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Sample records for adverse rearing environments

  1. Diffractive optics in adverse environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrmann, Gregory P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation at the Army Research Laboratory is in progress to characterize DOE performance in mil-spec environments. One of the most significant environmental influences is temperature. An analysis of a diffractive lens is presented in which optical performance is described as a function of temperature. In particular, we review the thermal dependence of focal length and diffraction efficiency. It is shown that the change in these parameters is independent of lens shape and relates only to material properties. Thermalized hybrid refractive/diffractive designs are discussed.

  2. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E; Janczak, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  3. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  4. Stabilization of antibody fragments in adverse environments.

    PubMed

    Dooley, H; Grant, S D; Harris, W J; Porter, A J

    1998-08-01

    Antibody fragments have the potential to be used as sensitive and specific binding agents in a broad range of industrial applications. Genetic manipulation has been used to design a series of antibody fragment configurations with a flexible linker and/or a disulphide bond between the heavy chain and light chain of an antibody fragment against the herbicide atrazine. The thermostability and stability to a range of denaturants, polar and non-polar solvents, surfactants and proteases have been compared. It has been found that a novel antibody fragment construct (STAB: stabilized antibody) containing both a flexible linker and a disulphide bond can be effectively produced and shows greatly improved stability in these diverse environments. These STABs should be useful in environmental diagnostics and remediation, and may provide a generic approach for stabilizing antibody fragments in formulations containing detergents and penetrants for topical application in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  5. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates.

    PubMed

    Inman, C F; Haverson, K; Konstantinov, S R; Jones, P H; Harris, C; Smidt, H; Miller, B; Bailey, M; Stokes, C

    2010-06-01

    Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect the direction of immune responses in later life. There is a need for a manipulable animal model of environmental influences on the development of microbiota and the immune system during early life. We assessed the effects of rearing under low- (farm, sow) and high-hygiene (isolator, milk formula) conditions on intestinal microbiota and immune development in neonatal piglets, because they can be removed from the mother in the first 24 h for rearing under controlled conditions and, due to placental structure, neither antibody nor antigen is transferred in utero. Microbiota in both groups was similar between 2 and 5 days. However, by 12-28 days, piglets reared on the mother had more diverse flora than siblings reared in isolators. Dendritic cells accumulated in the intestinal mucosa in both groups, but more rapidly in isolator piglets. Importantly, the minority of 2-5-day-old farm piglets whose microbiota resembled that of an older (12-28-day-old) pig also accumulated dendritic cells earlier than the other farm-reared piglets. Consistent with dendritic cell control of T cell function, the effects on T cells occurred at later time-points, and mucosal T cells from high-hygiene, isolator pigs made less interleukin (IL)-4 while systemic T cells made more IL-2. Neonatal piglets may be a valuable model for studies of the effects of interaction between microbiota and immune development on allergy.

  6. Adverse environments: investigating local variation in child growth.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Tina; Galloway, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    Epigenetic and life history approaches to child growth are centered on the relationship between the organism and its environment. However, defining and operationalizing the concept of environment is challenging, in light of the multiple variables that influence growth. Moreover, the concept of adaptation as it applies to child growth is seldom considered in the developed country context. This paper presents a study of children living in three neighborhoods in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Two of the communities are considered adverse environments on the basis of low socioeconomic status, and their inner city, industrial location. In contrast to children living in the higher socioeconomic status area, children in these adverse environments display negative growth indicators, i.e., somewhat constrained linear growth in one and risk for overweight and obesity in both. Although both these inner city neighborhoods constitute adverse environments, they differ in ways that have a significant impact on children's growth. We argue for a definition of "adverse environment" that is broadly based, incorporating a range of physical, social, and temporal factors that are highly localized and sensitive to community-level influences on growth and health. As well, we consider whether higher prevalence of overweight and obesity is adaptive in any way to these adverse environments and conclude that they are more likely to be deleterious than adaptive in either the long or short term.

  7. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  8. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

  9. The influence of home-rearing environment on children's behavioral problems 3 years' later.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wencan; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Kumi; Tomisaki, Etuko; Watanabe, Taeko; Wu, Bailiang; Anme, Tokie

    2016-10-30

    Reduction of children's behavioral problems has the potential to ameliorate parental stress, mental health problems, and family dysfunction. The current study was designed as a 3-year longitudinal study with secondary data. A total of 99 caregivers with preschool aged children were required to complete two self-reported questionnaires: the Index of Child Care Environment and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. It demonstrated that a positive home-rearing environment had a positive influence on children's behavioral problem 3 years' later. Our study suggests that we may reduce behavioral problems in children's later development by providing a positive home rearing environment.

  10. Effect of Rearing Environment on the Feeding Pattern of under Two Years Old Nigerian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo Oyebola

    2011-01-01

    With economic pressures on families increasing, more women are working outside the home leaving their children in day care centres. In a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study, the feeding pattern in two groups of children under two years old, cared for in two different rearing environments: home environment and day care centres, was…

  11. Genetic Influences on Perceptions of Childhood Family Environment: A Reared Apart Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates the extent to which heredity influences perceptions of childhood family environment in a sample of 58 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic pairs of adult twins who were reared apart. The data confirm the importance of genetic factors in some, but not all, measures of family environment. Environmental influences were more important than genetic…

  12. Effect of rearing environment on bone growth of pullets1

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, P.; Deland, T. S.; Steibel, J. P.; Robison, C. I.; Haut, R. C.; Orth, M. W.; Karcher, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative housing systems for laying hens provide mechanical loading and help reduce bone loss. Moreover, achieving greater peak bone mass during pullet phase can be crucial to prevent fractures in the production period. The aim of this study was to determine the housing system effects on bone quality of pullets. Tibiae and humeri of White Leghorn pullets reared in conventional cages (CCs) and a cage-free aviary (AV) system were studied. At 16 wk, 120 birds at random from each housing system were euthanized. Right and left tibiae and humeri were collected and further analyzed. Cortical bone density and thickness were measured using computed tomography. Periosteal and endosteal dimensions were measured at the fracture site during mechanical testing. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk, serum concentrations of osteocalcin and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline were analyzed as markers of bone formation and resorption. Cortical bone density was higher (P < 0.05) in humeri of AV pullets, and tibiae were denser (P < 0.05) for AV pullets in the distal section of the bone compared to CC pullets. Ash content was higher (P < 0.05) in AV humeri with no difference in tibiae ash content. Tibiae and humeri of AV pullets had a thicker cortex than the CC pullets (P < 0.05). Additionally, the tibiae and humeri of AV pullets had greater (P < 0.05) second moment of areas than the CC pullets. While some bone material properties between groups were different (P < 0.05), the differences were so small (< 7%) that they likely have no clinical significance. Serum osteocalcin concentrations were not different between the treatments, but hydroxylsyl pyridinoline concentrations were higher in CC pullets at 12 wk compared to the AV pullets and the effect reversed at 16 wk (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that tibiae and humeri respond differently to load bearing activities during growth. The improved load bearing capability and stiffness in bones of AV pullets were related to increased cross

  13. Effects of rearing environment on the gut antimicrobial responses of two broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Butler, Vanessa L; Mowbray, Catherine A; Cadwell, Kevin; Niranji, Sherko S; Bailey, Richard; Watson, Kellie A; Ralph, John; Hall, Judith

    2016-10-01

    To reduce the risk of enteric disease in poultry, knowledge of how bird gut innate defences mature with age while also responding to different rearing environments is necessary. In this study the gut innate responses of two phylogenetically distinct lines of poultry raised from hatch to 35days, in conditions mimicing high hygiene (HH) and low hygiene (LH) rearing environments, were compared. Analyses focussed on the proximal gut antimicrobial activities and the duodenal and caecal AvBD1, 4 and 10 defensin profiles. Variability in microbial killing was observed between individual birds in each of the two lines at all ages, but samples from day 0 birds (hatch) of both lines exhibited marked killing properties, Line X: 19±11% (SEM) and Line Y: 8.5±12% (SEM). By day 7 a relaxation in killing was observed with bacterial survival increased from 3 (Line Y (LY)) to 11 (Line X (LX)) fold in birds reared in the HH environment. A less marked response was observed in the LH environment and delayed until day 14. At day 35 the gut antimicrobial properties of the two lines were comparable. The AvBD 1, 4 and 10 data relating to the duodenal and caecal tissues of day 0, 7 and 35 birds LX and LY birds revealed gene expression trends specific to each line and to the different rearing environments although the data were confounded by inter-individual variability. In summary elevated AvBD1 duodenal expression was detected in day 0 and day 7 LX, but not LY birds, maintained in LH environments; Line X and Y duodenal AvBD4 profiles were detected in day 7 birds reared in both environments although duodenal AvBD10 expression was less sensitive to bird age and rearing background. Caecal AvBD1 expression was particularly evident in newly hatched birds. These data suggest that proximal gut antimicrobial activity is related to the bird rearing environments although the roles of the AvBDs in such activities require further investigation. PMID:27496740

  14. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  15. Estuarine environments as rearing habitats for juvenile Coho Salmon in contrasting south-central Alaska watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    For Pacific salmon, estuaries are typically considered transitional staging areas between freshwater and marine environments, but their potential as rearing habitat has only recently been recognized. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were rearing in estuarine habitats, and (2) to characterize and compare the body length, age, condition, and duration and timing of estuarine occupancy of juvenile Coho Salmon between the two contrasting estuaries. We examined use of estuary habitats with analysis of microchemistry and microstructure of sagittal otoliths in two watersheds of south-central Alaska. Juvenile Coho Salmon were classified as estuary residents or nonresidents (recent estuary immigrants) based on otolith Sr : Ca ratios and counts of daily growth increments on otoliths. The estuaries differed in water source (glacial versus snowmelt hydrographs) and in relative estuarine and watershed area. Juvenile Coho Salmon with evidence of estuary rearing were greater in body length and condition than individuals lacking evidence of estuarine rearing. Coho Salmon captured in the glacial estuary had greater variability in body length and condition, and younger age-classes predominated the catch compared with the nearby snowmelt-fed, smaller estuary. Estuary-rearing fish in the glacial estuary arrived later and remained longer (39 versus 24 d of summer growth) during the summer than did fish using the snowmelt estuary. Finally, we observed definitive patterns of overwintering in estuarine and near shore environments in both estuaries. Evidence of estuary rearing and overwintering with differences in fish traits among contrasting estuary types refute the notion that estuaries function as only staging or transitional habitats in the early life history of Coho Salmon.

  16. Fiber optics in adverse environments III. SPIE volume 721

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwell, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON OPTICAL FIBER COMPONENTS. Space as an adverse environment: vacuum surface and gamma ray irradiation effects on LEDs and photodiodes. Electron irradiation of InGaAsP LEDs and InGaAs photodetectors. Effects of radiation on optoelectronic devices. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON OPTICAL FIBERS. Static fatigue of optical fibers in bending. Effect of hydrogen treatment on radiation hardness of optical fibers. AFB. Influence of preform variations and drawing conditions on transient radiation effects in pure silica fibers. Radiation resistivity of pure silica core fibers. Radiation-induced losses in pure silica core fibers. Radiation response prediction of single-mode optical fiber waveguides. Ionizing radiation effects on doped silica and pure silica core fibers. MEASUREMENTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OPTICAL FIBER COMPONENTS. Optical fiber radiation-damage measurements. Characterization of 820-nm single-mode fibers. Effects of test parameters on the recovery of Febetron-irradiated optical fibers. APPLICATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTS. Optical fiber waveguides for spacecraft applications. Optical fiber power delivery system. Fiber optic cables in a harsh ocean environment. Lightguide technology for adverse industrial environment. Low dispersion glass for optical fiber industrial applications. Electronic Materials Technology.

  17. [Child-rearing environment and fertility in contemporary Japan].

    PubMed

    Hirosima, K

    1981-04-01

    The net reproduction rate in Japan has been below replacement level since 1974 and has continued to decrease. As for this decline in fertility, it is due to the rise in marriage age and the decrease in marital fertility rates. This study focuses on the latter and attempts to clarify some traits of childbearing behavior which are responsible for the low fertility. The author regards childbearing behavior as a part of childrearing behavior and explains childbearing behavior by childrearing environment which surrounds the couple's childrearing behavior and consciousness. Childrearing environment is composed of family formation in the household, the labor force status of the mother, housing conditions, nursery facilities, and the physical environment in the community; these components are closely correlated with one another. Thus the relation is very complex between fertility and childrearing environment. According to this assumption, we studied the data obtained from the 1978 survey which examined 2375 mothers with preschool children. There were great differences in the degree of mother's participation in the labor force (ratio of women with job, continuity of work, length of work time/day) by the status of cohabitation with parents of the couples. There was a large ratio of women who did not live with their parents and who wanted to work outside the home if they could afford nursery facilites. It is clear that the desire for work in women of reproductive age is very strong and that differences in the labor force participation rate between the status of cohabitation with parents is brought about by the insufficiency in childcare as it supports women working. There is in fact, a stratum of women who had a strong work orientation and who had chosen to live with their parents in order to solve their childcare problems. As to the relationship to fertility, we could only find small differences in fertility in connection with family formation in the household (0.14 after 10

  18. Relation of rearing environment to adaptive behavior of Egyptian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wachs, T D; Bishry, Z; Sobhy, A; McCabe, G; Galal, O; Shaheen, F

    1993-04-01

    2 questions were explored: (1) Do observed relations found in Western cultures between specific psychosocial environmental factors and toddlers adaptive behavior resemble the pattern of relations found in a non-Western setting? (2) Does the specificity of relations between environment and performance found in Western cultures also operate in a non-Western culture? Subjects were 153 Egyptian toddlers, 18-30 months of age, and their caregivers. Twice a month between 18 and 30 months toddlers were observed in naturalistic interactions with their caregivers, and measures of caregiver behavior and toddler functioning were coded. Replicating previous results from Western cultures, canonical analysis indicated that caregiver vocal stimulation was positively related to indices of toddler behavioral competence, while nonverbal response to vocalization and physical contact stimulation were negatively related. The salience of sib caregivers was also noted. Particularly for the age period between 24 and 29 months, results indicated specificity of environmental action such that measures of caregiver vocal stimulation were uniquely related to measures of toddler vocalization, while caregiver response to distress was uniquely related to toddler emotionality. The present pattern of results suggests at least some degree of cross-cultural generalizability of environment-development relations and of the specificity model of environmental action. PMID:8477636

  19. Behavior, reproduction, and immunity of crated pregnant gilts: effects of high dietary fiber and rearing environment.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Fullwood, S D

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts' behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P < 0.05) effects of gestation stage x diet x environment. Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P < 0.05) frequency and duration of drinking behavior than indoor-reared gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P < 0.05) for gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P > 0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts' immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune

  20. Cholinergic system, rearing environment and trajectory learning during aging in mice.

    PubMed

    Thouvarecq, R; Caston, J; Protais, P

    2007-01-30

    Three, 12- and 20-month-old C57BL6/J mice, reared in standard conditions or in enriched environments, were administered subcutaneously either scopolamine hydrobromide, 0.6 or 1.2 mg kg(-1), or physiological saline (control mice) 15 min before testing their abilities to find an invisible platform in a modified version of the Morris water maze, the starting point being kept unchanged throughout the experiment to allow the aged animals to solve the task. The results demonstrated that: 1) All control mice, whatever their age, were able to learn the platform location, but the number of trials needed to reach the learning criterion (3 consecutive trials in less than 8 s) increased with age; 2) All the scopolamine-treated mice, whatever their age, were also able to learn the platform location. However, compared to age-matched controls, the number of trials needed to reach the learning criterion was greater; 3) Rearing the animals in an enriched environment antagonized the effect of scopolamine, but only in the youngest (3 month-old) mice. All control and scopolamine-treated mice, whatever their age and their rearing environment, remembered, 7 days later, the platform location.

  1. Inhibition of fish pathogens by the microbiota from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Nahuelquín, Yanina; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the isolation and taxonomic identification of the cultivable total microbiota (TM) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment from selected stages of the life-cycle, and the evaluation of the LAB antimicrobial activity against the main fish pathogens. TM and LAB isolates were randomly selected and identified by 16S rRNA and/or superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Although a great diversity in the TM was observed, Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae were clearly prevalent, while the genus Lactococcus was the predominant LAB. From a total of 1620 randomly selected LAB, 1159 isolates (71.5%) showed antimicrobial activity. From these, 248 isolates (21.4%) selected for their activity against, at least, four fish pathogens, were taxonomically identified, being Lactococcus lactis the most common species (164 isolates, 66.1%). Interestingly, 88 isolates (35.5%), including 55 L. lactis isolates, exerted activity against four strains of the rainbow trout pathogen Lactococcus garvieae. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout and rearing environment are potential sources for the isolation of LAB, mainly lactococci, active against L. garvieae and other fish pathogens. Moreover, this is the first study describing the cultivable TM and LAB from rainbow trout intestine and rearing environment along the fish life-cycle. The host-derived LAB active against fish pathogens comprise potential candidates as probiotics in rainbow trout farming as an alternative or complementary strategy to antibiotics and vaccines for disease prevention.

  2. Inhibition of fish pathogens by the microbiota from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Nahuelquín, Yanina; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the isolation and taxonomic identification of the cultivable total microbiota (TM) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment from selected stages of the life-cycle, and the evaluation of the LAB antimicrobial activity against the main fish pathogens. TM and LAB isolates were randomly selected and identified by 16S rRNA and/or superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Although a great diversity in the TM was observed, Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae were clearly prevalent, while the genus Lactococcus was the predominant LAB. From a total of 1620 randomly selected LAB, 1159 isolates (71.5%) showed antimicrobial activity. From these, 248 isolates (21.4%) selected for their activity against, at least, four fish pathogens, were taxonomically identified, being Lactococcus lactis the most common species (164 isolates, 66.1%). Interestingly, 88 isolates (35.5%), including 55 L. lactis isolates, exerted activity against four strains of the rainbow trout pathogen Lactococcus garvieae. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout and rearing environment are potential sources for the isolation of LAB, mainly lactococci, active against L. garvieae and other fish pathogens. Moreover, this is the first study describing the cultivable TM and LAB from rainbow trout intestine and rearing environment along the fish life-cycle. The host-derived LAB active against fish pathogens comprise potential candidates as probiotics in rainbow trout farming as an alternative or complementary strategy to antibiotics and vaccines for disease prevention. PMID:25464142

  3. Is socioeconomic status of the rearing environment causally related to obesity in the offspring?

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Kevin R; Robertson, Henry T; Holst, Claus; Desmond, Renee; Stunkard, Albert J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Allison, David B

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to elucidate whether there might be a causal connection between the socioeconomic status (SES) of the rearing environment and obesity in the offspring using data from two large-scale adoption studies: (1) The Copenhagen Adoption Study of Obesity (CASO), and (2) The Survey of Holt Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT). In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children could be either biological or adopted. After controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., adoptee age at measurement, adoptee age at transfer, adoptee sex) the raw (unstandardized) regression coefficients for adoptive and biological paternal SES on adoptee body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) in CASO were -.22 and -.23, respectively, both statistically significant (p = 0.01). Controlling for parental BMI (both adoptive and biological) reduced the coefficient for biological paternal SES by 44% (p = .034) and the coefficient for adoptive paternal SES by 1%. For HOLT, the regression coefficients for rearing parent SES were -.42 and -.25 for biological and adoptive children, respectively. Controlling for the average BMI of the rearing father and mother (i.e., mid-parental BMI) reduced the SES coefficient by 47% in their biological offspring (p≤.0001), and by 12% in their adoptive offspring (p = .09). Thus, despite the differing structures of the two adoption studies, both suggest that shared genetic diathesis and direct environmental transmission contribute about equally to the association between rearing SES and offspring BMI. PMID:22110724

  4. Environmental variability in the early rearing environment generates behaviourally flexible cod: implications for rehabilitating wild populations.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Victoria A; Salvanes, Anne G V

    2005-06-01

    The release of hatchery-reared fishes for restoring threatened and endangered populations is one of the most controversial issues in applied ecology. A central issue has been to determine whether releases cause extinction of local wild populations. This may arise either through domesticated or non-local fishes hybridizing with wild fishes, or through inappropriate behavioural interactions; for example, many hatchery fishes show exaggerated aggressive and competitive behaviour and out-compete wild counterparts. The impact of the impoverished hatchery environment in shaping behaviour is only now receiving attention. Attempts to counteract hatchery-related behavioural deficiencies have utilized intensive training programmes shortly before the fishes are released. However, we show here that simple exposure to variable spatial and foraging cues in the standard hatchery environment generates fishes with enhanced behavioural traits that are probably associated with improved survival in the wild. It appears that fishes need to experience a varying and changeable environment to learn and develop flexible behaviour. Using variable hatchery rearing environments to generate suitable phenotypes in combination with a knowledge of appropriate local genotypes, rehabilitation of wild fishes is likely to succeed, where to date it has largely failed.

