Science.gov

Sample records for adverse resource impacts

  1. Adverse Impact of Electromagnetic Radiation on Urban Environment and Natural Resources using Optical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Katiyar, Swati; Rani, Meenu

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of a rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with an advance technical capacity.This has resulted in wide spread land cover change. One of the main causes for increasing urban heat is that more than half of the world's population lives in a rapidly growing urbanized environment. Satellite data can be highly useful to map change in land cover and other environmental phenomena with the passage of time. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The UHI for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment on climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island change on climate using the geospatial approach. NDVI were generated using day time LANDSAT ETM+ image of 1990, 2000 and 2013. Temperature of various land use and land cover categories was estimated. Keywords: NDVI, Surface temperature, Dynamic changes.

  2. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, Sunil . E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald

    2007-03-15

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'.

  3. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  4. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  5. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. PMID:24011494

  6. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  7. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and adverse effects on tribes and Native American populations. (b) Examples of adverse effects include... discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  8. Geographic Distribution of Healthy Resources and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Young, Christopher; Laurent, Olivier; Chung, Judith H; Wu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and preeclampsia associated with various community resources. Methods An ecological study was performed in Los Angeles and Orange counties in California. Fast food restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, gyms, health clubs and green space were identified using Google © Maps Extractor and through the Southern California Association of Government. California Birth Certificate data was used to identify cases of GDM and preeclampsia. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios were calculated using negative binomial regression. Results There were 9692 cases of GDM and 6288 cases of preeclampsia corresponding to incidences of 2.5 and 1.4 % respectively. The adjusted risk of GDM was reduced in zip codes with greater concentration of grocery stores [relative risk (RR) 0.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.99] and supermarkets (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.90-0.98). There were no significant relationships between preeclampsia and the concentration of fast food restaurants, grocery store, supermarkets or the amount of green space. Conclusion The distribution of community resources has a significant association with the risk of developing GDM but not preeclampsia. PMID:26994606

  9. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Juan M.; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Ryan, Patrick B.; Shah, Nigam H.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies. PMID:27193236

  10. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research.

    PubMed

    Banda, Juan M; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Ryan, Patrick B; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies. PMID:27193236

  11. Identifying military impacts to archaeological resources based on differences in vertical stratification of soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  12. Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity -Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, George A.; Diminich, Erica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on resilience in the aftermath of potentially traumatic life events is still evolving. For decades researchers have documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently the study of resilience has migrated to the investigation of isolated and potentially traumatic life events (PTE) in adults. Methods In this article we first consider some of the key differences in the conceptualization of resilience following chronic adversity versus resilience following single-incident traumas, and then describe some of the misunderstandings that have developed about these constructs. To organize our discussion we introduce the terms emergent resilience and minimal-impact resilience to represent trajectories positive adjustment in these two domains, respectively. Results We focused in particular on minimal-impact resilience, and reviewed recent advances in statistical modeling of latent trajectories that have informed the most recent research on minimal-impact resilience in both children and adults and the variables that predict it, including demographic variables, exposure, past and current stressors, resources, personality, positive emotion, coping and appraisal, and flexibility in coping and emotion regulation. Conclusions The research on minimal impact resilience is nascent. Further research is warranted with implications for a multiple levels of analysis approach to elucidate the processes that may mitigate or modify the impact of a PTE at different developmental stages. PMID:23215790

  13. Water resource impacts of alternative strategies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report summarizes the differences among TVA`s final strategies with respect to potential impacts on water resources. Three water-quality impacts were considered: (1) human health impacts by ingestion, (2) impacts on water supply and waste assimilation, and (3) impacts on fish, aquatic life, and aquatic biodiversity.

  14. 25 CFR 170.111 - What can a tribe do if discrimination or adverse impacts occur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What can a tribe do if discrimination or adverse impacts occur? 170.111 Section 170.111 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND... Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.111 What can a tribe do if discrimination or adverse...

  15. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  16. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  17. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  18. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? (a) Under 23 U.S.C. 134 and 135, and 23 CFR part 450, State and...

  19. Impact of New Genomic Technologies on Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Maggo, Simran D S; Savage, Ruth L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that variations in genes can alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of a drug and immunological responses to it. Early advances in pharmacogenetics were made with traditional genetic techniques such as functional cloning of genes using knowledge gained from purified proteins, and candidate gene analysis. Over the past decade, techniques for analysing the human genome have accelerated greatly as knowledge and technological capabilities have grown. These techniques were initially focussed on understanding genetic factors of disease, but increasingly they are helping to clarify the genetic basis of variable drug responses and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We examine genetic methods that have been applied to the understanding of ADRs, review the current state of knowledge of genetic factors that influence ADR development, and discuss how the application of genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing approaches is supporting and extending existing knowledge of pharmacogenetic processes leading to ADRs. Such approaches have identified single genes that are major contributing genetic risk factors for an ADR, (such as flucloxacillin and drug-induced liver disease), making pre-treatment testing a possibility. They have contributed to the identification of multiple genetic determinants of a single ADR, some involving both pharmacologic and immunological processes (such as phenytoin and severe cutaneous adverse reactions). They have indicated that rare genetic variants, often not previously reported, are likely to have more influence on the phenotype than common variants that have been traditionally tested for. The problem of genotype/phenotype discordance affecting the interpretation of pharmacogenetic screening and the future of genome-based testing applied to ADRs are also discussed. PMID:26369774

  20. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    Methods Figure&3;3 Project&3;Energy&3;Yield&3;for&3;all&3;three&3;case&3;studies Why&3;Resource&3;Matters:&3; Impacts&3;of&3;Preconstruction&3;Resource&3;Data&3;on&3;LongTerm&3;Production&3;Estimates&3;and&3;Project&3;Fina...

  1. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. PMID:26099657

  2. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? 170.109 Section 170.109 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND... Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.109 How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or...

  3. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  4. A web resource for mining HLA associations with adverse drug reactions: HLA-ADR.

    PubMed

    Ghattaoraya, Gurpreet S; Dundar, Yenal; González-Galarza, Faviel F; Maia, Maria Helena Thomaz; Santos, Eduardo José Melo; da Silva, Andréa Luciana Soares; McCabe, Antony; Middleton, Derek; Alfirevic, Ana; Dickson, Rumona; Jones, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are an important family of genes involved in the immune system. Their primary function is to allow the host immune system to be able to distinguish between self and non-self peptides-e.g. derived from invading pathogens. However, these genes have also been implicated in immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (ADRs), presenting a problem to patients, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies. We have previously developed the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) that captures the allelic and haplotype frequencies for these HLA genes across many healthy populations from around the world. Here, we report the development and release of the HLA-ADR database that captures data from publications where HLA alleles and haplotypes have been associated with ADRs (e.g. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and drug-induced liver injury). HLA-ADR was created by using data obtained through systematic review of the literature and semi-automated literature mining. The database also draws on data already present in AFND allowing users to compare and analyze allele frequencies in both ADR patients and healthy populations. The HLA-ADR database provides clinicians and researchers with a centralized resource from which to investigate immune-mediated ADRs.Database URL: http://www.allelefrequencies.net/hla-adr/. PMID:27189608

  5. Using public surveys to assess aesthetic resource impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, T.

    1995-12-31

    FERC regulations require that hydropower license applicants prepare reports that describe the visual characteristics of the project area and discuss any expected impacts to aesthetic resources. While describing the visual character of the project area is relatively straightforward, scenic beauty and aesthetic quality are far more difficult to define and quantify. How do you determine the aesthetic consequences of lake level fluctuations or changes in streamflow, for example? What conditions are acceptable? Is there some threshold beyond which adverse impacts on scenic quality occur? Mitigation measures for aesthetic resources (such as increased minimum flows) may have significant consequences on project economics. Therefore, it is important that aesthetic resource evaluations be conducted in a fashion that provides reasonable and defensible conclusions. The inherently subjective nature of aesthetics dictates that evaluations be conducted in a rigorous, systematic manor. A study approach based on a well designed and implemented public survey accomplishes these goals. Most aesthetic impact assessments are carried out by one or two highly trained individuals. Unfortunately, these {open_quotes}professional judgement{close_quotes} methods may be sensitive to bias. Public survey techniques which rely on data representative of the public-at-large offer significant advantages. This paper describes how public surveys have been used by EDAW to identify impacts of hydropower developments and operations on aesthetic resources drawing on recent applications at Mono Lake California, and the North Umpqua River in Oregon. Studies at Mono Lake focused on the potential scenic quality impacts of different lake levels being considered as management alternatives. Studies of the North Umpqua River focused on the relationship between streamflows associated with hydropower operations the aesthetic quality of the river channel and several popular waterfalls.

