Stirling, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic optimization is applied to the problem of optimizing the fit of a model to the time series of raw physiological (heart rate) data. The physiological response to exercise has been recently modeled as a dynamical system. Fitting the model to a set of raw physiological time series data is, however, not a trivial task. For this reason and in order to calculate the optimal values of the parameters of the model, the present study implements the powerful stochastic optimization method ALOPEX IV, an algorithm that has been proven to be fast, effective and easy to implement. The optimal parameters of the model, calculated by the optimization method for the particular athlete, are very important as they characterize the athlete's current condition. The present study applies the ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization to the modeling of a set of heart rate time series data corresponding to different exercises of constant intensity. An analysis of the optimization algorithm, together with an analytic proof of its convergence (in the absence of noise), is also presented.

  17. Comparison of physiological responses to hypoxia at high altitudes between highlanders and lowlanders.

    PubMed

    Zhongyuan, S; Xuehan, N; Pengguo, H; Shoucheng, Z; Deming, Z; Shengyue, Y; Yan, W; Zhaoshen, D

    1979-12-01

    This report deals with the differences and changes of physiological functions of the highlanders and the lowlanders at different altitudes during the period when the Chinese Mountaineering Team was climbing up and reached the peak of Qomolangma Feng. In a period of relaxation, there are no significant changes in ventilatory responsiveness to hypercapnia, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram between highlanders and lowlanders with the changes at different altitudes. At 5,000 m a.s.l., however, electrocardiogram and the result of cardiac ventricular functional test show significant differences after the subjects are physically loaded. Those whose electrocardiogram readings show unusual changes, and whose cardiac ventricular functional tests show their physiological functions at low degree after physical activities at the altitude of 5,000 m, have a climbing ability hardly below 6,500 m, while those who have reached the altitudes above 8,200 m have no unusual changes in electrocardiogram, and the results of cardiac ventricular functional tests show that their physiological functions are at high degree. PMID:534322

  18. NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Physiological Responses to Starvation and Refeeding in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Contreras, José I; García-Pérez, Isabel; Meléndez-Camargo, María E; Zepeda, L Gerardo

    2016-09-01

    Starvation is a postabsorptive condition derived from a limitation on food resources by external factors. Energy homeostasis is maintained under this condition by using sources other than glucose via adaptive mechanisms. After refeeding, when food is available, other adaptive processes are linked to energy balance. However, less has been reported about the physiological mechanisms present as a result of these conditions, considering the rat as a supraorganism. Metabolic profiling using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize the physiological metabolic differences in urine specimens collected under starved, refed, and recovered conditions. In addition, because starvation induced lack of faecal production and not all animals produced faeces during refeeding, 24 h pooled faecal water samples were also analyzed. Urinary metabolites upregulated by starvation included 2-butanamidoacetate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, ketoleucine, methylmalonate, p-cresyl glucuronide, p-cresyl sulfate, phenylacetylglycine, pseudouridine, creatinine, taurine, and N-acetyl glycoprotein, which were related to renal and skeletal muscle function, β-oxidation, turnover of proteins and RNA, and host-microbial interactions. Food-derived metabolites, including gut microbial cometabolites, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were upregulated under refed and recovered conditions, which characterized anabolic urinary metabotypes. The upregulation of creatine and pantothenate indicated an absorptive state after refeeding. Fecal short chain fatty acids, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, lactate, and acetoin provided additional information about the combinatorial metabolism between the host and gut microbiota. This investigation contributes to allow a deeper understanding of physiological responses associated with starvation and refeeding. PMID:27518853

  19. Physiological responses of Tunisian grapevine varieties to bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaal, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Plants are frequently submitted to iron deficiency when growing on calcareous soils, which contain high concentrations of bicarbonate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability of physiological responses of Tunisian grapevine varieties to bicarbonate-induced iron chlorosis. Vine woodcuttings of seven autochthonous Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Mahdaoui, Blan3, Saouadi, Arich Dressé, Beldi and Balta4), two rootstocks (140Ru and S.O.4), and an introduced table variety (Cardinal) were cultivated on inert sand for 2 months using a complete nutrient solution (20 microM Fe) that was either well supplied or not supplied with 10 mM HCO3-. Young leaves of plants cultivated on bicarbonate-enriched medium showed characteristic symptoms of iron chlorosis, although the intensity of the symptoms depended on the variety and the rootstock. Chlorosis score confirmed these observations since the most sensitive varieties showed the highest values. This variability in tolerance to iron deficiency was also displayed when analysing the physiological parameters (shoot length, plant dry weight, and chlorophyll concentration) and the iron contents in the 4th leaf. Analysis of morphological and physiological parameters showed three behaviour groups. The first one corresponded to tolerant varieties (Khamri, Mahdaoui, and the root-stock: 140Ru), the second included moderately tolerant vines (Saouadi, Arich Dressé, Blanc3, and the rootstock: S.O.4) and the third represented the sensitive ones (Balta4, Beldi, and Cardinal). PMID:15832686

  20. Responses of corn physiology and yield to six agricultural practices over three years in middle Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Wang, Junming; Reddy, K Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT), in combination with nitrogen type (URAN or chicken litter) and application method, biochar, or denitrification inhibitor. A randomized complete block design was applied with six replications. Leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and yield were measured. Results showed that different agricultural practices had significant effects on plant leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, soil respiration, height, and yield, but not on LAI and biomass. The average corn yield in the NT-URAN was 10.03 ton/ha, 28.9% more than in the CT-URAN. Compared to the NT-URAN, the NT-biochar had lower soil respiration and similar yield. All variables measured showed remarkable variations among the three years. Our results indicated that no tillage treatment substantially increased corn yield, probably due to the preservation of soil moisture during drought periods. PMID:27272142

  1. Short-term physiological responses of wild and hatchery-produced red drum during angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallman, E.A.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1999-01-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolalities increased in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (26.0-65.5 cm total length) during angling in estuarine waters (17-33 g/L salinity, 21-31??C). Angling time varied from as fast as possible (10 s) to the point when fish ceased resisting (up to 350 s). The increases in the physiological characteristics were similar in wild and hatchery-produced fish. This study indicates that hatchery-produced red drum may be used in catch-and-release studies to simulate the responses of wild fish.

  2. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Methods Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; V˙O2max: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2–4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Results Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). Conclusions The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions. PMID:27532605

  3. Physiologic response of human brain death and the use of vasopressin for successful organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Tang, Julin F

    2011-03-01

    The dynamic physiologic response of human brain death and the impact of vasopressin on successful organ transplantation is reported. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit after severe traumatic brain injury resulting in brain death. Initial Cushing reflex was followed by a precipitous decrease in systemic blood pressure that was refractory to the alpha-agonist phenylephrine. After intravenous vasopressin was given, hemodynamic stability was restored and maintained until successful organ transplantation. Vasopressin, a catecholamine-sparing vasopressor and antidiuretic agent, may be an effective agent in the treatment of refractory hypotension after brain death prior to organ transplantation. PMID:21377081

  4. Human Physiological Responses to Cycle Ergometer Leg Exercise During +Gz Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Barnes, P. R.; Leftheriotis, G. P. N.; Arndt, N. F.; Simonson, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Spaceflight and bed-rest deconditioning decrease maximal oxygen uptake (aerobic power), strength, endurance capacity, and orthostatic tolerance. In addition to extensive use of muscular exercise conditioning as a countermeasure for the reduction in aerobic power (VO(sub 2max)), stimuli from some form of +Gz acceleration conditioning may be necessary to attenuate the orthostatic intolerance component of this deconditioning. Hypothesis: There will be no significant difference in the physiological responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  5. Physiological and molecular responses of springtails exposed to phenanthrene and drought.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Schmidt, Stine N; Mayer, Philipp; Damgaard, Christian; Sørensen, Jesper G

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between effects of hazardous chemicals in the environment and adverse climatic conditions is a problem that receives increased attention in the light of climate change. We studied interactive effects of phenanthrene and drought using a test system in which springtails (Folsomia candida Willem) were concurrently exposed to a sublethal phenanthrene level via passive dosing from silicone (chemical activity of 0.010), and sublethal drought from aqueous NaCl solutions (water activity of 0.988). Previous studies have shown that the combined effects of high levels of phenanthrene and drought, respectively, interact synergistically when using lethality as an end-point. Here, we hypothesized that phenanthrene interferes with physiological mechanisms involved in drought tolerance, and that drought influences detoxification of phenanthrene. However, this hypothesis was not supported by data since phenanthrene had no effect on drought-protective accumulation of myo-inositol, and normal water conserving mechanisms of F. candida were functioning despite the near-lethal concentrations of the toxicant. Further, detoxifying induction of cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase was not impeded by drought. Both phenanthrene and drought induced transcription of heat shock protein (hsp70) and the combined effect of the two stressors on hsp70 transcription was additive, suggesting that the cellular stress and lethality imposed by these levels of phenanthrene and drought were also additive. PMID:24095812

  6. Fight-flight or freeze-hide? Personality and metabolic phenotype mediate physiological defence responses in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Rupia, Emmanuel J; Binning, Sandra A; Roche, Dominique G; Lu, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Survival depends on appropriate behavioural and physiological responses to danger. In addition to active 'fight-flight' defence responses, a passive 'freeze-hide' response is adaptive in some contexts. However, the physiological mechanisms determining which individuals choose a given defence response remain poorly understood. We examined the relationships among personality, metabolic performance and physiological stress responses across an environmental gradient in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. We employed four behavioural assays to document the existence of two distinct behavioural types ('bold' and 'shy') in this species. We found consistent metabolic differences between individuals of a given behavioural type across an environmental gradient: shy individuals had overall lower aerobic scope, maximum metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate than bold individuals in both high (25 ppt) and low (3 ppt) salinity. These behavioural and metabolic differences translated into divergent physiological responses during acute stress: shy individuals adopted a passive 'freeze-hide' response by reducing their oxygen consumption rates (akin to shallow breathing) whereas bold individuals adopted an active 'fight-flight' response by increasing their rates of respiration. These distinct defence strategies were repeatable within individuals between salinity treatments. Although it has been suggested theoretically, this is the first empirical evidence that the metabolic response to stressful situations differs between bold and shy individuals. Our results emphasize the importance of incorporating physiological measures to understand the mechanisms driving persistent inter-individual differences in animals. PMID:27044558

  7. Physiological and transcriptional responses to high temperature in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis C1.

    PubMed

    Panyakampol, Jaruta; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Sutheeworapong, Sawannee; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Senachak, Jittisak; Siangdung, Wipawan; Jeamton, Wattana; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee

    2015-03-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a well-known commercial cyanobacterium that is used as a food and in feed supplements. In this study, we examined the physiological changes and whole-genome expression in A. platensis C1 exposed to high temperature. We found that photosynthetic activity was significantly decreased after the temperature was shifted from 35°C to 42°C for 2 h. A reduction in biomass production and protein content, concomitant with the accumulation of carbohydrate content, was observed after prolonged exposure to high temperatures for 24 h. Moreover, the results of the expression profiling in response to high temperature at the designated time points (8 h) revealed two distinct phases of the responses. The first was the immediate response phase, in which the transcript levels of genes involved in different mechanisms, including genes for heat shock proteins; genes involved in signal transduction and carbon and nitrogen metabolism; and genes encoding inorganic ion transporters for magnesium, nitrite and nitrate, were either transiently induced or repressed by the high temperature. In the second phase, the long-term response phase, both the induction and repression of the expression of genes with important roles in translation and photosynthesis were observed. Taken together, the results of our physiological and transcriptional studies suggest that dynamic changes in the transcriptional profiles of these thermal-responsive genes might play a role in maintaining cell homeostasis under high temperatures, as reflected in the growth and biochemical composition, particularly the protein and carbohydrate content, of A. platensis C1. PMID:25524069

  8. Comparative proteomics and physiological characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in responses to Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Hao, Junran; Zhao, Weiwei; Yang, Zhuojun; Wu, Weihong; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; Huang, Kunlun

    2013-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that is primarily produced by Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum. This mycotoxin is a contaminant of food and feedstock worldwide and may induce cell death in plants. To investigate the dynamic growth process of Arabidopsis seedlings in response to OTA stress and to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of OTA toxicity towards Arabidopsis, a comparative proteomics study using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was performed. Mass spectrometry analysis identified 59 and 51 differentially expressed proteins in seedlings exposed to 25 and 45 μM OTA for 7 days, respectively. OTA treatment decreased root elongation and leaf area, increased anthocyanin accumulation, damaged the photosynthetic apparatus and inhibited photosynthesis. Treatment of the seedlings with 25 μM OTA enhanced energy metabolism, whereas higher concentration of OTA (45 μM) inhibited energy metabolism in the seedlings. OTA treatment caused an increase of ROS, an enhancement of antioxidant enzyme defense responses, disturbance of redox homeostasis and activation of lipid oxidation. Glutamine and S-adenosylmethionine metabolism may also play important roles in the response to OTA. In conclusion, our study provided novel insights regarding the response of Arabidopsis to OTA at the level of the proteome. These results are expected to be highly useful for understanding the physiological responses and dissecting the OTA response pathways in higher plants. PMID:23625346

  9. A Review of Cardiac Autonomic Measures: Considerations for Examination of Physiological Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benevides, Teal W.; Lane, Shelly J.

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is responsible for multiple physiological responses, and dysfunction of this system is often hypothesized as contributing to cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in children. Research suggests that examination of ANS activity may provide insight into behavioral dysregulation in children with autism…

  10. Emotional Responses during Reading: Physiological Responses Predict Real-Time Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Samantha G.; Willett, John B.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional responses and reading performance in middle-school students. Although a large number of prior studies have investigated the relationship between emotion and reading, those studies have concentrated primarily on relatively static and distal measures of emotion. In this research, we measured…

  11. The physiological consequences of crib-biting in horses in response to an ACTH challenge test.

    PubMed

    Briefer Freymond, S; Bardou, D; Briefer, E F; Bruckmaier, R; Fouché, N; Fleury, J; Maigrot, A-L; Ramseyer, A; Zuberbühler, K; Bachmann, I

    2015-11-01

    Stereotypies are repetitive and relatively invariant patterns of behavior, which are observed in a wide range of species in captivity. Stereotypic behavior occurs when environmental demands produce a physiological response that, if sustained for an extended period, exceeds the natural physiological regulatory capacity of the organism, particularly in situations that include unpredictability and uncontrollability. One hypothesis is that stereotypic behavior functions to cope with stressful environments, but the existing evidence is contradictory. To address the coping hypothesis of stereotypies, we triggered physiological reactions in 22 horses affected by stereotypic behavior (crib-biters) and 21 non-crib-biters (controls), using an ACTH challenge test. Following administration of an ACTH injection, we measured saliva cortisol every 30 min and heart rate (HR) continuously for a period of 3h. We did not find any differences in HR or HR variability between the two groups, but crib-biters (Group CB) had significantly higher cortisol responses than controls (Group C; mean ± SD: CB, 5.84 ± 2.62 ng/ml, C, 4.76 ± 3.04 ng/ml). Moreover, crib-biters that did not perform the stereotypic behavior during the 3-hour test period (Group B) had significantly higher cortisol levels than controls, which was not the case of crib-biters showing stereotypic behavior (Group A) (B, 6.44 ± 2.38 ng/ml A, 5.58 ± 2.69 ng/ml). Our results suggest that crib-biting is a coping strategy that helps stereotypic individuals to reduce cortisol levels caused by stressful situations. We conclude that preventing stereotypic horses from crib-biting could be an inappropriate strategy to control this abnormal behavior, as it prevents individuals from coping with situations that they perceive as stressful. PMID:26187578

  12. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark ET

    2015-01-01

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2–8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0–6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults. PMID:26240669

  13. Complexity of physiological responses decreases in high-stress musical performance

    PubMed Central

    Williamon, Aaron; Aufegger, Lisa; Wasley, David; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2013-01-01

    For musicians, performing in front of an audience can cause considerable apprehension; indeed, performance anxiety is felt throughout the profession, with wide ranging symptoms arising irrespective of age, skill level and amount of practice. A key indicator of stress is frequency-specific fluctuations in the dynamics of heart rate known as heart rate variability (HRV). Recent developments in sensor technology have made possible the measurement of physiological parameters reflecting HRV non-invasively and outside of the laboratory, opening research avenues for real-time performer feedback to help improve stress management. However, the study of stress using standard algorithms has led to conflicting and inconsistent results. Here, we present an innovative and rigorous approach which combines: (i) a controlled and repeatable experiment in which the physiological response of an expert musician was evaluated in a low-stress performance and a high-stress recital for an audience of 400 people, (ii) a piece of music with varying physical and cognitive demands, and (iii) dynamic stress level assessment with standard and state-of-the-art HRV analysis algorithms such as those within the domain of complexity science which account for higher order stress signatures. We show that this offers new scope for interpreting the autonomic nervous system response to stress in real-world scenarios, with the evolution of stress levels being consistent with the difficulty of the music being played, superimposed on the stress caused by performing in front of an audience. For an emerging class of algorithms that can analyse HRV independent of absolute data scaling, it is shown that complexity science performs a more accurate assessment of average stress levels, thus providing greater insight into the degree of physiological change experienced by musicians when performing in public. PMID:24068177

  14. Complexity of physiological responses decreases in high-stress musical performance.

    PubMed

    Williamon, Aaron; Aufegger, Lisa; Wasley, David; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P

    2013-12-01

    For musicians, performing in front of an audience can cause considerable apprehension; indeed, performance anxiety is felt throughout the profession, with wide ranging symptoms arising irrespective of age, skill level and amount of practice. A key indicator of stress is frequency-specific fluctuations in the dynamics of heart rate known as heart rate variability (HRV). Recent developments in sensor technology have made possible the measurement of physiological parameters reflecting HRV non-invasively and outside of the laboratory, opening research avenues for real-time performer feedback to help improve stress management. However, the study of stress using standard algorithms has led to conflicting and inconsistent results. Here, we present an innovative and rigorous approach which combines: (i) a controlled and repeatable experiment in which the physiological response of an expert musician was evaluated in a low-stress performance and a high-stress recital for an audience of 400 people, (ii) a piece of music with varying physical and cognitive demands, and (iii) dynamic stress level assessment with standard and state-of-the-art HRV analysis algorithms such as those within the domain of complexity science which account for higher order stress signatures. We show that this offers new scope for interpreting the autonomic nervous system response to stress in real-world scenarios, with the evolution of stress levels being consistent with the difficulty of the music being played, superimposed on the stress caused by performing in front of an audience. For an emerging class of algorithms that can analyse HRV independent of absolute data scaling, it is shown that complexity science performs a more accurate assessment of average stress levels, thus providing greater insight into the degree of physiological change experienced by musicians when performing in public. PMID:24068177

  15. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark Et

    2015-06-27

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m(-2)) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b(2) pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults. PMID:26240669

  16. Effects of modified multistage field test on performance and physiological responses in wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Berthoin, Serge; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT) and the modified condition in "8 form" (MFT-8). Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score), peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak), minute ventilation (VEpeak), heart rate (HRpeak), peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact(-)] = peak--rest values), and the perceived rating exertion (RPE) were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L · min(-1) and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L · min(-1); P < 0.05) with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P < 0.05). At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition. PMID:25802841

  17. Physiological short-term response to sudden salinity change in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Marcelino; Aragão, Cláudia; Hachero, Ismael; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Conceição, Luis E C