  5. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  6. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  7. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed. PMID:3572740

  8. Coding strategies for cochlear implants under adverse environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmina, Qudsia

    Cochlear implants are electronic prosthetic devices that restores partial hearing in patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Although most coding strategies have significantly improved the perception of speech in quite listening conditions, there remains limitations on speech perception under adverse environments such as in background noise, reverberation and band-limited channels, and we propose strategies that improve the intelligibility of speech transmitted over the telephone networks, reverberated speech and speech in the presence of background noise. For telephone processed speech, we propose to examine the effects of adding low-frequency and high- frequency information to the band-limited telephone speech. Four listening conditions were designed to simulate the receiving frequency characteristics of telephone handsets. Results indicated improvement in cochlear implant and bimodal listening when telephone speech was augmented with high frequency information and therefore this study provides support for design of algorithms to extend the bandwidth towards higher frequencies. The results also indicated added benefit from hearing aids for bimodal listeners in all four types of listening conditions. Speech understanding in acoustically reverberant environments is always a difficult task for hearing impaired listeners. Reverberated sounds consists of direct sound, early reflections and late reflections. Late reflections are known to be detrimental to speech intelligibility. In this study, we propose a reverberation suppression strategy based on spectral subtraction to suppress the reverberant energies from late reflections. Results from listening tests for two reverberant conditions (RT60 = 0.3s and 1.0s) indicated significant improvement when stimuli was processed with SS strategy. The proposed strategy operates with little to no prior information on the signal and the room characteristics and therefore, can potentially be implemented in real-time CI

  9. The role of socio-communicative rearing environments in the development of social and physical cognition in apes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jamie L; Lyn, Heidi; Schaeffer, Jennifer A; Hopkins, William D

    2011-11-01

    The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5-year-old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on measures of physical cognition support this claim (Herrmann et al., 2007). However, the previous study failed to control for rearing when comparing these two species. Specifically, the human children were raised in a human culture whereas the apes were raised in standard sanctuary settings. To further explore the CIH, here we compared the performance on multiple measures of social and physical cognition in a group of standard reared apes raised in conditions typical of zoo and biomedical laboratory settings to that of apes reared in an enculturated socio-communicatively rich environment. Overall, the enculturated apes significantly outperformed their standard reared counterparts on the cognitive tasks and this was particularly true for measures of communication. Furthermore, the performance of the enculturated apes was very similar to previously reported data from 2.5-year-old children. We conclude that apes who are reared in a human-like socio-communicatively rich environment develop superior communicative abilities compared to apes reared in standard laboratory settings, which supports some assumptions of the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

  10. The impact of rearing environment on the development of gut microbiota in tilapia larvae

    PubMed Central

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; Heilig, Hans; Benvenuti, Giulia; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effect of rearing environment on water bacterial communities (BC) and the association with those present in the gut of Nile tilapia larvae (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus) grown in either recirculating or active suspension systems. 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments was applied to characterize the composition of water, feed and gut bacteria communities. Observed changes in water BC over time and differences in water BCs between systems were highly correlated with corresponding water physico-chemical properties. Differences in gut bacterial communities during larval development were correlated with differences in water communities between systems. The correlation of feed BC with those in the gut was minor compared to that between gut and water, reflected by the fact that 4 to 43 times more OTUs were shared between water and gut than between gut and feed BC. Shared OTUs between water and gut suggest a successful transfer of microorganisms from water into the gut, and give insight about the niche and ecological adaptability of water microorganisms inside the gut. These findings suggest that steering of gut microbial communities could be possible through water microbial management derived by the design and functionality of the rearing system. PMID:26658351

  11. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  12. Impaired extinction of fear conditioning after REM deprivation is magnified by rearing in an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Amy Silvestri

    2015-07-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is essential for the acquisition and retention of information, particularly of an emotional nature. Learning and memory can also be impacted by manipulation of housing condition such as exposure to an enriched environment (EE). This study investigated the effects of REM deprivation and EE, both separately and combined, on the extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Consistent with prior studies, conditioning was enhanced in EE-reared rats and extinction was impaired in REM deprived rats. In addition, rats exposed to both REM deprivation and EE showed the greatest impairment in extinction, with effects persisting through the first two days of extinction training. This study is the first to explore the combination of REM deprivation and EE and suggests that manipulations that alter sleep, particularly REM, can have persisting deleterious effects on emotional memory processing.

  13. Genetic and environmental mediation between measures of personality and family environment in twins reared together.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Kämpfe, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the etiology of the relationship between personality traits and retrospectively recalled family environment. The data of 226 identical and 168 fraternal twin pairs reared together from the Jena twin study of social attitudes were available. Personality traits were measured using the self- and peer report versions of the German NEO-personality inventory-revised. A German version of Blocks Environmental Questionnaire was applied to measure two broad dimensions of the family environment retrospectively: support and organization. We could replicate earlier findings that retrospective reports of these family environment dimensions were in part genetically influenced. A total of 66% of the genetic variance in support and 24% in organization could be accounted for by heritable variance in self-rated personality. That was replicated by using peer reports of personality, 41% explained genetic variance in support and 17% in organization. Environmental mediations were negligible. This indicates that the relationship between personality and retrospectively recalled family environment is largely genetically mediated.

  14. The effects of rearing environment and chronic methylphenidate administration on behavior and dopamine receptors in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kathryn E; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Smith, Hilary R; Porrino, Linda J

    2013-08-21

    Rearing young rodents in socially isolated or environmentally enriched conditions has been shown to affect numerous components of the dopamine system as well as behavior. Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used dopaminergic agent, may affect animals differently based on rearing environment. Here we examined the interaction between environment and chronic MPH treatment at clinically relevant doses, administered via osmotic minipump. Young Sprague Dawley rats (PND 21) were assigned to environmentally enriched, pair-housed, or socially isolated rearing conditions, and treated with either 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg/day MPH for 3 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, animals were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. The densities of D1-like and D2-like receptors were measured in the striatum using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were increased in isolated animals compared to pair-housed and enriched animals. The density of D1-like receptors was greater in isolated animals, but there were no differences between groups in D2-like receptor density. Finally, there were no effects of MPH administration on any reported measure. This study provides evidence for an effect of early rearing environment on the dopamine system and behavior, and also suggests that MPH administration may not have long-term consequences.

  15. Plasticity of the worker bumblebee brain in relation to age and rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Beryl M; Leonard, Anne S; Papaj, Daniel R; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2013-01-01

    The environment experienced during development can dramatically affect the brain, with possible implications for sensory processing, learning, and memory. Although the effects of single sensory modalities on brain development have been repeatedly explored, the additive or interactive effects of multiple modalities have been less thoroughly investigated. We asked how experience with multisensory stimuli affected brain development in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens. First, to establish the timeline of brain development during early adulthood, we estimated regional brain volumes across a range of ages. We discovered significant age-related volume changes in nearly every region of the brain. Next, to determine whether these changes were dependent upon certain environmental stimuli, we manipulated the visual and olfactory stimuli available to newly emerged bumblebee workers in a factorial manner. Newly emerged bumblebees were maintained in the presence or absence of supplemental visual and/or olfactory stimuli for 7 days, after which the volumes of several brain regions were estimated. We found that the volumes of the mushroom body lobes and calyces were larger in the absence of visual stimuli. Additionally, visual deprivation was associated with the expression of larger antennal lobes, the primary olfactory processing regions of the brain. In contrast, exposure to plant-derived olfactory stimuli did not have a significant effect on brain region volumes. This study is the first to explore the separate and interactive effects of visual and olfactory stimuli on bee brain development. Assessing the timing and sensitivity of brain development is a first step toward understanding how different rearing environments differentially affect regional brain volumes in this species. Our findings suggest that environmental factors experienced during the first week of adulthood can modify bumblebee brain development in many subtle ways. PMID:24281415

  16. Artificial rearing.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Hector D; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts development, leading to a range of effects referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASDs include physical, central nervous system, and behavioral alterations. Animal model systems are used to study the relationship between alcohol-related central nervous system damage and behavioral alterations, risk factors for FASD, mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage, as well as treatments and interventions. When using a rodent model, it is important to recognize that the timing of brain development relative to birth differs between humans and rodents. Thus, to model alcohol exposure during the third trimester equivalent, rats must be exposed during early postnatal development (postnatal days 4-9). Artificial rearing is one experimental paradigm that is used to expose neonatal rats to alcohol during this period of brain development. Neonatal rat pups are housed in an artificial rearing environment and automatically fed a milk diet substitute via an intragastric cannula to ensure adequate growth during the treatment period. Alcohol is delivered in the milk diet. This chapter provides a description of the methods needed for this administrative technique, including preparation of the artificial rearing environment, gastrostomy surgery, and care of artificially reared rat pups.

  17. Early Adverse Environments and Genetic Influences on Age at First Sex: Evidence for Gene × Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marie D.; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Youth who experience adverse environments in early life initiate sexual activity at a younger age, on average, than those from more advantaged circumstances. Evolutionary theorists have posited that ecological stress precipitates earlier reproductive and sexual onset, but it is unclear how stressful environments interact with genetic influences on…

  18. Gene expression changes in the olfactory bulb of mice induced by exposure to diesel exhaust are dependent on animal rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Satoshi; Hori, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Masakazu; Kubota, Natsuko; Niki, Rikio; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

    2013-01-01

    There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m(3), 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust.

  19. Growing-finishing performance and carcass yield of pigs reared in a climate-controlled and uncontrolled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berton, Mariana Piatto; de Cássia Dourado, Rita; de Lima, Flávia Biondi Fernandes; Rodrigues, Ana Beatriz Bertoncello; Ferrari, Fábio Borba; do Carmo Vieira, Leonardo Dimas; de Souza, Pedro Alves; Borba, Hirasilva

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature on the performance and carcass yield of pigs housed in different environments. Twenty castrated male pigs of the Topigs line were assigned to two treatments: T1, controlled environment, and T2, uncontrolled environment containing a shallow pool. A completely randomized design consisting of two treatments and ten repetitions each was used. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Tukey test at a level of significance of 5 % using the SAS 9.2 program (SAS Institute, Inc., NC, USA). The results showed that rearing pigs in an uncontrolled environment during the growing and finishing phases reduced daily feed intake (1.722 and 3.164 kg, respectively) and improved feed conversion (2.15 and 2.70 kg, respectively), but did not influence the carcass yield of the animals. In conclusion, rearing pigs under different environmental conditions during the growing and finishing phases influenced animal performance without interfering with carcass yield.

  20. Life history of Milnesium tardigradum Doyère (tardigrada) under a rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi C

    2003-01-01

    A strain of carnivorous tardigrade, Milnesium tardigradum, was reared in water on agar plates at 25 degrees C. The monogonont rotifer Lecane inermis was presented as a food source. This rearing system permitted detailed observation of tardigrade behaviour. Daily measurements of body length allowed the growth rate and moulting cycle of this species to be determined. The life history of M. tardigradum raised under these conditions included up to seven periods of moult. The first and second moults occurred at intervals of 4-5 days, and individuals reached reproductive maturity at the 3rd-instar stage; the first period of egg laying accompanied the third moult. The most rapidly developing animal in the study population laid eggs 12 days after hatching. The egg-laying intervals or moulting intervals of adult animals were around 6-10 days. The mean clutch size was 6.9 eggs. All tardigrades in this laboratory population were female and reproduced by parthenogenesis. The duration of the embryonic stage ranged from 5-16 days. The most long-lived female survived for 58 days after hatching, and laid a total of 41 eggs in 5 separate clutches. The entire life cycle of tardigrades reared under these conditions was recorded and photographed. A brief description of the embryonic development of M. tardigradum was also reported.

  1. Nature and nurture predispose to violent behavior: serotonergic genes and adverse childhood environment.

    PubMed

    Reif, Andreas; Rösler, Michael; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Marc; Eujen, Andrea; Kissling, Christian; Wenzler, Denise; Jacob, Christian P; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Thome, Johannes; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Retz, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    Aggressive behavior is influenced by variation in genes of the serotonergic circuitry and early-life experience alike. The present study aimed at investigating the contribution of polymorphisms shown to moderate transcription of two genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (serotonin transporter, 5HTT, and monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) to the development of violence and to test for gene-environment interactions relating to adverse childhood environment. A cohort of 184 adult male volunteers referred for forensic assessment participated in the study. Each individual was assigned to either a violent or a nonviolent group. Logistic regression was performed and the best-fitting model, with a predictive power of 74%, revealed independent effects of adverse childhood environment and MAOA genotype. High environmental adversity during childhood was associated significantly with violent behavior. Forty-five percent of violent, but only 30% of nonviolent individuals carried the low-activity, short MAOA allele. Most interestingly, an interaction effect between childhood environment and 5HTT genotype on violent behavior was found in that high adversity during childhood impacted only the later-life violence if the short promoter alleles were present. These findings indicate complex interactions between genetic variation of the serotonergic circuitry and environmental factors arguing against simplistic, mono-causal explanations of violent behavior.

  2. The long-term impact of adverse caregiving environments on epigenetic modifications and telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate that environmentally-driven epigenetic modifications may be an important mediator between adverse caregiving environments and psychopathology. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which normally represses gene transcription, and microRNA processing, which interferes with both transcription and translation, show long-term changes throughout the brain and body following adverse caregiving. Recent evidence has also shown that telomeres (TTAGGG nucleotide repeats that cap the ends of DNA) exhibit long-term changes in the brain and in the periphery following exposure to adverse caregiving environments. Interestingly, telomeric enzymes and subtelomeric regions are subject to epigenetic modifications—a factor which may play an important role in regulating telomere length and contribute to future mental health. This review will focus on clinical and animal studies that highlight the long-term epigenetic and telomeric changes produced by adverse caregiving in early-life. PMID:25904853

  3. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  4. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were <28%, whereas those from seawater showed large fluctuations in resistance to each of the tested antibiotics. Many strains showed higher resistant rates (>40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. PMID:26494250

  5. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were <28%, whereas those from seawater showed large fluctuations in resistance to each of the tested antibiotics. Many strains showed higher resistant rates (>40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG.

  6. Variation in freshwater growth and development among five New England Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations reared in a common environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obedzinski, M.; Letcher, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    We examined phenotypic variation in growth and development from the eyed-egg stage to the age-1+ smolt stage among five New England populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: East Machias, Narraguagus, Sheepscot, Penobscot, Connecticut) reared in a common laboratory environment. Study populations originated from rivers varying in size, latitude, and level of hatchery supplementation and included one reintroduced population (Connecticut was a recipient of Penobscot origin stock). Phenotypic trait differences were found among populations, and the degree of stock variation depended on ontogeny. Eggs were smaller and hatched sooner in the Penobscot (a northern, intensively managed population), but no stock differences were detected in size or growth efficiency from the onset of exogenous feeding to age 0+ summer. Differences again emerged in age 0+ autumn, with the degree of bimodality in length-frequency distributions differing among stocks; the Connecticut had the highest proportion of upper-mode fish and, ultimately, age-1+ smolts. Although genetic effects could not be entirely separated from maternal effects for egg size variation, it is likely that differences in hatch timing and smolt age had a genetic basis. Early emphasis on age-1+ hatchery-reared smolts in the Connecticut may have led to divergence in smolt age between the Penobscot and Connecticut populations in less than eight generations. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  7. Cognitive adaptations to stressful environments: When childhood adversity enhances adult executive function.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Sung, Sooyeon; Young, Ethan S

    2015-10-01

    Can growing up in a stressful childhood environment enhance certain cognitive functions? Drawing participants from higher-income and lower-income backgrounds, we tested how adults who grew up in harsh or unpredictable environments fared on 2 types of executive function tasks: inhibition and shifting. People who experienced unpredictable childhoods performed worse at inhibition (overriding dominant responses), but performed better at shifting (efficiently switching between different tasks). This finding is consistent with the notion that shifting, but not inhibition, is especially useful in unpredictable environments. Importantly, differences in executive function between people who experienced unpredictable versus predictable childhoods emerged only when they were tested in uncertain contexts. This catalyst suggests that some individual differences related to early life experience are manifested under conditions of uncertainty in adulthood. Viewed as a whole, these findings indicate that adverse childhood environments do not universally impair mental functioning, but can actually enhance specific types of cognitive performance in the face of uncertainty. PMID:26414842

  8. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important…

  9. Prolonged Institutional Rearing Is Associated with Atypically Large Amygdala Volume and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Millner, Alexander; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter J.; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are…

  10. Growth performance, body lipid, brood amount, and rearing environment response to supplemental neutral phytase in zebrafish (Danio rerio) diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liwei; Su, Jianmei; Liang, Xu-Fang; Luo, Yuliang

    2013-09-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of neutral phytase supplementation on growth performance, survival ratio (SR), body lipid, brood amount, and rearing environment in zebrafish. The control diet was not supplemented phytase, and three levels of phytase (500, 1000, or 1500 U kg(-1)) was added to the three other diets (named as PP500, PP1000, and PP1500). Triplicate groups (twelve 100-L tanks) of zebrafish (initial mean weight, 0.284±0.012 g) were fed twice daily (08:00 and 16:00 h) to satiation for 12 weeks. The results showed that supplemental phytase in the diet improved weight gain (60.49%, 86.63%, 99.06%, and 111.88% in control, PP500, PP1000, and PP1500) and the specific growth ratio of zebrafish (p<0.05). Dietary phytase addition increased the whole body lipid content of zebrafish. The brood amounts (116, 123, and 124 eggs in PP500, PP1000, and PP1500) of fish fed with phytase-supplemented diets were little higher than the control (mean egg was 112). The ammonia-nitrogen concentration in water of fish fed with phytase-supplemented diet was significantly lower than the control. The nitrite concentration in water was also decreased in water of fish fed with phytase-supplemented diet. The SR was increased with the increasing of dietary phytase despite no significant difference was observed among each group. The present study first suggested that neutral phytase could be applied in the zebrafish diet. Furthermore, phytase addition increased the growth, body lipid, brood amount, and SR of zebrafish, and meanwhile decreased the ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite concentrations in rearing water.