  6. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity. PMID:26345291

  7. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity. PMID:26345291

  8. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  9. The impact of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of childhood adversity on adulthood parenting.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child Well-Being Supplement was conducted to address these questions. Data were analyzed using hierarchal multiple regression. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported significantly lower rates of parental warmth, higher rates of psychological aggression, and more frequent use of corporal punishment than mothers who had not experienced childhood sexual abuse. These effects, however, were nonsignificant when sociodemographic factors and other forms of childhood adversity were considered. Implications for future research are provided. PMID:20183414

  10. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:26055296

  11. Groundwater resources impact assessment for triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E.

    1996-10-01

    The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources Impact Assessment of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources Impact Assessment will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less impact on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.

  12. Impact of climate change on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dan; Werners, Saskia; Ludwig, Fulco

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will affect hydrological regimes of rivers, and have a direct impact on availability, renewability, and quality of water resources. To better understand current and future water resources in the Pearl River basin, here we assess the impact of climate change on river discharge, and identify whether climate change will lead to increasing water availability or scarcity at the catchment scale. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is used for hydrological simulation driven by WATCH (the Integrated Project Water and Global Change) forcing data (1958-2001), WATCH forcing data ERA interim (1979-2001) and ten bias-corrected projected climate scenarios from MPI-ESM-LR, HadGEM2-ES, CNRM-CM5, IPSL-CM5A-LR and EC-EARTH forced by RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (1961-2099). All subbasins except Yujiang basin show a decrease in streamflow from 1961 to 2099. The results also indicate that the wet season will become more wet, and the dry season will become drier over the whole Pearl River basin after 2030. Highly uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources may result in water shortages and severe hazards in this region.

  13. Doctors' experiences of adverse events in secondary care: the professional and personal impact.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Stewart, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional online survey of fellows and members of the Royal College of Physicians to establish physicians' experiences of adverse patient safety events and near misses, and the professional and personal impact of these. 1,755 physicians answered at least one question; 1,334 answered every relevant question. Of 1,463 doctors whose patients had an adverse event or near miss, 1,119 (76%) believed this had affected them personally or professionally. 1,077 (74%) reported stress, 995 (68%) anxiety, 840 (60%) sleep disturbance and 886 (63%) lower professional confidence. 1,192 (81%) became anxious about the potential for future errors. Of 1,141 who had used NHS incident reporting systems, only 315 (28%) were satisfied with this process. 201 (14%) received useful feedback, 201 (19%) saw local improvements and 277 (19%) saw system changes. 364 (25%) did not report an incident that they should have. Adverse safety events affect physicians, but few formal sources of support are available. Most doctors use incident-reporting systems, but many describe a lack of useful feedback, systems change or local improvement. PMID:25468840

  14. Impact of depression and anxiety on adverse event profiles in Korean people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Park, Sung-Pa; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that depression and anxiety worsen the adverse events associated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in people with epilepsy. These studies used the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) to screen adverse events. The LAEP incorporates items associated with emotion, which may themselves influence the reporting of adverse events. We investigated whether depression and anxiety still displayed an effect on adverse events when items related to emotion were excluded from the analysis. A total of 453 consecutive patients with epilepsy who took AEDs for at least 1year completed self-report questionnaires, including the Korean versions of the LAEP (K-LAEP), the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI). Firstly, we performed a discrimination analysis to identify the items affected by depression and/or anxiety among the 19 items included in the K-LAEP. Among these items, dizziness, nervousness and/or agitation, restlessness, and upset stomach had relatively higher levels of significance. Secondly, we performed a factor analysis to determine the subclass taxonomy of all items in the K-LAEP. The analysis segregated the items into three subclasses: cephalgia/coordination/sleep, emotion/cognition, and tegument/mucosa/weight. Lastly, we performed stepwise multiple regressions to demonstrate the predictors determining the K-LAEP and subclass scores. According to the regressions, the K-BAI and K-BDI scores and the duration of treatment of the antiepileptic medication were significant predictors. Specifically, the K-BAI score was a predictor of the scores of all three subclasses as well as the total K-LAEP score; the K-BDI score was a predictor of the total K-LAEP score and the emotion/cognition score; and the duration of treatment of the antiepileptic medication was a predictor of the tegument/mucosa/weight score. The K-BAI score was the strongest predictor of all the scores. Although this study showed a similar impact of

  15. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Wim; Kros, Hans; Kroeze, Carolien; Seitzinger, Sybil

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation, we first discuss the concept of -, governance interest in- and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. We then systematically evaluate the criticism and argue that planetary N boundaries need to include both the benefits and adverse impacts of reactive N (Nr) and the spatial variability of Nr impacts, in terms of shortage and surplus, being main arguments for not deriving such boundaries. Next, we present an holistic approach for an updated planetary N boundary by considering the need to: (i) avoid adverse impacts of elevated Nr emissions to water, air and soils, and (ii) feed the world population in an adequate way. The derivation of a planetary N boundary, in terms of anthropogenic fixation of di-nitrogen (N2) by growing legumes and production of N fertilizer, is illustrated by (i) identification of multiple threat N indicators and setting critical limits for them, (ii) back calculating critical N losses from critical limits for N indicators, while accounting for the spatial variability of indicators and their exceedance and (iii) back calculating critical N fixation rates from critical N losses. The derivation of the needed planetary N fixation is assessed from the global population, the recommended dietary N consumption per capita and the N use efficiency in the complete chain from N fixation to N consumption. Results of example applications show that the previously suggested planetary N boundary of 25% of the current value is too low in view of needed N fixation and also unnecessary in view of most environmental impacts. We also illustrate the impacts of changes in the N use efficiency on planetary boundaries in terms of critical N fixation rates.

  16. Cognitive predictors and age-based adverse impact among business executives.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rachael M; Dilchert, Stephan; Ones, Deniz S; Dages, Kelly D

    2015-09-01

    Age differences on measures of general mental ability and specific cognitive abilities were examined in 2 samples of job applicants to executive positions as well as a mix of executive/nonexecutive positions to determine which predictors might lead to age-based adverse impact in making selection and advancement decisions. Generalizability of the pattern of findings was also investigated in 2 samples from the general adult population. Age was negatively related to general mental ability, with older executives scoring lower than younger executives. For specific ability components, the direction and magnitude of age differences depended on the specific ability in question. Older executives scored higher on verbal ability, a measure most often associated with crystallized intelligence. This finding generalized across samples examined in this study. Also, consistent with findings that fluid abilities decline with age, older executives scored somewhat lower on figural reasoning than younger executives, and much lower on a letter series test of inductive reasoning. Other measures of inductive reasoning, such as Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, also showed similar age group mean differences across settings. Implications for employee selection and adverse impact on older job candidates are discussed. PMID:25822067

  17. Stormwater impacts on a coldwater resource

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Kinnickinnic River in west-central Wisconsin is classified as a state outstanding resource water, and is a premiere Midwest trout stream, with a self-sustaining brown trout population. River Falls, Wisconsin (population 10,000), located in the heart of the Kinnickinnic River watershed, is developing rapidly because of its proximity to the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolis. With increasing residential, commercial, and industrial development, concerns about urban stormwater impacts on the Kinnickinnic River are also increasing. These impacts include higher stream flows, thermal pollution, and sedimentation, all of which pose threats to trout and aquatic habitat. In response to the concern about thermal pollution, the Kiap-TU-Wish Chapter of Trout Unlimited established a temperature monitoring network in 1992, at four Kinnickinnic River locations throughout River Falls. Data-logging thermometers continuously record stream temperatures at 10-minute intervals, clearly demonstrating stormwater-induced thermal changes. Rapidly-increasing stream temperatures are often evident at locations downstream from stormwater outfalls during summer rainfalls, and stormwater temperatures may exceed 80 F. The thermal impacts of two small municipal hydropower impoundments have also been documented. Storm event-based composite sampling of residential, commercial, and industrial areas of River Falls (1992) suggests that these areas are highly susceptible to soil erosion, with sediment concentrations greater than the NURP average. Concentrations of some sediment-associated metals are also high. In 1994, River Falls developed a stormwater management plan for the Kinnickinnic River. Plan recommendations include a limitation of 12% impervious area within the city, proper detention pond design to mitigate thermal impacts, stringent erosion control ordinances, additional stormwater BMP`S, and increased public awareness and involvement.

  18. [Medication adverse events: Impact of pharmaceutical consultations during the hospitalization of patients].