    2012-12-01

    The physiological responses of Senegalese sole to a sudden salinity change were investigated. The fish were first acclimated to an initial salinity of 37.5 ppt for 4 h. Then, one group was subjected to increased salinity (55 ppt) while another group was subjected to decreased salinity (5 ppt). The third group (control group) remained at 37.5 ppt. We measured the oxygen consumption rate, osmoregulatory (plasma osmolality, gill and kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities) and stress (plasma cortisol and metabolites) parameters 0.5 and 3 h after transfer. Oxygen consumption at both salinities was higher than for the control at both sampling times. Gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher for the 55 ppt salinity at 0.5 h. Plasma osmolality decreased in the fish exposed to 5 ppt at the two sampling times but no changes were detected for high salinities. Plasma cortisol levels significantly increased at both salinities, although these values declined in the low-salinity group 3 h after transfer. Plasma glucose at 5 ppt salinity did not vary significantly at 0.5 h but decreased at 3 h, while lactate increased for both treatments at the first sampling time and returned to the control levels at 3 h. Overall, the physiological response of S. senegalensis was immediate and involved a rise in oxygen consumption and plasma cortisol values as well as greater metabolite mobilization at both salinities. PMID:22678707

  18. Does including physiology improve species distribution model predictions of responses to recent climate change?

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B; Waaser, Stephanie A; MacLean, Heidi J; Fox, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Thermal constraints on development are often invoked to predict insect distributions. These constraints tend to be characterized in species distribution models (SDMs) by calculating development time based on a constant lower development temperature (LDT). Here, we assessed whether species-specific estimates of LDT based on laboratory experiments can improve the ability of SDMs to predict the distribution shifts of six U.K. butterflies in response to recent climate warming. We find that species-specific and constant (5 degrees C) LDT degree-day models perform similarly at predicting distributions during the period of 1970-1982. However, when the models for the 1970-1982 period are projected to predict distributions in 1995-1999 and 2000-2004, species-specific LDT degree-day models modestly outperform constant LDT degree-day models. Our results suggest that, while including species-specific physiology in correlative models may enhance predictions of species' distribution responses to climate change, more detailed models may be needed to adequately account for interspecific physiological differences. PMID:22352161

  19. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations. PMID:26758658

  20. Sexually different physiological responses of Populus cathayana to nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Hongxia; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that there are significant sexual differences in the morphological and physiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehder under stressful conditions. However, little is known about sex-specific differences in responses to nutrient deficiencies. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies on the morphological, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural traits of P. cathayana males and females were investigated. The results showed that N and P deficiencies significantly decreased plant growth, foliar N and P contents, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and instantaneous photosynthetic N- and P-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) in both sexes. Males had higher photosynthesis, higher PNUE and PPUE rates, and a lower accumulation of plastoglobules in chloroplasts than did females when exposed to N- and P-deficiency conditions. Nitrogen-deficient males had higher glutamate dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities, and a more intact chloroplast ultrastructure, but less starch accumulation than did N-deficient females. Phosphorus-deficient males had higher nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and acid phosphatase activities, but a lower foliar N : P ratio and less PSII damage than did P-deficient females. These results suggest that N and P deficiencies cause greater negative effects on females than on males, and that the different sexes of P. cathayana may employ different strategies to cope with N and P deficiencies. PMID:24739232

  1. Physiological responses of food neophobics and food neophilics to food and non-food stimuli.

    PubMed

    Raudenbush, Bryan; Capiola, August

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in human food neophobia (the reluctance to try novel foods) and food neophilia (the overt willingness to try novel foods) influence the evaluation of tastes and odors, as well as the sampling of such stimuli. Past research also notes an association of food neophobia to PTC sensitivity, body weight, and cephalic phase salivary response. The present study assessed physiological reactions of food neophobics and neophilics to pictures of food and non-food stimuli. Stimuli pictures were presented in random order on a computer screen for a period of 5 min. No significant differences were found between the groups in relation to non-food stimuli. However, pulse, GSR, and respirations were significantly increased in food neophobics when presented pictures of food stimuli. Thus, further evidence is provided to support a physiological component at least partially responsible for differences noted between neophobics and neophilics in sensitivity, psychophysical ratings, and "willingness to try" personality. Such a component may also lead to differences in weight, nutrition, and overall health. PMID:22369957

  2. Effects of Modified Multistage Field Test on Performance and Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Berthoin, Serge; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT) and the modified condition in “8 form” (MFT-8). Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score), peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak), minute ventilation (VEpeak), heart rate (HRpeak), peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak – rest values), and the perceived rating exertion (RPE) were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L·min−1 and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L·min−1; P < 0.05) with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P < 0.05). At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition. PMID:25802841

  3. Physiological and biochemical responses of rice seeds to phosphine exposure during germination.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaojun; Mi, Lina; Li, Yadong; Wei, Aishu; Yang, Zhiquan; Wu, Jiandong; Zhang, Di; Song, Xiaofei

    2013-11-01

    Rice seeds (Tianyou, 3618) were used to examine the physiological and biochemical responses to phosphine exposure during germination. A control (0 mg m(-3)) and four concentrations of phosphine (1.4 mg m(-3), 4.2 mg m(-3), 7.0 mg m(-3) and 13.9 mg m(-3)) were used to treat the rice seeds. Each treatment was applied for 90 min once per day for five days. The germination rate (GR); germination potential (GP); germination index (GI); antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT); and lipid peroxidation measured through via malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined as indicators of the physiological and biochemical responses of the rice seeds to phosphine exposure. These indicators were determined once per day for five days. The results indicated that the GR, GP and GI of the rice seeds markedly decreased after phosphine exposure. The changes in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes due to the phosphine exposure were also significant. The exposure lowered the CAT and SOD activities and increased POD activity in the treated rice seeds compared with controls. The MDA content exhibited a slow increase trend with the increase of phosphine concentration. These results suggest that phosphine has inhibitory effects on seed germination. In addition, phosphine exposure caused oxidative stress in the seeds. The antioxidant enzymes could play a pivotal role against oxidative injury. Overall, the effect of phosphine on rice seeds is different from what has been reported previously for insects and mammals. PMID:23992639

  4. Physiological and biochemical responses of resistant and susceptible wheat to injury by Russian wheat aphid.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Lisa D; Gutsche, Andrea R; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Higley, Leon G; Sarath, Gautam; Burd, John D

    2007-10-01

    We examined the physiological and biochemical responses of resistant ('Halt' and 'Prairie Red') and susceptible ('TAM 107') wheat, Triticum aestivum L., to injury by the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Photosynthetic capacity was evaluated by measuring assimilation/internal CO2 (A/Ci) curves, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll, and nonstructural carbohydrate content. Total protein and peroxidase specific activity also were determined. No significant differences were detected in chlorophyll concentration between aphid-infested and control TAM 107 plants. The aphid-infested resistant cultivars had similar or significantly higher chlorophyll concentrations compared with their respective control plants. Measurements over time showed that infested Halt plants had delays in photosynthetic senescence, Prairie Red plants had photosynthetic rate changes that were similar to control plants, and TAM 107 plants displayed accelerated photosynthetic senescence patterns. The photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching coefficients were significantly higher in infested Halt plants compared with their respective control plants on day 3. Infested TAM 107 plants had significantly higher photochemical quenching compared with control plants at all times evaluated, and they had significantly higher nonphotochemical quenching on day 3. Throughout the experiment, infested Prairie Red plants exhibited photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching coefficient values that were not significantly different from control plants. Total protein content was not significantly different between aphid-infested and control plants for all cultivars. Differences between physiological responses of infested susceptible and resistant cultivars, particularly temporal changes in photosynthetic activity, imply that resistant Halt and Prairie Red wheat tolerate some impacts of aphid injury on photosynthetic integrity. PMID:17972650

  5. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  6. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  7. A novel approach to monitor stress-induced physiological responses in immobilized microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Microbial cell immobilization has long been considered as a potential bioprocessing strategy to increase both microorganisms' tolerance and fitness in fermentation systems. To date, little emphasis has been put on how the entrapped cells respond to the bioprocessing stresses encountered during the cultivation. The present work presents for the first time a methodology to decipher the real health status of the entrapped microorganisms by combining multiparameter flow cytometry with confocal fluorescence microscopy as monitoring tools. Comparison between resting free and immobilized cell-based systems enabled to characterize the spatial-temporal physiological response of entrapped Pseudomonas taetrolens cells during lactobionic acid production in submerged cultivation. Whereas cellular leakage from beads led to planktonic cells that faced a progressive loss of membrane integrity, immobilized cells underwent a prompt stress-induced physiological response featured by the predominance of cellular damaging. Moreover, visualization without matrix de-entrapment through confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed the overtime formation of cellular micro-colonies inside the beads. These micro-colonies comprised a shell made of dead cells, whereas the inward cells remained metabolically active. The proposed approach herein raises the possibility of using flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy as indicators of microbial cell immobilization, providing further key information on the health status and robustness of entrapped microorganisms. PMID:25776062

  8. Seasonal variations of physiological responses to heat of subtropical and temperate natives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihzuka, H.; Hori, S.; Akamatsu, T.

    1986-06-01

    In an attempt to compare the physiological responses of subtropical natives to heat with those of temperate natives, seasonal variations in physiological responses to heat were observed in young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa, subtropical zone (group O) and young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland, temperate zone, but moved to Okinawa in less than two years (group M). In both seasons, group O showed less sweat loss, lower Na concentration in sweat, lower rise in rectal temperature and less increase in heart rate during heat exposure than group M. In both groups, greater sweat loss, lower Na concentration in sweat and lower rise in rectal temperature in summer than in winter were observed. Seasonal differences in Na concentration in sweat, rise in rectal temperature and increase in heart rate for group O were smaller than those for group M. It was assumed the efficiency of sweat for cooling the body for group O was better than that for group M, and heat tolerance for group O was superior to that for group M.

  9. Cloudwater and O[sub 3] effects on red spruce at Whitetop Mt. , VA: Physiological response

    SciTech Connect

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; Neufeld, H.; Seiler, J.R.; Hutcherson, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    Results of studies on red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) at Whitetop Mountain (elevation 1689 m) were assessed to evaluate whether acidic cloudwater deposition and O[sub 3] contribute to reported high elevation red spruce ecosystem decline. Studies were conducted using seedling exclusion chambers, mature tree branch exclusion chambers, and field experiments with seedlings, saplings, and mature trees. Ozone had minimal effects on the measured parameters. Photosynthetic response to cloudwater varied, dependent on tree age. Seedling respiration tended to decrease with cloudwater removal, although biomass accumulation was not affected. A 3[degrees] to 5[degrees]C increase in cold tolerance was measured in seedlings with cloudwater excluded. Chlorophyll and epicuticular wax concentrations were not significantly affected. Physiological responses to cloudwater may be caused by the observed depletion of needle cations, particularly Ca, which appear to be due to foliar leaching and to increased soil Al concentrations, which can interfere with cation uptake by roots.

  10. Physiological responses of mild pulmonary impaired subjects while using a demand respirator during rest and work

    SciTech Connect

    Raven, P.B.; Jackson, A.W.; Page, K.; Moss, R.F.; Bradley, O.; Skaggs, B.

    1981-04-01

    This investigation determined the cardiorespiratory responses of subjects with normal lung function and exercise tolerance and compared them with subjects with moderate and severe impairment of lung function and exercise tolerance. Comparisons were made during work while wearing an industrial respirator. Physiologically and subjectively the response of the normal and moderately impaired subjects to respirator wear during rest, 35%, 50% and 63% of their maximal workloads were not different. However, when the moderately impaired worked at 63% of their maximum the workload was equivalent to 50% of maximum of the normal subject. Significant differences in the peak flow/pressure ratio of the severely impaired compred to the normals and moderately impaired were found. By relating work performance to the dyspnea index it was suggested that the relationship between maximal lung function and maximal work performance needs to be identified both with and without respirators. This relationship may prove suitable in predicting performance during respirator wear.

  11. Physiological and morphological adaptations of the fruit tree Ziziphus rotundifolia in response to progressive drought stress.

    PubMed

    Arndt, S K; Clifford, S C; Wanek, W; Jones, H G; Popp, M

    2001-07-01

    The physiological basis of drought resistance in Ziziphus rotundifolia Lamk., which is an important, multipurpose fruit tree of the northwest Indian arid zone, was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Three irrigation regimes were imposed over a 34-day period: an irrigation treatment, a gradual drought stress treatment (50% of water supplied in the irrigation treatment) and a rapid drought stress treatment (no irrigation). Changes in gas exchange, water relations, carbon isotope composition and solute concentrations of leaves, stems and roots were determined. The differential rate of stress development in the two drought treatments did not result in markedly different physiological responses, but merely affected the time at which they were expressed. The initial response to decreasing soil water content was reduced stomatal conductance, effectively maintaining predawn leaf water potential (Psi(leaf)), controlling water loss and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency, while optimizing carbon gain during drought. Carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of leaf tissue sap provided a more sensitive indicator of changes in short-term water-use efficiency than delta13C of bulk leaf tissue. As drought developed, osmotic potential at full turgor decreased and total solute concentrations increased in leaves, indicating osmotic adjustment. Decreases in leaf starch concentrations and concomitant increases in hexose sugars and sucrose suggested a shift in carbon partitioning in favor of soluble carbohydrates. In severely drought-stressed leaves, high leaf nitrate reductase activities were paralleled by increases in proline concentration, suggesting an osmoprotective role for proline. As water deficit increased, carbon was remobilized from leaves and preferentially redistributed to stems and roots, and leaves were shed, resulting in reduced whole-plant transpiration and enforced dormancy. Thus, Z. rotundifolia showed a range of responses to different drought intensities

  12. Distinct physiologic and neuronal responses to decreased leptin and mild hyperleptinemia.

    PubMed

    Ahima, R S; Kelly, J; Elmquist, J K; Flier, J S

    1999-11-01

    Leptin acts on specific populations of hypothalamic neurons to regulate feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and neuroendocrine function. It is not known, however, whether the same neural circuits mediate leptin action across its full biologic dose-response curve, which extends over a broad range, from low levels seen during starvation to high levels characteristic of obesity. Here, we show that the characteristic fall in leptin with fasting causes a rise in neuropeptide Y (NPY) messenger RNA (mRNA), as well as a fall in POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNAs. Sc infusion of leptin sufficient to maintain plasma levels within the physiologic range during the fast prevents changes in the expression of these peptides, as well as changes in neuroendocrine function, demonstrating that multiple neural circuits are highly sensitive to small changes in leptin within its low physiologic range. In contrast, a modest elevation of plasma leptin above the normal fed range by constant sc infusion, which produced marked reduction in food intake and body weight, decreased NPY mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus but did not affect the levels of mRNAs encoding the anorexigenic peptides alpha-MSH, CART or CRH. These results suggest that the dose response characteristics of leptin on hypothalamic target neurons at the level of mRNA expression are variable, with some neurons (e.g. NPY) responding across a broad dose range and others (e.g. POMC and CART) showing a limited response within the low range. These results further suggest that the central targets of leptin that mediate the transition from starvation to the fed state may be distinct from those that mediate the response to overfeeding and obesity. PMID:10537115

  13. Pros and Cons of Using Water Immersion to Simulate Physiological Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Head-out water immersion (HOI) has been employed as a remedial treatment for various ills and ailments for many millennia, and total body immersion even longer as protective encapsulation for the mammalian fetus. Two discrete differences between stimuli induced by true microgravity (10(exp -4) g) and HOI are readily apparent. External water pressure on the skin and accompanying negative pressure breathing cause blood to shift headward. Secondly, the gravitational force is ever present during immersion and microgravity, but its effect is essentially neutralized during Earth orbital flight. Thus, the physiological responses to immersion should not be expected to match those during microgravity. Immersion has been used mainly to study and understand kidney function and associated cardiovascular responses for control of body fluid volume and osmotic content, with some application to and simulation of microgravity responses. There is a plethora of data from human HOI studies, but relatively few controlled data from microgravity studies. In general, it appears that physiological responses occur more quickly with water immersion than in microgravity, but this may be due to less rigorous control (voluntary and involuntary) of the preflight state of crew members. The central venous pressure-vasopressin (Gauer-Henry) reflex control for fluid balance may not be of prime importance in microgravity. Gross functions such as reduced body weight and water, level of hypovolemia, decreased isokinetic strength, and lower nitrogen balance found during immersion are qualitatively similar in microgravity, but the mechanisms controlling these and other functions are, for the most part, unclear. Only acquisition of data from well-controlled microgravity experiments will resolve this discrepancy.

  14. Behavioral and physiological response of Musca domestica to colored visual targets.

    PubMed

    Diclaro, J W; Cohnstaedt, L W; Pereira, R M; Allan, S A; Koehler, P G

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the visual attraction of house flies to colors and patterns is needed to improve fly trap performance. This study combined physiological responses measured with electroretinogram studies of the house fly's compound eyes and ocelli with behavioral attraction of flies to reflective colors and patterns in light tunnel assays. Compound eye and ocellar electroretinogram responses to reflected light were similar, with the largest responses to white and blue followed by yellow, red, green, and black. However, data from light tunnel behavioral assays showed that flies were attracted to white and blue light but were repelled by yellow. The addition of a black line pattern enhanced the attractiveness of blue visual targets, whereas yellow lines decreased attractiveness. Sensory input from the compound eye and the ocellus seems to be integrated to direct fly behavior. There is a direct correlation of house fly attractiveness to visual targets and the intensity of electrophysiological response, except for the yellow targets, which repel flies despite of intense electrophysiological response. PMID:22308776

  15. Characterization of the Physiological Response following In Vivo Administration of Astragalus membranaceus.

    PubMed

    Denzler, Karen; Moore, Jessica; Harrington, Heather; Morrill, Kira; Huynh, Trung; Jacobs, Bertram; Waters, Robert; Langland, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The botanical, Astragalus membranaceus, is a therapeutic in traditional Chinese medicine. Limited literature exists on the overall in vivo effects of A. membranaceus on the human body. This study evaluates the physiological responses to A. membranaceus by measuring leukocyte, platelet, and cytokine responses as well as body temperature and blood pressure in healthy individuals after the in vivo administration of A. membranaceus. A dose-dependent increase in monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was measured 8-12 hours after administration and an increase in the number of circulating platelets was seen as early as 4 hours. A dynamic change in the levels of circulating cytokines was observed, especially in interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-13, IL-6, and soluble IL-2R. Subjective symptoms reported by participants were similar to those typically experienced in viral type immune responses and included fatigue, malaise, and headache. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced within 4 hours after administration, while body temperature mildly increased within 8 hours after administration. In general, all responses returned to baseline values by 24 hours. Collectively, these results support the role of A. membranaceus in priming for a potential immune response as well as its effect on blood flow and wound healing. PMID:27190535

  16. Effect of peer instruction on the likelihood for choosing the correct response to a physiology question.

    PubMed

    Relling, Alejandro E; Giuliodori, Mauricio J

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to measure the effects of individual answer (correct vs. incorrect), individual answer of group members (no vs. some vs. all correct), self-confidence about the responses (low vs. mid vs. high), sex (female vs. male students), and group size (2-4 students) on the odds for change and for correctness after peer instruction in a veterinary physiology course (n = 101 students). Data were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The likelihood for change after peer instruction increased when the confidence on an individual answer was low (P < 0.01), when the answer was incorrect (P < 0.01), and when group members had different responses (P < 0.01). The likelihood for correctness after peer instruction increased when the confidence in group answers was high (P < 0.01), when the individual answer was correct (P < 0.01), and when at least one of the group members had the correct response (P < 0.01). After peer discussion, more changes were from incorrect to correct responses than vice versa (72% vs. 28%, P < 0.01). Changes to correct answers occurred after discussion with peers having both the correct individual response (76% of times) and also the incorrect individual answer (24% of times). In conclusion, the benefits of peer instruction are due to students having correct answers generally prevail in discussions. Also, students who all have incorrect answers can get the correct answer through debate and discussion. PMID:26330032