  11. Development of a Virtual Learning Environment addressing adverse events in nursing.

    PubMed

    Xelegati, Rosicler; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez

    2011-01-01

    The authors have developed a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) addressing the management of adverse events to promote continuing education for nurses, including the following themes: pressure ulcer, medication errors, phlebitis, fall, and loss of nasogastroenteral probes. The pedagogical framework was grounded on the information processing theory and this applied study used the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) model to develop the program. The environment was developed with HTML language through Microsoft Office Word 2003®. The authors developed evaluation exercises in each module through the Hot Potatoes program, version 6.0 for Windows. The conclusion is that the methodology utilized was appropriate for achieving the proposed objectives. In the future, the authors will assess the developed product and verify the possibility of using it in nursing services. PMID:22030583

  12. Rearing the Sad or Mad: Differentiating the Family Environments of Depressed versus Conduct Disordered Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Jeremy D.; Beyers, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The following review examines the current literature on parental depression and its characteristic family environment and parenting styles that may be related to the development of Conduct Disorder (CD) or depression in children. A description of the depressed parent and the general effects of depression on parenting and discipline practices are…

  13. Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Bryan D; Kelman, Bruce J; Saxon, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    Molds are common and important allergens. About 5% of individuals are predicted to have some allergic airway symptoms from molds over their lifetime. However, it should be remembered that molds are not dominant allergens and that the outdoor molds, rather than indoor ones, are the most important. For almost all allergic individuals, the reactions will be limited to rhinitis or asthma; sinusitis may occur secondarily due to obstruction. Rarely do sensitized individuals develop uncommon conditions such as ABPA or AFS. To reduce the risk of developing or exacerbating allergies, mold should not be allowed to grow unchecked indoors. When mold colonization is discovered in the home, school, or office, it should be remediated after the source of the moisture that supports its growth is identified and eliminated. Authoritative guidelines for mold remediation are available. Fungi are rarely significant pathogens for humans. Superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails are relatively common in normal individuals, but those infections are readily treated and generally resolve without complication. Fungal infections of deeper tissues are rare and in general are limited to persons with severely impaired immune systems. The leading pathogenic fungi for persons with nonimpaired immune function, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma, may find their way indoors with outdoor air but normally do not grow or propagate indoors. Due to the ubiquity of fungi in the environment, it is not possible to prevent immunecompromised individuals from being exposed to molds and fungi outside the confines of hospital isolation units. Some molds that propagate indoors may under some conditions produce mycotoxins that can adversely affect living cells and organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Adverse effects of molds and mycotoxins have been recognized for centuries following ingestion of contaminated foods. Occupational diseases are also recognized in association with

  14. Evaluation of Enterococcus spp. from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed, and rearing environment against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics constitutes an alternative strategy to the antibiotic treatment for disease control in aquaculture. Enterococci are currently used as probiotics in human and animal health. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 64 enterococci isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed and rearing environment, and their antimicrobial activity against 9 fish pathogens. The 64 enterococcal isolates were identified to the species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using specific primers for the different enterococcal species, and confirmed by superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Enterococcus faecium and E. hirae were the most common species (42.2 and 35.9%, respectively). A total of 48 isolates (75%) showed phenotypic resistance to at least 1 antibiotic determined by a disk-diffusion method, and 25 isolates (39.1%) harbored at least 1 antibiotic resistance gene [erm(B), tet(M), tet(S), tet(K), tet(L), tet(T), vanC2, and aad(E)], detected by PCR. One (1.6%) isolate produced gelatinase and none produced hemolysin, using a plate assay. The virulence genes gelE (46.9%), efaAfs (17.2%), agg (1.6%), and hyl (1.6%) were detected by PCR. A total of 48 isolates (75%) exerted antimicrobial activity against 1 or more of the tested fish pathogens, using a stab-on-agar test. From these isolates, 21 (43.8%) harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene (entP, entL50A and entL50B, hirJM79, entSE-K4, entQ and entA), detected by PCR. None of the enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities. A total of 17 enterococcal isolates (26.6%) that did not harbor any antibiotic resistance or virulence factor were considered safe for application as probiotics, including 6 isolates (35.3%) that showed antimicrobial activity against at least 1 fish pathogen and harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene. Rainbow trout, feed, and rearing environment constitute an appropriate source for the

  15. Evaluation of Enterococcus spp. from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed, and rearing environment against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics constitutes an alternative strategy to the antibiotic treatment for disease control in aquaculture. Enterococci are currently used as probiotics in human and animal health. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 64 enterococci isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed and rearing environment, and their antimicrobial activity against 9 fish pathogens. The 64 enterococcal isolates were identified to the species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using specific primers for the different enterococcal species, and confirmed by superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Enterococcus faecium and E. hirae were the most common species (42.2 and 35.9%, respectively). A total of 48 isolates (75%) showed phenotypic resistance to at least 1 antibiotic determined by a disk-diffusion method, and 25 isolates (39.1%) harbored at least 1 antibiotic resistance gene [erm(B), tet(M), tet(S), tet(K), tet(L), tet(T), vanC2, and aad(E)], detected by PCR. One (1.6%) isolate produced gelatinase and none produced hemolysin, using a plate assay. The virulence genes gelE (46.9%), efaAfs (17.2%), agg (1.6%), and hyl (1.6%) were detected by PCR. A total of 48 isolates (75%) exerted antimicrobial activity against 1 or more of the tested fish pathogens, using a stab-on-agar test. From these isolates, 21 (43.8%) harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene (entP, entL50A and entL50B, hirJM79, entSE-K4, entQ and entA), detected by PCR. None of the enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities. A total of 17 enterococcal isolates (26.6%) that did not harbor any antibiotic resistance or virulence factor were considered safe for application as probiotics, including 6 isolates (35.3%) that showed antimicrobial activity against at least 1 fish pathogen and harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene. Rainbow trout, feed, and rearing environment constitute an appropriate source for the

  16. Family environment and the malleability of cognitive ability: a Swedish national home-reared and adopted-away cosibling control study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Turkheimer, Eric; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-04-14

    Cognitive ability strongly aggregates in families, and prior twin and adoption studies have suggested that this is the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used a powerful design--home-reared and adopted-away cosibling controls--to investigate the role of the rearing environment in cognitive ability. We identified, from a complete national Swedish sample of male-male siblings, 436 full-sibships in which at least one member was reared by one or more biological parents and the other by adoptive parents. IQ was measured at age 18-20 as part of the Swedish military service conscription examination. Parental educational level was rated on a 5-point scale. Controlling for clustering of offspring within biological families, the adopted siblings had an IQ 4.41 (SE = 0.75) points higher than their nonadopted siblings. Each additional unit of rearing parental education was associated with 1.71 (SE = 0.44) units of IQ. We replicated these results in 2,341 male-male half-sibships, in which, controlling for clustering within families, adoption was associated with a gain of IQ of 3.18 (SE = 0.34) points. Each additional unit of rearing parental education was associated with 1.94 (SE = 0.18) IQ units. Using full- and half-sibling sets matched for genetic background, we found replicated evidence that (i) rearing environment affects IQ measured in late adolescence, and (ii) a portion of the IQ of adopted siblings could be explained by the educational level of their adoptive parents.

  17. Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  18. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  19. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  20. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed.

  1. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Carmen ME

    2014-01-01

    Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  2. Differential gene body methylation and reduced expression of cell adhesion and neurotransmitter receptor genes in adverse maternal environment.

    PubMed

    Oh, J-E; Chambwe, N; Klein, S; Gal, J; Andrews, S; Gleason, G; Shaknovich, R; Melnick, A; Campagne, F; Toth, M

    2013-01-22

    Early life adversity, including adverse gestational and postpartum maternal environment, is a contributing factor in the development of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depression but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In a model of gestational maternal adversity that leads to innate anxiety, increased stress reactivity and impaired vocal communication in the offspring, we asked if a specific DNA methylation signature is associated with the emergence of the behavioral phenotype. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses identified 2.3% of CpGs as differentially methylated (that is, differentially methylated sites, DMSs) by the adverse environment in ventral-hippocampal granule cells, neurons that can be linked to the anxiety phenotype. DMSs were typically clustered and these clusters were preferentially located at gene bodies. Although CpGs are typically either highly methylated or unmethylated, DMSs had an intermediate (20-80%) methylation level that may contribute to their sensitivity to environmental adversity. The adverse maternal environment resulted in either hyper or hypomethylation at DMSs. Clusters of DMSs were enriched in genes that encode cell adhesion molecules and neurotransmitter receptors; some of which were also downregulated, indicating multiple functional deficits at the synapse in adversity. Pharmacological and genetic evidence links many of these genes to anxiety.

  3. Differential gene body methylation and reduced expression of cell adhesion and neurotransmitter receptor genes in adverse maternal environment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, J-e; Chambwe, N; Klein, S; Gal, J; Andrews, S; Gleason, G; Shaknovich, R; Melnick, A; Campagne, F; Toth, M

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity, including adverse gestational and postpartum maternal environment, is a contributing factor in the development of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depression but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In a model of gestational maternal adversity that leads to innate anxiety, increased stress reactivity and impaired vocal communication in the offspring, we asked if a specific DNA methylation signature is associated with the emergence of the behavioral phenotype. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses identified 2.3% of CpGs as differentially methylated (that is, differentially methylated sites, DMSs) by the adverse environment in ventral-hippocampal granule cells, neurons that can be linked to the anxiety phenotype. DMSs were typically clustered and these clusters were preferentially located at gene bodies. Although CpGs are typically either highly methylated or unmethylated, DMSs had an intermediate (20–80%) methylation level that may contribute to their sensitivity to environmental adversity. The adverse maternal environment resulted in either hyper or hypomethylation at DMSs. Clusters of DMSs were enriched in genes that encode cell adhesion molecules and neurotransmitter receptors; some of which were also downregulated, indicating multiple functional deficits at the synapse in adversity. Pharmacological and genetic evidence links many of these genes to anxiety. PMID:23340501

  4. Role of neuropsin in parvalbumin immunoreactivity changes in hippocampal basket terminals of mice reared in various environments

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Harumitsu; Kanagawa, Dai; Nakazawa, Hitomi; Tawara-Hirata, Yoshie; Kogure, Yoko; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Takayama, Chitoshi; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Shiosaka, Sadao

    2014-01-01

    In vitro approaches have suggested that neuropsin (or kallikrein 8/KLK8), which controls gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission through neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) and its receptor (ErbB4), is involved in neural plasticity (Tamura et al., 2012, 2013). In the present study, we examined whether parvalbumin (PV)-positive neuronal networks, the majority of which are ErbB4-positive GABAergic interneurons, are controlled by neuropsin in tranquil and stimulated voluntarily behaving mice. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive fibers surrounding hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons in mice reared in their home cage were decreased in neuropsin-deficient mice, suggesting that neuropsin controls PV immunoreactivity. One- or two-week exposures of wild mice to novel environments, in which they could behave freely and run voluntarily in a wheel resulted in a marked upregulation of both neuropsin mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. To elucidate the functional relevance of the increase in neuropsin during exposure to a rich environment, the intensities of PV-immunoreactive fibers were compared between neuropsin-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice under environmental stimuli. When mice were transferred into novel cages (large cages with toys), the intensity of PV-immunoreactive fibers increased in WT mice and neuropsin-deficient mice. Therefore, behavioral stimuli control a neuropsin-independent form of PV immunoreactivity. However, the neuropsin-dependent part of the change in PV-immunoreactive fibers may occur in the stimulated hippocampus because increased levels of neuropsin continued during these enriched conditions. PMID:25540610

  5. The health care work environment and adverse health and safety consequences for nurses.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Lipscomb, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Nurses' working conditions are inextricably linked to the quality of care that is provided to patients and patients' safety. These same working conditions are associated with health and safety outcomes for nurses and other health care providers. This chapter describes aspects of the nursing work environment that have been linked to hazards and adverse exposures for nurses, as well as the most common health and safety outcomes of nursing work. We include studies from 2000 to the present by nurse researchers, studies of nurses as subjects, and studies of workers under similar working conditions that could translate to nurses' work environment. We explore a number of work organization factors including shift work and extended work hours, safety climate and culture, teamwork, and communication. We also describe environmental hazards, including chemical hazards (e.g., waste anesthetics, hazardous drugs, cleaning compounds) and airborne and bloodborne pathogen exposure. Nurses' health and safety outcomes include physical (e.g., musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal, slips, trips and falls, physical assault) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g., burnout, work-family conflict). Finally, we present recommendations for future research to further protect nurses and all health care workers from a range of hazardous working conditions.

  6. Adaptive sugar provisioning controls survival of C. elegans embryos in adverse environments

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Harold N.; Roth, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions is essential to the fitness of organisms. In some cases, adaptation of the parent alters the offspring’s phenotype[1-10]. Such parental effects are adaptive for the offspring if the future environment is similar to the current one, but can be maladaptive otherwise[11]. One mechanism by which adaptation occurs is altered provisioning of embryos by the parent[12-16]. Here we show that exposing adult Caenorhabditis elegans to hyperosmotic conditions protects their offspring from the same, but causes sensitivity to anoxia exposure. We show that this alteration of survival is correlated to changes in the sugar content of adults and embryos. In addition, mutations in gene products which alter sugar homeostasis also alter the ability of embryos to survive in hyperosmotic and anoxic conditions and engage in the adaptive parental effect. Our results indicate that there is a physiological trade-off between the presence of glycerol, which protects animals from hyperosmotic conditions, and glycogen, which is consumed during anoxia. These two metabolites play an essential role in the survival of worms in these adverse environments, and the adaptive parental effect we describe is mediated by the provisioning of these metabolites to the embryo. PMID:19398339

  7. Transcriptomic Responses of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) to Environmental Enrichment during Juvenile Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Melissa L.; Hori, Tiago S.; Rise, Matthew L.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions. PMID:25742646

  8. Transcriptomic responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to environmental enrichment during juvenile rearing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melissa L; Hori, Tiago S; Rise, Matthew L; Fleming, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions.

  9. A long standoff profilometer for surface inspection in adverse environments based on conoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enguita, Jose M.; Alvarez, Ignacio; Fraga, Cesar; Marina, Jorge; Fernandez, Yolanda; Sirat, Gabriel

    2005-06-01

    One of the more challenging applications of optical metrology is real-time dimensional control and surface inspection in industrial applications, where strong requirements of cost, setup and applicability in adverse environments, greatly limit the number of applicable technologies. This paper shows an optic profilometer developed specifically for this purpose. This device, based on Conoscopic holography, is able to obtain a distance profile of a target in a single-axis scan; works from long distances and still keeps good resolution with a very easy and reliable setup. The first part of the paper introduces the working principles of Conoscopic holography and shows the sensor set-up. Necessary algorithms for obtaining the distance information are presented and the whole process is illustrated with real captures of test objects. The second part focuses on a real example of this technology applied in an on-line inspection system in steel continuous casting funded by the European Committee for Steel and Carbon, and which is currently working in Aceralia LDA steelmaking factory in Asturias, Spain). The system is placed in the process line and performs on-line detection of surface defects over hot steel slabs from a distance of 1200 mm. 100% of the production can be inspected without interfering with the process and without adding any delay.

  10. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

  11. Differential early rearing environments can accentuate or attenuate the responses to stress in male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, David B; Levin, Jennifer K; Saltstein, Katherine P; Klayman, Andrea S; Greer, Laura M; Helmreich, Dana L

    2004-07-30

    This study investigated the effects of neonatal handling and maternal separation on the development of anxiety behavior and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of C57BL/6 mice. We hypothesized short periods of neonatal handling would diminish anxiety and secretion of corticosterone, while longer periods of maternal separation would elevate anxiety and plasma corticosterone compared to a nonhandled group. Mice were bred and reared as follows. After birth, each litter was assigned to one of four groups: mother and pups removed from the home cage for 10 min (group 1) or 180 min a day (group 2); mother only removed from home cage 180 min a day (group 3); and no handling until weaning (group 4). All separation occurred on the first 10 days of life. Juvenile males that experienced 10 min of separation/day exhibited decreased anxiety behavior compared to all other mice. A second group of litters were bred and reared according to groups 1, 2, and 4 as described above. Upon adulthood, anxiety behavior was assessed in males, and the corticosterone response to an acoustic stressor was quantified. No effect of differential rearing was observed on behavior, but there was a marked effect on plasma corticosterone secretion between the groups. Adult male mice neonatally handled for 10 min/day exhibited a blunted corticosterone response, and mice that experienced 180 min of maternal separation exhibited a prolonged corticosterone response to the acoustic stimulus compared to the nonhandled group. These results demonstrate the development of the mouse's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can be modified by neonatal rearing conditions, and suggest that the mouse could be a viable animal model to determine the genetic-environmental interactions governing brain development.

  12. Rearing in an enriched environment attenuated hyperactivity and inattention in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, an animal model of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Lee, Hyelim; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly treated with psychostimulants that typically begins during childhood and lasts for an extended period of time. However, there are concerns regarding the consequences of chronic psychostimulant treatment; thus, there is a growing search for an alternative management for ADHD. One non-pharmacological management that is gaining much interest is environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the effects of rearing in an enriched environment (EE) on the expression of ADHD-like symptoms in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. SHRs were reared in EE or standard environment (SE) from post-natal day (PND) 21 until PND 49. Thereafter, behavioral tests that measure hyperactivity (open field test [OFT]), inattention (Y-maze task), and impulsivity (delay discounting task) were conducted. Additionally, electroencephalography (EEG) was employed to assess the effects of EE on rat's brain activity. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, the normotensive counterpart of the SHRs, were used to determine whether the effects of EE were specific to a particular genetic background. EE improved the performance of the SHRs and WKY rats in the OFT and Y-maze task, but not the delay discounting task. Interestingly, EE induced significant EEG changes in WKY rats, but not in the SHRs. These findings show that rearing environment may play a role in the expression of ADHD-like symptoms in the SHRs and that EE may be considered as a putative complementary approach in managing ADHD symptoms.

  13. Reared Microgastrine Wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Yanayacu Biological Station and Environs (Napo Province, Ecuador): Diversity and Host Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, James B.; Rodriguez, Josephine J.; Masonick, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The microgastrine braconid wasps recovered up through 2007 by the NSF-sponsored rearing project “Caterpillars and Parasitoids of the Eastern Andes in Ecuador” are summarized in terms of their host specialization and faunistic uniqueness. Two hundred fifty eight rearings of caterpillars resulted in records of Microgastrinae, distributed among 14 genera (Apanteles Förster, Choeras Mason, Cotesia Cameron, Diolcogaster Ashmead, Distatrix Mason, Dolichogenidea Viereck, Exix Mason, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, Hypomicrogaster Ashmead, Papanteles Mason, Parapanteles Ashmead, Protapanteles Ashmead, Sathon Mason and Venanus Mason). Eleven records of hyperparasitoids of Microgastrinae are also summarized; Mesochorus Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Perilampidae are both recorded. The results are compared to those recovered by surveys in other parts of the world, especially by the Janzen-Hallwachs survey of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in Costa Rica. An annotated list of microgastrine genera not yet recorded at Yanayacu, but which we expect to eventually find there based on extrapolation from their known geographic distributions, is provided. PMID:19613864

  14. Paternity analyses in wild-caught and laboratory-reared Caribbean cricket females reveal the influence of mating environment on post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Oneal, E; Knowles, L L

    2015-12-01

    Polyandry is ubiquitous in insects and provides the conditions necessary for male- and female-driven forms of post-copulatory sexual selection to arise. Populations of Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis exhibit significant divergence in portions of the male genitalia that are inserted directly into the female reproductive tract, suggesting that males may exercise some post-copulatory control over fertilization success. We examine the potential for male-male and male-female post-copulatory interactions to influence paternity in wild-caught females of A. sanctaecrucis and contrast our findings with those obtained from females reared in a high-density laboratory environment. We find that female A. sanctaecrucis exercise control by mating multiple times (females mount males), but that male-male post-copulatory interactions may influence paternity success. Moreover, post-copulatory interactions that affect reproductive success of males are not independent of mating environment: clutches of wild-caught females exhibit higher sire diversity and lower paternity skew than clutches of laboratory-reared females. There was no strong evidence for last male precedence in either case. Most attempts at disentangling the contributions of male-male and male-female interactions towards post-copulatory sexual selection have been undertaken in a laboratory setting and may not capture the full context in which they take place--such as the relationship between premating and post-mating interactions. Our results reinforce the importance of designing studies that can capture the multifaceted nature of sexual selection for elucidating the role of post-copulatory sexual selection in driving the evolution of male and female reproductive traits, especially when different components (e.g. precopulatory and post-copulatory interactions) do not exert independent effects on reproductive outcomes.

  15. Adverse Impact of Electromagnetic Radiation on Urban Environment and Natural Resources using Optical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Katiyar, Swati; Rani, Meenu

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of a rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with an advance technical capacity.This has resulted in wide spread land cover change. One of the main causes for increasing urban heat is that more than half of the world's population lives in a rapidly growing urbanized environment. Satellite data can be highly useful to map change in land cover and other environmental phenomena with the passage of time. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The UHI for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment on climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island change on climate using the geospatial approach. NDVI were generated using day time LANDSAT ETM+ image of 1990, 2000 and 2013. Temperature of various land use and land cover categories was estimated. Keywords: NDVI, Surface temperature, Dynamic changes.

  16. A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

  17. Vulnerability in early life to changes in the rearing environment plays a crucial role in the aetiopathology of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Minae; Matsumoto, Yurie; Mouri, Akihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2011-05-01

    Adverse events early in life, including maternal separation and social isolation, profoundly affect brain development and adult behaviour and may contribute to the occurrence of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood disorders in genetically predisposed individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying these environmentally induced developmental adaptations are unclear and best evaluated in animal paradigms with translational salience. In this study, we examined the effects in mice of maternal separation and/or social isolation for 6 h/d between postnatal days 15 and 21 on performance during adulthood in the open-field, social interaction, elevated plus-maze, forced swimming, Y-maze, novel object recognition, conditioned fear-learning, prepulse inhibition, and locomotor activity tests, to investigate whether this animal model could show the phenotypes for schizophrenia and mood disorders. The stress of maternal separation and isolation led to adult behavioural deficits, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and decreases in the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the frontal cortex and metabolites of dopamine and serotonin in the amygdala, showing the involvement of endocrine and neuronal risk in behavioural deficits. The results suggest that the frontal cortex and amygdala undergo structural remodelling induced by the stress of maternal separation and isolation, which alters behavioural and physiological responses in adulthood, including anxiety, memory and other cognitive processes. Further, social isolation enhanced the behavioural dysfunctions induced by maternal separation. These findings indicate that maternal separation and social isolation early in life can lead to long-lasting abnormal behaviour and pathophysiological impairments including schizophrenia and mood disorders.