    PubMed

    Santucci, R; Levêque, D; Herbrecht, R; Fischbach, M; Gérout, A C; Untereiner, C; Bouayad-Agha, K; Couturier, F

    2014-11-01

    The medication iatrogenic events are responsible for nearly one iatrogenic event in five. The main purpose of this prospective multicenter study is to determine the effect of pharmaceutical consultations on the occurrence of medication adverse events during hospitalization (MAE). The other objectives are to study the impact of age, of the number of medications and pharmaceutical consultations on the risk of MAE. The pharmaceutical consultation is associated to a complete reassessment done by both a physician and a pharmacist for the home medication, the hospital treatment (3days after admission), the treatment during chemotherapy, and/or, the treatment when the patient goes back home. All MAE are subject to an advice for the patient, additional clinical-biological monitoring and/or prescription changes. Among the 318 patients, 217 (68%) had 1 or more clinically important MAE (89% drug-drug interaction, 8% dosing error, 2% indication error, 1% risk behavior). The patients have had 1121 pharmaceutical consultations (3.2±1.4/patient). Thus, the pharmaceutical consultations divided by 2.34 the risk of MAE (unadjusted incidence ratio, P≤0.05). Each consultation decreased by 24% the risk of MAE. Moreover, adding one medication increases from 14 to 30% as a risk of MAE on the population. Pharmaceutical consultations during the hospital stay could reduce significantly the number of medication adverse effects. PMID:25438655

  19. Play as a Resource for Children Facing Adversity: An Exploration of Indicative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn, Maggie; Howard, Justine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest that the ability and opportunity to play affords children a natural resource to meet intellectual and emotional challenge. Analysis of case studies focusing on interventions with children caught in the bombing of Beirut, children abandoned to the state system in Romania, and the street children in Rio de Janeiro and Cali…

  20. Distinct contributions of adverse childhood experiences and resilience resources: a cohort analysis of adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18-79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed. PMID:25255340

  1. Distinct Contributions of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Resilience Resources: A Cohort Analysis of Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S.; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18–79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed. PMID:25255340

  2. Quantifying the Impact of Adverse Events on the Electricity Grid as a Function of Grid Topology

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Du, Pengwei

    2011-11-30

    Abstract--Traditional approaches to the study of grid vulnerability have taken an asset based approach, which seeks to identify those assets most likely to result in grid-wide failures or disruptions in the event that they are compromised. We propose an alternative approach to the study of grid vulnerability, one based on the topological structure of the entire grid. We propose a method that will identify topological parameters most closely related to the ability of the grid to withstand an adverse event. We compare these topological parameters in terms of their impact on the vulnerability metric we have defined, referred to as the grid’s “survivability”. Our approach is motivated by Paul Baran’s work on communications networks, which also studied vulnerability in terms of network-wide parameters. Our approach is useful both as a planning model for evaluating proposed changes to a grid and as a risk assessment tool.

  3. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  4. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. PMID:25867168

  5. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ...th&3;each&3;resource&3;dataset * ' Actual&3;IRR:&3;Realized&3;IRR&3;for&3;the&3;cash&3;equity&3;investor&3;when&3;running&3;the&3;actual&3;ground&3;measured&3; resource&3;data&3;file&3;through&3;the&3;financial&3;model&3;for&3;the&3;S...

  6. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ...edict&3;longterm&3;resource&3;versus&3;a&3;high&3; quality&3;ground&3;reference.&3;The&3;sources&3;of&3;data&3;inc...studied&3;resource&3;files&3;&3;using&3;the&3;PVSyst Software. All&3;three&3;sites&3;were&3;simulated&3;using...

  7. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-01

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture. PMID:12805837

  8. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ...ongterm&3;resource&3;versus&3;a&3;high&3; quality&3;ground&3;reference.&3;The&3;sources&3;of&3;data&3;included&3;T...r&3;Radiation&3;Database&3;(NSRDB)&3;TMY3&3;1 * ' Ground&3;measured&3;data&3;from&3;the&3;United&3;States&3;Clim...

  9. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    into&3;energy&3;simulation&3;models.&3;These&3;datasets&3;typically&3;have&3;a&3;larger&3;uncertainty&3;band...ate&3;and&3;high&3;uncertainty&3; solar&3;resource&3;datasets,&3;actual&3;plant&3;production&3;may&3;vary&3;consid...

  10. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ... Energy Analysis: Energy&3;was&3;simulated&3;&3;for&3;each&3;of&3;the&3;studied&3;resource&3;files&3;&3;using&3;th... * ' The&3;Base&3;Price&3;was&3;assumed&3;to&3;be&3;1.5&3;x&3;the&3;average&3;LMP * ' Time&3;of&3;Day&3;and&3;Seasonal...

  11. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ...y&3;inputs&3;into&3;financial&3;models&3;used&3;to&3;size&3;debt&3;or&3;tax&3; equity&3;contributions.&3;Ther...tage&3;of&3;the&3;resource&3;data,&3;is&3;highly&3;variable&3;and&3;dependent&3;on&3; the&3;source&3;of&3;data,&3;type&3;of&3;campa...

  12. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ...estimating&3;the&3;resource&3;at&3;the&3;project&3;location.&3;When&3;used&3;in&3; an&3;energy&3;simulation&3;ther... * ' Row&3;tilt&3;optimized&3;for&3;each&3;project&3;location&3;using&3;PVsyst * ' Modeled&3;without&3;near&3;sh...

  13. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ...term&3;production&3;of&3;the&3;solar&3; plant.&3;When&3;poor&3;plant&3;loss&3;assumptions&3;are&3;made&3;in&3;conjunc...ity&3;contributions.&3;Therefore,&3;relying&3;on&3;a&3;poor&3;quality&3;resource&3;and&3;energy&3;estimate&3;can&3;l...

  14. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ...gTerm&3;Production&3;Estimates&3;and&3;Project&3;Finance Paul&3;Thienpont&3;- Meteorologist,&3;Marie&3;Sch...s&3;for&3;debt,&3;tax&3;equity,&3;and&3;cash&3; equity&3;finance&3;partners Accurate&3;resource&3;and&3;energy&3;pro...

  15. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  16. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M.; David, Anthony S.; Kolliakou, Anna; O’Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  17. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, P<0.05). In conclusion, SR and CM both result in impaired autonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk. PMID:27271308

  18. Properly Understanding the Impacts of Distributed Resources on Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Adhikari, Sarina; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    The subject paper discusses important impacts of distributed resources on distribution networks and feeders. These include capacity, line losses, voltage regulation, and central system support (such as volt/var via central generators and substation) as the number, placement and penetration levels of distributed resources are varied. Typically, the impacts of distributed resources on the distribution system are studied by using steady-state rather than dynamic analysis tools. However, the response time and transient impacts of both system equipment (such as substation/feeder capacitors) and distributed resources needs to be taken into account and only dynamic analysis will provide the full impact results. ORNL is wrapping up a study of distributed resources interconnected to a large distribution system considering the above variables. A report of the study and its results will be condensed into a paper for this panel session. The impact of distributed resources will vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system. The question is how high of a penetration of distributed resource can be accommodated on the distribution feeder/system without any major changes to system operation, design and protection. The impacts most surely will vary depending upon load composition, distribution and level. Also, it is expected that various placement of distributed resources will impact the distribution system differently.

  19. Educational Attainment as a Proxy for Cognitive Ability in Selection: Effects on Levels of Cognitive Ability and Adverse Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…

  20. Why Resource Matters: Impacts of Preconstruction Resource Data...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ...r&3;and&3;meteorological&3;data&3;impact&3;production&3;estimates * Determine&3;how&3;uncertainty&3;of&3;data&3;sets&3;inhibit&3;the&3;ability&3;to&3;leverage&3;the&3;project * Determine&3;how&3;plant&3;overproduction&3;can&3;...

  1. The Adverse Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Brain Volume in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Brickman, Adam M.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Griffith, Erica Y.; Narkhede, Atul; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Heart failure (HF) is associated with structural brain abnormalities, including atrophy in multiple brain regions. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent comorbid condition in HF and is associated with abnormalities on neuroimaging in other medical and elderly samples. The current study examined whether comorbid T2DM exacerbates brain atrophy in older adults with HF. Methods Seventy-five older adults with HF underwent echocardiogram, and completed a brief cognitive test battery. Participants then underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify total brain volumes, cortical lobar volumes, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Results Approximately 30% of HF patients had a comorbid T2DM diagnosis. A series of MANCOVA analyses adjusting for medical and demographic characteristics and intracranial volume showed that HF patients with T2DM had smaller total brain, gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volume than those without such history. No between group differences emerged for WMH. Persons with T2DM also had smaller cortical lobar volumes, including in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Follow-up analyses revealed smaller total and cortical lobar brain volumes and WMH were associated with poorer performance on measures of global cognitive status, attention, executive functions, and memory. Conclusions T2DM is associated with smaller total and cortical lobar brain volumes in patients with HF and these structural brain indices were associated with cognitive test performance. Prospective studies that directly monitor glucose levels are needed to confirm our findings and clarify the mechanisms by which T2DM adversely impacts brain atrophy in this population. PMID:23419083

  2. The long-term impact of early adversity on late-life psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anda; Sudheimer, Keith; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Williams, Leanne M; O'Hara, Ruth

    2013-04-01

    Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research. PMID:23443532

  3. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  4. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  5. Creating a Resource Center for Homeschoolers: The Impact of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javid, Mahnaz A.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of a two-month case study of Edmonds Cyberschool (Washington), a resource center for homeschoolers. The study focused on the impact of technology on students' learning as indicated in three areas: attitude toward technology, the use of technology, and value of technology versus other available resources. (Author/LRW)

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF RESOURCE RECOVERY ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment of the environmental impact of resource recovery examines the environmental effects that will derive from municipal solid waste disposal in 1990 and the changes in these effects that will result from implementation of resource recovery from municipal solid waste. ...