  17. Characterization of the Physiological Response following In Vivo Administration of Astragalus membranaceus

    PubMed Central

    Denzler, Karen; Moore, Jessica; Harrington, Heather; Morrill, Kira; Huynh, Trung; Jacobs, Bertram; Waters, Robert; Langland, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The botanical, Astragalus membranaceus, is a therapeutic in traditional Chinese medicine. Limited literature exists on the overall in vivo effects of A. membranaceus on the human body. This study evaluates the physiological responses to A. membranaceus by measuring leukocyte, platelet, and cytokine responses as well as body temperature and blood pressure in healthy individuals after the in vivo administration of A. membranaceus. A dose-dependent increase in monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was measured 8–12 hours after administration and an increase in the number of circulating platelets was seen as early as 4 hours. A dynamic change in the levels of circulating cytokines was observed, especially in interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-13, IL-6, and soluble IL-2R. Subjective symptoms reported by participants were similar to those typically experienced in viral type immune responses and included fatigue, malaise, and headache. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced within 4 hours after administration, while body temperature mildly increased within 8 hours after administration. In general, all responses returned to baseline values by 24 hours. Collectively, these results support the role of A. membranaceus in priming for a potential immune response as well as its effect on blood flow and wound healing. PMID:27190535

  18. Physiological limitation at alpine treeline: relationships of threshold responses of conifers to their establishment patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germino, M. J.; Lazarus, B.; Castanha, C.; Moyes, A. B.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of physiological limitations to tree establishment at alpine treeline form the basis for predicting how this climate-driven boundary will respond to climate shifts. Most research on this topic has focused on limitations related to carbon balance and growth of trees. Carbon balance could limit survival and establishment primarily through slow-acting, chronic means. We asked whether tree survival and thus establishment patterns reflect control by chronic effects in comparison to acute, threshold responses, such as survival of frost events. Seedling survivorship patterns were compared to thresholds in freezing (temperature causing leaf freezing, or freezing point, FP; and physiological response to freezing) and water status (turgor loss point, TLP; and related physiological adjustments). Subject seedlings were from forest, treeline, and alpine sites in the Alpine Treeline Warming Experiment in Colorado, and included limber and lodgepole pine (a low-elevation species), and Engelmann Spruce. Preliminary results show survival increases with seedling age, but the only corresponding increase in stress acclimation was photosynthetic resistance to freezing and TLP, not FP. Differences in survivorship among the species were not consistent with variation in FP but they generally agreed with variation in photosynthetic resistance to deep freezing and to early-season drought avoidance. Mortality of limber pine increased 35% when minimum temperatures decreased below -9C, which compares with FPs of >-8.6C, and about 1/3 of its mortality occurred during cold/wet events, particularly in the alpine. The other major correlate of mortality is midsummer drying events, as previously reported. Also in limber pine, the TLP for year-old seedlings (-2.5 MPa) corresponded with seasonal-drought mortality. In summary, we show several examples of correspondence in physiological thresholds to mortality events within a species, although the relationships are not strong. Across

  19. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  20. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. I. Correlation of physiological responses with cochlear status.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, R K; Javel, E

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate evoked potential and single fibre responses to biphasic current pulses in animals with varying degrees of cochlear pathology, and to correlate any differences in the physiological response with status of the auditory nerve. Six cats, whose cochleae ranged from normal to a severe neural loss (< 5% spiral ganglion survival), were used. Morphology of the electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) was similar across all animals, although electrophonic responses were only observed from the normal animal. In animals with extensive neural pathology, EABR thresholds were elevated and response amplitudes throughout the dynamic range were moderately reduced. Analysis of single VIIIth nerve fibre responses were based on 207 neurons. Spontaneous discharge rates among fibres depended on hearing status, with the majority of fibres recorded from deafened animals exhibiting little or no spontaneous activity. Electrical stimulation produced a monotonic increase in discharge rate, and a systematic reduction in response latency and temporal jitter as a function of stimulus intensity for all fibres examined. Short-duration current pulses elicited a highly synchronous response (latency < 0.7 ms), with a less well synchronized response sometimes present (0.7-1.1 ms). There were, however, a number of significant differences between responses from normal and deafened cochleae. Electrophonic activity was only present in recordings from the normal animal, while mean threshold, dynamic range and latency of the direct electrical response varied with cochlear pathology. Differences in the ability of fibres to follow high stimulation rates were also observed; while neurons from the normal cochlea were capable of 100% entrainment at high rates (600-800 pulses per second (pps)), fibres recorded from deafened animals were often not capable of such entrainment at rates above 400 pps. Finally, a number of fibres in deafened animals showed

  1. Physiological responses during short-term acclimation to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration in Pinus nigra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Biron, P.; Richard, P.; Canale, L.; Bariac, T.

    2010-12-01

    The response of plants to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is a key element shaping future biogeochemical cycles. While leaf scale manipulations of CO2 concentration provide us with a wealth of information on the biochemical response of leaf photosynthesis, these responses do not necessarily translate to whole plant responses at higher CO2 concentrations. Evidence from free air enrichment studies show different responses of plant gas exchange parameters in their degree of acclimation to long-term increases in atmospheric CO2, relative to those predicted from the instantaneous responses of leaf-level measurements. However, free air enrichment studies are also limited by the fact that they represent a single step change in CO2 and it is therefore of interest to understand how physiological responses derived from leaf-scale increases in CO2 compare to those from exposing the whole plant to increases CO2 across a range of elevated CO2 concentrations. Here we report on a study into the short-term leaf level physiological responses to CO2 concentration of small (1.5m) Pinus nigra trees that were maintained at different CO2 concentrations, therefore allowing potential whole-plant feedback effects to be incorporated into the responses. The trees were maintained at 20°C and 50-60% RH at three ambient CO2 concentrations (Ca of 380 ppm, 500 ppm, 800 ppm) for ~10 days each in a 10m3 growth chamber. The response of gas exchange parameters (assimilation rate, A, stomatal conductance, gs, internal CO2 concentration, Ci, transpiration, E) to leaf level changes in CO2 were measured at each ambient CO2 concentration, allowing the instantaneous response to be compared to the ‘acclimated’ response (i.e. that at the ambient concentration). Typical A-Ci response curves were seen at all CO2 concentrations, with saturation at Ci above 800ppm and Ca above 1500 ppm. However, even over this short period, assimilation rates at a given CO2 concentration deceased with increasing

  2. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Anaerobic Chemostat Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Subjected to Diurnal Temperature Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Hebly, Marit; de Ridder, Dick; de Hulster, Erik A. F.; de la Torre Cortes, Pilar; Pronk, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal temperature cycling is an intrinsic characteristic of many exposed microbial ecosystems. However, its influence on yeast physiology and the yeast transcriptome has not been studied in detail. In this study, 24-h sinusoidal temperature cycles, oscillating between 12°C and 30°C, were imposed on anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After three diurnal temperature cycles (DTC), concentrations of glucose and extracellular metabolites as well as CO2 production rates showed regular, reproducible circadian rhythms. DTC also led to waves of transcriptional activation and repression, which involved one-sixth of the yeast genome. A substantial fraction of these DTC-responsive genes appeared to respond primarily to changes in the glucose concentration. Elimination of known glucose-responsive genes revealed an overrepresentation of previously identified temperature-responsive genes as well as genes involved in the cell cycle and de novo purine biosynthesis. In-depth analysis demonstrated that DTC led to a partial synchronization of the cell cycle of the yeast populations in chemostat cultures, which was lost upon release from DTC. Comparison of DTC results with data from steady-state cultures showed that the 24-h DTC was sufficiently slow to allow S. cerevisiae chemostat cultures to acclimate their transcriptome and physiology at the DTC temperature maximum and to approach acclimation at the DTC temperature minimum. Furthermore, this comparison and literature data on growth rate-dependent cell cycle phase distribution indicated that cell cycle synchronization was most likely an effect of imposed fluctuations of the relative growth rate (μ/μmax) rather than a direct effect of temperature. PMID:24814792

  3. Halimione portulacoides (L.) physiological/biochemical characterization for its adaptive responses to environmental mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Israr, Mohd; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Maria E; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates largely unexplored physiological/biochemical strategies adopted by salt marsh macrophyte Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen for its adaptation/tolerance to environmental mercury (Hg)-exposure in a coastal lagoon prototype. To this end, a battery of damage (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS; electrolyte leakage, EL; reactive carbonyls; osmolyte, proline) and defense [ascorbate peroxidase, APX; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; glutathione sulfo-transferase, GST; glutathione reductase, GR; reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively), and GSH/GSSG ratio] biomarkers, and polypeptide patterns were assessed in H. portulacoides roots and leaves at reference (R) and the sites with highest (L1), moderate (L2) and the lowest (L3) Hg-contamination gradients. Corresponding to the Hg-burdens, roots and leaves exhibited a differential modulation of damage- and defense-endpoints and polypeptide-patterns. Roots exhibiting the highest Hg-burden (at L3) failed to maintain a coordination among enzymatic-defense endpoint responses which resulted into increased oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) pool, lowest GSH/GSSG (oxidized) ratio and partial H2O2-metabolism. In contrast, the highest Hg-burden exhibiting leaves (at L1) successfully maintained a coordination among enzymatic-defense endpoints responses which resulted into decreased GSH-oxidation, enhanced reduced GSH pool and GSH/GSSG ratio and lower extent of damage. Additionally, increased leaf-carotenoids content with increasing Hg-burden implies its protective function. H. portulacoides leaf-polypeptides did not respond as per its Hg-burden but the roots did. Overall, the physiological/biochemical characterization of below (roots)- and above (leaves)-ground organs (studied in terms of damage and defense endpoints, and polypeptides modulation) revealed the adaptive responses of H. portulacoides to environmental Hg at whole plant level

  4. Animal models and their importance to human physiological responses in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Two prominent theories to explain the physiological effects of microgravity relate to the cascade of changes associated with the cephalic shifts of fluids and the absence of tissue deformation forces. One-g experiments for humans used bed rest and the head-down tilt (HDT) method, while animal experiments have been conducted using the tail-suspended, head-down, and hindlimbs non-weightbearing model. Because of the success of the HDT approach with rats to simulate the gravitational effects on the musculoskeletal system exhibited by humans, the same model has been used to study the effects of gravity on the cardiopulmonary systems of humans and other vertebrates. Results to date indicate the model is effective in producing comparable changes associated with blood volume, erythropoiesis, cardiac mass, baroreceptor responsiveness, carbohydrate metabolism, post-flight VO2max, and post-flight cardiac output during exercise. Inherent with these results is the potential of the model to be useful in investigating responsible mechanisms. The suspension model has promise in understanding the capillary blood PO2 changes in space as well as the arterial PO2 changes in subjects participating in a HDT experiment. However, whether the model can provide insights on the up-or-down regulation of adrenoreceptors remains to be determined, and many investigators believe the HDT approach should not be followed to study gravitational influences on pulmonary function in either humans or animals. It was concluded that the tail-suspended animal model had sufficient merit to study in-flight and post-flight human physiological responses and mechanisms.

  5. The Nuclear Receptor, Nor-1, Induces the Physiological Responses Associated With Exercise.

    PubMed

    Goode, Joel M; Pearen, Michael A; Tuong, Zewen K; Wang, Shu-Ching M; Oh, Tae Gyu; Shao, Emily X; Muscat, George E O

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscle remodels metabolic capacity, contractile and exercise phenotype in response to physiological demands. This adaptive remodeling response to physical activity can ameliorate/prevent diseases associated with poor diet and lifestyle. Our previous work demonstrated that skeletal muscle-specific transgenic expression of the neuron-derived orphan nuclear receptor, Nor-1 drives muscle reprogramming, improves exercise endurance, and oxidative metabolism. The current manuscript investigates the association between exercise, Nor-1 expression and the role of Nor-1 in adaptive remodeling. We demonstrate that Nor-1 expression is induced by exercise and is dependent on calcium/calcineurin signaling (in vitro and in vivo). Analysis of fatigue-resistant transgenic mice that express Nor-1 in skeletal muscle revealed increased hypertrophy and vascularization of muscle tissue. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic Nor-1 expression is associated with increased intracellular recycling, ie, autophagy, involving 1) increased expression of light chain 3A or LC3A-II, autophagy protein 5, and autophagy protein 12 in quadriceps femoris muscle extracts from Tg-Nor-1 (relative to Wild-type (WT) littermates); 2) decreased p62 expression indicative of increased autophagolysosome assembly; and 3) decreased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity. Transfection of LC3A-GFP-RFP chimeric plasmid demonstrated that autophagolysosome formation was significantly increased by Nor-1 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated a single bout of exercise induced LC3A-II expression in skeletal muscle from C57BL/6 WT mice. This study, when combined with our previous studies, demonstrates that Nor-1 expression drives multiple physiological changes/pathways that are critical to the beneficial responses of muscle to exercise and provides insights into potential pharmacological manipulation of muscle reprogramming for the treatment of lifestyle induced chronic diseases. PMID:27144290

  6. The influence of playing surface on physiological and performance responses during and after soccer simulation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Keeron J; Hughes, Michael G; Stembridge, Michael R; Meyers, Robert W; Newcombe, Daniel J; Oliver, Jon L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of playing surface on physiological and performance responses during and in the 48 h after simulated soccer match play. Blood lactate, single-sprint, repeated-sprint and agility of eight amateur soccer players were assessed throughout a 90-min soccer-simulation protocol (SSP) completed on natural turf (NT) and artificial turf. Counter-movement jump, multiple-rebound jump, sprint (10 m, 60 m), L-agility run (L-AR), creatine kinase (CK) and perception of muscle soreness (PMS) were measured before, immediately after, 24 h and 48 h after exercise. Analyses revealed significant changes in blood lactate and single-sprint performance (both P < 0.05) during the SSP but with no significant differences between surfaces. Conversely, repeated-sprint performance demonstrated an interaction effect, with reductions in performance evident on NT only (P < 0.05). Whilst L-AR and 10-m sprint performance remained unchanged, 60-m sprint and multiple-rebound jump performance were impaired, and PMS and CK were elevated immediately following the SSP (all P < 0.05) but with no surface effects. Although performance, CK and PMS were negatively affected to some degree in the 48 h after the SSP, there was no surface effect. For the artificial and natural surfaces used in the present study, physiological and performance responses to simulated soccer match play appear to be similar. Whilst a potential for small differences in performance response exists during activity, surface type does not affect the pattern of recovery following simulated match play. PMID:25490070

  7. New insights on amygdala: Basomedial amygdala regulates the physiological response to social novelty.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Laura Tavares; Abreu, Aline Rezende; de Abreu, Alessandra Rezende; de Souza, Aline Arlindo; de Noronha, Sylvana Rendeiro; Silva, Fernanda Cacilda; Campos, Glenda Siqueira Viggiano; Chianca, Deoclecio Alves; de Menezes, Rodrigo Cunha

    2016-08-25

    The amygdala has been associated with a variety of functions linked to physiological, behavioral and endocrine responses during emotional situations. This brain region is comprised of multiple sub-nuclei. These sub-nuclei belong to the same structure, but may be involved in different functions, thereby making the study of each sub-nuclei important. Yet, the involvement of the basomedial amygdala (BMA) in the regulation of emotional states has yet to be defined. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the regulatory role of the BMA on the responses evoked during a social novelty model and whether the regulatory role depended on an interaction with the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Our results showed that the chemical inhibition of the BMA by the microinjection of muscimol (γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) agonist) promoted increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), whereas the chemical inhibition of regions near the BMA did not induce such cardiovascular changes. In contrast, the BMA chemical activation by the bilateral microinjection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI; GABAA antagonist), blocked the increases in MAP and HR observed when an intruder rat was suddenly introduced into the cage of a resident rat, and confined to the small cage for 15min. Additionally, the increase in HR and MAP induced by BMA inhibition were eliminated by DMH chemical inhibition. Thus, our data reveal that the BMA is under continuous GABAergic influence, and that its hyperactivation can reduce the physiological response induced by a social novelty condition, possibly by inhibiting DMH neurons. PMID:27261213

  8. Physiological Responses of Young Tennis Players to Training Drills and Simulated Match Play.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rodrigo V; Cunha, Vivian C R; Zourdos, Michael C; Aoki, Marcelo S; Moreira, Alexandre; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Capitani, Caroline D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of young tennis players during 5 different training drills and to compare the responses between drills. Ten (17.0 ± 1.2 years) male tennis players participated in this study. Each athlete completed 5 total training drills. Drills 1-4 consisted of each player returning balls from a ball-serving machine and were stroke/time-controlled over 6 points. The fifth drill was a simulated match (SM) play, between 2 opposing players, and also lasted 6 points. The 4 stroke/time-controlled drills had the following strokes/time for each point: drill 1: 2 strokes/∼4 seconds, drill 2: 4 strokes/∼8 seconds, drill 3: 7 strokes/∼14 seconds, drill 4: 10 strokes/∼20 seconds. Peak heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (LA), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured after the first, third, and sixth point of each drill. Drills were performed in a randomized crossover design; a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used with significance set at p ≤ 0.05. All dependent variables (HR, LA, and RPE) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) as strokes, and time per rally increased in each drill. Furthermore, all variables were elevated to a greater magnitude (p ≤ 0.05) during the 7 and 10 stroke drills after the first, third, and sixth points when compared with the SM and the 2 and 4 stroke drills at the corresponding time points. These results suggest that the physiological responses to tennis training drills were stroke/time-dependent. Therefore, because of the intense intermittent nature of tennis, stroke/time-controlled drills, which require significant physiological demands, should be incorporated along with technically focused shorter drills to fully mimic the conditions of competitive match play. PMID:26382129

  9. Physiological and transcriptional responses of anaerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to diurnal temperature cycles.