  18. THE SIGNATURE OF MATERNAL REARING IN THE METHYLOME IN RHESUS MACAQUE PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND T CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Guillemin, Claire; Massart, Renaud; Ruggiero, Angela; Wang, Dongsha; Bennett, Allyson J.; Pierre, Peter J.; Friedman, David P.; Côté, Sylvana M.; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Szyf, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity is associated with a broad scope of life-long health and behavioral disorders. Particularly critical is the role of the mother. A possible mechanism is that these effects are mediated by “epigenetic” mechanisms. Studies in rodents suggest a causal relationship between early life adversity and changes in DNA methylation in several “candidate genes” in the brain. This study examines whether randomized differential rearing (maternal versus surrogate-peer rearing) of rhesus macaques is associated with differential methylation in early adulthood. The data presented here shows that differential rearing leads to differential DNA methylation in both prefrontal cortex and T cells. These differentially methylated promoters tend to cluster both by chromosomal region as well as by gene function. The broad impact of maternal rearing on DNA methylation in both the brain and T cells supports the hypothesis that the response to early-life adversity is system-wide and genome-wide and persists to adulthood. Our data also points to the feasibility of studying the impact of the social environment in peripheral T cells DNA methylation. PMID:23115197

  19. The influences of rearing environment and neonatal choline dietary supplementation on spatial learning and memory in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Tees, R C

    1999-11-15

    The facilitative effects of early environmental enrichment and perinatal choline chloride dietary supplementation on adult rat spatial learning and memory were examined using delayed match-to-place (DMTP) and delayed spatial win-shift (DSWSh) discrimination tasks. Animals were either maintained in a standard lighted colony (LR) or were given supplementary exposure to a complex environment (CR) for 2-h daily from 20 to 90 days of age. In each case, half the animals were exposed to the choline supplementation both prenatally (through the diet of pregnant rats) and postnatally (subcutaneous injection) for 24 days. In the first experiment, all 90-day-old rats were given trials in which they first found a hidden platform in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a particular location (acquisition trial), and then were required to remember that position 10 min later (test trial). Both environmental enrichment and early diet had significant impacts on performance. CR animals, given neonatal choline pretreatment, found the platform on test trials significantly faster than any of the other groups. CR animals exposed to the control saline diet showed better retention than did the LR animals given the early choline diet, which in turn, were superior to animals given neither environmental enrichment nor choline. All animals were subsequently tested in the same paradigm immediately following atropine sulfate injections. The atropine eliminated the difference between the four groups of animals on test trials. In a second experiment, both CR, and neonatal choline treatment facilitated performance on a DSWSh radial arm maze (RAM) task previously found to be sensitive to hippocampal and/or medial prefrontal lesions. Performance differences between groups were facilitated by the anticholinesterase drug, tacrine and attenuated by the cholinergic antagonist, Atropine. The present study extends the descriptions of long-term functional enhancements produced by perinatal choline supplementation

  20. The Importance of Quality of Care: Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Preschoolers' Attachment and Indiscriminate Friendliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The rearing environment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children is often compromised, putting these children at additional risks. Positive caregiving may ameliorate the impact of adverse circumstances and promote attachment security. The goal of the present study was to examine the attachment relationships of…

  1. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  2. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes.

  3. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. PMID:27270123

  4. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990155

  5. A Longitudinal Assessment of Associations between Adolescent Environment, Adversity Perception, and Economic Status on Fertility and Age of Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Dorsa; Jordan, Matthew R.; Bribiescas, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions of environmental adversity and access to economic resources in adolescence can theoretically affect the timing of life history transitions and investment in reproductive effort. Here we present evidence of correlations between variables associated with subjective extrinsic mortality, economic status, and reproductive effort in a nationally representative American population of young adults. Methods We used a longitudinal database that sampled American participants (N ≥ 1,579) at four points during early adolescence and early adulthood to test whether perceptions of environmental adversity and early economic status were associated with reproductive effort. Results We found that subjectively high ratings of environmental danger and low access to economic resources in adolescence were significantly associated with an earlier age of menarche in girls and earlier, more robust fertility in young adulthood. Conclusion While energetics and somatic condition remain as possible sources of variation, the results of this study support the hypothesis that perceptions of adversity early in life and limited access to economic resources are associated with differences in reproductive effort and scheduling. How these factors may covary with energetics and somatic condition merits further investigation. PMID:27249338

  6. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Duration of Early Adversity and Structural Brain Development in Post-Institutionalized Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Hunt, Ruskin H.; Cowell, Raquel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12–14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  8. Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Amanda S; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cowell, Raquel A; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E; Gunnar, Megan R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2015-01-15

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12-14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  9. Genetic variants determining survival and fertility in an adverse African environment: a population-based large-scale candidate gene association study.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Pijpe, Jeroen; Böhringer, Stefan; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K; Sanchez-Faddeev, Hernando; Ziem, Juventus B; Zwaan, Bas; Slagboom, P Eline; de Knijff, Peter; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-07-01

    Human survival probability and fertility decline strongly with age. These life history traits have been shaped by evolution. However, research has failed to uncover a consistent genetic determination of variation in survival and fertility. As an explanation, such genetic determinants have been selected in adverse environments, in which humans have lived during most of their history, but are almost exclusively studied in populations in modern affluent environments. Here, we present a large-scale candidate gene association study in a rural African population living in an adverse environment. In 4387 individuals, we studied 4052 SNPs in 148 genes that have previously been identified as possible determinants of survival or fertility in animals or humans. We studied their associations with survival comparing newborns, middle-age adults, and old individuals. In women, we assessed their associations with reported and observed numbers of children. We found no statistically significant associations of these SNPs with survival between the three age groups nor with women's reported and observed fertility. Population stratification was unlikely to explain these results. Apart from a lack of power, we hypothesise that genetic heterogeneity of complex phenotypes and gene-environment interactions prevent the identification of genetic variants explaining variation in survival and fertility in humans. PMID:27356285

  10. Genetic variants determining survival and fertility in an adverse African environment: a population-based large-scale candidate gene association study

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Jacob J.E.; Pijpe, Jeroen; Böhringer, Stefan; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K.; Sanchez-Faddeev, Hernando; Ziem, Juventus B.; Zwaan, Bas; Slagboom, P. Eline; de Knijff, Peter; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Human survival probability and fertility decline strongly with age. These life history traits have been shaped by evolution. However, research has failed to uncover a consistent genetic determination of variation in survival and fertility. As an explanation, such genetic determinants have been selected in adverse environments, in which humans have lived during most of their history, but are almost exclusively studied in populations in modern affluent environments. Here, we present a large-scale candidate gene association study in a rural African population living in an adverse environment. In 4387 individuals, we studied 4052 SNPs in 148 genes that have previously been identified as possible determinants of survival or fertility in animals or humans. We studied their associations with survival comparing newborns, middle-age adults, and old individuals. In women, we assessed their associations with reported and observed numbers of children. We found no statistically significant associations of these SNPs with survival between the three age groups nor with women's reported and observed fertility. Population stratification was unlikely to explain these results. Apart from a lack of power, we hypothesise that genetic heterogeneity of complex phenotypes and gene-environment interactions prevent the identification of genetic variants explaining variation in survival and fertility in humans. PMID:27356285

  11. Genetic variants determining survival and fertility in an adverse African environment: a population-based large-scale candidate gene association study.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Pijpe, Jeroen; Böhringer, Stefan; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K; Sanchez-Faddeev, Hernando; Ziem, Juventus B; Zwaan, Bas; Slagboom, P Eline; de Knijff, Peter; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-07-01

    Human survival probability and fertility decline strongly with age. These life history traits have been shaped by evolution. However, research has failed to uncover a consistent genetic determination of variation in survival and fertility. As an explanation, such genetic determinants have been selected in adverse environments, in which humans have lived during most of their history, but are almost exclusively studied in populations in modern affluent environments. Here, we present a large-scale candidate gene association study in a rural African population living in an adverse environment. In 4387 individuals, we studied 4052 SNPs in 148 genes that have previously been identified as possible determinants of survival or fertility in animals or humans. We studied their associations with survival comparing newborns, middle-age adults, and old individuals. In women, we assessed their associations with reported and observed numbers of children. We found no statistically significant associations of these SNPs with survival between the three age groups nor with women's reported and observed fertility. Population stratification was unlikely to explain these results. Apart from a lack of power, we hypothesise that genetic heterogeneity of complex phenotypes and gene-environment interactions prevent the identification of genetic variants explaining variation in survival and fertility in humans.

  12. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50(th) percentile male ATD.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag ("airbelt") into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student's t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system also

  13. Optical tests of a space mechanism under an adverse environment: GAIA secondary mirror mechanism under vaccum and thermal controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Urgoiti, Eduardo; Ramírez Quintana, Argiñe

    2007-09-01

    In this work, the optical evaluation of a mechanism for space applications under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA) is reported. The mechanism was developed by the Spanish company SENER to fulfill the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for GAIA Astrometric Mission; in particular, a five degrees of freedom (dof), three translations and two rotations positioning mechanism for the secondary mirror of the GAIA instrument. Both interferometric tests and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions: vacuum and thermal controlled conditions, up to a 10 -6mbar and 100K. The scope of this paper will cover the measurements concept selection, the presentation of verification activities, the results of such dedicated optical measurements, the correlation with the mechanical models and a brief description of the design process followed to meet the test requirements.

  14. Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  15. FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Validation of a New Larval Rearing Unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mass Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Jérémie R. L.; Bellini, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT) package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms. PMID:24647347

  17. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  18. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  19. Long-term effects of differential early rearing in rhesus macaques: behavioral reactivity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Christopher A; Pierre, Peter J; Haddad, Tyler; Bice, Christina; Suomi, Stephen J; Grant, Kathleen A; Friedman, David P; Bennett, Allyson J

    2012-07-01

    Adverse early experiences are associated with a range of deleterious health outcomes in humans, including higher risk for affective disorders. Studies using a long-standing model of nonhuman primate model of early adversity have demonstrated that nursery-reared (NR) monkeys exhibit alterations in multiple aspects of biobehavioral development; however, few studies have evaluated the persistence of socioaffective behavioral changes through adulthood. We evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on adult animals' response to a well-validated assessment of anxiety-like behavior, the human intruder paradigm (HIP). We tested 22 rhesus monkeys who were either nursery-reared (NR) or reared with their mothers (mother-reared; MR). NR monkeys were inhibited in their behavior compared to MR monkeys, with reduced locomotion and exploratory behaviors. NR animals showed a marginal increase in freezing. Together these findings demonstrate that the consequences of differential infant rearing experience on socioaffective behavior persist into adulthood, with evidence of greater inhibition in NR monkeys.

  20. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  1. [Comparative Characteristics of the Lipid and Fatty Acid Status of Eyed-Stage Atlantic Salmon Embryos Reared in Natural and Artificial Environments].

    PubMed

    Nemova, N N; Nefedova, Z A; Murzina, S A; Veselov, A E; Ripatti, P

    2015-01-01

    The lipid status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) embryos has been compared between embryos developing in incubator nests installed in the natural environment (UmbaRiver, Kola Peninsula) and those developing in a laboratory (in aquaria). The developmental stage of eye pigmentation selected for comparison is characterized by the highest sensitivity of the embryos to environmental factors. The content of certain classes of total lipids and fatty acids was different between the two groups of embryos, and the ratios between the relative content values for some of the compounds were different as well. The difference may be due to environmental factors (temperature, oxygen levels, running water in the nests, etc.) affecting the developing embryos, and they may determine the subsequent embryonic and postembryonic development of the fish. PMID:26852477

  2. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Milner, Alex; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, BJ

    2009-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are not well understood. Seventy-eight children, who include those who have experienced orphanage care and a comparison group, were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure volumes of whole brain and limbic structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Emotion regulation was assessed with an emotional go-nogo paradigm, and anxiety and internalizing behaviors were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Child Behavior Checklist, and a structured clinical interview. Late adoption was associated with larger corrected amygdala volumes, poorer emotion regulation, and increased anxiety. Although more than 50% of the children who experienced orphanage rearing met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, with a third having an anxiety disorder, the group differences observed in amygdala volume were not driven by the presence of an anxiety disorder. The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. These changes in limbic circuitry may underlie residual emotional and social problems experienced by children who have been internationally adopted. PMID:20121862

  3. A protective genetic variant for adverse environments? The role of childhood traumas and serotonin transporter gene on resilience and depressive severity in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Carli, V; Mandelli, L; Zaninotto, L; Roy, A; Recchia, L; Stoppia, L; Gatta, V; Sarchiapone, M; Serretti, A

    2011-11-01

    Genetic aspects may influence the effect of early adverse events on psychological well being in adulthood. In particular, a common polymorphism within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR short/long) has been associated to the risk for stress-induced psychopathology. In the present study we investigated the role of childhood traumas and 5-HTTLPR on measures of psychological resilience and depression in a sample of individuals at a high risk for psychological distress (763 male prisoners). The 5-HTTLPR genotype did not influence resilience and depressive severity. However, a significant interaction was observed between 5-HTTLPR and childhood traumas on both resilience and depressive severity. In particular, among subjects exposed to severe childhood trauma only, the long-allele was associated to lower resilience scores and increased current depressive severity as compared to short/short homozygous. Sex specific effects, difference in type and duration of stressors and the specific composition of the sample may explain discrepancy with many studies reporting the short-allele as a vulnerability factor for reactivity to stress. We here speculated that in males the long-allele may confer lower resilience and therefore higher vulnerability for depressive symptoms in subjects exposed to early stress and currently living in stressful environments.

  4. Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

  5. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Fin development in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelis, R.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of development and environment on fin growth, we measured fin lengths of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from two hatcheries (August, October and April-May), stream-reared fish (July and October) stocked as fry into two tributaries, and smelts from the main stem of the Connecticut River (May). For stream-reared parr, there was a linear relationship between the dorsal, caudal and anal fins with fork length, while the pectoral, pelvic and adipose fins exhibited a curvilinear relationship with fork length. Parr from a high gradient stream had larger caudal fins than fish from a low gradient stream, but other fins did not differ. Regression lines for the fins of stream-reared smelts were all linear when fin length was regressed against fork length. Stream-reared parr had larger pectoral, pelvic and anal fins than smolts of similar size while dorsal and caudal fin lengths did not differ. Regression equations formulated using the fins of stream-reared parr were used to calculate the percent difference (100 x observed fin length/expected) in fin lengths between stream- and hatchery-reared parr. The pelvic, adipose, caudal and anal fins of hatchery-reared parr showed no signs of degeneration by the first sampling period 7 months after hatching, whereas degeneration in the pectoral (13-20%) and dorsal (15-18%) fins was evident at this time. By the end of the study, degeneration was present in every fin except the adipose, with the pectoral (35-65%) and dorsal (32-58%) fins exhibiting the greatest amount of fin loss. All fins of hatchery-reared parr became shorter with time. There were minor differences in fin degeneration among parr from the two hatcheries, but the overall pattern of decreasing fin size was similar, indicating a common cause of fin degeneration. Comparison of stream- and hatchery-reared fish is a valuable means of determining the impact of captive environments on fin growth.

  8. Effects of Hatchery Rearing on the Structure and Function of Salmonid Mechanosensory Systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on the effects of hatchery rearing on the auditory and lateral line systems of salmonid fishes. Major conclusions are that (1) hatchery-reared juveniles exhibit abnormal lateral line morphology (relative to wild-origin conspecifics), suggesting that the hatchery environment affects lateral line structure, perhaps due to differences in the hydrodynamic conditions of hatcheries versus natural rearing environments, and (2) hatchery-reared salmonids have a high proportion of abnormal otoliths, a condition associated with reduced auditory sensitivity and suggestive of inner ear dysfunction. PMID:26610951

  9. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner’s mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  10. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  11. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  12. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions. PMID:25469953

  13. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions.

  14. Latent Variable Models of Genotype-Environment Covariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Scott L.

    2003-01-01

    Results of a study involving 136 pairs of identical twins reared together, 175 pairs of fraternal twins reared together, 83 pairs of identical twins reared apart, and 182 pairs of fraternal twins reared apart suggest that genotype- environment covariance is important for the work environment and should be included as a parameter in behavior…

  15. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  16. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  17. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  18. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    transfer of fish from the hatchery did not appear to have an adverse effect. Estimated costs of rearing fed fish at regular, double, and triple the regular density were lower than for rearing a similar poundage of fish in a hatchery. However, estimated costs using present rearing scenarios in net pens at low densities and in a barrier net were high in relation to all other methods considered.

  19. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  20. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  1. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  2. Cannibalism facilitates the use of a novel environment in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Via, S

    1999-03-01

    Cannibalism is well known to affect both the population dynamics and the competitive relationships of organisms. Cannibalistic behaviour commonly increases in stressful conditions, such as when density is high or food is scarce, and cannibals often obtain a nutritional benefit. Might cannibalism also increase in a novel environment to which a population is poorly adapted physiologically? Moreover, might cannibalistic behaviour provide enough of a nutritional advantage in a nutritionally stressful environment to rescue individuals from its adverse effects and thus permit colonization and range expansion? Previous work has shown that oat flour is a particularly stressful environment for Tribolium castaneum. In the study reported here, egg cannibalism by two strains of T. castaneum was significantly enhanced in oat flour, and egg eating rescued larvae from the adverse demographic effects of this poor environment. Development time of the cannibals was accelerated almost to the level seen for individuals reared in the nutritionally superior environment (wheat plus brewer's yeast). Their survival and fecundity also increased relative to individuals reared in oat flour without the opportunity to cannibalize. A sib analysis revealed that for larvae reared in the presence of victim eggs, the extent of cannibalism was genetically variable, so that this trait could evolve, given a selective benefit exceeding its cost. These results suggest that colonization of a marginal new environment could be facilitated by enhanced rates of cannibalism. The possible interplay between cannibalism and physiological adaptation to a new environment is discussed.

  3. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

  4. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-10-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment.

  5. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed Central

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-01-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment. PMID:154359

  6. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, differential early rearing, and behavior in rhesus monkey neonates.

    PubMed

    Champoux, M; Bennett, A; Shannon, C; Higley, J D; Lesch, K P; Suomi, S J

    2002-01-01

    A polymorphism in the serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with measures of 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) expression and 5-HT-mediated behaviors in humans. An analogous length variation of the 5-HTTLPR has been reported in rhesus monkeys (rh5-HTTLPR). A retrospective association study was conducted on 115 rhesus macaque infants either homozygous for the long 5HTTLPR variant (l/l) or heterozygous for the short and long form (l/s). To assess contributions of genotype and early rearing environment, 36 mother-reared monkeys (l/l = 26, l/s = 10) and 79 nursery-reared monkeys (l/l = 54, l/s = 25) were assessed on days 7, 14, 21, and 30 of life on a standardized primate neurobehavioral test designed to measure orienting, motor maturity, reflex functioning, and temperament. Both mother-reared and nursery-reared heterozygote animals demonstrated increased affective responding relative to l/l homozygotes. Nursery-reared, but not mother-reared, l/s infants exhibited lower orientation scores than their l/l counterparts. These results demonstrate the contributions of rearing environment and genetic background, and their interaction, in a nonhuman primate model of behavioral development.

  7. Iatrogenic homosexuality: gender identity in seven 46,XX chromosomal females with hyperadrenocortical hermaphroditism born with a penis, three reared as boys, four reared as girls.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Daléry, J

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes seven chromosomal and gonadal females with the adrenogenital syndrome who were born with a penis as a result of extreme fetal androgenization. Four of them were reared as girls and differentiated a female gender identity with tomboyism. The other three were reared as boys, differentiated a male gender identity, and performed sexually as men with women partners. Even though these men are by no means homosexual in the everyday meaning of the term, the sexual relation is homosexual on the criteria of chromosomal and gonadal sex. The prenatal hormonal environment as well as the social experience of the rearing have thus demonstrated a formula for creating the perfect female homosexual.

  8. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  9. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  10. Poverty, problem behavior, and promise: differential susceptibility among infants reared in poverty.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Measelle, Jeffrey; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2013-03-01

    Do infants reared in poverty exhibit certain physiological traits that make them susceptible to the positive and negative features of their caregiving environment? Guided by theories of differential susceptibility and biological sensitivity to context, we evaluated whether high baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) operates as a susceptibility factor among infants reared in poverty (N = 73). Baseline RSA at 5 months, the quality of the attachment relationship at 17 months, and the interaction of these two factors were included in our models as predictors of problem behavior at 17 months. Consistent with theory, results showed no significant differences in problem behavior among infants with low baseline RSA; however, infants with high baseline RSA exhibited the lowest levels of problem behavior if reared in an environment that fostered security, and they exhibited the highest levels of problem behavior if reared in an environment that fostered disorganization. These results have important implications for the psychological health of infants living in poverty.

  11. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  12. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  13. Multiple adverse experiences and child cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W

    2016-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, children's social environments shape their cognitive development. Children exposed to multiple adversities in their social environment are more likely to have poorer cognitive outcomes. These findings have prompted interest among pediatric and public health communities to screen and connect youth to appropriate interventions that ameliorate the detrimental effects of adverse exposures. Such intervention efforts can be improved with a stronger conceptual understanding of the relationship between multiple adverse exposures and child cognitive development. This includes disentangling adverse exposures from other risk factors or underlying mechanisms, specifying mechanisms of action, and determining when adverse exposures are most detrimental. This review summarizes findings from the literature on each of these areas and proposes a conceptual model to guide further research and intervention.