  7. The long-term impact of adverse caregiving environments on epigenetic modifications and telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate that environmentally-driven epigenetic modifications may be an important mediator between adverse caregiving environments and psychopathology. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which normally represses gene transcription, and microRNA processing, which interferes with both transcription and translation, show long-term changes throughout the brain and body following adverse caregiving. Recent evidence has also shown that telomeres (TTAGGG nucleotide repeats that cap the ends of DNA) exhibit long-term changes in the brain and in the periphery following exposure to adverse caregiving environments. Interestingly, telomeric enzymes and subtelomeric regions are subject to epigenetic modifications—a factor which may play an important role in regulating telomere length and contribute to future mental health. This review will focus on clinical and animal studies that highlight the long-term epigenetic and telomeric changes produced by adverse caregiving in early-life. PMID:25904853

  8. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  9. The Organizational Impact of Open Educational Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sclater, Niall

    The open educational resource (OER) movement has been growing rapidly since 2001, stimulated by funding from benefactors such as the Hewlett Foundation and UNESCO, and providing educational content freely to institutions and learners across the world. Individuals and organizations are motivated by a variety of drivers to produce OERs, both altruistic and self-interested. There are parallels with the open source movement, where authors and others combine their efforts to provide a product which they and others can use freely and adapt to their own purposes. There are many different ways in which OER initiatives are organized and an infinite range of possibilities for how the OERs themselves are constituted. If institutions are to develop sustainable OER initiatives, they need to build successful change management initiatives, developing models for the production and quality assurance of OERs, licensing them through appropriate mechanisms such as the Creative Commons, and considering how the resources will be discovered and used by learners.

  10. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  11. The Noise from Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2011-01-01

    Research linking loud sounds to hearing loss in youngsters is now widespread, resulting in the issuance of warnings to protect children's hearing. However, studies attesting to the adverse effects of intrusive sounds and noise on children's overall mental and physical health and well-being have not received similar attention. This, despite the…

  12. A holistic look at minimizing adverse environmental impact under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Veil, John A; Puder, Markus G; Littleton, Debra J; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-04-18

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that "the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact." As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the cooling water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase "minimizing adverse environmental impact" in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms "environmental" and "minimizing." Congress chose "environmental" in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like "impingement and entrainment," "water quality," or "aquatic life." In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output

  13. Impact of early adversity on glucocorticoid regulation and later mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Strüber, Nicole; Strüber, Daniel; Roth, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early adverse experiences such as abuse or neglect can influence brain development and consequently bring forth a predisposition toward mental and behavioral disorders. Many authors suggest that long-term changes in the functionality of the HPA axis might be involved in mediating this relationship. The direction of change and its consequences have not been clarified though: Do early adverse experiences yield a stable glucocorticoid hyperfunction or a long-term glucocorticoid hypofunction, and how is this change of functionality associated with mental or behavioral disorders? This review summarizes correlative findings and illustrates inconsistencies of current research literature. It focuses on the specific neurochemical milieu accompanying early adverse experiences and discusses possible interactions of the glucocorticoid system with oxytocin and components of the serotonergic system. On the basis of this physiological view, a novel two-pathway model is presented, according to which specific early experiences are associated with characteristic early changes in the functionality of these systems and result in a predisposition to distinct mental and behavioral disorders. PMID:24216122

  14. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that “the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmore » water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase “minimizing adverse environmental impact” in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms “environmental” and “minimizing.” Congress chose “environmental” in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like “impingement and entrainment,” “water quality,” or “aquatic life.” In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional

  15. Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Euwema, Martin C

    2005-04-01

    This study tested and refined the job demands-resources model, demonstrating that several job resources play a role in buffering the impact of several job demands on burnout. A total of 1,012 employees of a large institute for higher education participated in the study. Four demanding aspects of the job (e.g., work overload, emotional demands) and 4 job resources (e.g., autonomy, performance feedback) were used to test the central hypothesis that the interaction between (high) demands and (low) resources produces the highest levels of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, reduced professional efficacy). The hypothesis was rejected for (reduced) professional efficacy but confirmed for exhaustion and cynicism regarding 18 out of 32 possible 2-way interactions (i.e., combinations of specific job demands and resources). PMID:15826226

  16. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the...

  17. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the...

  18. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the...

  19. 25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the...

  20. Evaluating the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in a small Mediterranean watershed.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, Ali; Ekdal, Alpaslan; Gürel, Melike; Karakaya, Nusret; Guzel, Cigdem; Gönenç, Ethem

    2014-11-15

    Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey is subject to considerable impacts of climate change that may adversely affect the water resources. Decrease in annual precipitation and winter precipitation as well as increase in temperatures are observed since 1960s. In this study, the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in part of Köyceğiz-Dalyan Watershed was evaluated. Evaluation was done by quantifying the impacts of climate change on the water budget components. Hydrological modeling was conducted with SWAT model which was calibrated and validated successfully. Climate change and land use scenarios were used to calculate the present and future climate change impacts on water budgets. According to the simulation results, almost all water budget components have decreased. SWAT was able to allocate less irrigation water because of the decrease of overall water due to the climate change. This resulted in an increase of water stressed days and temperature stressed days whereas crop yields have decreased according to the simulation results. The results indicated that lack of water is expected to be a problem in the future. In this manner, investigations on switching to more efficient irrigation methods and to crops with less water consumption are recommended as adaptation measures to climate change impacts. PMID:25064798

  1. Adverse Impact of Racial Isolation on Student Performance: A Study in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Andy; Joyner, Ann Moss; Osment, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of racial isolation on high school student performance in North Carolina, a state in the southeast United States. Our research goal is to investigate if increased isolation negatively impacts Black students' academic performance. Employing the North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI)…

  2. Identification and prioritization of relationships between environmental stressor and adverse human health impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractBackground: There are over 80,000 chemicals in commerce with little data available describing their impacts on human health. Biomonitoring surveys, such as the NHANES, offer one route to identifying possible relationships between environmental chemicals and health impacts...

  3. In Pennsylvania, Department of Environmental Resources Leads Impact Statement Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigman, Harry

    1975-01-01

    Environmental impact statements are required for all projects undertaken by state agencies. Pennsylvania's Department of Environmental Resources issues permits for regulatory activities affecting the environment. Statements sent to a state clearinghouse are logged and reviewed. State Departments and regional clearinghouses review and comment…

  4. Impact of Design Trade Studies on System Human Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Gary V.; Askren, William B.

    This study focused on two objectives. The first objective was to identify and classify the characteristics of conceptual design trade studies that have high potential impact on human resource requirements of Air Force weapon systems. The approach used was a case history review and analysis of 129 F-15 aircraft design trade studies. The analysis…

  5. The Impact of Logistical Resources on Prereferral Team Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetter, Georgette; Doll, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of logistical resources on the acceptability of student assistance team consultation to school staff. Elementary and middle school staff (N=113) completed a measure of the acceptability of prereferral intervention team procedures while also rating the importance of five logistical supports for effective team…

  6. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  7. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  8. Risky Health Behaviors among Mothers-to-Be: The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Esther K.; Nurmohamed, Laila; Mathew, Leny; Elo, Irma T.; Coyne, James C.; Culhane, Jennifer F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are risk factors for health problems later in life. This study aims to 1) assess the influence of ACEs on risky health behaviors among mothers-to-be, and 2) determine whether a dose response occurs between ACEs and risky behaviors. Methods Prospective survey of women attending health centers conducted at the first prenatal care visit, and 3 and 11 months postpartum. Surveys obtained information on maternal sociodemographic and health characteristics, and 7 ACEs prior to age 16. Risky behaviors included smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use and other illicit drug use during pregnancy. Results Our sample (n=1,476) consisted of low-income (mean annual personal income: $8272), young (mean age: 24 yrs), African American (71%), single (75%) women. Twenty-three percent of women reported smoking even after finding out they were pregnant, 7% reported alcohol use, and 7% reported illicit drug use during pregnancy. Nearly three-fourths (71%) had one or more ACE(s). There was a higher prevalence of each risky behavior among those exposed to each ACE than among those unexposed. The exception was alcohol use during pregnancy where there was not an increased risk among those exposed when compared to those unexposed to witnessing a shooting or having a guardian in trouble with the law or in jail. The adjusted odds ratio for each risky behavior was greater than 2.5 for those with ≥ 3 ACEs when compared to those without. Conclusions ACEs were associated with risky health behaviors reported by mothers-to-be. Greater efforts should target the prevention of ACEs to lower the risk for adverse health behaviors that have serious consequences for adults and their children. PMID:20599179