    PubMed

    Hebly, Marit; de Ridder, Dick; de Hulster, Erik A F; de la Torre Cortes, Pilar; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2014-07-01

    Diurnal temperature cycling is an intrinsic characteristic of many exposed microbial ecosystems. However, its influence on yeast physiology and the yeast transcriptome has not been studied in detail. In this study, 24-h sinusoidal temperature cycles, oscillating between 12°C and 30°C, were imposed on anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After three diurnal temperature cycles (DTC), concentrations of glucose and extracellular metabolites as well as CO2 production rates showed regular, reproducible circadian rhythms. DTC also led to waves of transcriptional activation and repression, which involved one-sixth of the yeast genome. A substantial fraction of these DTC-responsive genes appeared to respond primarily to changes in the glucose concentration. Elimination of known glucose-responsive genes revealed an overrepresentation of previously identified temperature-responsive genes as well as genes involved in the cell cycle and de novo purine biosynthesis. In-depth analysis demonstrated that DTC led to a partial synchronization of the cell cycle of the yeast populations in chemostat cultures, which was lost upon release from DTC. Comparison of DTC results with data from steady-state cultures showed that the 24-h DTC was sufficiently slow to allow S. cerevisiae chemostat cultures to acclimate their transcriptome and physiology at the DTC temperature maximum and to approach acclimation at the DTC temperature minimum. Furthermore, this comparison and literature data on growth rate-dependent cell cycle phase distribution indicated that cell cycle synchronization was most likely an effect of imposed fluctuations of the relative growth rate (μ/μmax) rather than a direct effect of temperature. PMID:24814792

  10. Physiologic Responses to Laparoscopic Aortofemoral Bypass Grafting in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, John; Hallett, John W.; Ilstrup, Duane M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To measure and compare the physiologic, metabolic, and hemodynamic responses to aortofemoral bypass grafting by three techniques: open or conventional laparotomy, laparoscopic-assisted (minilaparotomy), and totally laparoscopic grafting. Methods Twenty-four laboratory-bred hounds were randomized to one of three groups (open, laparoscopic-assisted, or totally laparoscopic). Four sets of parameters were measured: hemodynamic (intraoperative continuous cardiac output monitoring), inflammatory or hematologic (serial leukocyte and platelet levels), metabolic responses (serial blood glucose, serum cortisol and insulin, plasma epinephrine, plasma norepinephrine, and dopamine levels), and catabolic (24-hour urinary nitrogen excretion). Results Cardiac output increased transiently with aortic cross-clamping, more in the laparoscopic-assisted and total laparoscopic groups than in the open group, but the differences were not significant. White blood counts nearly doubled within 12 hours of surgery but were similar in all three groups. Platelet counts decreased significantly in all three groups, but no significant intergroup effects were observed. Metabolic parameters (e.g., blood glucose, cortisol, and catecholamine) rose significantly during surgery but fell to normal within 24 hours, with no important difference between groups. For the first 24 hours, urinary urea excretion fell by 50% but returned to normal by 7 days in all three groups. Conclusions In the experimental animal model, the hemodynamic, hematologic, and metabolic responses to laparoscopic and laparoscopic-assisted aortofemoral bypass grafting are similar to those produced by conventional laparotomy graft placement. These data call into question whether laparoscopic techniques for aortic surgery have a significant physiologic advantage in humans. PMID:10749611

  11. Physiological responses and tolerance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) exposed to chromium.

    PubMed

    Ding, Han; Wang, Guodong; Lou, Lili; Lv, Jinyin

    2016-11-01

    Selection of kenaf species with chromium (Cr) tolerance and exploring the physiological mechanisms involved in Cr tolerance are crucial for application of these species to phyto-remediation. In the present study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the variation in two kenaf cultivars, K39-2 and Zhe50-3 under Cr stress. At the same Cr concentration, the tolerance index (TI) of K39-2 was higher than that of Zhe50-3, indicating that K39-2 may be more tolerant to Cr than Zhe50-3. It was also observed that high concentration of chromium was accumulated both in the shoots and the roots of Hibiscus cannabinus L. The leaves of K39-2 accumulated 4760.28mgkg(-1) of dry weight under 1.50mM Cr stress, and the roots accumulated 11,958.33mgkg(-1). Physiological response shows that the antioxidant enzymes' superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased in the leaves and decreased in roots of the Cr-stressed plants nearly compared to the control. Moreover, the variation of antioxidant enzymes activities indicated Zhe50-3 was more vulnerable than K39-2, and the contents of the non-protein thiol pool (GSH, NPT and PCs) were higher in K39-2 than Zhe50-3 with the increased Cr concentration. Based on the observations above, it can be concluded that the well-coordinated physiological changes confer a greater Cr tolerance to K39-2 than Zhe50-3 under Cr exposure, and Hibiscus cannabinus L. has a great accumulation capacity for chromium. PMID:27553521

  12. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  13. Mutielemental concentration and physiological responses of Lavandula pedunculata growing in soils developed on different mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to: i) evaluate the accumulation and translocation patterns of potentially hazardous elements into the Lavandula pedunculata and their influence in the concentrations of nutrients; and ii) compare some physiological responses associated with oxidative stress (concentration of chlorophylls (Chla, Chlb and total), carotenoids, and total protein) and several components involved in tolerance mechanisms (concentrations of proline and acid-soluble thiols and total/specific activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), in plants growing in soils with a multielemental contamination and non-contaminated. Composite samples of soils, developed on mine wastes and/or host rocks, and L. pedunculata (roots and shoots) were collected in São Domingos mine (SE of Portugal) and in a reference area with non-contaminated soils, Corte do Pinto, with the same climatic conditions. São Domingos soils had high total concentrations of several hazardous elements (e.g. As and Pb) but their available fractions were small (mainly <5.8 % of the total). Translocation behaviour of elements was not clear according to the physiological importance of the elements. In general, plant shoots from São Domingos had the highest elements concentrations, but only As, Mn and Zn reached phytotoxic concentrations. Concentration of Chlb in shoots from São Domingos was higher than those from Corte do Pinto. No significant differences were obtained between concentrations of Chla, total protein, proline and acid-soluble thiols in shoots collected in both areas, as well as SOD activity (total and specific) and specific CAT activity. Total CAT activity varied with population being lower in the shoots of the plants from São Domingos, but no correlation was obtained between this enzymatic activity and the concentrations of the studied elements in shoots. Lavandula pedunculata plants are able to survive in soils developed on different mine wastes with multielemental contamination and

  14. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  15. Physiological and Transcriptomic Analyses to Characterize the Function of Fur and Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P; Luo, Feng; Wu, Liyou; Parsons, Andrea; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-01-01

    Maintaining iron homeostasis is a key metabolic challenge for most organisms. In many bacterial species, regulation of iron homeostasis is carried out by the global transcriptional regulator Fur. Physiological examination showed that Shewanella oneidensis harboring a fur deletion mutation had deficiencies in both growth and acid tolerance response. However, the fur mutant better tolerated iron-limited environments than the wild-type strain MR-1. Transcriptomic studies comparing the fur mutant and MR-1 confirmed previous findings that iron acquisition systems were highly induced by Fur inactivation. In addition, the temporal gene expression profiling of the fur mutant in response to iron depletion and repletion suggested that a number of genes involved in energy transport were iron-responsive but Fur-independent. Further identification of Fur-independent genes was obtained by generating a gene co-expression network from temporal gene expression profiles. A group of genes is involved in heat shock and has an rpoH-binding site at their promoters, and genes related to anaerobic energy transport has a highly conserved Crp binding site at the promoters. Together, this work provides useful information for the characterization of the function of Fur and the iron response in S. oneidensis.

  16. Vestibular responses to loud dance music: a physiological basis of the "rock and roll threshold"?

    PubMed

    Todd, N P; Cody, F W

    2000-01-01

    In this paper new evidence is provided to indicate that vestibular responses may be obtained from loud dance music for intensities above 90 dB(A) SPL (Impulse-weighted). In a sample of ten subjects acoustically evoked EMG were obtained from the sternocleidomastoid muscle in response to a sample of techno music typical of that which may be experienced in a dance club. Previous research has shown that this response is vestibularly mediated since it can be obtained in subjects with loss of cochlear function, but is absent in subjects with loss of vestibular function (Colebatch et al. [J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 57, 190-197 (1994)]. Given that pleasurable sensations of self-motion are widely sought after by more normal means of vestibular stimulation, it is suggested that acoustically evoked sensations of self-motion may account for the compulsion to exposure to loud music. Given further the similarity between the thresholds found, and the intensities and frequency distributions that are typical in rock concerts and dance clubs, it is also suggested that this response may be a physiological basis for the minimum loudness necessary for rock and dance music to work-the "rock and roll threshold". PMID:10641657

  17. Effects of routine handling and tagging procedures on physiological stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpe, C.S.; Thompson, D.A.; Blankenship, H.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were subjected to handling and tagging protocols typical of normal hatchery operations and monitored for their physiological response to stress. Treatments included coded-wire-tagging, counting, ventral fin clipping, adipose fin clipping, and a procedure simulating a pond split. Treatment fish were also subjected to a standardized stress challenge (1 h confinement) to evaluate their ability to deal with disturbances subsequent to a handling or tagging procedure. Circulating levels of cortisol and glucose were used as indicators of stress. Each of the treatments elicited very similar responses among treatment groups. Cortisol increased from resting levels of about 20 ng/mL to about 90 ng/mL by 1 h poststress and returned to near resting levels by 8 h poststress. Glucose levels increased from 50 mg/dL to about 80 mg/dL by 1 h poststress and remained elevated for much of the experiment. The cortisol and glucose responses to the confinement stress did not differ over time or among treatments. However, the confinement stress results do suggest a small but significant cumulative response, indicating small residual effects of the original handling protocols. No deaths were noted among treatment groups.

  18. Correlations between psychological tests and physiological responses during fear conditioning and renewal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are characterized by specific emotions, thoughts and physiological responses. Little is known, however, about the relationship between psychological/personality indices of anxiety responses to fear stimuli. Methods We studied this relationship in healthy subjects by comparing scores on psychological and personality questionnaires with results of an experimental fear conditioning paradigm using a visual conditioned stimulus (CS). We measured skin conductance response (SCR) during habituation, conditioning, and extinction; subsequently testing for recall and renewal of fear 24 hours later. Results We found that multiple regression models explained 45% of the variance during conditioning to the CS+, and 24% of the variance during renewal of fear to the CS+. Factors that explained conditioning included lower levels of conscientiousness, increased baseline reactivity (SCL), and response to the shock (UCR). Low levels of extraversion correlated with greater renewal. No model could be found to explain extinction learning or extinction recall to the CS+. Conclusions The lack of correlation of fear extinction with personality and neuropsychological indices suggests that extinction may be less determined by trait variables and cognitive state, and may depend more on the subject’s current emotional state. The negative correlation between fear renewal and extraversion suggests that this personality characteristic may protect against post-treatment relapse of symptoms of anxiety disorders. PMID:22985550

  19. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  20. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  1. Physiological response of cardiac tissue to bisphenol a: alterations in ventricular pressure and contractility

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Daina; Chandra, Akhil; Jaimes, Rafael; Sarvazyan, Narine; Kay, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Biomonitoring studies have indicated that humans are routinely exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical that is commonly used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Epidemiological studies have shown that BPA exposure in humans is associated with cardiovascular disease; however, the direct effects of BPA on cardiac physiology are largely unknown. Previously, we have shown that BPA exposure slows atrioventricular electrical conduction, decreases epicardial conduction velocity, and prolongs action potential duration in excised rat hearts. In the present study, we tested if BPA exposure also adversely affects cardiac contractile performance. We examined the impact of BPA exposure level, sex, and pacing rate on cardiac contractile function in excised rat hearts. Hearts were retrogradely perfused at constant pressure and exposed to 10−9-10−4 M BPA. Left ventricular developed pressure and contractility were measured during sinus rhythm and during pacing (5, 6.5, and 9 Hz). Ca2+ transients were imaged from whole hearts and from neonatal rat cardiomyocyte layers. During sinus rhythm in female hearts, BPA exposure decreased left ventricular developed pressure and inotropy in a dose-dependent manner. The reduced contractile performance was exacerbated at higher pacing rates. BPA-induced effects on contractile performance were also observed in male hearts, albeit to a lesser extent. Exposure to BPA altered Ca2+ handling within whole hearts (reduced diastolic and systolic Ca2+ transient potentiation) and neonatal cardiomyocytes (reduced Ca2+ transient amplitude and prolonged Ca2+ transient release time). In conclusion, BPA exposure significantly impaired cardiac performance in a dose-dependent manner, having a major negative impact upon electrical conduction, intracellular Ca2+ handing, and ventricular contractility. PMID:25980024

  2. Changes in Bowel Microbiota Induced by Feeding Weanlings Resistant Starch Stimulate Transcriptomic and Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Roy, Nicole C.; Lee, Julian; Lawley, Blair; Otter, Don; Henderson, Gemma; McCann, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to predictably engineer the composition of bowel microbial communities (microbiota) using dietary components is important because of the reported associations of altered microbiota composition with medical conditions. In a synecological study, weanling conventional Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old) were fed a basal diet (BD) or a diet supplemented with resistant starch (RS) at 5%, 2.5%, or 1.25% for 28 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) profiles in the colonic digesta showed that rats fed RS had altered microbiota compositions due to blooms of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The altered microbiota was associated with changes in colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, colonic-tissue gene expression (Gsta2 and Ela1), and host physiology (serum metabolite profiles and colonic goblet cell numbers). Comparisons between germ-free and conventional rats showed that transcriptional and serum metabolite differences were mediated by the microbiota and were not the direct result of diet composition. Altered transcriptomic and physiological responses may reflect the young host's attempts to maintain homeostasis as a consequence of exposure to a new collection of bacteria and their associated biochemistry. PMID:22798356

  3. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  4. Gene expression and physiological responses to salinity and water stress of contrasting durum wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Salima; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco; Araus, José Luis; Serret, Maria Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the relationships between gene expression and the physiological mechanisms remains a bottleneck in breeding for resistance to salinity and drought. This study related the expression of key target genes with the physiological performance of durum wheat under different combinations of salinity and irrigation. The candidate genes assayed included two encoding for the DREB (dehydration responsive element binding) transcription factors TaDREB1A and TaDREB2B, another two for the cytosolic and plastidic glutamine synthetase (TaGS1 and TaGS2), and one for the specific Na(+) /H(+) vacuolar antiporter (TaNHX1). Expression of these genes was related to growth and different trait indicators of nitrogen metabolism (nitrogen content, stable nitrogen isotope composition, and glutamine synthetase and nitrate reductase activities), photosynthetic carbon metabolism (stable carbon isotope composition and different gas exchange traits) and ion accumulation. Significant interaction between genotype and growing conditions occurred for growth, nitrogen content, and the expression of most genes. In general terms, higher expression of TaGS1, TaGS2, TaDREB2B, and to a lesser extent of TaNHX1 were associated with a better genotypic performance in growth, nitrogen, and carbon photosynthetic metabolism under salinity and water stress. However, TaDREB1A was increased in expression under stress compared with control conditions, with tolerant genotypes exhibiting lower expression than susceptible ones. PMID:25869057

  5. Physiological responses of growing Large White boars in three management environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasheun, T. A.; Ologun, A. G.; Eyoh, D. B.; Oyeleye, A. K.; Isim, S.

    1995-06-01

    Growth and physiological responses in Large White boars were studied under three different management environments at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The management environments were shed with concrete floor (SCF), open space with concrete floor (OSCF) and open space with earth floor (OSEF). Two studies were carried out, one between December 1990 and March 1991 and the other from December 1991 to April 1992. Meteorological parameters in all management environments were monitored simultaneously with physiological variables. Growth of the animals was assessed by monitoring body weights of the animals. Data analysis showed that mean ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity and net radiation differed significantly ( P<0.05) among the management environments. Ambient temperature and net radiation of the pigs were highest ( P<0.05) in the OSEF environment, which also had the lowest ( P<0.05) relative humidity. Although growth rates did not differ significantly among environments, body weight was lowest ( P<0.05) in the OSEF environment. Mean respiratory rates and rectal temperatures were lowest ( P<0.05) in the SCF environment. The study shows correlations between some meteorological parameters and body weights. Pigs under shade and in concrete-floored pens were more comfortable and had higher body weight and lower respiratory rates and rectal temperatures.

  6. Delivering Health Information via Podcast or Web: Media Effects on Psychosocial and Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored differences in psychosocial and physiological variables in response to being presented with information on weight loss through either reading text on a website or listening to the same information via podcast. Participants were randomized to receive a weight loss website (n = 20) or podcast (n = 20). Participants had skin conductance levels measured and completed questionnaire items assessing demographic characteristics, user control, novelty, and knowledge. Participants in the podcast group exhibited greater levels of physiological arousal and reported the intervention to be more novel than those in the Web group; however, the Web group reported greater user control. There was no difference in knowledge between the groups. This study presents the first step in examining the role that novelty and user control may play in two different weight-loss electronic media, as well as differences in knowledge acquisition. Future research should explore adding additional media features, such as video content, to the podcasts and websites in order to optimize fully the different mediums and to examine whether user control and novelty are potential mediators of weight loss outcomes. PMID:22420785

  7. Delivering health information via podcast or web: media effects on psychosocial and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Campbell, Marci K

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in psychosocial and physiological variables in response to being presented with information on weight loss through either reading text on a website or listening to the same information via podcast. Participants were randomized to receive a weight loss website (n = 20) or podcast (n = 20). Participants had skin conductance levels measured and completed questionnaire items assessing demographic characteristics, user control, novelty, and knowledge. Participants in the podcast group exhibited greater levels of physiological arousal and reported the intervention to be more novel than those in the Web group; however, the Web group reported greater user control. There was no difference in knowledge between the groups. This study presents the first step in examining the role that novelty and user control may play in two different weight-loss electronic media, as well as differences in knowledge acquisition. Future research should explore adding additional media features, such as video content, to the podcasts and websites in order to optimize fully the different mediums and to examine whether user control and novelty are potential mediators of weight loss outcomes. PMID:22420785

  8. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

  9. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) response mechanisms in drought stress: Proteomic analysis with physiology.

    PubMed

    Kolenc, Zala; Vodnik, Dominik; Mandelc, Stanislav; Javornik, Branka; Kastelec, Damijana; Čerenak, Andreja

    2016-08-01

    Drought is one of the major environmental devastating stressors that impair the growth and productivity of crop plants. Despite the relevance of drought stress, changes in physiology and resistance mechanisms are not completely understood for certain crops, including hop (Humulus lupulus L.). In this research the drought response of hop was studied using a conventional physiological approach (gas exchange techniques, fluorescence, relative water content measurements) and proteomic analysis (2D-DIGE). Plants of two cultivars (Aurora and Savinjski golding) were exposed to progressive drought in a pot experiment and analysed at different stress stages (mild, moderate and severe). Measurements of relative water content revealed a hydrostable water balance of hop. Photosynthesis was decreased due to stomatal and non-stomatal limitation to the same extent in both cultivars. Of 28 identified differentially abundant proteins, the majority were down regulated and included in photosynthetic (41%) and sugar metabolism (33%). Fifteen % of identified proteins were classified into the nitrogen metabolism, 4% were related to a ROS related pathway and 7% to other functions. PMID:27085598

  10. Stress responses go three dimensional – the spatial order of physiological differentiation in bacterial macrocolony biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Diego O; Hengge, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In natural habitats, bacteria often occur in multicellular communities characterized by a robust extracellular matrix of proteins, amyloid fibres, exopolysaccharides and extracellular DNA. These biofilms show pronounced stress resistance including a resilience against antibiotics that causes serious medical and technical problems. This review summarizes recent studies that have revealed clear spatial physiological differentiation, complex supracellular architecture and striking morphology in macrocolony biofilms. By responding to gradients of nutrients, oxygen, waste products and signalling compounds that build up in growing biofilms, various stress responses determine whether bacteria grow and proliferate or whether they enter into stationary phase and use their remaining resources for maintenance and survival. As a consequence, biofilms differentiate into at least two distinct layers of vegetatively growing and stationary phase cells that exhibit very different cellular physiology. This includes a stratification of matrix production with a major impact on microscopic architecture, biophysical properties and directly visible morphology of macrocolony biofilms. Using Escherichia coli as a model system, this review also describes our detailed current knowledge about the underlying molecular control networks – prominently featuring sigma factors, transcriptional cascades and second messengers – that drive this spatial differentiation and points out directions for future research. PMID:24725389

  11. Differential response to ocean acidification in physiological traits of Concholepas concholepas populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardies, Marco A.; Arias, María Belén; Poupin, María Josefina; Manríquez, Patricio H.; Torres, Rodrigo; Vargas, Cristian A.; Navarro, Jorge M.; Lagos, Nelson A.

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic adaptation to environmental fluctuations frequently occurs by preexisting plasticity and its role as a major component of variation in physiological diversity is being widely recognized. Few studies have considered the change in phenotypic flexibility among geographic populations in marine calcifiers to ocean acidification projections, despite the fact that this type of study provides understanding about how the organism may respond to this chemical change in the ocean. We examined the geographic variation in CO2 seawater concentrations in the phenotype and in the reaction norm of physiological traits using a laboratory mesocosm approach with short-term acclimation in two contrasting populations (Antofagasta and Calfuco) of the intertidal snail Concholepas concholepas. Our results show that elevated pCO2 conditions increase standard metabolic rates in both populations of the snail juveniles, likely due to the higher energy cost of homeostasis. Juveniles of C. concholepas in the Calfuco (southern) population showed a lower increment of metabolic rate in high-pCO2 environments concordant with a lesser gene expression of a heat shock protein with respect to the Antofagasta (northern) population. Combined these results indicate a negative effect of ocean acidification on whole-organism functioning of C. concholepas. Finally, the significant Population × pCO2 level interaction in both studied traits indicates that there is variation between populations in response to high-pCO2 conditions.