  14. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... passenger vehicle impacts the rear of a ] tractor-trailer. The primary findings are the following: Data from... occupants when rear-ending a tractor-trailer subsequent to the implementation of Safety Standards 223 and... passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer--neither in terms of total number of fatalities,...

  15. Mediation of early maladaptive schemas between perceptions of parental rearing style and personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-03-01

    In schema therapy (ST), early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are proposed to be the defining core of personality disorders. Adverse relational experiences in childhood are assumed to be the main cause for the development of EMS. The present study explored the links between perceived parental rearing behaviours, EMS, and personality disorder symptoms in a clinical sample (N=108). Results from mediation analyses suggest that EMS mediate the relationships between recalled parenting rearing behaviours and personality disorder symptoms. Findings give support to the theoretical model ST is based on. PMID:19896642

  16. Mediation of early maladaptive schemas between perceptions of parental rearing style and personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-03-01

    In schema therapy (ST), early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are proposed to be the defining core of personality disorders. Adverse relational experiences in childhood are assumed to be the main cause for the development of EMS. The present study explored the links between perceived parental rearing behaviours, EMS, and personality disorder symptoms in a clinical sample (N=108). Results from mediation analyses suggest that EMS mediate the relationships between recalled parenting rearing behaviours and personality disorder symptoms. Findings give support to the theoretical model ST is based on.

  17. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  18. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  19. Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

    Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

  20. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  1. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress.

  2. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress. PMID:26139190

  3. Injury Risk for Children in Rear Impacts: Role of the Front Seat Occupant

    PubMed Central

    Jermakian, Jessica Steps; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    As more children move to the rear rows, there is a need to understand the rear impact environment for children to guide future regulatory and due care activities in this impact direction. A probability sample of 1,035 restrained child occupants, aged 0–12 years, seated in a second row outboard position in rear impact tow-away crashes, weighted to represent 10,079 children, was collected from an on-going child specific crash surveillance system between 3/1/00 and 12/31/06. These data were analyzed to quantify the overall injury risk and the influence of both front seat occupant presence and reported front seat back deformation on injury risk. Overall risk of AIS 2+ injury for restrained child occupants seated in the rear row outboard position in rear impact crashes was 2.3%. Occupants were seated in front of these children in 71% of cases and deformation of the front seat back into the child’s space was reported in 8% of cases. For those children with seatback deformation occurring directly in front of them, there was a doubling of the injury risk (4.8% vs. 2.1%, adjusted OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2–4.8). This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the injury risk of rear row-seated children in rear impact crash events and points to the importance of understanding the role of front seat back design on rear impact injury risk for both the front seat and rear seat occupants. PMID:19026228

  4. Injury risk for children in rear impacts: role of the front seat occupant.

    PubMed

    Jermakian, Jessica Steps; Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    As more children move to the rear rows, there is a need to understand the rear impact environment for children to guide future regulatory and due care activities in this impact direction. A probability sample of 1,035 restrained child occupants, aged 0-12 years, seated in a second row outboard position in rear impact tow-away crashes, weighted to represent 10,079 children, was collected from an on-going child specific crash surveillance system between 3/1/00 and 12/31/06. These data were analyzed to quantify the overall injury risk and the influence of both front seat occupant presence and reported front seat back deformation on injury risk. Overall risk of AIS 2+ injury for restrained child occupants seated in the rear row outboard position in rear impact crashes was 2.3%. Occupants were seated in front of these children in 71% of cases and deformation of the front seat back into the child's space was reported in 8% of cases. For those children with seatback deformation occurring directly in front of them, there was a doubling of the injury risk (4.8% vs. 2.1%, adjusted OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2-4.8). This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the injury risk of rear row-seated children in rear impact crash events and points to the importance of understanding the role of front seat back design on rear impact injury risk for both the front seat and rear seat occupants. PMID:19026228

  5. Persistence of free-living protozoan communities across rearing cycles in commercial poultry houses.

    PubMed

    Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

    2011-03-01

    The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles.

  6. Persistent Effects of Peer Rearing on Abnormal and Species-Appropriate Activities but Not Social Behavior in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Sharon A; Baker, Kate C

    2016-01-01

    Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing). Focal sampling (432 h) was collected on the behavior of 32 peer-reared and 40 mother-reared subjects (age, 1 to 10 y; immature group, younger than 4 y; adult group 4 y or older). All animals were housed outdoors in like-reared social groups of 3 to 8 macaques. Contrary to expectation, no rearing effects on affiliative or agonistic social behaviors were detected. Compared with mother-reared subjects, peer-reared macaques in both age classes had elevated levels of abnormal appetitive, abnormal self-directed, and eating behaviors and lower levels of locomoting and vigilance (highly alert to activities in surrounding environment); a trend toward reduced foraging was detected. Immature but not adult peer-reared monkeys demonstrated more enrichment-directed behavior and drinking and a trend toward more anxiety-related behavior and inactivity. No new rearing effects were detected in adults that had not been detected in immature subjects. Results suggest that modern peer-rearing practices may not result in inevitable perturbations in aggressive, rank-related, sexual, and emotional behavior. However, abnormal behaviors may be lifelong issues once they appear. PMID:27053567

  7. Do Environmental Similarities Explain the Similarity in Intelligence of Identical Twins Reared Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Taylor (1980) claims to show that the similarity in IQ between monozygotic twins reared apart found in prior studies is due to similarity in their environments. A reanalysis using Taylor's classification of environments but an alternative IQ measure shows that his findings do not constructively replicate. (Author/RD)

  8. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  9. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  10. On the Links between Attachment Style, Parental Rearing Behaviors, and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Non-Clinical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Jeffrey; Meesters, Cor; ter Huurne, Mijke; Bamelis, Lotte; Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We sought to investigate the relationships between negative family factors such as insecure attachment and adverse parental rearing, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a large sample of non-clinical children (N = 237) aged 9 to 12 years. All children completed a set of self-report questionnaires including a single-item measure of…

  11. Lactation curves of commercial ewes rearing lambs.

    PubMed

    Cardellino, R A; Benson, M E

    2002-01-01

    Three-hour milk production measurements determined by machine milking at 3-d intervals throughout a 63-d lactation period were used to describe lactation curves for crossbred ewes lambing at 1 and 2 yr of age and rearing single and twin lambs. Age of ewe, type of rearing, and day of lactation affected (P < 0.05) milk production. Over the 63-d lactation, average daily milk production was 2.56 and 2.63 kg, respectively, for 1- and 2-yr-old ewes rearing single lambs and 2.73 and 3.47 kg, respectively, for 1- and 2-yr-old ewes rearing twins. Milk production of 2-yr-old ewes rearing twin lambs peaked at 21 d of lactation, and that of 1- and 2-yr-old ewes rearing singles peaked between 27 and 30 d of lactation. The largest differences in the lactation curves among age and rearing ewe classes were found in early lactation. These differences were reduced by midlactation, and by late lactation, milk production for all ewes was similar. Diurnal variation in milk production by ewes was evaluated in an 8 x 8 Latin square design. Diurnal variation in milk yield measurements of eight mature ewes, each bearing and rearing twin lambs, was similar between d 21 and 24 of lactation. Time of milk production measurements within a day did not affect yield determinations. Extrapolation from 3-h production estimates to daily milk production is valid in determining a ewe's milk contribution in support of lamb growth.

  12. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  13. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  14. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  15. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Gendler, E

    1987-06-01

    Adverse reactions to cosmetics can be irritant or allergic and are most often caused by fragrances or preservatives. Preservatives include formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and parabens. Other agents that cause allergy are paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes and toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail polishes.

  16. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  17. Isolation rearing-induced deficits in contextual fear learning do not require CRF(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Gresack, Jodi E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Scott, Christine N; Coste, Sarah; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Geyer, Mark A; Powell, Susan B

    2010-05-01

    Post-weaning social isolation of rodents is used to model developmental stressors linked to neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia as well as anxiety and mood disorders. Isolation rearing produces alterations in emotional memory and hippocampal neuropathology. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling has recently been shown to be involved in behavioral effects of isolation rearing. Activation of the CRF(2) receptor is linked to stress-induced alterations in fear learning and may also be involved in long-term adaptation to stress. Here we tested the hypothesis that CRF(2) contributes to isolation rearing effects on emotional memory. At weaning, mice were housed either in groups of three or individually in standard mouse cages. In adulthood, isolation-reared mice exhibited significant reductions in context-specific, but not cue-specific, freezing. Isolation-reared mice exhibited no significant changes in locomotor exploration during brief exposure to a novel environment, suggesting that the reduced freezing in response to context cues was not due to activity confounds. Isolation rearing also disrupted context fear memory in mice with a CRF(2) gene null mutation, indicating that the CRF(2) receptor is not required for isolation effects on fear memory. Thus, isolation rearing disrupts hippocampal-dependent fear learning as indicated by consistent reductions in context-conditioned freezing in two separate cohorts of mice, and these effects are via a CRF(2)-independent mechanism. These findings may be clinically relevant because they suggest that isolation rearing in mice may be a useful model of developmental perturbations linked to disruptions in emotional memory in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dogra, A; Minocha, Y C; Kaur, S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  19. Helping Student Teachers Avoid Adverse Legal Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five areas of the school environment lending themselves to the possibility of teacher and student teacher liability: negligence, malpractice, rights to privacy, field trips, and search of students and school property. Suggests specific guidelines for decreasing the possibility of adverse legal action. (NEC)

  20. Impaired visual memory in rats reared in isolation is reversed by D-cycloserine in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Strømme Johannesen, Tone; Myhrer, Trond

    2002-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that environmental factors can influence cholinergic and glutamatergic activity in the developing brain, and that the variations in neurochemistry are accompanied by behavioral changes in later life. Rats reared in isolated, social, or enriched environments were tested with a visual discrimination task in adulthood. The results show that saline-treated rats reared in isolation exhibited impaired retention of the discrimination task compared to rats raised in social or enriched environments. However, systemic administration of the NMDA receptor agonist, D-cycloserine (3 mg/kg), restored normal memory function in cognitively impoverished rats. Acquisition of the task was not affected by the rearing conditions. D-Cycloserine is considered to be an efficient cognitive enhancer probably able to compensate for assumed loss of NMDA receptors during isolated rearing. PMID:11864642

  1. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  2. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  3. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  4. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  5. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  6. Histone Modifications in a Mouse Model of Early Adversities and Panic Disorder: Role for Asic1 and Neurodevelopmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Cittaro, Davide; Lampis, Valentina; Luchetti, Alessandra; Coccurello, Roberto; Guffanti, Alessandro; Felsani, Armando; Moles, Anna; Stupka, Elia; D' Amato, Francesca R; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Hyperventilation following transient, CO2-induced acidosis is ubiquitous in mammals and heritable. In humans, respiratory and emotional hypersensitivity to CO2 marks separation anxiety and panic disorders, and is enhanced by early-life adversities. Mice exposed to the repeated cross-fostering paradigm (RCF) of interference with maternal environment show heightened separation anxiety and hyperventilation to 6% CO2-enriched air. Gene-environment interactions affect CO2 hypersensitivity in both humans and mice. We therefore hypothesised that epigenetic modifications and increased expression of genes involved in pH-detection could explain these relationships. Medullae oblongata of RCF- and normally-reared female outbred mice were assessed by ChIP-seq for H3Ac, H3K4me3, H3K27me3 histone modifications, and by SAGE for differential gene expression. Integration of multiple experiments by network analysis revealed an active component of 148 genes pointing to the mTOR signalling pathway and nociception. Among these genes, Asic1 showed heightened mRNA expression, coherent with RCF-mice's respiratory hypersensitivity to CO2 and altered nociception. Functional enrichment and mRNA transcript analyses yielded a consistent picture of enhancement for several genes affecting chemoception, neurodevelopment, and emotionality. Particularly, results with Asic1 support recent human findings with panic and CO2 responses, and provide new perspectives on how early adversities and genes interplay to affect key components of panic and related disorders. PMID:27121911

  7. Histone Modifications in a Mouse Model of Early Adversities and Panic Disorder: Role for Asic1 and Neurodevelopmental Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cittaro, Davide; Lampis, Valentina; Luchetti, Alessandra; Coccurello, Roberto; Guffanti, Alessandro; Felsani, Armando; Moles, Anna; Stupka, Elia; D’ Amato, Francesca R.; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Hyperventilation following transient, CO2-induced acidosis is ubiquitous in mammals and heritable. In humans, respiratory and emotional hypersensitivity to CO2 marks separation anxiety and panic disorders, and is enhanced by early-life adversities. Mice exposed to the repeated cross-fostering paradigm (RCF) of interference with maternal environment show heightened separation anxiety and hyperventilation to 6% CO2-enriched air. Gene-environment interactions affect CO2 hypersensitivity in both humans and mice. We therefore hypothesised that epigenetic modifications and increased expression of genes involved in pH-detection could explain these relationships. Medullae oblongata of RCF- and normally-reared female outbred mice were assessed by ChIP-seq for H3Ac, H3K4me3, H3K27me3 histone modifications, and by SAGE for differential gene expression. Integration of multiple experiments by network analysis revealed an active component of 148 genes pointing to the mTOR signalling pathway and nociception. Among these genes, Asic1 showed heightened mRNA expression, coherent with RCF-mice’s respiratory hypersensitivity to CO2 and altered nociception. Functional enrichment and mRNA transcript analyses yielded a consistent picture of enhancement for several genes affecting chemoception, neurodevelopment, and emotionality. Particularly, results with Asic1 support recent human findings with panic and CO2 responses, and provide new perspectives on how early adversities and genes interplay to affect key components of panic and related disorders. PMID:27121911

  8. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  9. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  10. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  11. Child-Rearing in Australia: Some Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, John D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that inadequate parenting is a feature of Australian social life, partly because as a community, Australians are unaware of some of the problems that exist, and partly because they have few adequate procedures for coping with problems that arise during child-rearing. Problems addressed include short-term separations, child abuse, and joint…

  12. Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks (pair). Pump located on the north end of rearing tank. View to the northwest. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  13. 4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND SWITCH RACK AT RIGHT REAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  15. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  16. TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ROOM AND HALL, SECOND FLOOR. ALSO SHOWS ORIGINAL STUCCO CORNICE OF FRONT AND REAR ROOMS (LEFT) AND HALL (RIGHT) - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 3. View of east rear of Craft Farm, House, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of east rear of Craft Farm, House, facing west. East rear portion of property in foreground with two outbuildings. - Craft Farm, House, 1912 North Brown Road, Lawrenceville, Gwinnett County, GA

  20. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  1. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  2. Patterns and correlates of expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style in first admitted early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    von Polier, Georg G; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and support. Families were rated as critical more frequently by patients than raters (55% vs. 13%). Perceived criticism was associated with worse QoL in relationship with parents and peers. An adverse rearing style was associated with a negative illness concept in patients, particularly with less trust in their physician. Future research should examine perceived criticism as a predictor of relapse and indicator of adolescents with EOS who need extended support and treatment. Rearing style should be carefully observed because of its link with patients' illness concept and, potentially, to service engagement and medication adherence.

  3. 13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  4. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. 6. Partial view of rear elevations of shops building and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Partial view of rear elevations of shops building and Hangar 1301 with rear elevation of corridor (behind power plant) connecting the hangar and shops building. Side elevations of shops and hangar as well as upper rear story of power plant and stack are visible, looking south southwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  6. GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  7. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  8. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  9. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  10. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  11. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  12. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs. PMID:24666599

  13. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs.

  14. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant adverse reactions that... SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.12 Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  15. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant adverse reactions that... SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.12 Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  16. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant adverse reactions that... SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.12 Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  17. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant adverse reactions that... SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.12 Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  18. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant adverse reactions that... SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT General Provisions § 717.12 Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  19. Fear and Exploration in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): A Comparison of Hand-Reared and Wild-Caught Birds

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Klaus, Kristel; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6–8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage) and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration). In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research. PMID:21526000

  20. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

    PubMed

    Feenders, Gesa; Klaus, Kristel; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage) and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration). In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research. PMID:21526000

  1. Rear projection screens: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrick, R B

    1968-05-01

    The increasing use of rear projection screens has brought about the need for a better understanding of their performance limits based on an analytical model which relates the physical and optical properties of the screen. A theoretical model is developed based on the Mie theory of light scattering, and a general discussion is given of the optical and viewing properties of rear projection screens, using an operational terminology. Basic light scattering data are used to calculate relations between such optical properties as screen brightness, axial gain, uniformity, efficiency, color fidelity, and ambient light sensitivity from such physical parameters as scattering particle size and number density, and relative refractive index of the scattering particles. Data from experimental investigations of volume scattering materials fabricated by Corning Glass Works are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. PMID:20068680

  2. Slow Progress in Dune (Right Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The right rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The wheel is largely hidden by a cable bundle. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  3. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  4. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention.

  5. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention. PMID:27025444

  6. Protocol for mosquito rearing (A. gambiae).

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Dimopoulos, George

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28 degrees C and approximately 80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect adults. PMID:18979019

  7. Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in Maine during 1977-80. Eight radio-marked hens moved their broods an average of 1.2 km from the nest to rearing pond, but only 1 hen initiated secondary brood movements. Half of the 85 broods reared in the study area used only 3 wetlands, and most rearing ponds contained active beaver (Castor canadensis) colonies. Brood-rearing hens preferred Emergent ponds over lakes and Evergreen Scrub-Shrub wetlands, and did not occupy Dead Scrub-Shrub, Unconsolidated Bottom, or Aquatic Bed wetlands. Rearing ponds were large and possessed extensive areas of flooded mountain alder (Alnus incana), willow (Salix spp.), and herbaceous vegetation. Wetlands avoided by brood-rearing hens were those with large areas of open water, submergent aquatics, or ericaceous shrub vegetation.

  8. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis?

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T

    2014-05-01

    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  9. Rearing Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleptera: Tenebrionidae) in the "Lunar Palace 1" during a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is one of the animal candidates for space bioregenerative life support systems. In this study, T. molitor was involved in a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment for a tentative rearing study. The results showed that the overall bioconversion rate (ratio of T. molitor gained to the total feed consumed) of T. molitor reared in the closed system was 8.13%, while 78.43% of the feed was excreted as frass. T. molitor reared in the closed system had a good nutritional composition. The eight essential amino acids (EAAs) in T. molitor larvae accounted for 41.30% of its total amino acids, and most EAA contents were higher than the suggested amino acid pattern recommended by the FAO/WHO. T. molitor sample obtained in this work was high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low in saturated fatty acids, indicating that the composition of fatty acids was beneficial to human health. In the open environment outside the experimental system, we simultaneously reared three parallel groups of larval T. molitor using the same feeding regime and temperature condition. Compared with T. molitor reared in the open environment, larvae reared in the closed system grew slower. With the course of time t, the growth rate of T. molitor in the open environment was 0.839e0.017t times that of larvae in the closed system. This paper can provide data for future design and improvement of BLSS containing a T. molitor rearing unit.

  10. Mass rearing methods for Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), biological control agents of Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae).

    PubMed

    Blossey, B; Hunt, T R

    1999-04-01

    Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L., an invasive Eurasian perennial, is degrading wetlands across temperate North America. Because conventional control methods have proven ineffective, current emphasis is on the introduction and release of host-specific biological control agents. To increase the availability of control agents for distribution and thus the potential for faster control, mass rearing techniques for 2 leaf beetles, Galerucella calmariensis L. and G. pusilla Duftschmidt, were developed under greenhouse and field conditions. To evaluate the success of various rearing techniques on the number of beetles produced and the effect of these methods on offspring quality, female fecundity, larval development, and adult survival were monitored. Survival of adults maintained at 4 degrees C was approximately 60% and was independent of the type of material used for storage, duration of overwintering, and number of beetles per container. Survival rates increased with increasing numbers of dry stems offered as an overwintering substrate. Females in smaller cages had significantly higher oviposition rates, and with an increase in the number of beetles per cage, female fecundity doubled. Continuous rearing in the greenhouse reduced female fecundity. Allowing beetles to overwinter significantly improved fecundity and rearing efficiency, independent of whether beetles overwintered in a controlled environment or in the field. Field rearings consistently produced 2-5 times more offspring with higher survival than greenhouse rearings.