  9. Tourism's Impacts on Natural Resources: A Positive Case from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  10. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species

    PubMed Central

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory. PMID:26426901

  11. Urinary catheterization may not adversely impact quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    James, Rebecca; Frasure, Heidi E; Mahajan, Sangeeta T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) healthcare providers (HCP) have undergone considerable educational efforts regarding the importance of evaluating and treating pelvic floor disorders, specifically, urinary dysfunction. However, limited data are available to determine the impact of catheterization on patient quality of life (QoL). Objectives. To describe the use of urinary catheterization among MS patients and determine the differences between those who report positive versus negative impact of this treatment on QoL. Methods. Patients were queried as part of the 2010 North American Research Committee On Multiple Sclerosis survey; topics included 1) urinary/bladder, bowel, or sexual problems; 2) current urine leakage; 3) current catheter use; 4) catheterizing and QoL. Results. Respondents with current urine leakage were 5143 (54.7%), of which 1201 reported current catheter use (12.8%). The types of catheters (intermittent self-catheterization and Foley catheter (indwelling and suprapubic)) did not differ significantly. Of the current catheter users, 304 (25.35%) respondents reported catheterization negatively impacting QoL, 629 (52.4%) reported a positive impact on QoL, and 223 (18.6%) reported neutral QoL. Conclusions. A large proportion of catheterized MS patients report negative or positive changes in QoL associated with urinary catheterization. Urinary catheterization does not appear to have a universally negative impact on patient QoL. PMID:25006498

  12. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  13. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  14. An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

  15. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  16. Bounding the Resource Availability of Partially Ordered Events with Constant Resource Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    We compare existing techniques to bound the resource availability of partially ordered events. We first show that, contrary to intuition, two existing techniques, one due to Laborie and one due to Muscettola, are not strictly comparable in terms of the size of the search trees generated under chronological search with a fixed heuristic. We describe a generalization of these techniques called the Flow Balance Constraint to tightly bound the amount of available resource for a set of partially ordered events with piecewise constant resource impact We prove that the new technique generates smaller proof trees under chronological search with a fixed heuristic, at little increase in computational expense. We then show how to construct tighter resource bounds but at increased computational cost.

  17. Ozone exposure and systemic biomarkers: Evaluation of evidence for adverse cardiovascular health impacts.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Pizzurro, Daniella M; Lynch, Heather N; Zu, Ke; Venditti, Ferdinand J

    2015-05-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently concluded that there is likely to be a causal relationship between short-term (< 30 days) ozone exposure and cardiovascular (CV) effects; however, biological mechanisms to link transient effects with chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been established. Some studies assessed changes in circulating levels of biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation, vasoreactivity, lipidology, and glucose metabolism after ozone exposure to elucidate a biological mechanism. We conducted a weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis to determine if there is evidence supporting an association between changes in these biomarkers and short-term ozone exposure that would indicate a biological mechanism for CVD below the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 parts per billion (ppb). Epidemiology findings were mixed for all biomarker categories, with only a few studies reporting statistically significant changes and with no consistency in the direction of the reported effects. Controlled human exposure studies of 2 to 5 hours conducted at ozone concentrations above 75 ppb reported small elevations in biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress that were of uncertain clinical relevance. Experimental animal studies reported more consistent results among certain biomarkers, although these were also conducted at ozone exposures well above 75 ppb and provided limited information on ozone exposure-response relationships. Overall, the current WoE does not provide a convincing case for a causal relationship between short-term ozone exposure below the NAAQS and adverse changes in levels of biomarkers within and across categories, but, because of study limitations, they cannot not provide definitive evidence of a lack of causation. PMID:25959700

  18. Severe burn and disuse in the rat independently adversely impact body composition and adipokines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Severe trauma is accompanied by a period of hypermetabolism and disuse. In this study, a rat model was used to determine the effects of burn and disuse independently and in combination on body composition, food intake and adipokines. Methods Male rats were assigned to four groups 1) sham ambulatory (SA), 2) sham hindlimb unloaded (SH), 3) 40% total body surface area full thickness scald burn ambulatory (BA) and 4) burn and hindlimb unloaded (BH). Animals designated to the SH and BH groups were placed in a tail traction system and their hindlimbs unloaded. Animals were followed for 14 days. Plasma, urine, fecal and tissue samples were analyzed. Results SA had a progressive increase in body mass (BM), SH and BA no change and BH a reduction. Compared to SA, BM was reduced by 10% in both SH and BA and by 17% when combined in BH. Compared to SA, all groups had reductions in lean and fat body mass with BH being greater. The decrease in lean mass was associated with the rate of urinary corticosterone excretion. The loss in fat mass was associated with decreases in plasma leptin and adiponectin and an increase in ghrelin. Following the acute response to injury, BH had a greater food intake per 100 g BM. Food intake was associated with the levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. Conclusions The effects of the combination of burn and disuse in this animal model were additive, therefore in assessing metabolic changes with severe trauma both injury and disuse should be considered. Furthermore, the observed changes in adipokines, corticosterone and ghrelin provide insights for interventions to attenuate the hypermetabolic state following injury, possibly reducing catabolism and muscle loss and subsequent adverse effects on recovery and function. PMID:24099533

  19. Adverse Psychosexual Impact Related to the Treatment of Genital Warts and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956

  20. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

  1. Identified Natural Hazards May Cause Adverse Impact on Sustainability of Desalination Plants in Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburizaiza, O. S.; Zaigham, N. A.; Nayyar, Z. A.; Mahar, G. A.; Siddique, A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Red Sea and its surrounding countries have harsh arid climatic conditions where fast growth of the socio-economic activities and rapid change of lifestyle have caused tremendous stress on water to the level of acute crisis. To meet the water demands, the Red Sea countries have adopted seawater desalination giving priority against their land-based resources. Saudi Arabia is the largest desalinated-water producers in the Red Sea and has practically no adequate backup plan in case of sudden unforeseen emergency. Out of about 3.64 million m3/day, Saudi Arabia is alone being desalinated about 3.29 m3/day seawater from Red Sea and more projects are in progress. Present integrated research study has identified some of natural and anthropogenic hazards, which may be major threats to the quality of the seawater as well as to the desalination plants themselves. Results of present study reveal that the submarine complex morphologic features may cause the isolation of Red Sea from any of the open sea, the increase in the seismicity trends, the active volcanism causing unique longitudinal as well as transverse deformations of the axial trough particularly in the southern part of the Red Sea, the consistently generating enormous hot-brine tectonic-factory all along the deeper parts of the Red Sea rifting trough and other related issues. Considering the identified odd conditions, the total dependence on seawater desalination may not be worthwhile for sustainable water management strategy and consequent socio-economic developments in future. It is recommended that the priority should also be given mainly in three main disciplines to meet the future water challenges - one, developing reliable backup water management; second, alternate options for the supplementary resources of water; and third, the development and immediate implementation of the water-use conservation strategy plan.

  2. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Ruvani W; Minnis, Alexandra M; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions that

  3. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    PubMed Central

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  4. The impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reaction profiles of patients on antiretroviral therapy in zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076-0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292-0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  5. Impact of dose intensity of ponatinib on selected adverse events: Multivariate analyses from a pooled population of clinical trial patients.