  12. Physiological Response to a Simplified Veno-Venous Perfusion-Induced Systemic Hyperthermia System

    PubMed Central

    Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Sumpter, L. Ryan; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Thomas, Joe; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Our original venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia (vv-PISH) system appeared to significantly improve lung cancer patient survival, but was too complex with numerous dialysis problems. We tested a simplified vv-PISH circuit that includes the AvalonElite double lumen cannula, a modified heat exchanger, water heater/cooler, and a centrifugal pump. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this simplified vv-PISH system (without hemodialyzer) and to investigate the physiological response to whole body hyperthermia in pigs. We tested our vv-PISH circuit in healthy female adult swine (n= 7, 55-68 kg). The therapeutic core temperature (42°C), calculated as mean of rectal, bladder, and esophageal temperatures, was achieved in six swine. A maximum difference of 0.5°C was observed between the individual temperature sensor readings, indicating homogeneous heat distribution. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were transiently altered, but were safely managed. A significant elevation in pulmonary artery pressure occurred during the heating phase, resulting in one pig death. In all other pigs, pulmonary artery pressure returned to physiologic values during the therapeutic phase. Arterial blood electrolytes were maintained without the need of a dialyzer. Major organ function was within normal parameters. The simplified vv-PISH circuit reliably delivered the hyperthermic dose with no need of dialysis. PMID:23085942

  13. Susceptibility and physiological responses of Jatropha curcas accessions to broad mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Evaristo, Anderson Barbosa; Venzon, Madelaine; Matos, Fábio Santos; de Freitas, Ricardo Galvão; Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Dias, Luiz Antônio Dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus is a key pest of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The purpose of this study was to identify physic nut accessions that are less susceptible to P. latus, in support of the breeding program of J. curcas. We first evaluated population growth rate and injury symptoms of P. latus on different J. curcas accessions and then carried out physiological analyses on P. latus-infested and uninfested accessions. From the germplasm bank of the Federal University of Viçosa, 15 physic nut accessions with high seed oil content, with different genetic background, were tested. The following traits were evaluated: instantaneous population growth rate of P. latus (r i ), injury symptoms, relative leaf water content, specific leaf area, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, nitrogen and biomass of the aerial part. Significant differences were observed for P. latus population growth rate and injury symptoms among accessions. A positive correlation between P. latus growth rate and injury was found. The UFVJC72 accession stood out as the more resistant, considering P. latus growth rate and injury symptoms, compared with most accessions. Physiological responses did not vary among accessions, but did between infested and uninfested plants. In P. latus-infested plants, net photosynthesis was on average 50.5 % lower than in uninfested plants, whereas stomatal conductance and transpiration decreased by 46.2 and 51.6 %, respectively. PMID:23456604

  14. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  15. Physiological and morphological responses induced by α-particle radiation on Arabidopsis thaliana embryos.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Liu, L; Jin, X L; Fu, S L; Ding, Z C

    2014-01-01

    Alpha (α)-particle radiation has been thoroughly studied in the occupational and residential environments, but biological mechanisms induced by α-particle radiation on plants are not clearly understood. In this study, radiation effects were examined using different total doses (1, 10, 100 Gy, respectively) of 241Am, α-particle on Arabidopsis embryos. No significant difference in the germination percentage was observed between the 3 levels of doses and the control. Germination speed and root length were increased by treatment with the 1-Gy dose of a-particles, and decreased by treatment with 10- and 100-Gy doses. Moreover, the bending degree of roots increased with radiation dose, and the roots showed an "S" shape when treated with the 100-Gy dose. Root bending under the 100-Gy dose was inhibited by scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Root gravitropism and root length may respond to the consistency of ROS induced by irradiation. Further analysis of the physiological effects revealed that an increase in a-particle radiation intensity enhanced the activity of catalase and the content of malondialdehyde, but superoxide dismutase activity was reduced by treatment with 100-Gy radiation of a-particles, suggesting that the high linear energy transfer of a-particles may cause a relatively high level of membrane lipid preoxidation and high accumulation of ROS. ROS showed both physiological and morphological responses following exposure to α-particle radiation in Arabidopsis embryos. PMID:25501166

  16. Genetic and physiological bases for phenological responses to current and predicted climates

    PubMed Central

    Wilczek, A. M.; Burghardt, L. T.; Cobb, A. R.; Cooper, M. D.; Welch, S. M.; Schmitt, J.

    2010-01-01

    We are now reaching the stage at which specific genetic factors with known physiological effects can be tied directly and quantitatively to variation in phenology. With such a mechanistic understanding, scientists can better predict phenological responses to novel seasonal climates. Using the widespread model species Arabidopsis thaliana, we explore how variation in different genetic pathways can be linked to phenology and life-history variation across geographical regions and seasons. We show that the expression of phenological traits including flowering depends critically on the growth season, and we outline an integrated life-history approach to phenology in which the timing of later life-history events can be contingent on the environmental cues regulating earlier life stages. As flowering time in many plants is determined by the integration of multiple environmentally sensitive gene pathways, the novel combinations of important seasonal cues in projected future climates will alter how phenology responds to variation in the flowering time gene network with important consequences for plant life history. We discuss how phenology models in other systems—both natural and agricultural—could employ a similar framework to explore the potential contribution of genetic variation to the physiological integration of cues determining phenology. PMID:20819808

  17. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in the insulin secreting INS-1 β-cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Cui, Wan-Xing; Wang, Xu-Jing; Amthor, Franklin; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging has been established for noninvasive monitoring of stimulus-evoked physiological responses in the retina and other neural tissues. Recently, we extended the IOS imaging technology for functional evaluation of insulin secreting INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells provide a popular model for investigating β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Our experiments indicate that IOS imaging allows simultaneous monitoring of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in multiple cells with high spatial (sub-cellular) and temporal (sub-second) resolution. Rapid image sequences reveal transient optical responses that have time courses comparable to glucose-evoked β-cell electrical activities.

  18. Cortisol elevation and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in response to adverse job conditions: how are they interrelated?

    PubMed

    Härenstam, A; Theorell, T

    1990-10-01

    This study explores the use of plasma cortisol as an indicator of psychologically straining work. As plasma cortisol and liver function might be associated through biological mechanisms, this paper has a secondary object, namely to explore the interaction between cortisol and liver function. As an index of liver function the serum level of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GT) was used. The study sample was 2,000 prison employees from 67 different prisons in Sweden. Questionnaires and health examinations were used as well as measurements of plasma cortisol and serum GT. Very few work-related factors were associated with plasma cortisol unless analyzed separately for high and low level of serum GT. Two-way analyses of variance showed significant differences in the physiological "responses" to straining work with regard to psychic strain at work (men), social support at work (men), job role (men), loneliness at work (men and women), management style (women) and overtime work (women) between "low serum GT" and "high serum GT" individuals. Aggregated analyses showed that prison means of work-related factors were in some respects associated with prison means of plasma cortisol. The conclusion is that in individually based analyses plasma cortisol is difficult to use as an indicator of straining work, especially if the level of serum GT is unknown. PMID:1983313

  19. Children's emotion regulation: Self-report and physiological response to peer provocation.

    PubMed

    Hessler, Danielle M; Fainsilber Katz, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the notion that children's emotion regulation (ER) is a uniform skill by (a) investigating the concordance between self-report of ER and physiological measures and by (b) examining ER in a specific context (e.g., peer provocation) and context-free manner (e.g., during a semistructured interview of ER abilities). Seventy-two children in middle childhood (average age = 9 years) participated. Time-locked measures of heart rate reactivity and recovery were obtained in response to provoking comments, and vagal regulation was measured throughout the provocation session. Children who reported greater dysregulation showed increased heart rate reactivity to provocative comments (i.e., steeper heart rate slope) but no difference in heart rate recovery. The context-free but not the context-specific self-report measure was associated with a failure to suppress vagal tone. Implications for ER measurement and children's peer relations are discussed. PMID:17201506

  20. Comparative studies on growth and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa to Acorus calamus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-H; Chang, J-J; Cao, J-Y; Yang, C-L

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the growth inhibition and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa during coexistence with Acorus calamus, algal densities, chlorophyll a contents, exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT) activities, and peroxidase (POD) activities of the two algae strains were analyzed. Although the unicellular and colonial strains of M. aeruginosa were both inhibited by A. calamus, unicellular algae were more sensitive than the colonial algae. The measurement results for EPS, MDA, CAT, and POD showed that unicellular M. aeruginosa had higher levels of stress related damage than colonial strains when they were exposed to the same density of A. calamus, and the cellular defense system of colonial M. aeruginosa was stronger than that of unicellular M. aeruginosa. Natural blooms of Microcystis are typically composed of colonial forms of M. aeruginosa, therefore future efforts to control such blooms, possibly through the development of new algicides, should focus on the unique characteristics of colonial M. aeruginosa strains. PMID:25416545

  1. Experience Modulates the Reproductive Response to Heat Stress in C. elegans via Multiple Physiological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Devin Y.; Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Natural environments are considerably more variable than laboratory settings and often involve transient exposure to stressful conditions. To fully understand how organisms have evolved to respond to any given stress, prior experience must therefore be considered. We investigated the effects of individual and ancestral experience on C. elegans reproduction. We documented ways in which cultivation at 15°C or 25°C affects developmental time, lifetime fecundity, and reproductive performance after severe heat stress that exceeds the fertile range of the organism but is compatible with survival and future fecundity. We found that experience modulates multiple aspects of reproductive physiology, including the male and female germ lines and the interaction between them. These responses vary in their environmental sensitivity, suggesting the existence of complex mechanisms for coping with unpredictable and stressful environments. PMID:26713620

  2. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract attenuates psychological and physiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Nadaoka, Isao; Yasue, Masaaki; Kitagawa, Yasushi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2012-06-01

    Dried rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), which are known as black cohosh, have been widely used as herbal dietary supplements to treat menopausal symptoms. The present study examined the effect of CR extracts on human psychological and physiological responses to acute stress induced by mental arithmetic tests, by measuring the subjective stress intensity, the brain-wave patterns according to electroencephalography, and the concentrations of salivary chromogranin-A and cortisol. The experiments were performed double-blind and their order was counterbalanced. Treatment with CR significantly attenuated the elevated subjective perception of stress and the increased salivary chromogranin-A levels compared with placebo treatment. CR extract also rapidly recovered the decrease in alpha waveband induced by performing the mental arithmetic task. We therefore propose that CR extracts might be suitable for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. PMID:22790213

  3. Physiology of Fluid and Electrolyte Responses During Inactivity: Water Immersion and Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1984-01-01

    This manuscript emphasizes the physiology of fluid-electrolyte-hormonal responses during the prolonged inactivity of bed rest and water immersion. An understanding of the total mechanism of adaptation (deconditioning) should provide more insight into the conditioning process. Findings that need to be confirmed during bed rest and immersion are: (1) the volume and tissues of origin of fluid shifted to the thorax and head; (2) interstitial fluid pressure changes in muscle and subcutaneous tissue, particularly during immersion; and (3) the composition of the incoming presumably interstitial fluid that contributes to the early hypervolemia. Better resolution of the time course and source of the diuretic fluid is needed. Important data will be forthcoming when hypotheses are tested involving the probable action of the emerging diuretic and natriuretic hormones, between themselves and among vasopressin and aldosterone, on diuresis and blood pressure control.

  4. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying bens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  5. Physiological responses to fertilization recorded in tree rings: Isotopic lessons from a long-term fertilization trial

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen fertilizer applications are common land use management tools, but details on physiological responses to these applications are often lacking, particularly for long-term responses over decades of forest management. We used tree ring growth patterns and stable isotopes to ...

  6. Physiological responses to fertilization recorded in tree rings: isotopic lessons from a long-term fertilization trial - 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen fertilizer applications are common land-use management tools, but details on physiological responses to these applications are often lacking, particularly for long-term responses over decades of forest management. We used tree-ring growth patterns and stable isotopes to...

  7. DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY I. CHARACTERIZATION OF DATABASE AND DETERMINATION OF NO OBSERVED ADVERSE EFFECT LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicity risk assessment currently relies on the estimation of reference doses or reference concentrations based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELS) and uncertainty factors. he benchmark dose (BMD) has been proposed as an alternative basis for reference va...

  8. Photosynthetic and physiological responses of native and exotic tidal woody seedlings to simulated tidal immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tonggui; Gu, Shenhua; Zhou, Hefeng; Wang, G. Geoff; Cheng, Xiangrong; Yu, Mukui

    2013-12-01

    Hibiscus hamabo, a native tidal woody species, and Myrica cerifera, an exotic tidal woody species, have been widely planted on coastal beaches in subtropical China. However, whether there are differences in physiological response and tolerance to immersion between the two tidal species is still unknown. Our objectives were to evaluate differences in the photosynthetic and physiological responses to tidal immersion for the two species in the context of sea level rise. With increasing immersion, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and light saturation point declined progressively for both species, whereas dark respiration and light compensation point showed the reverse trend. Lower variation was observed in H. hamabo than in M. cerifera for each index in the same treatment. Photosynthetic ability and utilization of light, especially under high light intensity, decreased for both species. Leaf soluble sugar and protein contents, and glycolate oxidase activity first increased and then decreased with increasing of immersion degree, with the higher values observed in the W4 (4 h duration, 15 cm depth) and W6 (6 h duration, 25 cm depth) treatments for H. hamabo, and W2 (2 h duration, 5 cm depth) and W4 treatments for M. cerifera. These findings indicate that H. hamabo has a better ability to keep the reduction of photosynthesis at a minimum through soluble substance regulated osmotic potential and avoiding excess light damage to the photosynthetic system through increased photorespiration, heat dissipation, chlorophyll fluorescence. Our results suggest that H. hamabo is more tolerant to tidal immersion than M. cerifera, and therefore it is better adapted to the anticipated sea level rise in future.

  9. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (<14% of field capacity). A total of 31 parameters, physiological (e.g., photosynthesis, gas exchange), biochemical (e.g., chlorophyll content) and hormonal (abscisic acid [ABA] content), were analysed by classic and multivariate techniques. Relationships between parameters were established, allowing related measurements to be grouped into functional units (pigment, growth, water and ABA). Differences in these units showed that there were two distinct groups of E. globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. PMID

  10. Physiological hepatic response to zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure in the white sucker, Catostomus commersonii.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Christopher Anthony; Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; Gormley, Patrick Thomas; Butler, Kathryn Marie Alison; Maccormack, Tyson James

    2014-05-01

    Liver toxicity of commercially relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) was assessed in a benthic freshwater cypriniform, the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii). Exposure to nZnO caused several changes in levels of liver enzyme activity, antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation end products consistent with an oxidative stress response. Aconitase activity decreased by ~65% but tended to be restored to original levels upon supplementation with Fe(2+), indicating oxidative inactivation of the 4Fe-4S cluster. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased by ~29%, and glutathione levels increased by ~56%. Taken together, these suggest that nZnO induces hepatic physiological stress. Each assay was then validated by using a single liver homogenate or plasma sample that was partitioned and treated with nZnO or Zn(2+), the breakdown product of nZnO. It was found that Zn(2+), but not nZnO, increased detected glutathione reductase activity by ~14% and decreased detected malondialdehyde by ~39%. This indicates that if appreciable nZnO dissolution occurs in liver samples during processing and assay, it may skew results, with implications not only for this study, but also for a wide range of nanotoxicology studies focusing on nZnO. Finally, in vitro incubations of cell-free rat blood plasma with nZnO failed to generate any significant increase in malondialdehyde or protein carbonyl levels, or any significant decrease in ferric reducing ability of plasma. This suggests that at the level tested, any oxidative stress caused by nZnO is the result of a coordinated physiological response by the liver. PMID:24704545

  11. Inhibition of MCU forces extramitochondrial adaptations governing physiological and pathological stress responses in heart

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Tyler P.; Wu, Yuejin; Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Koval, Olha M.; Wilson, Nicholas R.; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Wang, Qinchuan; Chen, Biyi; Gao, Zhan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Wagner, Brett A.; Soto, Jamie; McCormick, Michael L.; Kutschke, William; Weiss, Robert M.; Yu, Liping; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Abel, E. Dale; Zhan, Fenghuang; Spitz, Douglas R.; Buettner, Garry R.; Song, Long-Sheng; Zingman, Leonid V.; Anderson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial mitochondrial Ca2+ entry enables physiological stress responses but in excess promotes injury and death. However, tissue-specific in vivo systems for testing the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ are lacking. We developed a mouse model with myocardial delimited transgenic expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU). DN-MCU mice lack MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ entry in myocardium, but, surprisingly, isolated perfused hearts exhibited higher O2 consumption rates (OCR) and impaired pacing induced mechanical performance compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls. In contrast, OCR in DN-MCU–permeabilized myocardial fibers or isolated mitochondria in low Ca2+ were not increased compared with WT, suggesting that DN-MCU expression increased OCR by enhanced energetic demands related to extramitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis. Consistent with this, we found that DN-MCU ventricular cardiomyocytes exhibited elevated cytoplasmic [Ca2+] that was partially reversed by ATP dialysis, suggesting that metabolic defects arising from loss of MCU function impaired physiological intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload is thought to dissipate the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and enhance formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our data show that DN-MCU hearts had preserved ΔΨm and reduced ROS during ischemia reperfusion but were not protected from myocardial death compared with WT. Taken together, our findings show that chronic myocardial MCU inhibition leads to previously unanticipated compensatory changes that affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ homeostasis, reprogram transcription, increase OCR, reduce performance, and prevent anticipated therapeutic responses to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26153425

  12. Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Royle, Chris; Walker, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The predominant housing system used for domestic horses is individual stabling; however, housing that limits social interaction and requires the horse to live in semi-isolation has been reported to be a concern for equine welfare. The aim of the current study was to compare behavioural and physiological responses of domestic horses in different types of housing design that provided varying levels of social contact. Horses (n = 16) were divided equally into four groups and exposed to each of four housing treatments for a period of five days per treatment in a randomized block design. The four housing treatments used were single housed no physical contact (SHNC), single housed semi-contact (SHSC), paired housed full contact (PHFC) and group housed full contact (GHFC). During each housing treatment, adrenal activity was recorded using non-invasive faecal corticosterone metabolite analysis (fGC). Thermal images of the eye were captured and eye temperature was assessed as a non-invasive measure of the stress response. Behavioural analysis of time budget was carried out and an ease of handling score was assigned to each horse in each treatment using video footage. SHNC horses had significantly higher (p = 0.01) concentrations of fGC and were significantly (p = 0.003) more difficult to handle compared to the other housing types. GHFC horses, although not significantly different, had numerically lower concentrations of fGC and were more compliant to handling when compared to all other housing treatments. Eye temperature was significantly (p = 0.0001) lower in the group housed treatment when compared to all other treatments. These results indicate that based on physiological and behavioural measures incorporating social contact into the housing design of domestic horses could improve the standard of domestic equine welfare. PMID:25725117

  13. Cardiovascular and autonomic responses to physiological stressors before and after six hours of water immersion.

    PubMed

    Florian, John P; Simmons, Erin E; Chon, Ki H; Faes, Luca; Shykoff, Barbara E

    2013-11-01

    The physiological responses to water immersion (WI) are known; however, the responses to stress following WI are poorly characterized. Ten healthy men were exposed to three physiological stressors before and after a 6-h resting WI (32-33°C): 1) a 2-min cold pressor test, 2) a static handgrip test to fatigue at 40% of maximum strength followed by postexercise muscle ischemia in the exercising forearm, and 3) a 15-min 70° head-up-tilt (HUT) test. Heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cardiac output (Q), limb blood flow (BF), stroke volume (SV), systemic and calf or forearm vascular resistance (SVR and CVR or FVR), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and HR variability (HRV) frequency-domain variables [low-frequency (LF), high-frequency (HF), and normalized (n)] were measured. Cold pressor test showed lower HR, SBP, SV, Q, calf BF, LFnHRV, and LF/HFHRV and higher CVR and HFnHRV after than before WI (P < 0.05). Handgrip test showed no effect of WI on maximum strength and endurance and lower HR, SBP, SV, Q, and calf BF and higher SVR and CVR after than before WI (P < 0.05). During postexercise muscle ischemia, HFnHRV increased from baseline after WI only, and LFnHRV was lower after than before WI (P < 0.05). HUT test showed lower SBP, DBP, SV, forearm BF, and BRS and higher HR, FVR, LF/HFHRV, and LFnHRV after than before WI (P < 0.05). The changes suggest differential activation/depression during cold pressor and handgrip (reduced sympathetic/elevated parasympathetic) and HUT (elevated sympathetic/reduced parasympathetic) following 6 h of WI. PMID:23950166