  11. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  12. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  13. Cold rearing improves cold-flight performance in Drosophila via changes in wing morphology.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Melanie R; Harrison, Jon F; Kirkton, Scott D; Roberts, Stephen P

    2008-07-01

    We use a factorial experimental design to test whether rearing at colder temperatures shifts the lower thermal envelope for flight of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen to colder temperatures. D. melanogaster that developed in colder temperatures (15 degrees C) had a significant flight advantage in cold air compared to flies that developed in warmer temperatures (28 degrees C). At 14 degrees C, cold-reared flies failed to perform a take-off flight approximately 47% of the time whereas warm-reared flies failed approximately 94% of the time. At 18 degrees C, cold- and warm-reared flies performed equally well. We also compared several traits in cold- and warm-developing flies to determine if cold-developing flies had better flight performance at cold temperatures due to changes in body mass, wing length, wing loading, relative flight muscle mass or wing-beat frequency. The improved ability to fly at low temperatures was associated with a dramatic increase in wing area and an increase in wing length (after controlling for wing area). Flies that developed at 15 degrees C had approximately 25% more wing area than similarly sized flies that developed at 28 degrees C. Cold-reared flies had slower wing-beat frequencies than similarly sized flies from warmer developmental environments, whereas other traits did not vary with developmental temperature. These results demonstrate that developmental plasticity in wing dimensions contributes to the improved flight performance of D. melanogaster at cold temperatures, and ultimately, may help D. melanogaster live in a wide range of thermal environments.

  14. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  15. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  16. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  17. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  18. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  19. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  20. Doing Socrates experiment right: controlled rearing studies of geometrical knowledge in animals.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Chiandetti, Cinzia

    2009-02-01

    The issue of whether encoding of geometric information for navigational purposes crucially depends on environmental experience or whether it is innately predisposed in the brain has been recently addressed in controlled rearing studies. Non-human animals can make use of the geometric shape of an environment for spatial reorientation and in some circumstances reliance on purely geometric information (metric properties and sense) can overcome use of local featural information. Animals reared in home cages of different geometric shapes proved to be equally capable of learning and performing navigational tasks based on geometric information. The findings suggest that effective use of geometric information for spatial reorientation does not require experience in environments with right angles and metrically distinct surfaces.

  1. Differential rearing conditions and alcohol-preferring rats: consumption of and operant responding for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Deehan, Gerald A; Palmatier, Matthew I; Cain, Mary E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2011-04-01

    Exposing rats to differential rearing conditions during early postweaning development has been shown to produce changes in a number of behaviors displayed during adulthood. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate whether rearing alcohol-preferring (P) and nonpreferring (NP) rats in an environmental enrichment condition (EC), a social condition (SC), or an impoverished condition (IC) would differentially affect self-administration of 10% ethanol. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for consumption of 10% ethanol in limited- and free-access tests. For Experiment 2, rats were trained to respond in an operant chamber for ethanol and then provided concurrent access to 10% ethanol and water. Each solution was presented in a separate liquid dipper after meeting the schedule of reinforcement on distinct levers. After concurrent access tests, the water lever/dipper was inactivated and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule was initiated. Three successive solutions (10% ethanol, 15% ethanol, and 10% sucrose) were tested under the PR. For P rats, rearing in an EC reduced ethanol consumption, preference, and motivation to obtain ethanol, relative to P rats reared in an IC. Thus, exposure to a novel environment immediately after weaning acted to decrease the reinforcing properties of ethanol in an animal model for alcoholism.

  2. Survival of lake trout eggs and fry reared in water from the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol Cotant; Seelye, James G.

    1985-01-01

    As part of continuing studies of the reproductive failure of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan, we measured the survival of lake trout eggs and fry of different origins and reared in different environments. Eggs and milt were stripped from spawning lake trout collected in the fall of 1980 from southeastern Lake Michigan, northwestern Lake Huron, south central Lake Superior, and from hatchery brood stock. Eggs from all sources were incubated, and the newly hatched fry were reared for 139 days in lake water from each of the three upper Great Lakes and in well water. Survival of eggs to hatching at all sites was lowest for those from Lake Michigan (70% of fertilized eggs) and highest for eggs from Lake Superior (96%). Comparisons of incubation water from the different lakes indicated that hatching success of eggs from all sources was highest in Lake Huron water, and lowest in Lake Michigan water. The most notable finding was the nearly total mortality of fry from eggs of southeastern Lake Michigan lake trout. At all sites, the mean survival of Lake Michigan fry through 139 days after hatching was only 4% compared to near 50% for fry from the other three sources. In a comparison of the rearing sites, little influence of water quality on fry survival was found. Thus, the poor survival was associated with the source of eggs and sperm, not the water in which the fry were reared.

  3. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  4. View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  5. View from left rear theater looking towards stage National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from left rear theater looking towards stage - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Wadsworth Theater, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  7. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Quality of rearing guides expression of behavioral and neural seizure phenotypes in EL mice.

    PubMed

    Leussis, Melanie P; Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2009-03-13

    The present studies employed behavioral and neural markers of seizure-related plasticity to examine the relative contributions of genetic predisposition versus rearing environment in generating adult phenotypes in EL mice, a stress-induced animal model of epilepsy. Early environment was manipulated by cross-fostering pups of the EL strain to a seizure-resistant CD-1 control strain of mouse. The impact of changes in rearing quality on growth,exploratory and stress-reactivity phenotypes were examined, with a focus on the role of maternal care in shaping seizure susceptibility and neural cF os activation. Improvement in maternal care imposed by replacing biological EL dams with foster CD-1 mothers was sufficient to decrease pup mortality, to increase body weight gain (+0.1 g/day) and to delay the onset of seizure susceptibility in EL offspring beyond post-natal day 80–90. Moreover,hypoactivity in hippocampus and cortex among EL offspring cross-fostered to EL, but not CD-1 control, dams suggests that changes in rearing environment were accompanied by enduring changes in brain plasticity. Thus, neural and behavioral phenotypes of EL mice are dependent upon post-partum maternal care which if systematically enhanced can postpone seizure expression.

  9. Precedence-effect-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition in socially reared but not isolation-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Li, Jingyu; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2009-03-01

    Attention to a prepulse presented shortly before a startling stimulus enhances prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle in normal people, but not in schizophrenics. Fear conditioning for the prepulse enhances PPI in socially reared, but not isolation-reared, rats. In humans, selective attention to acoustic signals against masking can be facilitated by precedence-effect-induced perceived spatial separation between the signal and the masker. This study investigated whether perceived spatial separation between a prepulse and a noise masker enhances PPI in socially reared rats and isolation-reared rats. The results show that both PPI and conditioning-induced PPI enhancement were larger in socially reared rats than in isolation-reared rats. More important, in socially reared, but not isolation-reared, rats, a further PPI enhancement was induced by precedence-effect-induced perceived separation between a prepulse and a masker only after the prepulse became fear conditioned. Thus, perceived separation facilitates normal rats' attention to a conditioned prepulse and enhances PPI. Isolation rearing impairs rats' ability to attend to ecologically significant acoustic events. PMID:19246326

  10. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  11. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  12. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  13. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Hickson, R C; Ball, K L; Falduto, M T

    1989-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are used therapeutically for various disorders and as ergogenic aids by athletes to augment strength, muscular development, and to enhance performance. There is a wide range of concomitant temporary and permanent adverse effects with steroid administration. Several well-documented adverse actions of these hormones may develop rapidly within several weeks or less (i.e. altered reproductive function) or require up to several years of steroid intake (i.e. liver carcinoma). More recent studies indicate that glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiovascular disease risk profiles, cerebral dangers, musculoskeletal injuries, prostate cancer, psychosis and schizophrenic episodes, among others, accompany anabolic steroid intake. There is, at present, no evidence to support the claim that athletes are less susceptible to adverse effects than those individuals receiving hormone treatment in a clinical setting. Based on the available information which has accumulated primarily from cross-sectional, short term longitudinal, and case studies, there is a need: (a) to develop a comprehensive battery of specific and sensitive markers of adverse effects, particularly those that would be able to detect the onset of adverse actions; and (b) to conduct controlled long term longitudinal studies in order to fully understand the extensiveness and mechanisms involved in the occurrence of adverse effects.

  14. Control of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: use of halofuginone lactate in two different calf rearing systems.

    PubMed

    De Waele, V; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Mulcahy, G; Murphy, T M

    2010-09-01

    To date there is no effective treatment for bovine cryptosporidiosis. This study describes the use of halofuginone lactate in preventing cryptosporidiosis in naturally infected neonatal calves on a dairy farm with a high prevalence of infection. The animals were kept in two different calf rearing systems. A randomized double-blind trial was carried out with 32 naturally infected calves, divided into four groups. The two prophylactic halofuginone lactate treated groups were kept in either individual or group pens. Similarly, the animals receiving the placebo were housed in either individual pens or together in a large pen. A total of ten faecal samples were collected periodically during the 28 days study from each calf and tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopic and molecular methods. Generalized estimating equations models were used to determine if the effects of the various treatments and/or rearing systems on the presence of diarrhoea and infection were statistically significant. Further analysis (classification trees models) was carried out to explore possible risk factors for cryptosporidiosis and interactions between treatments and rearing systems. Halofuginone lactate was shown to be effective in reducing clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and environmental contamination. However, the treatment did not delay the onset of diarrhoea and did not reduce the risk of infection amongst calves reared together in a highly contaminated environment. The use of halofuginone lactate in combination with good hygienic measures, such as rearing animals in clean individual pens, was the most effective method to reduce the risk of cryptosporidiosis amongst 7-13 days old calves. It was concluded that the control of the parasite could be achieved by the combination of using effective preventive drugs, such as halofuginone lactate and good animal husbandry procedures.

  15. Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

    2006-07-01

    The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

  16. Do captive conditions favor shedding of parasites in the reared Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)?

    PubMed

    Mladineo, I; Segvić, T; Petrić, M

    2011-01-01

    Tuna (Thunnus spp.) has been characterized by long distance migrations, highly predatory behavior and longevity, all of which in turn, enable infections with a wide spectrum of different parasitic groups, reflecting in a remarkable diversity of tuna parasite communities. Since 2003, we have been monitoring parasite communities of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) that are caught from the wild and transferred into cages during spring-summer months, as well as assemblages in fish that exit rearing cycle during the winter harvest period after 1.5 years. Interestingly in reared tuna, parasitic populations exhibit a significant decreasing trend at the end of the rearing cycle, rarely observed in other intensive productions that represent a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of pathogens. In order to assess epizootiological behavior of tuna parasites assemblages at the beginning (B group) and at the end (A group) of 1.5 year rearing cycle, we examined data on parasite prevalence and abundance over 4 years. The aim was to evaluate parasite diversity indices and emerging differences between newly caught and harvested fish, as well as community compositions and their nestedness in respect to the event in the rearing cycle (capture or harvest time). In order to be able to predict classification of tuna in two categories (newly caught or heavily infected and harvested or less infected fish), based on empirical didymozoids abundances and year of sampling, we built a decision tree model. Results suggest that specificities of parasite assemblages and their dynamics in tuna before and after farming have no similar precedents in aquaculture. A trend of parasitic pauperization repeating in each rearing cycle over four-years time, in once diverse and species rich parasite communities is observed, however, structures of both B and A group rearing assemblages remain nested, with the same species being core parasites (Didymosulcus katsuwonicola

  17. 19. WEST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE, SOUTH STORAGE SHED ATTACHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE, SOUTH STORAGE SHED ATTACHED TO REAR OF HANGAR SHED. A SIMILAR NORTH STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls and roofs of rear ells of 515 Eleventh Street, 517 Eleventh Street, 519 Eleventh Street, and Eleventh Street - Square 347 (Commercial Buildings), Tenth, Eleventh, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  1. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  2. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  3. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  4. View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear and Building No. 31 at right rear. Rolled curb design of sidewalk on left, looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  6. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-07-29

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior.

  7. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior. PMID:26948536

  8. Abundance of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms in Penaeus monodon larvae rearing systems in India.

    PubMed

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Ramasamy, Palaniappan

    2003-01-01

    Monodon baculovirls (MBV), external fouling organisms (EFO) and bacteria (especially Vibrio species) were monitored during 1996-1997 at nine different Penaeus monodon rearing hatcheries in India. Total cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, Vibrio-like-bacteria, presumptive Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus counts were determined from shrimp eggs, post larvae, rearing tank water, source sea water, feed (Artemia nauplii and microencapsulated feed). The MBV infected post larvae and their environment showed higher Vibrio-like-bacteria than uninfected post larvae. An overwhelming predominance of presumptive Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum was observed in post larval rearing tank water, MBV infected and uninfected post larvae. Vibrio-like-bacteria in Artemia nauplii clearly showed the possible source of these pathogenic bacteria in the hatchery environments. Quantitative analysis of Vibrio-like-bacteria in hatcheries revealed that when the Vibrio-like-bacteria increases to 2 x 10(2) CFU mortality of the post larvae occurs. Abundance of these micro-organisms in hatchery samples indicated that they are opportunistic pathogens which can invade the shrimp tissue, subsequently cause disease when the post larvae were under stressful conditions.

  9. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

  10. Artificial rearing alters the response of rats to natural and drug-mediated rewards.

    PubMed

    Lomanowska, Anna M; Rana, Shadna A; McCutcheon, Dawn; Parker, Linda A; Wainwright, Patricia E

    2006-05-01

    Artificial rearing (AR) of infant rats permits precise control over key features of the early environment without maternal influence. The present study examined the behavioral response of AR rats towards natural and drug-mediated rewards, as well as their exploratory and affective behaviors. Adolescent AR rats showed increased preference for sucrose consumption relative to chow and demonstrated greater activity in the open field and in the elevated plus-maze compared to maternally reared (MR) rats. With respect to measures of emotionality, AR rats showed enhanced avoidance of the open arms of the plus-maze, indicating increased anxiety, but they did not differ from MR rats in exploring the center of the open field. Adult AR rats displayed a stronger conditioned response to morphine in a place preference test. These findings support the potential of the AR model to contribute to understanding the role of early experience in the development of behavioral motivation.

  11. A resilient formin-derived cortical actin meshwork in the rear drives actomyosin-based motility in 2D confinement

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Nagendran; Franke, Christof; Jaschinski, Evelin; Winterhoff, Moritz; Lu, Yao; Brühmann, Stefan; Junemann, Alexander; Meier, Helena; Noegel, Angelika A.; Weber, Igor; Zhao, Hongxia; Merkel, Rudolf; Schleicher, Michael; Faix, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is driven by the establishment of disparity between the cortical properties of the softer front and the more rigid rear allowing front extension and actomyosin-based rear contraction. However, how the cortical actin meshwork in the rear is generated remains elusive. Here we identify the mDia1-like formin A (ForA) from Dictyostelium discoideum that generates a subset of filaments as the basis of a resilient cortical actin sheath in the rear. Mechanical resistance of this actin compartment is accomplished by actin crosslinkers and IQGAP-related proteins, and is mandatory to withstand the increased contractile forces in response to mechanical stress by impeding unproductive blebbing in the rear, allowing efficient cell migration in two-dimensional-confined environments. Consistently, ForA supresses the formation of lateral protrusions, rapidly relocalizes to new prospective ends in repolarizing cells and is required for cortical integrity. Finally, we show that ForA utilizes the phosphoinositide gradients in polarized cells for subcellular targeting. PMID:26415699

  12. Foster dams rear fighters: strain-specific effects of within-strain fostering on aggressive behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; So, Nina L T; Rissman, Emilie F

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering"). In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering") is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (DBA). We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species.

  13. The direct and interactive effects of physical abuse severity and negative affectivity on length of psychiatric hospitalization: evidence of differential reactivity to adverse environments in psychiatrically high-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Comas, Michelle; Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the interactive influence of multiple factors (i.e., physical abuse severity and negative affectivity) in predicting youth's inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), extending previous research focused on identification of only single LOS predictors. Elevated physical abuse severity was hypothesized to predict longer youth LOS, and negative affectivity was anticipated to exacerbate this relationship. This study included 42 youth. Clinicians rated youth temperament, whereas physical abuse severity and LOS were coded from youth medical records. Controlling for other previously determined predictors of LOS (i.e., age, gender, and GAF), moderation analyses confirmed hypotheses, revealing a temperament by environment interaction. Specifically, physical abuse severity was positively associated with LOS only in the context of high negative affectivity. Findings highlighted the importance of disentangling the interactive effects of multiple factors in predicting LOS. Moreover, critical clinical implications involving prioritized trauma assessment and treatment for inpatient youth are discussed.

  14. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  16. Synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex of mice: effects of deprived rearing and voluntary running.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Andrea T U; Grafen, Keren; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Winter, York

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus). We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils.

  17. Evaluation of Reproduction and Raising Offspring in a Nursery-Reared SPF Baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) Colony

    PubMed Central

    BUDDA, MADELINE L.; ELY, JOHN J.; DOAN, SANDRA; CHAVEZ-SUAREZ, MARIA; WHITE, GARY L.; WOLF, ROMAN F.

    2014-01-01

    Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) of a conventional breeding colony were nursery-reared to create a specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboon breeding program. Because the founding generations were nursery-reared until two years of age, it was suspected that the SPF baboons would exhibit increased reproductive challenges as adults. Mothering behavior was of interest, because SPF females were not exposed to parental role models during the nursery-rearing process. We compared reproductive data from the SPF baboon breeding program during its first 10 years with data from age-matched baboons during the same period from an established, genetically-similar conventional breeding colony. We also evaluated records documenting mother-infant behaviors within the SPF colony. The average age of menarche in SPF females was 3.3 years. The overall live birth rate of both SPF and conventional females was approximately 90%, with no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two colonies. The average age at first conception for SPF females was earlier (4.2 years) than that of the conventional females (4.7 years). In both colonies, primiparous females were more likely to abort than multiparous females. Similarly, primiparous females were more likely to lose their infants to death or human intervention. A mothering score system was developed in the SPF colony to facilitate intervention of poor mother-infant relationships. Records revealed 70% of SPF mothers were able to raise one or more of their infants successfully to at least 180 days of age, which did not differ from conventional mothers. SPF females returned to postpartum estrus 27 days sooner on average than the conventional females, independent of dam age. The nursery-rearing process used for recruitment into the SPF colony therefore did not have an adverse effect on reproduction or rearing offspring. PMID:23440922

  18. Evaluation of reproduction and raising offspring in a nursery-reared SPF baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) colony.

    PubMed

    Budda, Madeline L; Ely, John J; Doan, Sandra; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; White, Gary L; Wolf, Roman F

    2013-08-01

    Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) of a conventional breeding colony were nursery-reared to create a specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboon-breeding program. Because the founding generations were nursery-reared until 2 years of age, it was suspected that the SPF baboons would exhibit increased reproductive challenges as adults. Mothering behavior was of interest, because SPF females were not exposed to parental role models during the nursery-rearing process. We compared reproductive data from the SPF baboon breeding program during its first 10 years with data from age-matched baboons during the same period from an established, genetically-similar conventional breeding colony. We also evaluated records documenting mother-infant behaviors within the SPF colony. The average age of menarche in SPF females was 3.3 years. The overall live birth rate of both SPF and conventional females was approximately 90%, with no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two colonies. The average age at first conception for SPF females was earlier (4.2 years) than that of the conventional females (4.7 years). In both colonies, primiparous females were more likely to abort than multiparous females. Similarly, primiparous females were more likely to lose their infants to death or human intervention. A mothering score system was developed in the SPF colony to facilitate intervention of poor mother-infant relationships. Records revealed 70% of SPF mothers were able to raise one or more of their infants successfully to at least 180 days of age, which did not differ from conventional mothers. SPF females returned to post-partum amenorrhea 27 days sooner on average than the conventional females, independent of dam age. The nursery-rearing process used for recruitment into the SPF colony therefore did not have an adverse effect on reproduction or rearing offspring.

  19. Cooperative fish-rearing programs in Hanford Site excess facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.; Anderson, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    In, 1993, two successful fish-rearing pilot projects were conducted in Hanford Site 100 K Area water treatment pools (K Pools) that are excess to the US Department of Energy needs. Beginning this spring, two larger cooperative fish programs will be undertaken in the K Pools. One program will involve the Yakama Indian Nation, which will rear, acclimate, and release 500,000 fall chinook salmon. The other program involves the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, which will rear warm-water specie (walleye and channel catfish) for planting in state lakes. Renewed economic vitality is the goal expected from these and follow-on fish programs.

  20. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any information regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment alleged to have been... this part. This may include, for example, researchers performing field experiments, breeders making... information. (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment for purposes of...