    PubMed

    Dorer, David J; Knickerbocker, Ronald K; Baccarani, Michele; Cortes, Jorge E; Hochhaus, Andreas; Talpaz, Moshe; Haluska, Frank G

    2016-09-01

    Ponatinib is approved for adults with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including those with the T315I BCR-ABL1 mutation. We pooled data from 3 clinical trials (N=671) to determine the impact of ponatinib dose intensity on the following adverse events: arterial occlusive events (cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events), venous thromboembolic events, cardiac failure, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, hypertension, pancreatitis, increased lipase, increased alanine aminotransferase, increased aspartate aminotransferase, rash, arthralgia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Multivariate analyses allowed adjustment for covariates potentially related to changes in dosing or an event. Logistic regression analysis identified significant associations between dose intensity and most events after adjusting for covariates. Pancreatitis, rash, and cardiac failure had the strongest associations with dose intensity (odds ratios >2). Time-to-event analyses showed significant associations between dose intensity and risk of arterial occlusive events and each subcategory. Further, these analyses suggested that a lag exists between a change in dose and the resulting change in event risk. No significant association between dose intensity and risk of venous thromboembolic events was evident. Collectively, these findings suggest a potential causal relationship between ponatinib dose and certain adverse events and support prospective investigations of approaches to lower average ponatinib dose intensity. PMID:27505637

  6. The lasting impact of early-life adversity on individuals and their descendants: potential mechanisms and hope for intervention.

    PubMed

    Cowan, C S M; Callaghan, B L; Kan, J M; Richardson, R

    2016-01-01

    The adverse effects of early-life stress are pervasive, with well-established mental and physical health consequences for exposed individuals. The impact of early adverse experiences is also highly persistent, with documented increases in risk for mental illness across the life span that are accompanied by stable alterations in neural function and hormonal responses to stress. Here, we review some of these 'stress phenotypes', with a focus on intermediary factors that may signal risk for long-term mental health outcomes, such as altered development of the fear regulation system. Intriguingly, recent research suggests that such stress phenotypes may persist even beyond the life span of the individuals, with consequences for their offspring and grand-offspring. Phenotypic characteristics may be transmitted to future generations via either the matriline or the patriline, a phenomenon that has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we highlight behavioral and epigenetic factors that may contribute to this multigenerational transmission and discuss the potential of various treatment approaches that may halt the cycle of stress phenotypes. PMID:26482536

  7. The Impact of Herbal Drug Use on Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles of Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C.; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076–0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292–0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  8. Impact of information technology on human resources in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Incorporation of advances in information communications technology (ICT) into the workplace has had a major impact in human resource utilization in sectors of the economy where it has occurred in a substantial manner, such as manufacturing and financial services. While some benefits of ICT have been realized in healthcare, the full impact of its benefits will only be realized if it is incorporated in a systematic form, rather than in the current patchy and uneven manner seen around the province and across the country to date. PMID:18027453

  9. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    In this follow-up study, the authors compared the actual effects of the three complete ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA environmental assessments (EAs). They based their comparative evaluations on reviews and analyses of existing data and information, interviews with plant, state, and local government personnel, and site and facility inspections. They found that (1) the plants as completed differed considerably in important respects from the proposed designs considerably in important respects from the proposed designs evaluated in the EAs; (2) several key source terms provided by the applicants were inaccurate; (3) most, but significantly, not all, mitigation measures described in the EAs were implemented; (4) external environmental changes independent of the plants affected the nature and degree of some impacts; and (5) although impacts to aquatic and terrestrial resources for which data were adequate for analysis generally occurred as predicted, a few impacts not anticipated in the EAs were identified. These included adverse effects of wastewaters on a municipal treatment plant with resulting temporary effects on the receiving stream, and unforeseen habitat loss due to vegetation removal (failure to implement planned mitigation) and barge terminal construction.

  10. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  11. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2015-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  12. Estimation of potential impacts and natural resource damages of oil.

    PubMed

    McCay, Deborah French; Rowe, Jill Jennings; Whittier, Nicole; Sankaranarayanan, Sankar; Etkin, Dagmar Schmidt

    2004-02-27

    Methods were developed to estimate the potential impacts and natural resource damages resulting from oil spills using probabilistic modeling techniques. The oil fates model uses wind data, current data, and transport and weathering algorithms to calculate mass balance of fuel components in various environmental compartments (water surface, shoreline, water column, atmosphere, sediments, etc.), oil pathway over time (trajectory), surface distribution, shoreline oiling, and concentrations of the fuel components in water and sediments. Exposure of aquatic habitats and organisms to whole oil and toxic components is estimated in the biological model, followed by estimation of resulting acute mortality and ecological losses. Natural resource damages are based on estimated costs to restore equivalent resources and/or ecological services, using Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) and Resource Equivalency Analysis (REA) methods. Oil spill modeling was performed for two spill sites in central San Francisco Bay, three spill sizes (20th, 50th, and 95th percentile volumes from tankers and larger freight vessels, based on an analysis of likely spill volumes given a spill has occurred) and four oil types (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The scenarios were run in stochastic mode to determine the frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation of fates, impacts, and damages. This work is significant as it demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method for estimating potential impacts and financial consequences that may be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analyses. The statistically-defined spill volumes and consequences provide an objective measure of the magnitude, range and variability of impacts to wildlife, aquatic organisms and shorelines for potential spills of four oil/fuel types, each having distinct environmental fates and effects. PMID:15036639

  13. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  14. Assessment strategy for land-use impacts on natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, R.; Dale, V.H.; King, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    An assessment strategy for land-use impacts on natural resources on DoD/DOE lands is being developed under the DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} for the assessment strategy includes an integration of spatially-explicit environmental data from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with computer models which simulate changes in land-cover in response to land-use impacts. The computer models will also simulate susceptibility of selected species to changes in habitat suitability and landscape patterns. The interpretation of the modelling results will be performed with a risk assessment framework. Such a framework will allow for the comparison of numerous, proposed land-use scenarios to be considered during the planning process for ecosystem management. The development of a single methodology which can be applied to many sites will allow for inter-site comparisons and regional assessments. A standard approach will also help prioritize the collection and maintenance of natural resource information about the DoD and DOE lands. This {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} will be refined based on needs identified by DoD and DOE land managers, and the sensitivity of the results to the varying resolution of resource information. This assessment strategy supports the concurrent objectives associated with the mission and use of the site and the conservation of its natural resources.

  15. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W.; Sanstad, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  16. Caregiver traumatization adversely impacts young children’s mental representations on the MacArthur Story-Stem Battery

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Zygmunt, Annette; Coates, Susan W.; Davies, Mark; Trabka, Kimberly A.; McCaw, Jaime; Kolodji, Ann; Robinson, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of maternal exposure to family violence, maltreatment and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on young children’s mental representations of self and caregivers. Participant mothers (n=24) and children (n=25) were recruited from a referred sample when they were 4-7-years-old. Maternal report and child story-stem narratives were used. Mothers’ experience of domestic violence and severity of violence-related PTSD symptoms robustly predicted more dysregulated aggression, attentional bias to danger and distress, as well as more avoidance of and withdrawal from conflicts presented in the children’s story-stems. Less narrative coherence was also noted. Maternal experience and symptoms prior to their child’s turning 4 adversely affected that child’s mental representations from ages 4 to 7. PMID:18007959

  17. Using patient safety indicators to estimate the impact of potential adverse events on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Peter E; Luther, Stephen L; Christiansen, Cindy L; Shibei Zhao; Loveland, Susan; Elixhauser, Anne; Romano, Patrick S; Rosen, Amy K

    2008-02-01

    The authors estimated the impact of potentially preventable patient safety events, identified by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost. The PSIs were applied to all acute inpatient hospitalizations at Veterans Health Administration (VA) facilities in fiscal 2001. Two methods-regression analysis and multivariable case matching- were used independently to control for patient and facility characteristics while predicting the effect of the PSI on each outcome. The authors found statistically significant (p < .0001) excess mortality, LOS, and cost in all groups with PSIs. The magnitude of the excess varied considerably across the PSIs. These VA findings are similar to those from a previously published study of nonfederal hospitals, despite differences between VA and non-VA systems. This study contributes to the literature measuring outcomes of medical errors and provides evidence that AHRQ PSIs may be useful indicators for comparison across delivery systems. PMID:18184870

  18. Adverse Prognostic Impact of Bone Marrow Microvessel Density in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nuri; Lee, Hyewon; Moon, Soo Young; Sohn, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Sang Mee; Yoon, Ok Jin; Youn, Hye Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is important for the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Bone marrow (BM) microvessel density (MVD) is a useful marker of angiogenesis and is determined by immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD34 antibody. This study investigated the prognostic impact of MVD and demonstrated the relationship between MVD and previously mentioned prognostic factors in patients with MM. Methods The study included 107 patients with MM. MVD was assessed at initial diagnosis in a blinded manner by two hematopathologists who examined three CD34-positive hot spots per patient and counted the number of vessels in BM samples. Patients were divided into three groups according to MVD tertiles. Cumulative progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) curves, calculated by using Kaplan-Meier method, were compared among the three groups. Prognostic impact of MVD was assessed by calculating Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR). Results Median MVDs in the three groups were 16.8, 33.9, and 54.7. MVDs were correlated with other prognostic factors, including β2-microglobulin concentration, plasma cell percentage in the BM, and cancer stage according to the International Staging System. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high MVD was an independent predictor of PFS (HR=2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-5.42; P=0.013). PFS was significantly lower in the high MVD group than in the low MVD group (P=0.025). However, no difference was observed in the OS (P=0.428). Conclusions Increased BM MVD is a marker of poor prognosis in patients newly diagnosed with MM. BM MVD should be assessed at the initial diagnosis of MM. PMID:26354343