  14. Physiological and proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus casei in response to acid adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; He, Guiqiang; Zhang, Juan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Lactobacillus casei by a combined physiological and proteomic analysis. To optimize the ATR induction, cells were acid adapted for 1 h at different pHs, and then acid challenged at pH 3.5. The result showed that acid adaptation improved acid tolerance, and the highest survival was observed in cells adapted at pH 4.5 for 1 h. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the acid-adapted cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, and lower inner permeability compared with the cells without adaptation. Proteomic analysis was performed upon acid adaptation to different pHs (pH 6.5 vs. pH 4.5) using two-dimensional electrophoresis. A total of 24 proteins that exhibited at least 1.5-fold differential expression were identified. Four proteins (Pgk, LacD, Hpr, and Galm) involved in carbohydrate catabolism and five classic stress response proteins (GroEL, GrpE, Dnak, Hspl, and LCAZH_2811) were up-regulated after acid adaptation at pH 4.5 for 1 h. Validation of the proteomic data was performed by quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional regulation of all selected genes showed a positive correlation with the proteomic patterns of the identified proteins. Results presented in this study may be useful for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and may help in formulating new strategies to improve the industrial performance of this species during acid stress. PMID:25062817

  15. Oxidative stress induces distinct physiological responses in the two Trebouxia phycobionts of the lichen Ramalina farinacea

    PubMed Central

    del Hoyo, Alicia; Álvarez, Raquel; del Campo, Eva M.; Gasulla, Francisco; Barreno, Eva; Casano, Leonardo M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most lichens form associations with Trebouxia phycobionts and some of them simultaneously include genetically different algal lineages. In other symbiotic systems involving algae (e.g. reef corals), the relative abundances of different endosymbiotic algal clades may change over time. This process seems to provide a mechanism allowing the organism to respond to environmental stress. A similar mechanism may operate in lichens with more than one algal lineage, likewise protecting them against environmental stresses. Here, the physiological responses to oxidative stress of two distinct Trebouxia phycobionts (provisionally named TR1 and TR9) that coexist within the lichen Ramalina farinacea were analysed. Methods Isolated phycobionts were exposed to oxidative stress through the reactive oxygen species propagator cumene hydroperoxide (CuHP). Photosynthetic pigments and proteins, photosynthesis (through modulated chlorophyll fluorescence), the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR), and the stress-related protein HSP70 were analysed. Key Results Photosynthetic performance was severely impaired by CuHP in phycobionts, as indicated by decreases in the maximal PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and the non-photochemical dissipation of energy (NPQ). However, the CuHP-dependent decay in photosynthesis was significantly more severe in TR1, which also showed a lower NPQ and a reduced ability to preserve chlorophyll a, carotenoids and D1 protein. Additionally, differences were observed in the capacities of the two phycobionts to modulate antioxidant activities and HPS70 levels when exposed to oxidative stress. In TR1, CuHP significantly diminished HSP70 and GR but did not change SOD activities. In contrast, in TR9 the levels of both antioxidant enzymes and those of HSP70 increased in response to CuHP. Conclusions The better physiological performance of TR9 under oxidative

  16. Physiological and Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Elevated CO2 and Magnesium in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yaofang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Tang, Caixian; Guo, Longbiao; Yu, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration and injudicious fertilization or heterogeneous distribution of Mg in the soil warrant further research to understand the synergistic and holistic mechanisms involved in the plant growth regulation. This study investigated the influence of elevated CO2 (800 μL L(-1)) on physiological and transcriptomic profiles in Arabidopsis cultured in hydroponic media treated with 1 μM (low), 1000 μM (normal) and 10,000 μM (high) Mg2+. Following 7-d treatment, elevated CO2 increased the shoot growth and chlorophyll content under both low and normal Mg supply, whereas root growth was improved exclusively under normal Mg nutrition. Notably, the effect of elevated CO2 on mineral homeostasis in both shoots and roots was less than that of Mg supply. Irrespective of CO2 treatment, high Mg increased number of young leaf but decreased root growth and absorption of P, K, Ca, Fe and Mn whereas low Mg increased the concentration of P, K, Ca and Fe in leaves. Transcriptomics results showed that elevated CO2 decreased the expression of genes related to cell redox homeostasis, cadmium response, and lipid localization, but enhanced signal transduction, protein phosphorylation, NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins and subsequently programmed cell death in low-Mg shoots. By comparison, elevated CO2 enhanced the response of lipid localization (mainly LTP transfer protein/protease inhibitor), endomembrane system, heme binding and cell wall modification in high-Mg roots. Some of these transcriptomic results are substantially in accordance with our physiological and/or biochemical analysis. The present findings broaden our current understanding on the interactive effect of elevated CO2 and Mg levels in the Arabidopsis, which may help to design the novel metabolic engineering strategies to cope with Mg deficiency/excess in crops under elevated CO2. PMID:26881808

  17. Physiological and Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Elevated CO2 and Magnesium in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yaofang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Tang, Caixian; Guo, Longbiao; Yu, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration and injudicious fertilization or heterogeneous distribution of Mg in the soil warrant further research to understand the synergistic and holistic mechanisms involved in the plant growth regulation. This study investigated the influence of elevated CO2 (800 μL L−1) on physiological and transcriptomic profiles in Arabidopsis cultured in hydroponic media treated with 1 μM (low), 1000 μM (normal) and 10000 μM (high) Mg2+. Following 7-d treatment, elevated CO2 increased the shoot growth and chlorophyll content under both low and normal Mg supply, whereas root growth was improved exclusively under normal Mg nutrition. Notably, the effect of elevated CO2 on mineral homeostasis in both shoots and roots was less than that of Mg supply. Irrespective of CO2 treatment, high Mg increased number of young leaf but decreased root growth and absorption of P, K, Ca, Fe and Mn whereas low Mg increased the concentration of P, K, Ca and Fe in leaves. Transcriptomics results showed that elevated CO2 decreased the expression of genes related to cell redox homeostasis, cadmium response, and lipid localization, but enhanced signal transduction, protein phosphorylation, NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins and subsequently programmed cell death in low-Mg shoots. By comparison, elevated CO2 enhanced the response of lipid localization (mainly LTP transfer protein/protease inhibitor), endomembrane system, heme binding and cell wall modification in high-Mg roots. Some of these transcriptomic results are substantially in accordance with our physiological and/or biochemical analysis. The present findings broaden our current understanding on the interactive effect of elevated CO2 and Mg levels in the Arabidopsis, which may help to design the novel metabolic engineering strategies to cope with Mg deficiency/excess in crops under elevated CO2. PMID:26881808

  18. Inhibition of MCU forces extramitochondrial adaptations governing physiological and pathological stress responses in heart.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tyler P; Wu, Yuejin; Joiner, Mei-ling A; Koval, Olha M; Wilson, Nicholas R; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qinchuan; Chen, Biyi; Gao, Zhan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Wagner, Brett A; Soto, Jamie; McCormick, Michael L; Kutschke, William; Weiss, Robert M; Yu, Liping; Boudreau, Ryan L; Abel, E Dale; Zhan, Fenghuang; Spitz, Douglas R; Buettner, Garry R; Song, Long-Sheng; Zingman, Leonid V; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-07-21

    Myocardial mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry enables physiological stress responses but in excess promotes injury and death. However, tissue-specific in vivo systems for testing the role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) are lacking. We developed a mouse model with myocardial delimited transgenic expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). DN-MCU mice lack MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry in myocardium, but, surprisingly, isolated perfused hearts exhibited higher O2 consumption rates (OCR) and impaired pacing induced mechanical performance compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls. In contrast, OCR in DN-MCU-permeabilized myocardial fibers or isolated mitochondria in low Ca(2+) were not increased compared with WT, suggesting that DN-MCU expression increased OCR by enhanced energetic demands related to extramitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis. Consistent with this, we found that DN-MCU ventricular cardiomyocytes exhibited elevated cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] that was partially reversed by ATP dialysis, suggesting that metabolic defects arising from loss of MCU function impaired physiological intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload is thought to dissipate the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and enhance formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our data show that DN-MCU hearts had preserved ΔΨm and reduced ROS during ischemia reperfusion but were not protected from myocardial death compared with WT. Taken together, our findings show that chronic myocardial MCU inhibition leads to previously unanticipated compensatory changes that affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) homeostasis, reprogram transcription, increase OCR, reduce performance, and prevent anticipated therapeutic responses to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26153425

  19. Miniaturized iPS-Cell-Derived Cardiac Muscles for Physiologically Relevant Drug Response Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Loskill, Peter; Deveshwar, Nikhil; Spencer, C. Ian; Judge, Luke M.; Mandegar, Mohammad A.; B. Fox, Cade; Mohamed, Tamer M.A.; Ma, Zhen; Mathur, Anurag; Sheehan, Alice M.; Truong, Annie; Saxton, Mike; Yoo, Jennie; Srivastava, Deepak; Desai, Tejal A.; So, Po-Lin; Healy, Kevin E.; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering approaches have the potential to increase the physiologic relevance of human iPS-derived cells, such as cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). However, forming Engineered Heart Muscle (EHM) typically requires >1 million cells per tissue. Existing miniaturization strategies involve complex approaches not amenable to mass production, limiting the ability to use EHM for iPS-based disease modeling and drug screening. Micro-scale cardiospheres are easily produced, but do not facilitate assembly of elongated muscle or direct force measurements. Here we describe an approach that combines features of EHM and cardiospheres: Micro-Heart Muscle (μHM) arrays, in which elongated muscle fibers are formed in an easily fabricated template, with as few as 2,000 iPS-CM per individual tissue. Within μHM, iPS-CM exhibit uniaxial contractility and alignment, robust sarcomere assembly, and reduced variability and hypersensitivity in drug responsiveness, compared to monolayers with the same cellular composition. μHM mounted onto standard force measurement apparatus exhibited a robust Frank-Starling response to external stretch, and a dose-dependent inotropic response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Based on the ease of fabrication, the potential for mass production and the small number of cells required to form μHM, this system provides a potentially powerful tool to study cardiomyocyte maturation, disease and cardiotoxicology in vitro. PMID:27095412

  20. Physiological response to etho-ecological stressors in male Alpine chamois: timescale matters!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlatti, Luca; Palme, Rupert; Lovari, Sandro

    2014-07-01

    From a life history perspective, glucocorticoids secreted by the neuroendocrine system, integrating different sources of stress through an adaptive feedback mechanism, may have important consequences on individual fitness. Although stress responses have been the object of several investigations, few studies have explored the role of proximate mechanisms responsible for the potential trade-offs between physiological stress and life history traits integrating social and environmental stressors. In 2011 and 2012, we collected data on faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in a marked male population of Alpine chamois, within the Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy). Using a model selection approach we analysed the effect of potential etho-ecological stressors such as age, social status (territorial vs. non-territorial males), minimum temperature, snow depth and precipitation on FCM variation. To correctly interpret environmentally and socially induced stress responses, we conducted model selections over multiple temporal scales defined a priori: year, cold months, spring, warm months, mating season. Over the year, FCM levels showed a negative relationship with minimum temperature, but altogether, climatic stressors had negligible effects on glucocorticoid secretion, possibly owing to good adaptations of chamois to severe weather conditions. Age was negatively related to FCM during the rut, possibly due to greater experience of older males in agonistic contests. Social status was an important determinant of FCM excretion: while both the `stress of subordination' and the `stress of domination' hypotheses received some support in spring and during the mating season, respectively, previous data suggest that only the latter may have detrimental fitness consequences on male chamois.

  1. Cellular, physiological, and molecular adaptive responses of Erwinia amylovora to starvation.

    PubMed

    Santander, Ricardo D; Oliver, James D; Biosca, Elena G

    2014-05-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants distributed worldwide. This bacterium is a nonobligate pathogen able to survive outside the host under starvation conditions, allowing its spread by various means such as rainwater. We studied E. amylovora responses to starvation using water microcosms to mimic natural oligotrophy. Initially, survivability under optimal (28 °C) and suboptimal (20 °C) growth temperatures was compared. Starvation induced a loss of culturability much more pronounced at 28 °C than at 20 °C. Natural water microcosms at 20 °C were then used to characterize cellular, physiological, and molecular starvation responses of E. amylovora. Challenged cells developed starvation-survival and viable but nonculturable responses, reduced their size, acquired rounded shapes and developed surface vesicles. Starved cells lost motility in a few days, but a fraction retained flagella. The expression of genes related to starvation, oxidative stress, motility, pathogenicity, and virulence was detected during the entire experimental period with different regulation patterns observed during the first 24 h. Further, starved cells remained as virulent as nonstressed cells. Overall, these results provide new knowledge on the biology of E. amylovora under conditions prevailing in nature, which could contribute to a better understanding of the life cycle of this pathogen. PMID:24476337

  2. Physiological, Perceptual and Psychological Responses of Career versus Volunteer Firefighters to Live-fire Training Drills.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, Steven J; Poh, Paula Y S; Greenlee, Tina A; Goldstein, Eric; Horn, Gavin P; Smith, Denise L

    2014-11-13

    A primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of short-term live-fire firefighting activities on key physiological, perceptual and psychological variables and whether occupational status influenced these responses. It was also of interest to examine whether individual difference factors differentiated the occupational status groups and if so, whether such individual difference factors influenced perceptual and psychological responses to firefighting activities. Male firefighters (n = 52 career, n = 53 volunteer firefighters) participated in 18 min of simulated firefighting activity in a training structure that contained live fires. Measures of heart rate (HR) and Tcore were obtained before and after firefighting activities along with perceptions of thermal sensations, exertion, respiratory distress and affect. Firefighting activities resulted in significant elevations in HR and Tcore , whereas thermal sensations, respiratory distress, exertion and affect all showed significant and sizable changes reflecting greater distress and dysphoria. Occupational status and individual difference factors accounted for some of this negative change. The findings replicate and extend previous work by demonstrating the influence of occupational status and individual difference factors in the psychological responses to firefighting activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25393336

  3. Physiological responses to cold (10° C) in men after six months' practice of yoga exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamurthy, W.; Ray, U. S.; Hegde, K. S.; Sharma, R. P.

    1988-09-01

    A study was conducted on 30 healthy soldiers (age: 40 46 years) to assess the effect of selected yogic exercises (asanas) on some physiological responses to cold exposure. They were randomly divided into two groups of 15 each. One group performed regular physical exercises of physical training (PT), while the other group practised yogic exercises. At the end of 6 months of training, both the groups were exposed together to cold stress at 10°C for 2 h, and the following parameters were periodically monitored during cold exposure: heart rate ( fH), blood pressure ( BP), cardiac output(dot Q_c ), oral temperature (Tor), skin temperature ( T sk), respiratory rate ( fR), minute ventilation(dot V_E ), oxygen consumption(dot V_{O_2 } ), and shivering response by integrated electromyogram (EMG). There were progressive increases in BP, fR,dot V_E ,dot V_{O_2 } , anddot Q_c and decreases in fH, T or and T sk during cold exposure in both the groups. However, the decrease in T or and the increases indot V_{O_2 } anddot V_E were relatively lower ( P<0.01) in the yoga group as compared to the PT group. The shivering response appeared much earlier and was more intense in the PT group. These findings suggest that practice of yoga exercises may improve cold tolerance.

  4. Reducing the Meta-Emotional Problem Decreases Physiological Fear Response during Exposure in Phobics

    PubMed Central

    Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petrocchi, Nicola; Trincas, Roberta; Tenore, Katia; Buonanno, Carlo; Mancini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders may not only be characterized by specific symptomatology (e.g., tachycardia) in response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem or first-level emotion) but also by the tendency to negatively evaluate oneself for having those symptoms (secondary problem or negative meta-emotion). An exploratory study was conducted driven by the hypothesis that reducing the secondary or meta-emotional problem would also diminish the fear response to the phobic stimulus. Thirty-three phobic participants were exposed to the phobic target before and after undergoing a psychotherapeutic intervention addressed to reduce the meta-emotional problem or a control condition. The electrocardiogram was continuously recorded to derive heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and affect ratings were obtained. Addressing the meta-emotional problem had the effect of reducing the physiological but not the subjective symptoms of anxiety after phobic exposure. Preliminary findings support the role of the meta-emotional problem in the maintenance of response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem). PMID:27504102

  5. Muscle sympathetic nerve responses to physiological changes in prostaglandin production in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerzbacher, K. J.; Ray, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that prostaglandins may contribute to exercise-induced increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). To test this hypothesis, MSNA was measured at rest and during exercise before and after oral administration of ketoprofen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, or placebo. Twenty-one subjects completed two bouts of graded dynamic and isometric handgrip to fatigue. Each exercise bout was followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia. The second exercise bouts were performed after 60 min of rest in which 11 subjects were given ketoprofen (300 mg) and 10 subjects received a placebo. Ketoprofen significantly lowered plasma thromboxane B(2) in the drug group (from 36 +/- 6 to 22 +/- 3 pg/ml, P < 0.04), whereas thromboxane B(2) in the placebo group increased from 40 +/- 5 to 61 +/- 9 pg/ml from trial 1 to trial 2 (P < 0.008). Ketoprofen and placebo did not change sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to dynamic handgrip, isometric handgrip, and postexercise muscle ischemia. There was no relationship between thromboxane B(2) concentrations and MSNA or arterial pressure responses during both exercise modes. The data indicate that physiological increases or decreases in prostaglandins do not alter exercise-induced increases in MSNA and arterial pressure in humans. These findings suggest that contraction-induced metabolites other than prostaglandins mediate MSNA responses to exercise in humans.