  1. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  2. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  3. The Effects of Four Nursery Rearing Strategies on Infant Behavioral Development in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Rommeck, Ina; Gottlieb, Daniel H; Strand, Sarah C; McCowan, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Nursery rearing is the single most important risk factor in the development of severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as self-biting, in rhesus macaques. This practice is common in research laboratories and typically involves continuous pair housing of infants without maternal contact. We examined the effects of variation in peer socialization on the behavioral development of rhesus infants by exposing 32 newborn infants to 4 different socialization routines: continuously paired; intermittently paired; continuously paired rotationally (partners rotated within the group once a week); and intermittently paired rotationally. Analyses revealed that infants paired intermittently exhibited ‘floating limb’ and self-biting behavior at significantly higher frequencies than those reared by using any other strategy. Results also suggested that continuous pairing was most effective in reducing the development of abnormal behaviors (that is, self-bite and floating limb), whereas intermittent pairing significantly reduced partner clinging and geckering. A principal component analysis revealed that floating limb behavior and self-biting are strongly associated. Self-biting began as early as 32 d of age, and a negative binomial regression on data of floating limb and self-biting revealed that early development of floating limb behavior predicts self-biting behavior later in development. Despite the significant effects of rearing strategies on the frequency of abnormal behaviors, we note that animals in all 4 treatment groups developed these traits to some degree. We suspect that the solitary incubator environment may be a trigger for the development of abnormal behaviors. PMID:19653949

  4. The Rearing and Biology of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis, Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Jia; Rexili, Kelaimu; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kasz (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a unique species that lives in the desert region of Central Asia and has adopted a nocturnal habit to survive the desert environment. Female adults are larger in size than male adults. The female/male ratio was 1.04:1. A rearing method using reused plastic bottles was used. The rearing conditions were 30 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 6% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 L:D photoperiod. Cabbage was provided as food. Cannibalism was avoided by rearing one larva in a bottle. A complete life cycle was obtained under these conditions. The viability of eggs, larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adults was 93.54%, 83.71%, 84.76%, 87.64%, and 93.59%, respectively. Embryogenesis took 7.35 days on average. The larval duration in each instar was 2.25 days. The mean duration of the larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adult was 49.27, 7.05, 9.95, and 10.12 days, respectively. The coloration of each developmental stage gradually changed from creamy white to light brownish or black. Females commenced oviposition when their body color became black. On average, each female produced 568 eggs. PMID:21529250

  5. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  6. PLANAR VIEW OF REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE OF GARAGE, SHOWING FLAMMABLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANAR VIEW OF REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE OF GARAGE, SHOWING FLAMMABLES LOCKER AND ADDITION ON RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Moore Haven Lock, Garage, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  7. Radial line method for rear-view mirror distortion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Hatta, Agus M.; Irwansyah, .

    2015-01-01

    An image of the object can be distorted due to a defect in a mirror. A rear-view mirror is an important component for the vehicle safety. One of standard parameters of the rear-view mirror is a distortion factor. This paper presents a radial line method for distortion detection of the rear-view mirror. The rear-view mirror was tested for the distortion detection by using a system consisting of a webcam sensor and an image-processing unit. In the image-processing unit, the captured image from the webcam were pre-processed by using smoothing and sharpening techniques and then a radial line method was used to define the distortion factor. It was demonstrated successfully that the radial line method could be used to define the distortion factor. This detection system is useful to be implemented such as in Indonesian's automotive component industry while the manual inspection still be used.

  8. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  9. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4404 and 4405, view towards the north with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  10. Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior planar view of doors to railroad platform at rear of ammunition storage building 4403, view towards the west westside with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  11. Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south sides of ammunition storage buildings 4403 and 4404, view towards the north without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4403, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  12. 12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  13. 15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  14. 14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  15. 13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  16. 4. CLOSEUP OF REAR STEPPED PARAPET GABLE SHOWING TOP CURVILINEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSE-UP OF REAR STEPPED PARAPET GABLE SHOWING TOP CURVILINEAR GABLE AND ROUGH STUCCO FINISH. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Operations Building No. 1, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  17. Pool area with mezzanine at rear Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area with mezzanine at rear - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Rear (east) side Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (east) side - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. 4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 43 13.7 / W-119 34 23.0 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.369 Rear... weight. (b) Either aerodynamic data for the particular wing section used, or a value of C L equalling...

  1. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  2. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  3. 3. Control Area, Barracks, detail of chimney and rear door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Control Area, Barracks, detail of chimney and rear door VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  4. 27. Threequarter view of rear of building 153, water pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Three-quarter view of rear of building 153, water pump house, showing edge of water storage mound on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  5. Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear of Oxide Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  6. 5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  7. 3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. 6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND FLOOR, WITH PASSAGEWAY LEADING TO c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION - United States Radium Corporation, Paint Application Building, 422 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  14. 2. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 1 FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

  16. 48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS OF VACUUM-TUBE OSCILLOSCOPE - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  20. 21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. 6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Berthing Wharf S378, Beckoning Point, Southeast of Cowpens Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  3. East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. 3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations - view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. 2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  7. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  8. 8. PART OF NORTH SIDE AND REAR OF FRONT (WEST) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PART OF NORTH SIDE AND REAR OF FRONT (WEST) PORTION OF BUILDING, SHOWING CONNECTING NORTH WING, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  9. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far right. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. 3. Ninth Street view of brewery showing rear of 1890 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Ninth Street view of brewery showing rear of 1890 tower building and HI-EN Brau stone building, one of the oldest structures remaining. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  16. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Industrial Wastewater Treatment & Disposal Facility, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  18. Site overview. View of hangar no. 1 at rear, hangar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. View of hangar no. 1 at rear, hangar no. 2 at right. Looking 350 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. 5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior, third floor rear of 10 East State Street showing original surviving 6/6 sash window and moldings. - 8-10 East State Street (Commercial Building), 8-10 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  20. 4. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF POWER PLANT/MACHINE SHOP - Clay Spur Bentonite Plant & Camp, Power Plant-Machine Shop, Clay Spur Siding on Burlington Northern Railroad, Osage, Weston County, WY

  1. 2. VIEW SHOWING NORTHWEST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST REAR OF POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NORTHWEST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST REAR OF POWER PLANT/MACHINE SHOP - Clay Spur Bentonite Plant & Camp, Power Plant-Machine Shop, Clay Spur Siding on Burlington Northern Railroad, Osage, Weston County, WY

  2. 19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  3. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  6. 11. VIEW NORTH OF REAR OF TOW VEHICLE. NOTE CURRENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH OF REAR OF TOW VEHICLE. NOTE CURRENT COLLECTORS AT TOP LEFT AND OVERHEAD TROLLEY WIRES FOR POWER TRANSMISSION TO DRIVE MOTORS. - NASA Langley Research Center, Seaplane Towing Channel, 108 Andrews Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  7. 2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLUBHOUSE. REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  9. CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW OF REAR OF HULETTS IN FRONT OF MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM. LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

  12. 6. EXTERIOR ELEVATION VIEW OF REAR OF THEATER IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR ELEVATION VIEW OF REAR OF THEATER IN BUILDING 746, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Gymnasium-Cafeteria-Theater, East K Street between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR OF THEATER IN BUILDING 746, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR OF THEATER IN BUILDING 746, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Gymnasium-Cafeteria-Theater, East K Street between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. Interior, detail at rear of theater showing partition with triangular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, detail at rear of theater showing partition with triangular roof projections. Doors lead to lobby. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Theater, Northwest Corner of East McAfee Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. 63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. DETAIL VIEW OF REAR DOOR, BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, NEPTUNE'S LOCKER, SOUTHEAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST REAR OF NEPTUNE'S LOCK (LEFT) AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (RIGHT), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  18. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations of facade and tis flaking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 2. Exterior, general view of rear and end, from west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Exterior, general view of rear and end, from west. Sept. 12, 1940. Photo by Stanly P. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  20. Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. Hemi circle in background below Custis-Lee Mansion. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REAR OF INSPECTION STATION AND RESIDENCES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REAR OF INSPECTION STATION AND RESIDENCES, WITH COMMUNICATIONS TOWER AND PUMPHOUSE (LEFT FOREGROUND), VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - U.S. Border Inspection Station, West side of State Route 95, Eastport, Boundary County, ID

  2. 4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  3. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  4. VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  6. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 3. Southeast end and part of rear wall of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southeast end and part of rear wall of main section of roundhouse. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  8. 4. Northeast portion of rear wall of main section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast portion of rear wall of main section of roundhouse. View to southwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  9. 3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (side) and east (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  11. Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. EAST (SIDE) AND NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (SIDE) AND NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Exchange Sales Store, Off New York Road, between Kansas & Idaho Avenues, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. 28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  14. Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  15. Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  16. 5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  17. 6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  18. 7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR TBRACE. Photocopy of photograph. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING REAR T-BRACE. Photocopy of photograph. Susan Kardas, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  19. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  20. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  1. 4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 4. West rear and south side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West rear and south side of building. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  3. 2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER UNDERNEATH SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 7. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS OF SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING SIMPLE GREEK REVIVAL MANTLE. LOOKING WEST; TAKEN FROM FRONT ROOM. - Manlius Thomas House, 125 North Mulberry Street, Georgetown, Scott County, KY

  8. East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near the Greek theater. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Small Arms Range System, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  10. VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST REAR OF BUILDING 61, FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST REAR OF BUILDING 61, FACING SOUTH - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers , Building 61, North side of Harris Avenue at its intersection with Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  11. 2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  12. 2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mechanic Shed, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  13. 15. INSIDE THEATER PROPER. GROUND FLOOR, UNDER BALCONY, AT REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INSIDE THEATER PROPER. GROUND FLOOR, UNDER BALCONY, AT REAR OF SEATING AREA (SOUTH END) LOOKING EAST. VIEW OF DECORATIVE CEILING COVE. - Granada Theatre, 6425-6441 North Sheridan Road, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. 20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. FACILITY 89. OBLIQUE OF SIDE AND REAR. VIEW FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 89. OBLIQUE OF SIDE AND REAR. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Junior Officers' Quarters Type K, Makin Place, & Halawa, Makalapa, & Midway Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  17. BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  18. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  19. 6. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO REAR OF HOUSES FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO REAR OF HOUSES FROM SOUTH OF 432-436 SOUTH CONVENT AVE. TO OTHER SIDE OF BLOCK. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  20. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  1. 5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 471 FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Northampton Avenue & Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 477 FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Astoria Avenue & Gaffney Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 5. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, REAR AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  5. 6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 22. Threequarter view of rear of Jwing, looking southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Three-quarter view of rear of J-wing, looking southwest from Mercury Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Duplex Housing Type with Corner Entries, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. FACILITY 814, SOUTHEAST SIDE AND REAR, SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 814, SOUTHEAST SIDE AND REAR, SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Bachelor Officers' Quarters Type, Between Grimes & Tidball Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Y, 27 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Detail of southwest corner showing rear double door entry, bracketed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southwest corner showing rear double door entry, bracketed window awnings, and decorative parapet coping, facing northeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. 11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY (PSFS) BUILDING WITH MEETING HOUSE CORNICE IN FOREGROUND. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. FACILITY 805, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTHNORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 805, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. FACILITY 710, REAR COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, REAR COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. FACILITY 713, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 713, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Central-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. FACILITY 809, HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD REAR OF HOUSE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 809, HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD REAR OF HOUSE, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Magazine Type 2, Fourth Place, Seventh & Eighth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DRAWING #8 OF 15, FRONT AND REAR ELEVATIONS, CANOPY ROOF PLAN AND CANOPY DETAIL, AND ELEVATIONS OF NEW TOILETS - U. S. Post Office, Custom House & Courthouse, 401 Center Street, Fernandina Beach, Nassau County, FL

  18. Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  19. 98. 181721 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, PART OF SOUTH REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. 1817-21 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, PART OF SOUTH REAR ON LEFT, TOWARD SOUTHWEST AND SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  20. 5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) elevations, looking north. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  1. 4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  2. 14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  3. REAR AND SIDE OF PACIFIC COAST GARRISON MONUMENT, SECTION ES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR AND SIDE OF PACIFIC COAST GARRISON MONUMENT, SECTION ES (EAST SIDE), WITH ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AT RIGHT IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE BIT ON STERN DECK OF VESSEL 37 Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  5. 15. View of Ford Mansion's living room looking towards rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of Ford Mansion's living room looking towards rear of house; scale is in back of room - Richmond Hill Plantation, Ford Mansion, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. Rear of REPLACEMENT MODEL single chair from mid station. Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear of REPLACEMENT MODEL single chair from mid station. Tower 13 in background, LOOKing northeast. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  7. COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  8. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. & 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  9. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer REAR STAIRS 1st. TO 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING POST OF CHIMNEY GIRT & OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  10. 4. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith shop/garage, lower level, and porches - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  11. 5. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith shop/garage, residential garage and house - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  12. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE STRUCTURE TRASH RACKS BELOW. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  17. 1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  18. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  19. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Rear (north side) and west side of building. Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (north side) and west side of building. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. 3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, BACKYARD LAWN, AND CLOTHESLINE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of two story walk-up flat type unit. View facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Walk-Up Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward security operations officer's office. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  5. 2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing east showing the south elevation (rear) of the garage, loading docks and rail spur, with Providence Fruit & Produce Building beyond. - Armour & Company Building, 100 Harris Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  6. View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  7. View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  8. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic risk factors for idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in the past 30 years. These reactions can affect various tissues and organs, including liver, skin, muscle and heart, in a drug-dependent manner. Using both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, various genes that make contributions of varying extents to each of these forms of reactions have been identified. Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. Future prospects for identification of additional genetic risk factors for the various adverse drug reactions are discussed. PMID:23360680

  11. Heat stress in front and rear cockpits of F-4 aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Nunneley, S.A.; Stribley, R.F.; Allan, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    The thermal stresses encountered in the front and rear cockpits of F-4 aircraft flying low-level missions in warm, moderately humid weather and physiological responses to these stresses are investigated. Measurements of ground and cockpit environmental temperatures and subject skin and core temperatures were acquired for the preflight taxi, low-level flight, ordnance delivery and postflight taxi phases of 36 flights of F-4E aircraft performed to simulate low-level ground attack missions. Cockpit dry-bulb temperatures are found to exceed those on the ground during ground operations, and to decrease in flight in the front, but not the rear, cockpit. A linear relationship between cockpit dry bulb and temperatures is also found in each of the mission phases, along with increases in skin and core temperatures with cockpit temperatures and sweat rates depending both on cockpit temperatures and the amount of clothing worn. Adverse physiological effects related to nausea and acceleration tolerances are also noted. It is concluded that the cockpit cooling system of the F-4 allows the development of operationally significant heat stress, which may be corrected by better design and testing of the cooling system.

  12. Cell Culture Isolation of Piscine Nodavirus (Betanodavirus) in Fish-Rearing Seawater.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Shinnosuke; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus) is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in a variety of cultured fish species, particularly marine fish. In the present study, we developed a sensitive method for cell culture isolation of the virus from seawater and applied the method to a spontaneous fish-rearing environment. The virus in seawater was concentrated by an iron-based flocculation method and subjected to isolation with E-11 cells. A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the virus in water. After spiking into seawater was performed, a betanodavirus strain (red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus [RGNNV] genotype) was effectively recovered in the E-11 cells at a detection limit of approximately 10(5)copies (equivalent to 10(2)50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50])/liter seawater. In an experimental infection of juvenile sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) with the virus, the virus was isolated from the drainage of a fish-rearing tank when the virus level in water was at least approximately 10(5)copies/liter. The application of this method to seven band grouper-rearing floating net pens, where VNN prevailed, resulted in the successful isolation of the virus from seawater. No differences were found in the partial sequences of the coat protein gene (RNA2) between the clinical virus isolates of dead fish and the cell-cultured virus isolates from seawater, and the viruses were identified as RGNNV. The infection experiment showed that the virus isolates from seawater were virulent to seven band grouper. These results showed direct evidence of the horizontal transmission of betanodavirus via rearing water in marine aquaculture. PMID:26896128

  13. Cell Culture Isolation of Piscine Nodavirus (Betanodavirus) in Fish-Rearing Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Shinnosuke; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kawato, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus) is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in a variety of cultured fish species, particularly marine fish. In the present study, we developed a sensitive method for cell culture isolation of the virus from seawater and applied the method to a spontaneous fish-rearing environment. The virus in seawater was concentrated by an iron-based flocculation method and subjected to isolation with E-11 cells. A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the virus in water. After spiking into seawater was performed, a betanodavirus strain (redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus [RGNNV] genotype) was effectively recovered in the E-11 cells at a detection limit of approximately 105 copies (equivalent to 102 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50])/liter seawater. In an experimental infection of juvenile sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) with the virus, the virus was isolated from the drainage of a fish-rearing tank when the virus level in water was at least approximately 105 copies/liter. The application of this method to sevenband grouper-rearing floating net pens, where VNN prevailed, resulted in the successful isolation of the virus from seawater. No differences were found in the partial sequences of the coat protein gene (RNA2) between the clinical virus isolates of dead fish and the cell-cultured virus isolates from seawater, and the viruses were identified as RGNNV. The infection experiment showed that the virus isolates from seawater were virulent to sevenband grouper. These results showed direct evidence of the horizontal transmission of betanodavirus via rearing water in marine aquaculture. PMID:26896128

  14. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    PubMed

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  15. Socialization of a single hand-reared tiger cub.

    PubMed

    Kelling, Angela S; Bashaw, Meredith J; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L

    2013-01-01

    Given the drawbacks of hand-rearing nonhuman animals in captivity, the practice is generally avoided, but it is sometimes necessary. A few scientific publications are available to guide managers toward best practices in hand-rearing, but the majority of articles focus on hand-rearing captive primates. Less is known about hand-rearing carnivores, but early socialization appears to be critical for adult social behavior. This article documents the successful hand-rearing and reintroduction of a single female Sumatran tiger cub at Zoo Atlanta. Reintroduction included a systematic procedure that used scent trials and introduction sessions through a barrier to gauge interest and determine whether or not aggression was a problem. Based on signs of interest, reduced stress-related behaviors, and a lack of aggression, animal managers decided to proceed with reintroduction. During the introductions, the animals were not aggressive and did occasionally interact, although typical mother-infant interactions were rare. The cub has since bred naturally and successfully delivered and reared two litters of cubs. These data suggest limited exposure to an adult tiger may be adequate socialization for normal reproduction even if it is provided relatively late in the cub's development.

  16. [Study progress of adverse effects of arsenic on health].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiaqi; Jin, Yinlong

    2004-05-01

    Adverse effects on health of high arsenic in drinking water and contaminated environment are currently of great concern. This review focuses on metabolism of arsenic and it's impairments to skin, blood circle system, nervous system, reproductive-and-urinary system, digestive system, respiratory system and immune system.

  17. Rearing Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleptera: Tenebrionidae) in the "Lunar Palace 1" during a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is one of the animal candidates for space bioregenerative life support systems. In this study, T. molitor was involved in a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment for a tentative rearing study. The results showed that the overall bioconversion rate (ratio of T. molitor gained to the total feed consumed) of T. molitor reared in the closed system was 8.13%, while 78.43% of the feed was excreted as frass. T. molitor reared in the closed system had a good nutritional composition. The eight essential amino acids (EAAs) in T. molitor larvae accounted for 41.30% of its total amino acids, and most EAA contents were higher than the suggested amino acid pattern recommended by the FAO/WHO. T. molitor sample obtained in this work was high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low in saturated fatty acids, indicating that the composition of fatty acids was beneficial to human health. In the open environment outside the experimental system, we simultaneously reared three parallel groups of larval T. molitor using the same feeding regime and temperature condition. Compared with T. molitor reared in the open environment, larvae reared in the closed system grew slower. With the course of time t, the growth rate of T. molitor in the open environment was 0.839e(0.017t) times that of larvae in the closed system. This paper can provide data for future design and improvement of BLSS containing a T. molitor rearing unit. PMID:26553632

  18. Effects of a Mechanical Response-Contingent Surrogate on the Development of Behaviors in Nursery-Reared Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Rebecca L; Blake, Jennifer; Willits, Neil; Rommeck, Ina; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Nursery-reared infants have several behavioral and physiologic differences from their mother-reared counterparts. We investigated whether a response-contingent surrogate mitigated some of those differences by decreasing fearfulness and partner-clinging and increasing environmental exploration in nursery-reared infants continuously paired with a peer. Six nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (in pairs) were given a mechanical responsive surrogate (RS), and 6 (in pairs) were given an identical but nonresponsive surrogate (NRS). The 2 treatment groups were compared and then combined into a single group of all 12 of surrogate-exposed animals (CS) that was compared with a nonsurrogate control group (NS) of 10 nursery-reared infants. Results showed significant differences between CS and NS infants but no significant differences between the RS and NRS infants. As compared with NS infants, CS infants showed less partner-clinging, less affiliation directed toward only partner, and more foraging and tactile–oral exploration of the environment. These advantageous effects support additional research to develop improved surrogate and the implementation of surrogate programs for nursery-reared infants. PMID:25255068

  19. Off-road motorbike performance analysis using a rear semi-active suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozoya-Santos, Jorge de J.; Cervantes-Muñoz, Damián.; Ramírez Mendoza, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The topic of this paper is the analysis of a control system for a semi active rear suspension in an off-road 2-wheel vehicle. Several control methods are studied, as well as the recently proposed Frequency Estimation Based (FEB) algorithm. The test motorcycle dynamics, as well as the passive, semi active, and the algorithm controlled shock absorber models are loaded into BikeSim, a professional two-wheeled vehicle simulation software, and tested in several road conditions. The results show a detailed comparison of the theoretical performance of the different control approaches in a novel environment for semi active dampers.