  19. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    PubMed

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades. PMID:24360916

  20. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross

  1. Adverse impact of feed channel spacers on the performance of pressure retarded osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Chang; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-04-17

    This article analyzes the influence of feed channel spacers on the performance of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). Unlike forward osmosis (FO), an important feature of PRO is the application of hydraulic pressure on the high salinity (draw solution) side to retard the permeating flow for energy conversion. We report the first observation of membrane deformation under the action of the high hydraulic pressure on the feed channel spacer and the resulting impact on membrane performance. Because of this observation, reverse osmosis and FO tests that are commonly used for measuring membrane transport properties (water and salt permeability coefficients, A and B, respectively) and the structural parameter (S) can no longer be considered appropriate for use in PRO analysis. To accurately predict the water flux as a function of applied hydraulic pressure difference and the resulting power density in PRO, we introduced a new experimental protocol that accounts for membrane deformation in a spacer-filled channel to determine the membrane properties (A, B, and S). PRO performance model predictions based on these determined A, B, and S values closely matched experimental data over a range of draw solution concentrations (0.5 to 2 M NaCl). We also showed that at high pressures feed spacers block the permeation of water through the membrane area in contact with the spacer, a phenomenon that we term the shadow effect, thereby reducing overall water flux. The implications of the results for power generation by PRO are evaluated and discussed. PMID:22420537

  2. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning

  3. 76 FR 17962 - Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Geological Survey Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater... titled ``Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of... Federal Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and its Water Resources Workgroup....

  4. Interactions between life stress factors and carrying the APOE4 allele adversely impact self-reported health in old adults.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Hughes, Claude L; Lewis, Megan A; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Fengyu

    2011-10-01

    Based on the multiple logistic regression analysis of data from a random sample of 1,023 old adults collected in Taiwan in 2000, we found that interactions between carrying the APOE4 allele and one of four life stress factors (relocated mainlander, living in a crowded household with six or more persons, living in an earthquake-damaged house, and monthly financial difficulty) significantly increased the odds ratio of poor self-reported health. Correlations between carrying the APOE4 allele and the life stress factors were ruled out by statistical tests. These life stress factors had a substantially larger adverse impact on self-reported health in APOE4 allele carriers than in noncarriers. This study provides evidence that interaction between carrying APOE4 allele and chronic life stressors has significant impacts on self-reported health while controlling for various sociodemographic and health behavior factors. Further studies with richer biomarkers are warranted for deeper understanding of the biological mechanisms. PMID:21768502

  5. Resource Security Impacts Men’s Female Breast Size Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Viren; Tovée, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested human female breast size may act as signal of fat reserves, which in turn indicates access to resources. Based on this perspective, two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that men experiencing relative resource insecurity should perceive larger breast size as more physically attractive than men experiencing resource security. In Study 1, 266 men from three sites in Malaysia varying in relative socioeconomic status (high to low) rated a series of animated figures varying in breast size for physical attractiveness. Results showed that men from the low socioeconomic context rated larger breasts as more attractive than did men from the medium socioeconomic context, who in turn perceived larger breasts as attractive than men from a high socioeconomic context. Study 2 compared the breast size judgements of 66 hungry versus 58 satiated men within the same environmental context in Britain. Results showed that hungry men rated larger breasts as significantly more attractive than satiated men. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that resource security impacts upon men’s attractiveness ratings based on women’s breast size. PMID:23483919

  6. Impact of nandrolone decanoate on gene expression in endocrine systems related to the adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Alsiö, Johan; Birgner, Carolina; Björkblom, Lars; Isaksson, Pernilla; Bergström, Lena; Schiöth, Helgi B; Lindblom, Jonas

    2009-11-01

    Elite athletes, body builders and adolescents misuse anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in order to increase muscle mass or to enhance physical endurance and braveness. The high doses misused are associated with numerous adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic supratherapeutic AAS treatment on circulating hormones and gene expression in peripheral tissues related to such adverse effects. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure expression levels of in total 37 genes (including peptide hormones, cell membrane receptors, nuclear receptors, steroid synthesising enzymes and other enzymes) in the pituitary, testes, adrenals, adipose tissue, kidneys and liver of male Sprague-Dawley rats after 14-day administration of the AAS nandrolone decanoate, 3 or 15 mg/kg. Plasma glucose and levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), adiponectin, corticosterone, ghrelin, insulin and leptin were also measured. We found several expected effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, while the treatment also caused a number of other not previously identified changes in circulating factors and gene transcription levels such as the dose-dependent reduction of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, reduction of both circulating and mRNA levels of adiponectin, up-regulation of both hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of cholesterol, and the receptor for ACTH in the adrenals. The results provide evidence for wide ranging effects of AAS on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, adipose tissue and substrates of the renal control of blood pressure. PMID:19549128

  7. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  8. San Francisco Bay Sand Mining Resource Evaluation and Impact Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenical, S.; Tirindelli, M.; Sicular, D.; Gragg, J.; Huitt, C.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents results of the evaluation of potential future sand resources within certain Central San Francisco Bay (Central Bay) sand mining lease areas, as well as the potential impacts of further mining these areas for a ten-year period. The study consisted of morphological analysis using field measurements and hydrodynamic modeling, and covered a wide spectrum of physical processes including tidal and river circulation, salinity, sediment transport, and morphology. The study was conducted within the framework of an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) prepared by the California State Lands Commission (CSLC) as part of the discretionary approval process for issuing new mining leases. The results of the morphological analysis indicate a measurable depletion of sand resources in the Central Bay lease areas during the period 1997-2008, and that for the purposes of the proposed ten-year mining lease renewal, sand mining resources in Central Bay are largely limited to material already in place. The morphological analysis results also indicate that the proposed additional ten years of sand mining in the Central Bay lease areas are not likely to cause a significant impact on sediment transport and budgets in areas outside the vicinity of the lease areas, such as the San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc. Numerical modeling results, including particle tracking exercises, do indicate a net seaward transport of sand, and that a linkage exists between the mining areas and offshore areas (San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc). However, the modeling results demonstrate that the linkage is weak, and that any measurable changes in hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport/morphology caused by the mining activities are likely to be confined to the vicinity of the mining areas.

  9. 78 FR 37846 - Resource Management Plan/General Plan and Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... FR 46518). The comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on October 2, 2012. The Final EIS/EIR... education opportunities and stewardship; and (5) provide updated management direction for establishing a new... Bureau of Reclamation Resource Management Plan/General Plan and Environmental Impact...

  10. From Observation to Impacts: Provenance for Earth Science Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Privette, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) on Provenance is working on a provenance specification for use in Earth science data systems to capture, consume, and interpret the end-to-end data life cycle information. Based on W3C PROV, this Earth Science extension can be used as an interoperable specification for representing Earth science resources that includes observations by instruments, data producers, data processing systems, data archive centers, data users, analysis findings, and societal impacts. NASA is participating in the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) and also leading a related Climate Data Initiative (CDI) effort. Under CDI, NASA is also working with the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) to identify and make interoperable relevant data from multiple interagency sources. These interagency efforts will improve the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of Federal data and information products derived from civil Earth observations. We will present our progress to develop a provenance specification for representing Earth science resources from observation to impacts and how it can be used to support these initiatives. We will show how it can be used in earth science data systems to automatically capture, consume, and interpret provenance information using semantic technologies.