  6. Miniaturized iPS-Cell-Derived Cardiac Muscles for Physiologically Relevant Drug Response Analyses.

    PubMed

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Loskill, Peter; Deveshwar, Nikhil; Spencer, C Ian; Judge, Luke M; Mandegar, Mohammad A; B Fox, Cade; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Ma, Zhen; Mathur, Anurag; Sheehan, Alice M; Truong, Annie; Saxton, Mike; Yoo, Jennie; Srivastava, Deepak; Desai, Tejal A; So, Po-Lin; Healy, Kevin E; Conklin, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering approaches have the potential to increase the physiologic relevance of human iPS-derived cells, such as cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). However, forming Engineered Heart Muscle (EHM) typically requires >1 million cells per tissue. Existing miniaturization strategies involve complex approaches not amenable to mass production, limiting the ability to use EHM for iPS-based disease modeling and drug screening. Micro-scale cardiospheres are easily produced, but do not facilitate assembly of elongated muscle or direct force measurements. Here we describe an approach that combines features of EHM and cardiospheres: Micro-Heart Muscle (μHM) arrays, in which elongated muscle fibers are formed in an easily fabricated template, with as few as 2,000 iPS-CM per individual tissue. Within μHM, iPS-CM exhibit uniaxial contractility and alignment, robust sarcomere assembly, and reduced variability and hypersensitivity in drug responsiveness, compared to monolayers with the same cellular composition. μHM mounted onto standard force measurement apparatus exhibited a robust Frank-Starling response to external stretch, and a dose-dependent inotropic response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Based on the ease of fabrication, the potential for mass production and the small number of cells required to form μHM, this system provides a potentially powerful tool to study cardiomyocyte maturation, disease and cardiotoxicology in vitro. PMID:27095412

  7. Proteome Dynamics and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Salt Stress in Brassica napus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongjun; Guan, Rongzhan; Chu, Pu; Jiang, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Forty-four protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future. PMID:26691228

  8. Physiological responses of root-less epiphytic plants to acid rain.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Bačkor, Martin; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2011-03-01

    Selected physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) and two lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Xanthoria parietina) exposed to simulated acid rain (AR) over 3 months were studied. Pigments were depressed in all species being affected the most in Tillandsia. Amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were elevated and soluble proteins decreased only in AR-exposed Hypogymnia. Free amino acids were slightly affected among species and only glutamate sharply decreased in AR-exposed Xanthoria. Slight increase in soluble phenols but decrease in flavonoids in almost all species suggests that the latter are not essential for tolerance to AR. Almost all phenolic acids in Tillandsia leaves decreased in response to AR and activities of selected enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) were enhanced by AR. In lichens, considerable increase in metabolites (physodalic acid, atranorin and parietin) in response to AR was found but amount of ergosterol was unchanged. Macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased more pronouncedly in comparison with micronutrients in all species. Xanthoria showed higher tolerance in comparison with Hypogymnia, suggesting that could be useful for long-term biomonitoring. PMID:21161375

  9. Effects of copper on the acute cortisol response and associated physiology in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Margaret S; Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) exposure on the acute stress-induced cortisol response and associated physiological consequences in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to 30 μg Cu/L in moderately hard water (120 mg/L as CaCO(3)) for 40 days, following which time the acute cortisol response was examined with a series of stressors. At 40 days, a 65% increase in Cu was observed in the gill, but no accumulation was observed in the liver, brain or head kidney. Stressors such as air exposure or confinement did not elicit an increase in circulating cortisol levels for Cu-exposed fish, in contrast to controls. However, this inhibitory effect on the acute cortisol response appeared to have few implications on the ability of Cu-exposed fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. For example, plasma Na(+), Ca(2+) and glucose levels as well as hepatic glycogen levels were the same post-stress in control and Cu-exposed fish. Trout were also challenged with exposure to 50% seawater for 48 h, where Cu-exposed trout maintained plasma Na(+), glucose and hepatic glycogen levels. However, Cu-exposed fish experienced decreased plasma K(+) levels throughout the Cu exposure and stress tests. In conclusion, chronic Cu exposure resulted in the abolition of an acute cortisol response post-stress. There was no Cu accumulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) suggesting this was not a direct toxic effect of Cu on the cortisol regulatory pathway. However, the lack of an acute cortisol response in Cu-exposed fish did not impair the ability of the fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. This effect on cortisol may be a strategy to reduce costs during the chronic stress of Cu exposure, and not endocrine disruption as a result of toxic injury. PMID:21964321

  10. Physiological and molecular responses to drought in Petunia: the importance of stress severity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongyun

    2012-01-01

    Plant responses to drought stress vary depending on the severity of stress and the stage of drought progression. To improve the understanding of such responses, the leaf physiology, abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of genes associated with ABA metabolism and signalling were investigated in Petunia × hybrida. Plants were exposed to different specific substrate water contents (θ = 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, or 0.40 m3·m–3) to induce varying levels of drought stress. Plant responses were investigated both during the drying period (θ decreased to the θ thresholds) and while those threshold θ were maintained. Stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (A) decreased with decreasing midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf). Leaf ABA concentration increased with decreasing midday Ψleaf and was negatively correlated with gs (r = –0.92). Despite the increase in leaf ABA concentration under drought, no significant effects on the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes were observed. However, the ABA catabolism-related gene CYP707A2 was downregulated, primarily in plants under severe drought (θ = 0.10 m3∙m–3), suggesting a decrease in ABA catabolism under severe drought. Expression of phospholipase Dα (PLDα), involved in regulating stomatal responses to ABA, was enhanced under drought during the drying phase, but there was no relationship between PLDα expression and midday Ψleaf after the θ thresholds had been reached. The results show that drought response of plants depends on the severity of drought stress and the phase of drought progression. PMID:23077204

  11. Comparative sensitivity, mechanisms, and whole plant physiological implications of responses of loblolly pine genotypes to ozone and acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Adams, M.B.; Edwards, N.T.; Hanson, P.J.; Layton, P.A.; O'Neill, E.G.; Roy, W.K.

    1988-09-01

    A quantitative and mechanistic basis for evaluating the potential effects of atmospheric pollutants on physiology and growth of seedlings of loblolly pine, an important timber species in southern commercial forests, was evaluated in laboratory and controlled field studies. Fifty-three half-sib families of loblolly pine were examined. Primary objectives were to (1) quantify differences in growth responses of these 53 half-sib families to the individual and interactive effects of simulated acid rain and ozone in the field, (2) characterize the physiological basis of observed responses in field and laboratory studies, (3) compare and contrast results obtained with similar experimental protocols in field and laboratory approaches, and (4) develop experimental protocols for quantifying physiological and growth responses of large trees in the field. 152 refs., 41 figs., 42 tabs.

  12. Parental-Adolescent Drug Use Discussions: Physiological Responses and Associated Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Hansen, Amysue; Simmons, Jessica; Mayes, Linda C.; Hommer, Rebecca E.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although talking to youth about drugs is often recommended to parents, we know little about how parents actually discuss drugs with their children in the moment and how parental advice is linked to youth arousal and substance use. This study examined observed parental drug use advice and parenting behaviors during parent-adolescent drug use discussions and associations with adolescent physiological responses and substance use. Methods Fifty eight 12–17 year olds and their primary caregivers participated in a laboratory session in which parents and youth discussed the topic of alcohol and/or drug use for ten minutes. This discussion was videotaped and coded for drug use advice (rules against drug use, information on drug use consequences, scenarios/learning advice [discussing drug use scenarios and what the child has learned about drugs]) and general parenting behaviors (parental warmth/support, negative/critical parenting). Before, during, and after the discussions, adolescents’ heart rate, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Results Parental discussion of scenarios/learning was associated with lower adolescent blood pressure responses to the discussions and lower likelihood of substance use. Parental discussion of rules against drug use was associated with higher heart rate and blood pressure responses, and greater likelihood of substance use. Criticism/negative parenting was associated with higher cortisol responses and greater likelihood of substance use at a trend level. Conclusions Parenting characterized by greater discussion of drug use scenarios, and less stating of rules against drug use and criticism may make youth feel more comfortable and be linked to lower substance use. Implications and Contributions This study observed family discussions about drug use. Parents who discussed drug use scenarios had adolescents who felt more comfortable and were less likely to use substances. In contrast, parents who stated rules

  13. Ape Conservation Physiology: Fecal Glucocorticoid Responses in Wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following Human Visitation

    PubMed Central

    Muehlenbein, Michael P.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary

  14. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results

  15. Effects of hyperoxia and hypoxia on the physiological traits responsible for obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Bradley A; Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L; White, David P; Genta, Pedro R; Butler, James P; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen therapy is known to reduce loop gain (LG) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), yet its effects on the other traits responsible for OSA remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed how hyperoxia and hypoxia alter four physiological traits in OSA patients. Eleven OSA subjects underwent a night of polysomnography during which the physiological traits were measured using multiple 3-min ‘drops’ from therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels. LG was defined as the ratio of the ventilatory overshoot to the preceding reduction in ventilation. Pharyngeal collapsibility was quantified as the ventilation at CPAP of 0 cmH2O. Upper airway responsiveness was defined as the ratio of the increase in ventilation to the increase in ventilatory drive across the drop. Arousal threshold was estimated as the level of ventilatory drive associated with arousal. On separate nights, subjects were submitted to hyperoxia (n = 9; FiO2 ∼0.5) or hypoxia (n = 10; FiO2 ∼0.15) and the four traits were reassessed. Hyperoxia lowered LG from a median of 3.4 [interquartile range (IQR): 2.6–4.1] to 2.1 (IQR: 1.3–2.5) (P < 0.01), but did not alter the remaining traits. By contrast, hypoxia increased LG [median: 3.3 (IQR: 2.3–4.0) vs. 6.4 (IQR: 4.5–9.7); P < 0.005]. Hypoxia additionally increased the arousal threshold (mean ± s.d. 10.9 ± 2.1 l min−1 vs. 13.3 ± 4.3 l min−1; P < 0.05) and improved pharyngeal collapsibility (mean ± s.d. 3.4 ± 1.4 l min−1 vs. 4.9 ± 1.3 l min−1; P < 0.05), but did not alter upper airway responsiveness (P = 0.7). This study demonstrates that the beneficial effect of hyperoxia on the severity of OSA is primarily based on its ability to reduce LG. The effects of hypoxia described above may explain the disappearance of OSA and the emergence of central sleep apnoea in conditions such as high altitude. PMID:25085887

  16. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses

    PubMed Central

    Saulou-Bérion, Claire; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Enjalbert, Brice; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Fourquaux, Isabelle; Jamme, Frédéric; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel; Girbal, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins), for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR) and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes). The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL) and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA). The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq) and chaperone (dnaJ), and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB). Interestingly, as these transpeptidases act on

  17. Mechanical work and physiological responses to simulated cross country mountain bike racing.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul William; Stannard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the mechanical work and physiological responses to cross country mountain bike racing. Participants (n = 7) cycled on a cross country track at race speed whilst VO2, power, cadence, speed, and geographical position were recorded. Mean power during the designated start section (68.5 ± 5.5 s) was 481 ± 122 W, incurring an O2 deficit of 1.58 ± 0.67 L - min(-1) highlighting a significant initial anaerobic (32.4 ± 10.2%) contribution. Complete lap data produced mean (243 ± 12 W) and normalised (279 ± 15 W) power outputs with 13.3 ± 6.1 and 20.7 ± 8.3% of time spent in high force-high velocity and high force-low velocity, respectively. This equated to, physiological measures for %VO(2max) (77 ± 5%) and % HR(max) (93 ± 2%). Terrain (uphill vs downhill) significantly (P < 0.05) influenced power output (70.9 ± 7.5 vs. 41.0 ± 9.2% W(max)),the distribution of low velocity force production, VO2 (80 ± 1.7 vs. 72 ± 3.7%) and cadence (76 + 2 vs. 55 ± 4 rpm) but not heart rate (93.8 ± 2.3 vs. 91.3 ± 0.6% HR(max)) and led to a significant difference between anaerobic contribution and terrain (uphill, 6.4 ± 3.0 vs. downhill, 3.2 ± 1.8%, respectively) but not aerobic energy contribution. Both power and cadence were highly variable through all sections resulting in one power surge every 32 s and a supra-maximal effort every 106 s. The results show that cross country mountain bike racing consists of predominantly low velocity pedalling with a large high force component and when combined with a high oscillating work rate, necessitates high aerobic energy provision, with intermittent anaerobic contribution. Additional physical stress during downhill sections affords less recovery emphasised by physiological variables remaining high throughout. PMID:22876780

  18. Quantification of clinical scores through physiological recordings in low-responsive patients: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Martin; Buetler, Lilith; Vallery, Heike; Schaller, Judith; Mayr, Andreas; Kofler, Markus; Saltuari, Leopold; Zutter, Daniel; Riener, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Clinical scores represent the gold standard in characterizing the clinical condition of patients in vegetative or minimally conscious state. However, they suffer from problems of sensitivity, specificity, subjectivity and inter-rater reliability.In this feasibility study, objective measures including physiological and neurophysiological signals are used to quantify the clinical state of 13 low-responsive patients. A linear regression method was applied in nine patients to obtain fixed regression coefficients for the description of the clinical state. The statistical model was extended and evaluated with four patients of another hospital. A linear mixed models approach was introduced to handle the challenges of data sets obtained from different locations.Using linear backward regression 12 variables were sufficient to explain 74.4% of the variability in the change of the clinical scores. Variables based on event-related potentials and electrocardiogram account for most of the variability.These preliminary results are promising considering that this is the first attempt to describe the clinical state of low-responsive patients in such a global and quantitative way. This new model could complement the clinical scores based on objective measurements in order to increase diagnostic reliability. Nevertheless, more patients are necessary to prove the conclusions of a statistical model with 12 variables. PMID:22647145

  19. Physiological and molecular responses to drought stress in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-feng

    2014-10-01

    Plant drought stress response and tolerance are complex biological processes. In order to reveal the drought tolerance mechanism in rubber tree, physiological responses and expressions of genes involved in energy biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging were systematically analyzed following drought stress treatment. Results showed that relative water content (RWC) in leaves was continuously decreased with the severity of drought stress. Wilting leaves were observed at 7 day without water (dww). Total chlorophyll content was increased at 1 dww, but decreased from 3 dww. However, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline were significantly increased under drought stress. Peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were markedly enhanced at 1 and 3 dww, respectively. Meanwhile, the soluble sugar content was constant under drought stress. These indicated that photosynthetic activity and membrane lipid integrity were quickly attenuated by drought stress in rubber tree, and osmoregulation participated in drought tolerance mechanism in rubber tree. Expressions of energy biosynthesis and ROS scavenging systems related genes, including HbCuZnSOD, HbMnSOD, HbAPX, HbCAT, HbCOA, HbATP, and HbACAT demonstrated that these genes were significantly up-regulated by drought stress, and reached a maximum at 3 dww, then followed by a decrease from 5 dww. These results suggested that drought stress adaption in rubber tree was governed by energy biosynthesis, antioxidative enzymes, and osmoregulation. PMID:25194774

  20. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress 'Red Robin') or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. 'Etna Fire') adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters. PMID:27242846

  1. Selected physiological and perceptual responses during a simulated limited overs century in non-elite batsmen.

    PubMed

    Pote, Lee; Christie, Candice J

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of an increased physical demand on batting performance, especially over extended periods of play. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the physiological and perceptual responses of batsmen scoring a simulated limited overs century, and to link these to sprint times and accuracy of the impact of the ball on the bat. Seventeen male, university level cricketers, performed a batting protocol (BATEX(©)), typical of a limited overs century. The protocol consisted of six stages, each of five overs, with each stage matched to a specific phase of play. Throughout the protocol heart rate (HR), central ratings of perceived effort (RPE), sprint times and impact accuracy were recorded. HR fluctuated as a function of exercise intensity (124.16-159.61 bpm). Central RPE increased as a function of intensity and duration (11.87-16.04). Sprint times got slower over time (5.67-5.81 s), while impact accuracy improved significantly (p < .05) after stage one and then plateaued for the remainder of the protocol (64.81-57.39 mm). In conclusion, the protocol significantly impacted cardiac strain and perceptual responses negatively impacting sprint times with an improvement in batting accuracy. PMID:26457383

  2. Physiological changes in response to hearing female voices recorded at high fertility.

    PubMed

    Shoup-Knox, Melanie L; Pipitone, R Nathan

    2015-02-01

    The human voice transmits pertinent information regarding health status and age, with recent evidence suggesting that it plays an important role in mate selection. However, the mechanism that drives preferences for voices of fertile females has yet to be elucidated. The current study examined the physiological changes that occur when listening to voices recorded from naturally cycling females at high and low fertility phases of the menstrual cycle, as well as from females using hormonal contraception. We found the voices of naturally cycling females recorded during a high fertility phase were rated as more attractive and produced the greatest increase in galvanic skin response (GSR). Heart rate (HR) also showed a trend towards the highest increase when listening to naturally cycling, high fertility female voices. There were no differences in ratings of voice attractiveness, GSR, or HR between the voices recorded from females using hormonal contraception. Analyzed separately, male and female listeners both showed a preference for naturally cycling, high fertility voices. Female listeners additionally showed increased GSR and HR responses to naturally cycling, high fertility voices. We discuss the adaptive benefits of detecting vocal changes for male as well as female listeners, and also discuss the role that the nervous system plays during human mate assessments. PMID:25449386

  3. Mechanical signaling and the cellular response to extracellular matrix in angiogenesis and cardiovascular physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the identification of the soluble angiogenic factors, insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, and receptor signaling pathways that mediate control of angiogenesis--the growth of blood capillaries. This review focuses on work that explores how endothelial cells integrate these chemical signals with mechanical cues from their local tissue microenvironment so as to produce functional capillary networks that exhibit specialized form as well as function. These studies have revealed that ECM governs whether an endothelial cell will switch between growth, differentiation, motility, or apoptosis programs in response to a soluble stimulus based on its ability to mechanically resist cell tractional forces and thereby produce cell and cytoskeletal distortion. Transmembrane integrin receptors play a key role in this mechanochemical transduction process because they both organize a cytoskeletal signaling complex within the focal adhesion and preferentially focus mechanical forces on this site. Molecular filaments within the internal cytoskeleton--microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments--also contribute to the cell's structural and functional response to mechanical stress through their role as discrete support elements within a tensegrity-stabilized cytoskeletal array. Importantly, a similar form of mechanical control also has been shown to be involved in the regulation of contractility in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes. Thus, the mechanism by which cells perform mechanochemical transduction and the implications of these findings for morphogenetic control are discussed in the wider context of vascular development and cardiovascular physiology.

  4. Modeling the physiological and growth responses of mature Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Laurence, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Using the TREGRO model we simulated the effects of altered CO{sub 2} (+200 {mu}L/L), temperature (+4{degrees}C) and O{sub 3} (0.5x, 1x and 2x ambient) on the physiology and growth of Pinus ponderosa. Photosynthesis (Pn) increased at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature, enhancing total tree growth 29% and 13%, respectively. In both scenarios the greatest increase in dry matter was in fine root biomass. Ozone at all exposures reduced Pn, total tree growth was unaffected at 0.5x O{sub 3}, however, at higher O{sub 3} total growth was reduced 19% (1x) and 39% (2x). Reductions in fine root biomass and total non-structural carbohydrate dominated at all O{sub 3} exposures. Increased Pn at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature reduced, but did not eliminate, O{sub 3}-induced growth reductions. In the model changes in Pn and stomatal conductance largely determined the growth response to multiple climatic alterations, however, changes in fine root biomass may control growth response in the field.

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress ‘Red Robin’) or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. ‘Etna Fire’) adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters. PMID:27242846

  6. [Coping styles and anxiety and physiological responses of teachers in stressful situations].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Akio

    2002-02-01

    The relationship between coping styles and stress responses of teachers was examined in an experiment. With the scores of Manifest Anxiety and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales, teacher-participants were classified into four groups of six each; repressor, sensitizer, low-anxious, and defensive-anxious. Then, they performed a word-association task, and were individually interviewed by a woman they met for first time. Intermittently during the sessions, the participant rated own state anxiety; heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) were monitored; and reaction time and successful recall rate on the task were recorded. Results were as follows: Repressors showed high state anxiety and a significantly greater increase in HR, but a smaller increase in SCL than the others. In contrast, sensitizers showed low state anxiety and a significantly greater increase in SCL. The low-anxious showed high state anxiety at the beginning which decreased immediately, and remained at an intermediate and steady physiological arousal level, except SCL. The defensive-anxious showed low state anxiety and low HR. On the whole, it was suggested that coping styles could predict stress responses. PMID:11977840

  7. Calcium-dependent physiologic and pathologic stimulus-metabolic response coupling in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Mémin, Elisabeth; Thomas, Andrew P

    2012-07-01

    A recurrent paradigm in calcium signaling is the coordination of the target response of the calcium signal with activation of metabolic energy production to support that response. This occurs in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle where contractile activity and ATP production are coordinately regulated by the frequency and amplitude of calcium transients, endocrine and exocrine cells that use calcium to drive the secretory process, and hepatocytes where the downstream targets of calcium include both catabolic and anabolic processes. The primary mechanism by which calcium enhances the capacity for energy production is through calcium-dependent stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, achieved by increasing NADH production and respiratory chain flux. Although this enhances energy supply, it also has the potential for deleterious consequences resulting from increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The negative consequences of calcium-dependent mitochondrial activation can be ameliorated when the underlying cytosolic calcium signals occur as brief calcium spikes or oscillations, with signal strength encoded through the spike frequency (frequency modulation). Frequency modulation increases signal fidelity, and reduces pathological effects of calcium, including excess mitochondrial ROS production and apoptotic or necrotic outcomes. The present article reviews these issues using data obtained in hepatocytes under physiologic and pathologic conditions. PMID:22564906

  8. Calcium-Dependent Physiologic and Pathologic Stimulus-Metabolic Response Coupling in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gaspers, Lawrence D.; Mémin, Elisabeth; Thomas, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent paradigm in calcium signaling is the coordination of the target response of the calcium signal with activation of metabolic energy production to support that response. This occurs in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle where contractile activity and ATP production are coordinately regulated by the frequency and amplitude of calcium transients, endocrine and exocrine cells that use calcium to drive the secretory process, and hepatocytes where the downstream targets of calcium include both catabolic and anabolic processes. The primary mechanism by which calcium enhances the capacity for energy production is through calcium-dependent stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, achieved by increasing NADH production and respiratory chain flux. Although this enhances energy supply, it also has the potential for deleterious consequences resulting from increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The negative consequences of calcium-dependent mitochondrial activation can be ameliorated when the underlying cytosolic calcium signals occur as brief calcium spikes or oscillations, with signal strength encoded through the spike frequency (frequency modulation). Frequency modulation increases signal fidelity, and reduces pathological effects of calcium, including excess mitochondrial ROS production and apoptotic or necrotic outcomes. The present article reviews these issues using data obtained in hepatocytes under physiologic and pathologic conditions. PMID:22564906

  9. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  10. Effects of prolonged head-down bed rest on physiological responses to moderate hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Roach, R. C.; Selland, M. A.; Scotto, P.; Greene, E. R.; Luft, U. C.