  20. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  1. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. PMID:27357302

  2. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  3. Picking among pen-reared quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  4. Patterns and correlates of expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style in first admitted early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    von Polier, Georg G; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and support. Families were rated as critical more frequently by patients than raters (55% vs. 13%). Perceived criticism was associated with worse QoL in relationship with parents and peers. An adverse rearing style was associated with a negative illness concept in patients, particularly with less trust in their physician. Future research should examine perceived criticism as a predictor of relapse and indicator of adolescents with EOS who need extended support and treatment. Rearing style should be carefully observed because of its link with patients' illness concept and, potentially, to service engagement and medication adherence. PMID:25259947

  5. Anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors of isolation-reared mice in the staircase test.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Takahashi, Keiko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Baba, Akemichi; Matsuda, Toshio

    2007-06-01

    The behavior of isolation-reared mice has not yet been studied in the staircase test. The present study examined the effects of anxiolytic or anxiogenic agents and isolation rearing on the behavior of ddY (outbred) strain mice in the staircase test. Diazepam and phenobarbital increased the number of steps climbed, but did not affect rearing behavior in group-reared mice. FG-7142, a benzodiazepine inverse agonist, significantly increased the number of rearing with no changes in the number of steps climbed in group-reared mice. Methamphetamine increased the number of steps climbed and decreased the number of rearing in group-reared mice. Although isolation-reared mice showed hyperactivity, there was no difference in locomotor activity for the test period of 3 min between isolation- and group-reared mice. Under these conditions, isolation rearing increased the numbers of steps climbed and rearing compared to group-reared controls. Microanalysis of locomotor patterns of group-reared mice in the staircase test showed that anxiolytic drugs increased the number of climbing to the top step of the staircase and methamphetamine increased the number of climbing to the first to third step. These results suggest that isolation rearing causes an anxiety-like state with increased exploratory behavior in mice.

  6. The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Desmond C.

    2005-04-01

    The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles, (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface, (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

  7. The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Desmond C.

    2005-04-26

    The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

  8. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) reared in brood combs containing high levels of pesticide residues exhibit increased susceptibility to Nosema (Microsporidia) infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Judy Y; Smart, Matthew D; Anelli, Carol M; Sheppard, Walter S

    2012-03-01

    Nosema ceranae and pesticide exposure can contribute to honey bee health decline. Bees reared from brood comb containing high or low levels of pesticide residues were placed in two common colony environments. One colony was inoculated weekly with N. ceranae spores in sugar syrup and the other colony received sugar syrup only. Worker honey bees were sampled weekly from the treatment and control colonies and analyzed for Nosema spore levels. Regardless of the colony environment (spores+syrup added or syrup only added), a higher proportion of bees reared from the high pesticide residue brood comb became infected with N. ceranae, and at a younger age, compared to those reared in low residue brood combs. These data suggest that developmental exposure to pesticides in brood comb increases the susceptibility of bees to N. ceranae infection.

  9. [Direct reporting by patients of adverse drug reactions in Spain].

    PubMed

    Esther Salgueiro, M; Jimeno, Francisco J; Aguirre, Carmelo; García, Montserrat; Ordóñez, Lucía; Manso, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish Pharmacovigilance System for Medicinal Products for Human Use, integrated by regional centers of pharmacovigilance coordinated by the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Products, is responsible for developing the Program of Spontaneous Reporting of Suspected Adverse Drug Reactions in our country. Although, until now, reports were only requesting to health professionals, the current understanding of the role of patients in the clinical setting and the experience gained in other countries of our environment, have demonstrated the convenience of developing active participation systems to patients in the reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions. In addition, this is taking into account in the new European legislation on pharmacovigilance. PMID:23461502

  10. [Direct reporting by patients of adverse drug reactions in Spain].

    PubMed

    Esther Salgueiro, M; Jimeno, Francisco J; Aguirre, Carmelo; García, Montserrat; Ordóñez, Lucía; Manso, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish Pharmacovigilance System for Medicinal Products for Human Use, integrated by regional centers of pharmacovigilance coordinated by the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Products, is responsible for developing the Program of Spontaneous Reporting of Suspected Adverse Drug Reactions in our country. Although, until now, reports were only requesting to health professionals, the current understanding of the role of patients in the clinical setting and the experience gained in other countries of our environment, have demonstrated the convenience of developing active participation systems to patients in the reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions. In addition, this is taking into account in the new European legislation on pharmacovigilance.

  11. Effects of hatchery rearing on Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus resource allocation and performance under semi-natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Garlock, T M; Monk, C T; Lorenzen, K; Matthews, M D; St Mary, C M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the growth, activity, metabolism and post-release survival of three groups of Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus: wild-caught fish, hatchery fish reared according to standard practice (hatchery standard) and hatchery fish reared under reduced and unpredictable food provisioning (hatchery manipulated). Hatchery-standard fish differed from wild-caught fish in all measured variables, including survival in semi-natural ponds. Hatchery-standard and hatchery-manipulated fish showed higher activity levels, faster growth and lower standard metabolic rates than wild-caught fish in the hatchery. Fish reared under the manipulated feeding regime showed increased metabolic rates and increased post-release growth, similar to wild-caught fish. Their activity levels and post-release survival, however, remained similar to those of hatchery-standard fish. Activity was negatively correlated with post-release survival and failure of the feed manipulation to reduce activity may have contributed to its failure to improve post-release survival. Activity and post-release survival may be influenced by characteristics of the rearing environment other than the feeding regime, such as stock density or water flow rates. PMID:25257181

  12. Establishment of a Rearing System of the Extremotolerant Tardigrade Ramazzottius varieornatus: A New Model Animal for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Daiki D.; Kunieda, Takekazu; Abe, Wataru; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakahara, Yuichi; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Funayama, Tomoo; Katagiri, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Higashi, Seigo

    2008-06-01

    Studies on the ability of multicellular organisms to tolerate specific environmental extremes are relatively rare compared to those of unicellular microorganisms in extreme environments. Tardigrades are extremotolerant animals that can enter an ametabolic dry state called anhydrobiosis and have high tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, particularly while in anhydrobiosis. Although tardigrades have been expected to be a potential model animal for astrobiological studies due to their excellent anhydrobiotic and extremotolerant abilities, few studies of tolerance with cultured tardigrades have been reported, possibly due to the absence of a model species that can be easily maintained under rearing conditions. We report the successful rearing of the herbivorous tardigrade, Ramazzottius varieornatus, by supplying the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as food. The life span was 35 ± 16.4 d, deposited eggs required 5.7 ± 1.1 d to hatch, and animals began to deposit eggs 9 d after hatching. The reared individuals of this species had an anhydrobiotic capacity throughout their life cycle in egg, juvenile, and adult stages. Furthermore, the reared adults in an anhydrobiotic state were tolerant of temperatures of 90°C and -196°C, and exposure to 99.8% acetonitrile or irradiation with 4000 Gy 4He ions. Based on their life history traits and tolerance to extreme stresses, R. varieornatus may be a suitable model for astrobiological studies of multicellular organisms.

  13. Establishment of a rearing system of the extremotolerant tardigrade Ramazzottius varieornatus: a new model animal for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Daiki D; Kunieda, Takekazu; Abe, Wataru; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakahara, Yuichi; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Funayama, Tomoo; Katagiri, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Higashi, Seigo; Okuda, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    Studies on the ability of multicellular organisms to tolerate specific environmental extremes are relatively rare compared to those of unicellular microorganisms in extreme environments. Tardigrades are extremotolerant animals that can enter an ametabolic dry state called anhydrobiosis and have high tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, particularly while in anhydrobiosis. Although tardigrades have been expected to be a potential model animal for astrobiological studies due to their excellent anhydrobiotic and extremotolerant abilities, few studies of tolerance with cultured tardigrades have been reported, possibly due to the absence of a model species that can be easily maintained under rearing conditions. We report the successful rearing of the herbivorous tardigrade, Ramazzottius varieornatus, by supplying the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as food. The life span was 35 +/- 16.4 d, deposited eggs required 5.7 +/- 1.1 d to hatch, and animals began to deposit eggs 9 d after hatching. The reared individuals of this species had an anhydrobiotic capacity throughout their life cycle in egg, juvenile, and adult stages. Furthermore, the reared adults in an anhydrobiotic state were tolerant of temperatures of 90 degrees C and -196 degrees C, and exposure to 99.8% acetonitrile or irradiation with 4000 Gy (4)He ions. Based on their life history traits and tolerance to extreme stresses, R. varieornatus may be a suitable model for astrobiological studies of multicellular organisms.

  14. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts.

  15. Closeup of rear of LASRE pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This rear view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod shows the business end of the linear aerospike rocket engine prior to the experiment's fit-check on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. One of the differences between linear aerospike and traditional rocket engines is that the linear aerospike utilizes the airflow around the engine to form the outer 'nozzle.' There is no bell-shaped nozzle as is commonly seen on most rocket engines. The engine is made of a high strength copper alloy called NARloy-Z. The white curved ramps next to the copper area pictured act as the inner half of the engine's 'nozzle.' There are four thrusters (copper area) on each side of the engine for a total of eight which combine the fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source for the engine. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The

  16. SOCIAL CLASS AND CHILD-REARING PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHESS, STELLA; AND OTHERS

    THE BEHAVIORAL NORMS OF LOWER CLASS DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN ARE DIFFERENT FROM CHILDREN IN MORE MIDDLE CLASS GROUPS. THE BEHAVIOR OF LOWER CLASS CHILDREN IS INFLUENCED NOT ONLY BY GENERAL SOCIAL CLASS AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND BUT ALSO BY SUCH SPECIFIC INTRACLASS VARIABLES AS FAMILY ENVIRONMENT. THE PRESENT ABSENCE IN THE LITERATURE AND IN PRACTICE…

  17. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate.

  18. Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

  19. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  20. 7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINEUP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied August 1978. REAR VIEW OF A LINE-UP OF HORRY FURNACES AT SAULT STE. MARIE, AS THE 'SPOOL' ROTATED AWAY FROM THE ELECTRODES, THE CARBIDE PRODUCED IN THE ELECTRIC ARC WOULD BEGIN TO COOL. AT THE REAR THE COVERING PLATES INSTALLED AFTER THE 'SPOOL' HAD PASSED THE ELECTRODES IN FRONT WOULD BE REMOVED AND THE INGOT OF CALCIUM CARBIDE (VISIBLE IN THE ROTARY FURNACE ON THE FAR RIGHT) WOULD BE REMOVED AND TAKEN ASIDE FOR FURTHER COOLING AND FOR SEPARATION OF RELATIVELY PURE CARBIDE FROM HALF-REACTED WASTES, (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  2. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety.

  3. Behavioral effects of repeated handling differ in rats reared in social isolation and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, L M; Van Kempen, T A; Zimmerberg, B

    2013-03-01

    The post-weaning social environment has profound effects on behavior and physiology in rodents. Social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and novelty-induced locomotor activity, while environmental enrichment decreases these behaviors. In some cases, the effects of social isolation are ameliorated by repeated handling. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the effects of handling differ in rats reared in social isolation and those reared in an enriched environment. After weaning, male Long-Evans rats were housed individually (ISO)(3) or in groups in an enriched environment (EE). During adulthood, rats from each housing condition received four, once-daily, brief handling sessions or remained undisturbed in the home cage. All rats were then tested in the open field, elevated plus maze, and for behavioral responses to d-amphetamine (1.0mg/kg). EE rats spent more time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze and were more likely than ISO rats to emerge from the start box in the open field, suggesting lower anxiety. Handling significantly decreased open arm time in EE rats and marginally increased open arm time in ISO rats. Housing condition did not affect amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity, but handling altered the time course of the amphetamine response. ISO rats exhibited significantly fewer stereotyped behaviors than did EE rats, but repeated handling eliminated this difference. These findings support previously published studies that suggest brief handling of adult rats may at least partially ameliorate the effects of post-weaning social isolation on anxiety-like behaviors and psychostimulant sensitivity. Furthermore, there are complex interactions between the effects of housing environment and handling, suggesting that handling may be perceived and/or processed differently, depending on the animal's housing environment.

  4. Comparison of meat and carcass quality in organically reared and conventionally reared pasture-fed lambs.

    PubMed

    Prache, S; Gatellier, P; Thomas, A; Picard, B; Bauchart, D

    2011-12-01

    The 'Organic' product label guarantees a production process that avoids the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and hormones and minimises recourse to pharmaceuticals or veterinary drugs; however, the product's quality remains an issue that needs to be addressed in response to consumer demand. Consequently, this study was conducted to compare the sensory and nutritional qualities of meat and carcasses from pasture-fed lambs reared organically (O) or conventionally (C). Mean lamb growth profile was kept similar between the two treatments to avoid confounding effects with lamb age or weight at slaughter. The experiment was conducted over 3 years (2005 to 2007) with 12 O and 12 C lambs each year. The O and C treatments differed in the level of on-pasture mineral N fertilisation inducing a higher proportion of white clover in the organic pasture than the conventional pasture. Lambs were slaughtered when they attained a fat class of 2 to 3, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Lambs were slaughtered at an average weight and age of 35.3 kg and 156 days in the O treatment, respectively, and 35.2 kg and 155 days in the C treatment, respectively. Sensory evaluation indicated that loin chops from the O treatment had a higher level of abnormal fat odour compared with the C treatment. Carcasses from the O treatment had a softer subcutaneous fat one among 3 years (2007) compared to the C treatment. These results are probably due to a higher proportion of white clover in the diet. Organically reared lambs did offer the slight advantage of muscle fatty acid containing a higher level of stearic acid, which may have positive effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in humans. This may be the result of a higher rumen bio-hydrogenation of C18:3n-3 due to differences in the botanical composition between the O and the C pasture. Production system had no effect on the colour characteristics of the meat and subcutaneous fat, except lightness of subcutaneous dorsal

  5. The long-term impact of infant rearing background on the affective state of adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Hayley; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life environment, including temporary family separation, can have a major influence on affective state. Using a battery of tests, the current study compared the performance of adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), reared as infants under 3 different conditions: family-reared twins, family-reared animals from triplet litters where only 2 remain (2stays) and supplementary fed triplets. No significant differences were found in latency to approach and obtain food from a human or a novel object between rearing conditions, suggesting no effect on neophobia. There were no differences in cognitive bias task acquisition time, or proportion of responses to each ambiguous probe. Very minor differences were found in response to the probes, with only supplementary fed marmosets making fewer responses to the middle probe, compared to the probe nearest the rewarded stimuli. Similarly, in a test for anhedonia, no difference was found between rearing conditions in consumption of milkshake at different concentrations. There was just one very small difference in reward motivation, with only supplementary fed triplets demonstrating a lack of preference for milkshake over water at the lowest concentration. This consistent pattern of results suggests that the supplementary feeding of large litters of marmosets at this facility did not have a major effect on welfare, and is unlikely to influence performance in reward-related scientific tasks. Therefore, while family separation is not recommended, this particular practice should be used if it is necessary, such as to reduce infant mortality. Regular positive interactions with humans are also encouraged, to reduce fear and improve welfare of marmosets kept in captivity. PMID:26912940

  6. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  7. Single, African-American, Low Income Mothers' Child-Rearing Practices and Stressors and Their Relationship to Children's Prosocial Behavior and Peer Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Debra; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    This study examined the relationship between the stress factors affecting low-income African-American mothers' child rearing practices and their children's prosocial behavior and peer status. Thirty at-risk preschool children and their single mothers participated in the study. The Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment for…

  8. X-38 - Rear View in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photo shows a rear view of the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle in a hangar at the Dryden Flight Research Center shortly after its first successful free flight at the Center. The X-38 was dropped from a B-52 mothership and then glided to a landing under a large, steerable parafoil. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space

  9. Breeding and mass scale rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula: feeding and rearing in brackishwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Swagat, Ghosh; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2012-07-01

    Breeding and mass scale larval rearing of clownfish Amphiprion percula is very limited in brackishwater. We designed an indoor program of A. percula culture in brackishwater with a salinity of 24±1, during which the impacts of feed type, water temperature, and light intensity, on the efficiency of its reproduction, were revealed. The fish were accommodated along with sea anemones in fibre glass tanks to determine the influence of brooder diet on breeding efficiency. Higher reproductive efficiency [number of eggs laid (276 ± 22.3 eggs)] was observed when fish were fed live Acetes sp. rather than clam (204 ± 16.4 eggs), trash fish (155 ± 12 eggs) and formulated feed (110 ± 10 eggs). The spawning rate was increased during September and October (water temperature, 28.74 ± 0.55°C) on average of 2.4 spawning per month; and low spawning rate was in January (water temperature, 24.55 ± 0.45°C) on average of 1 spawning per month. Among three light intensities (100, 500, and 900 lx) set to evaluate larval survival rate, larvae showed the highest survival rate (65.5%) at 900 lx. The breeding method specifically in brackishwater developed in the present study is a new approach, will help the people from the regions of estuary and backwater to enhance their livelihood and it will lead to reduce the exploitation from the wild habitat.

  10. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  11. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  12. 2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CENTER PORTION OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN CENTER AND NEWER ADDITIONS TO THIS STILL OPERATIONAL TEXTILE MILL. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  13. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  14. 21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMICIRCULAR SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMI-CIRCULAR SIDE DINING ROOM, NOW CALLED THE BEAR PIT WAS ADDED IN 1927. (TAKEN FROM CHERRY-PICKER) - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  15. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy CHAMBER PLAN, REAR ELEVATION, ARCHITECT'S ORIGINAL PLAN Restricted: Not to be reproduced without written permission from Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - John Pitkin Norton House, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. 7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead door, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. Child-Rearing Practices of Two Generations of Punjabi Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosnajh, J. S.; Ghuman, P. A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Studied contrasts in child-rearing practices between two generations of Punjabi parents living in England, and between Punjabis and white parents. Collected data on topics such as breast-feeding, cot deaths, and father participation, through in-depth interviews of the first generation (1970) and second generation (1995). Found second-generation…

  9. 3. RIGHT SIDE OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RIGHT SIDE OF PANORAMA VIEW OF REAR OF ELM CITY PLANT FROM SECOND AVENUE. NOTE BOILER STACK ON LEFT. THE FULLER E. CALLAWAY MEMORIAL CLOCK TOWER IS THE POINTED STRUCTURE IN THE DISTANCE TO THE RIGHT OF THE TELEPHONE POLE. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  10. Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.

    In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…

  11. 2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. NOTE CONCRETE PROTECTION SLAB FOR UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AND ESCAPE HATCH ON GROUND AT RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR BUILDING TO THE RIGHT. STACK AND MILL IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  13. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... replacements shall meet, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at the time... replaced with mirrors meeting, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... replacements shall meet, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at the time... replaced with mirrors meeting, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... replacements shall meet, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at the time... replaced with mirrors meeting, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... replacements shall meet, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at the time... replaced with mirrors meeting, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 393.80 - Rear-vision mirrors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... replacements shall meet, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at the time... replaced with mirrors meeting, as a minimum, the requirements of FMVSS No. 111 (49 CFR 571.111) in force at... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear-vision mirrors. 393.80 Section...

  18. Rearing and foraging affects bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Oliver, Anna E; Cuthbertson, Leah; Walkington, Sarah E; Gweon, Hyun S; Heard, Matthew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important as pollinators of crop and wild plants, especially in temperate systems. Species, such as the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), are reared commercially to pollinate high-value crops. Their highly specific gut microbiota, characterized by low diversity, may affect nutrition and immunity and are likely to be important for fitness and colony health. However, little is known about how environmental factors affect bacterial community structure. We analysed the gut microbiota from three groups of worker bumblebees (B. terrestris) from distinct colonies that varied in rearing and foraging characteristics: commercially reared with restricted foraging (RR); commercially reared with outside foraging (RF); and wild-caught workers (W). Contrary to previous studies, which indicate that bacterial communities are highly conserved across workers, we found that RF individuals had an intermediate community structure compared with RR and W types. Further, this was shaped by differences in the abundances of common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the diversity of rare OTUs present, which we propose results from an increase in the variety of carbohydrates obtained through foraging. PMID:25994560

  19. 26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. Astronaut Gregory in T-38 rear cockpit at Ellington Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Seated in the ejection seat of T-38 rear cockpit, Astronaut Frederick D. Gregory, wearing navy blue flight suit coveralls, breathing apparatus, and helmet, prepares for departure from Ellington Field with STS-29 crew. T-38 canopy has not yet closed over Gregory.