    1993-01-01

    To determine the effects of hypoxia on physiological responses to simulated zero-gravity cardiopulmonary and fluid balance measurements were made in 6 subjects before and during 5-degree head-down bed rest (HDBR) over 8 d at 10,678 ft and a second time at this altitude as controls (CON). The V-dot(O2)(max) increased by 9 percent after CON, but fell 3 percent after HDBR. This reduction in work capacity during HDBR could be accounted for by inactivity. The heart rate response to a head-up tilt was greatly enhanced following HDBR, while mean blood pressure was lower. No significant negative impact of HDBR was noted on the ability to acclimatize to hypoxia in terms of pulmonary mechanics, gas exchange, circulatory or mental function measurements. No evidence of pulmonary interstitial edema or congestion was noted during HDBR at the lower PIO2 and blood rheology properties were not negatively altered. Symptoms of altitude illness were more prevalent, but not marked, during HDBR and arterial blood gases and oxygenation were not seriously effected by simulated microgravity. Declines in base excess with altitude were similar in both conditions. The study demonstrated a minimal effect of HDBR on the ability to adjust to this level of hypoxia.

  11. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  12. Early social isolation alters behavioral and physiological responses to an endotoxin challenge in piglets.

    PubMed

    Tuchscherer, Margret; Kanitz, Ellen; Puppe, Birger; Tuchscherer, Armin

    2006-12-01

    Psychosocial stress in the form of maternal deprivation and social isolation during early postnatal life induces persistent alterations in behavioral and physiological mechanisms of adaptation. One consequence may be an increased susceptibility to diseases in later life. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate in domestic piglets the effects of a repeated social isolation (2 h daily from day 3 to day 11 of age) on behavioral, endocrine and immune responses to an endotoxin challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 day or 45 days after the isolation period. Peripheral LPS administration caused serious sickness behavior (somnolence, shivering, vomiting) and provoked profound increases in circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), ACTH and cortisol concentrations. The prior social isolation treatment enhanced signs of sickness and impaired suckling behavior. Early isolated piglets responded to LPS by an increase of shivering on day 12 and by increased vomiting on day 56 compared to controls. Further, there were considerable delays and reductions of time isolated piglets spent suckling on day 12. The repeated isolation stressor diminished TNF-alpha increases after LPS, whereas stress hormone levels were not significantly affected by isolation treatment. Finally, stronger relationships between signs of sickness and physiological measures were revealed in early isolated piglets. The duration of somnolence in isolated piglets was related to changes of cortisol and TNF-alpha concentrations, and the highest impact on duration of shivering was found for changes in cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin levels. The present results suggest a sustained adaptive sensitization of coping with infection by social stress experience during early development in piglets. PMID:16899245

  13. Exposures and physiological responses in power tool operations: fastening vs. unfastening threaded hardware.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Banks, Jacob J

    2010-05-01

    Powered hand tools have the potential to produce reaction forces that may be associated with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. This study examined and compared the kinetic and physiological impacts on operator upper extremities between the fastening and unfastening operations. Thirty-two healthy, right-handed male operators used four tools on two joint simulators at different working heights and distances in the laboratory. Three work configurations were simulated: pistol grip tools on a vertical and horizontal surface, and right angle tools on a horizontal surface. Grip force was measured on an instrumented handle attached to each tool. Muscle activity was monitored at the wrist flexor and extensor and the upper trapezius of the right arm. Paired comparisons showed that when pistol grip tools were used, the peak torque to unfasten a joint (3.7 Nm) was significantly less than to fasten the same joint (5.7 Nm). However, the exposure time was longer for unfastening cycles (98 ms more on the horizontal surface, and 107 ms more on the vertical surface). The average grip force scaled to corresponding peak tool torque revealed that the effort to react against torque was greater in unfastening cycles than in fastening cycles for all work configurations. It also showed that as a proximal stabilizer, the upper trapezius muscle had a greater activity in unfastening cycles. The kinetic and physiological responses demonstrated that unfastening fasteners, which has been neglected in the literature, have the potential to increase risk for musculoskeletal disorders and should be considered in ergonomics assessment in the workplace. PMID:20349388

  14. Effects of pretransport handling stress on physiological and behavioral response of ostriches.

    PubMed

    Bejaei, M; Cheng, K M

    2014-05-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production is a relatively young industry and there has been little research on ostrich welfare during pretransport handling and the transportation process. A heavy body with a high center of gravity makes ostriches' handling and transportation problems different from other livestock. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the pretransport holding time duration on ostrich behavior and physiological responses. A second objective was to identify and validate behavioral indicator(s) that could be used to identify stressed birds during pretransport handling. Prior to shipping, twenty-four 2.5-yr-old ostriches were moved into a holding pen. Birds were then individually restrained, hooded, and walked from the holding pen (approximately 12 min/bird) to a sampling pen (visually isolated from the holding pen) where they were weighed and a 10-mL blood sample obtained. A second blood sample was taken from each bird after a 1,100-km transportation. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of blood metabolites, enzymes, corticosterone, and white blood cell and differential counts. Behavioral responses and physical damages of ostriches were also recorded before and after transport. Results indicated that birds that spent longer time in the pretransport holding pen had higher pretransport plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sodium, and packed cell volume. Immobile sitting behavior, observed in 5 out of the last 11 birds handled, was positively correlated with higher pretransport handling stress, higher posttransport aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, and glucose concentrations, and transport losses. Knowledge of pretransport handling impacts on ostrich stress and availability of behavioral indicators (e.g., immobile sitting response) could be used to improve handing processes, thereby decreasing potential weight loss, injury, and

  15. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yinghui; Zhong, Min; Shu, Sheng; Du, Nanshan; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well-reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put) alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl, and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. Sixty-two differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%), protein metabolism (24.2%), carbohydrate metabolism (19.4%), and amino acid metabolism (14.5%). Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy. PMID:27471514

  16. Exogenous sodium sulfide improves morphological and physiological responses of a hybrid Populus species to nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanbo; Bellaloui, Nacer; Sun, Guangyu; Tigabu, Mulualem; Wang, Jinghong

    2014-06-15

    Gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can disturb normal plant growth and trigger complex physiological responses. NO2-induced responses are influenced by biotic or abiotic factors. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium sulfide (Na2S, 5mmolL(-1)) on epidermis and stomata related physico-chemical responses of hybrid poplar cuttings (Pouplus alba×P. berolinensis) to gaseous NO2 (4μl1(-1)) for three time periods (0, 14 and 48h). We also investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate reductase activity (NR) in control and Na2S treated plants. Our results showed that NO2 exposure for 48h led to the decline of NR, maximal PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and dark respiration rate (Rd). The maximum rate for the post-illumination carbon dioxide burst (PIB) occurred in 48-h exposed leaves 13-15s after darkening. Moreover, NO2 exposure resulted in a significant increase in nitrogen percentage (from 0 to 33%) and a decrease in the macro and micro-elements of leaf surface. Spraying Na2S aqueous solution on the leaf surfaces significantly increased the thicknesses of palisade/spongy tissue and H2S content. Na2S pretreatment alleviated NO2-caused toxic effects as indicated by increased NR and higher values of Pn, Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency in light (ФPSII) compared with the control. Na2S pretreatment had no significant impacts on PIB-based photorespiration or elements composition of a leaf surface. PMID:24635903

  17. Physiological Responses to On-Court vs Running Interval Training in Competitive Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Sanchez-Muñoz, Cristobal; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose Gonzalez; Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court) session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court). Eight well-trained, male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years) underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court) consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79), LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L-1; p = 0.14) and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50) responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running) interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players. Key points On-court interval training protocol can be used as an alternative to running interval training Technical/tactical training should be performed under conditions that replicate the physical and technical demands of a competitive match During the competitive season tennis on-court training might be preferred to off-court training PMID:24150630

  18. Physiological and proteomic analyses of salt stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juncheng; Meng, Yaxiong; Li, Baochun; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xianliang; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun; Wang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the adaptation mechanism of Chenopodiaceae Halogeton glomeratus, a succulent annual halophyte, under saline conditions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological adaptation mechanisms of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of NaCl treatment for 21 d. Our results revealed that H. glomeratus has a robust ability to tolerate salt; its optimal growth occurs under approximately 100 mm NaCl conditions. Salt crystals were deposited in water-storage tissue under saline conditions. We speculate that osmotic adjustment may be the primary mechanism of salt tolerance in H. glomeratus, which transports toxic ions such as sodium into specific salt-storage cells and compartmentalizes them in large vacuoles to maintain the water content of tissues and the succulence of the leaves. To investigate the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in H. glomeratus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves that had been exposed to 200 mm NaCl for 24 h, 72 h and 7 d. Forty-nine protein spots, exhibiting significant changes in abundance after stress, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and similarity searches across EST database of H. glomeratus. These stress-responsive proteins were categorized into nine functional groups, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and stress and defence response. PMID:25124288

  19. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yinghui; Zhong, Min; Shu, Sheng; Du, Nanshan; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well-reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put) alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl, and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. Sixty-two differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%), protein metabolism (24.2%), carbohydrate metabolism (19.4%), and amino acid metabolism (14.5%). Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy. PMID:27471514

  20. Physiological Responses during Cycling With Oval Chainrings (Q-Ring) and Circular Chainrings

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Alfredo; Latasa, Iban; Seco, Jesus; Villa, Gerardo; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses of cyclists using round (C-ring) or oval (Q-ring) chainrings during an incremental test until exhaustion. Following a randomized design, twelve male elite cyclists [age (mean ± SD): 21.1 ± 2.1 yr; VO2max: 78.1 ± 5.3 mL·kg-1min-1] performed two incremental maximal tests separated by 48 h (one with C-rings, the other with Q-rings). Starting at 100 W, the workload was increased by 25 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. Maximal heart rate, power output and oxygen consumption were compared. Blood lactate was monitored throughout the test. After the incremental test, 4 intermittent 20-s maximal sprints with a 60-s recovery period in between were performed. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions were performed at rest and immediately after each 20-s maximal sprint, and the force and EMG RMS amplitude were recorded from the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles. For the incremental exercise test, no significant differences were found in the maximal power output (P=0.12), oxygen consumption (P=0.39), and heart rate (P=0.32) between Q-rings and C-rings. Throughout the incremental test, lactate levels were comparable when using both the C-rings and Q-rings (P=0.47). During the short sprints, power output was 2.5–6.5% greater for Q-rings than for C-rings (P=0.22). The decline in EMG RMS amplitude observed during the incremental tests was comparable for Q-rings and C-rings (0.42). These findings indicate that the oval chainring design, presented here as “Q-rings”, did not significantly influence the physiological response to an incremental exercise test as compared to a conventional chainring. Key points During the incremental exercise test, no significant differences were found in power output, oxygen consumption or heart rate between oval “Q-rings” and conventional chainrings. Over the course of the incremental test, blood lactate levels were comparable for the oval

  1. Physiological Responses to Prolonged Drought Differ Among Three Oak (Quercus) Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. E.; Moore, G. W.; Vogel, J. G.; Muir, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response of plants to water stress provides insights into which species may survive in exceptional drought conditions. This study conducted on a remnant post oak savanna site in College Station, Texas, examined how drought affected the physiology of three native oak species. In June 2014, after a period of equal watering, we subjected three year old Quercus shumardii (Shumard oak; SO), Q. virginiana (live oak; LO), and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak; BO) saplings to one of two watering treatments: 1) watered, receiving the equivalent of theaverage precipitation rate and 2) droughted, receiving a 100% reduction in precipitation. We measured predawn (ΨPD) and midday (ΨMD) leaf water potential; midday gas exchange (MGE) parameters including photosynthesis (Al), transpiration (T), stomatal conductance (gsw); and leaf soluble (SS) and non-soluble sugar (NSS) concentrations monthly between June and October 2014. Drought stress responses were evident after only one month of induced drought. Droughted saplings showed reduced ΨPD, ΨMD, and MGE (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to watered saplings of the same species. LO saplings exhibited greater MGE (P ≤ 0.05) while maintaining similar LWP to their respective watered and droughted BO and SO counterparts. Droughted LO exhibited MGE rates similar to those of watered BO and SO (P ≤ 0.05), while watered LO adjusted its MGE rates to changes in water availability better than BO and LO during short-term drought. Compared to water saplings, droughted saplings had greater leaf SS (P = 0.08) and lower NSS concentrations (P = 0.10), possibly due to the conversion of NSS to SS and other simple compounds and reduced consumption of SS for growth by the droughted saplings. Although SO and BO exhibited similar photosynthesis rates, leaf total sugar (SS+NSS) concentration was greater in SO (P ≤ 0.05). By displaying the greatest average photosynthesis rate (P ≤ 0.05), LO should have accumulated the greatest amount of carbon

  2. Match activity and physiological responses during a junior female singles tennis tournament

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez‐Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez‐Villanueva, Alberto; Fernandez‐Garcia, Benjamin; Terrados, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess physiological load in conjunction with individual patterns of match‐play activity in junior female tennis players during actual singles tennis competition. Methods Eight elite junior female tennis players (n = 8; mean (SD) age, 17.3 (1.9) years) took part in a 2 day invitational tournament. Activity pattern analysis was performed during competitive matches. Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations were measured during selected changeovers breaks in play. Results The activity profile of junior female players were: rally duration, (mean (SD)) 8.2 (5.2) s; rest time between rallies, 17.7 (6.5) s; effective playing time, 21.9 (3.8)%; strokes per rally, 2.7 (1.7); changes of direction per rally, 2.3 (1.4). The mean (SD) heart rate and blood lactate concentration recorded during the matches were 161 (5) beats/min and 2.0 (0.8) mmol/litre. Heart rate and blood lactate concentration values were influenced by the characteristics of the match and mean (SD) heart rate was significantly higher (p = 0.004) during service games (166 (15.4) beats/min) than in return games (156 (19.6) beats/min), while blood lactate concentrations were not significantly different (p = 0.83) between service (2.3 (0.6) mmol/litre) and return games (2.3 (0.9) mmol/litre). We found a significant (p<0.05) positive relationship between rally duration, strokes per rally, changes of direction and blood lactate and heart rate responses, with stronger correlations when the players were serving. Conclusions The physiological (ie, blood lactate and heart rate) responses associated with match play were influenced by the characteristics of the match (rally duration, strokes per rally and changes of direction), with higher heart rate on service position. Training programs should reflect these demands placed on female players during competitive match play. PMID:17562743

  3. Physiological responses to incremental exercise in the heat following internal and external precooling.

    PubMed

    James, C A; Richardson, A J; Watt, P W; Gibson, O R; Maxwell, N S

    2015-06-01

    Twelve males completed three incremental, discontinuous treadmill tests in the heat [31.9(1.0) °C, 61.9(8.9)%] to determine speed at two fixed blood lactate concentrations (2 and 3.5 mmol/L), running economy (RE), and maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x ). Trials involved 20 min of either internal cooling (ICE, 7.5 g/kg ice slurry ingestion) or mixed-methods external cooling (EXT, cold towels, forearm immersion, ice vest, and cooling shorts), alongside no intervention (CON). Following precooling, participants ran 0.3 km/h faster at 2 mmol/L and 0.2 km/h faster at 3.5 mmol/L (P = 0.04, partial η(2)  = 0.27). Statistical differences were observed vs CON for ICE (P = 0.03, d = 0.15), but not EXT (P = 0.12, d = 0.15). There was no effect of cooling on RE (P = 0.81, partial η(2)  = 0.02), nor on V ˙ O 2 m a x (P = 0.69, partial η(2)  = 0.04). An effect for cooling on physiological strain index was observed (P < 0.01, partial η(2)  = 0.41), with differences vs CON for EXT (P = 0.02, d = 0.36), but not ICE (P = 0.06, d = 0.36). Precooling reduced thermal sensation (P < 0.01, partial η(2)  = 0.66) in both cooling groups (P < 0.01). Results indicate ICE and EXT provide similar physiological responses for exercise up to 30 min duration in the heat. Differing thermoregulatory responses are suggestive of specific event characteristics determining the choice of cooling. Precooling appears to reduce blood lactate accumulation and reduce thermoregulatory and perceptual strain during incremental exercise. PMID:25943670

  4. Physiological and metabolic responses of gestating Brahman cows to repeated transportation.

    PubMed

    Price, D M; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2015-02-01

    This study characterized physiological responses to repeated transportation (TRANS) of gestating cows of differing temperaments. Cows were classified as Calm (C; = 10), Intermediate (I; = 28), or Temperamental (T; = 10). Based on artificial insemination date and pregnancy confirmation, cows were TRANS for 2 h on d 60 (TRANS1), 80 (TRANS2), 100 (TRANS3), 120 (TRANS4), and 140 (TRANS5) ± 5 d of gestation. Indwelling vaginal temperature (VT) monitoring devices were inserted 24 h before each TRANS with VT recorded from 2 h before TRANS and averaged into 5-min intervals through 30 min after TRANS. Serum samples were collected before loading and on unloading from the trailer to determine concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis in SAS. Serum cortisol concentrations were affected by temperament ( < 0.001), with T cows having the greater concentrations of cortisol before each TRANS event. All cows (100%) regardless of temperament exhibited elevations in cortisol following each TRANS event. Peak VT was greater ( < 0.001) at TRANS1 relative to all other TRANS events regardless of cow temperament. During TRANS, the T cows tended ( < 0.09) to have greater peak VT (39.86 ± 0.15°C) compared to C (39.41 ± 0.16°C) and I cows (39.55 ± 0.08°C). Area under the VT curve decreased ( = 0.002) from TRANS1 through TRANS5. Pre-TRANS serum glucose concentration at TRANS1 was greater ( < 0.03) for T (68.13 ± 4.31mg/dL) compared to I (53.42 ± 2.78 mg/dL) and C cows (52.76 ± 4.60 mg/dL). The C and I cows had greater changes in NEFA concentration between pre- and post-transport, and T cows showed the least change ( < 0.001). Cow VT and serum glucose concentration decreased in all temperaments ( < 0.01) with repeated TRANS; however, serum NEFA concentration post-TRANS did not vary ( > 0.10) with repeated TRANS events. Serum glucose concentrations were affected ( < 0.02) by a TRANS event by temperament

  5. Physiological responses to a tap dance choreography: comparisons with graded exercise test and prescription recommendations.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sam