  11. Adverse childhood experiences and their impact on frequency, severity, and the individual function of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Mattern, Margarete; Plener, Paul L; Bifulco, Antonia; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2013-04-30

    This study aimed to investigate a specific relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and a variety of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) over and above childhood abuse and their impact on frequency, severity, and functions of NSSI. A sample of 125 inpatients (aged 13 to 26) was consecutively recruited within a psychiatric university hospital. Frequency, methods and functions of NSSI were assessed by the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), ACEs were assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). The 12 month prevalence of NSSI in this representative, clinical sample was 60.0%. Engagement in NSSI was significantly related to ACEs with highest associations for maternal antipathy and neglect. Whilst ACEs were not associated with frequency or severity of NSSI, some ACEs were significantly related to the automatic functions of NSSI (e.g., affect regulation, anti-dissociative function or self-punishment) as well as to a peer identification function. NSSI represents a frequent phenomenon among young clinical populations and seems to be specifically related to ACEs with maternal antipathy or neglect commonly featured over and above experiences of abuse. Since ACEs also influence the functions of NSSI such factors need to be examined as part of clinical care planning. PMID:23159195

  12. The impact of climate change on the water resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perac, Marija Å.; Grgurevac, Anamarija

    2010-05-01

    The EU has defined dangerous climate change as an increase in 2 degrees Celsius of average global temperatures. Rising global temperatures will lead to an intensification of hydrological cycle, resulting in dryer dry season, and subsequently heightened risk of more extreme and frequent floods and drought. Climate change is caused by greenhouse gasses ( GHGs), which enhance the " greenhouse " properties of the earth's atmosphere. These gasses allow solar radiation from the sun to travel through the atmosphere but prevent the reflected heat from escaping back into space. This causes the earth's temperature to rise. Changing climate will also have significant impacts on the availability of water as well as the quality of water that is available and accessible. Possibly, climate change magnificent impact at water cycles in Croatia. It means more droughts, it will have impact in agriculture and natural systems, specially swamp areas. Also, it will be come to reduction river flows, and maybe lower underground water level which used for water supply. Climate change can be impact on intensity of floods and quality/quantity of water.Successes of climate change in Croatia are: decrease volume of precipitation at whole state area; long drought years directly water quantity for irrigation; decreasing drinking water. Ponder able for next 40 years mean temperature will be increase for 2,5 C. It assumes that sea level will be increase at 65 - 100 cm. It will be endanger cities and settlements besides coast ( cities: Split, Zadar; west coast of Istra; delta of Neretva; islands: Krk, Cres, Lošinj…). Suggestions for next activities: monitoring and notation hydro meteorological information's; account impact of climate change on the: evaporation, drain, water balance, water management activity, make a region impact study of a possibly account on the water resources. Maintaining and development of water resources and agrotehnical systems and application water management strategy

  13. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  14. Impact of climate change on groundwater resources in Southern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, C.; Harum, T.; Poltnig, W.; Saccon, P.; Reichl, P.; Ruch, C.; Kopeinig, C.; Freundl, G.; Schlamberger, J.; Zessar, H.; Suette, G.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater is the most important source for drinking water in Austria. In some parts of Southern Austria water resources already are very vulnerable to unfavourable climate conditions. This paper summarizes case studies of estimating the impact of climate change on groundwater recharge and groundwater flow in Southern Austria in the frame of the ETC-Alpine Space project ALP-WATER-SCARCE. In several pilot regions a distributed hydrological model was set up to simulate groundwater recharge and groundwater flow for a period of 10 to 30 years. The pilot sites range from mountainous catchments with steep hillslopes to Alpine valleys and flatlands with pore aquifers. In the model period comprehensive land data and meteorological data were used, and the models were calibrated to available stream gauge data. Additional low flow monitoring in the frame of the project also allowed for a more detailed regional analysis in some catchments. The simulations were firstly used to extend runoff and groundwater recharge depths on an annual basis up to 200 years into the past by regression analysis with long time meteorological parameters (HISTALP). The historical view shows that groundwater flow and recharge in most of the pilot regions decreased since the beginning of the 20th century, which is mainly the effect of climate change. Changes of land use are of minor relevance in most of the regions. Second, by the calibrated model scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of a possible future change in the climatic conditions on water resources. The scenarios were generated by altering the model input by a "Delta-Change", under consideration of the historical development. These scenarios can be interpreted as "what if"-scenarios to quantify the sensitivity of the hydrological systems on these climatic variables. The results are compared with actual and projected water uses as a basis for regional water resources management.

  15. Impact of human resource management practices on nursing home performance.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, K V; Wagar, T H

    2001-08-01

    Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain 'progressive' or 'high-performance' human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment. This paper reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes. Data from 283 nursing homes were collected by means of a mail survey that included questions on HRM practices, programmes, and policies, on human resource aspects of workplace climate, as well as a variety of indicators that include employee, customer/resident and facility measures of organizational performance. Results derived from ordered probit analysis suggest that nursing homes in our sample which had implemented more 'progressive' HRM practices and which reported a workplace climate that strongly values employee participation, empowerment and accountability tended to be perceived to generally perform better on a number of valued organizational outcomes. Nursing homes in our sample that performed best overall were found to be more likely to not only have implemented more of these HRM practices, but also to report having a workplace climate that reflects the seminal value that it places on its human resources. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that simply introducing HRM practices or programmes, in the absence of an appropriately supportive workplace climate, will be insufficient to attain

  16. The Adverse Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Function in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lindman, Brian R.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Madrazo, José A.; Zajarias, Alan; Johnson, Stephanie N.; Pérez, Julio E.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The diabetic heart exhibits increased left ventricular (LV) mass and reduced ventricular function. However, this relationship has not been studied in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), a disease process that causes LV hypertrophy and dysfunction through a distinct mechanism of pressure overload. The aim of this study was to determine how diabetes mellitus (DM) impacts LV remodeling and function in patients with severe AS. Methods and Results Echocardiograms were performed on 114 patients with severe AS [mean aortic valve area (AVA) 0.6 cm2] and included measures of LV remodeling and function. Multivariable linear regression models investigated the independent effect of DM on these aspects of LV structure and function. Compared to non-diabetics (n=60), diabetics (n=54) had increased LV mass, LV end-systolic dimension, LV end-diastolic dimension, and decreased LV ejection fraction (EF) and longitudinal systolic strain (p<0.01 for all). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, sex, systolic BP, AVA, BSA, and coronary disease, DM was an independent predictor of increased LV mass (β=26g, p=0.01), LV end-systolic dimension (β=0.5cm, p=0.008), and LV end-diastolic dimension (β=0.3cm, p=0.025). After additionally adjusting for LV mass, DM was associated with reduced longitudinal systolic strain (β=1.9%, p=0.023) and a trend toward reduced EF (β=−5%, p=0.09). Among diabetics, insulin use (as a marker of disease severity) was associated with larger LV end-systolic dimension and worse LV function. LV mass was a strong predictor of reduced EF and systolic strain (p<0.001 for both). Conclusions DM has an additive adverse effect on hypertrophic remodeling—increased LV mass and larger cavity dimensions—and is associated with reduced systolic function in patients with AS beyond known factors of pressure overload. PMID:21357546

  17. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Valentina; Conti, Valentino; Venegoni, Mauro; Scotto, Stefania; Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Prestini, Lucia; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio; Vighi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in emergency departments (EDs) and carry out a thorough characterization of these to assess preventability, seriousness that required hospitalization, subsequent 30-day mortality, and economic burden. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of data from an active pharmacovigilance project at 32 EDs in the Lombardy region collected between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. Demographic, clinical, and pharmacological data on patients admitted to EDs were collected by trained and qualified monitors, and deterministic record linkage was performed to estimate hospitalizations. Pharmacoeconomic analyses were based on Diagnosis-Related Group reimbursement. Results 8,862 ADRs collected with an overall prevalence rate of 3.5 per 1,000 visits. Of all ADRs, 42% were probably/definitely preventable and 46.4% were serious, 15% required hospitalization, and 1.5% resulted in death. The System Organ Classes most frequently associated with ADRs were: skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal, respiratory thoracic and mediastinal, and nervous system disorders. The most common Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classes involved in admissions were J (anti-infectives and immunomodulating agents), B (blood and blood-forming organs), and N (nervous system). Older age, yellow and red triage, higher number of concomitantly taken drugs, and previous attendance in ED for the same ADR were significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. The total cost associated with ADR management was €5,184,270, with a mean cost per patient of €585. Fifty-eight percent of the economic burden was defined as probably/definitely preventable. Conclusion ADRs are a serious health/economic issue in EDs. This assessment provides a thorough estimation of their seriousness, preventability, and burden impact in a large population from a representative European region. PMID

  18. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  19. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  20. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants. PMID:24637519

  1. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  2. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  3. Moderating role of FKBP5 genotype in the impact of childhood adversity on cortisol stress response during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker, Regina; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Recent research suggests an important role of FKBP5, a glucocorticoid receptor regulating co-chaperone, in the development of stress-related diseases such as depression and anxiety disorders. The present study aimed to replicate and extend previous evidence indicating that FKBP5 polymorphisms moderate hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function by examining whether FKBP5 rs1360780 genotype and different measures of childhood adversity interact to predict stress-induced cortisol secretion. At age 19 years, 195 young adults (90 males, 105 females) participating in an epidemiological cohort study completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to assess cortisol stress responsiveness and were genotyped for the FKBP5 rs1360780. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and by a standardized parent interview yielding an index of family adversity. A significant interaction between genotype and childhood adversity on cortisol response to stress was demonstrated for exposure to childhood maltreatment as assessed by retrospective self-report (CTQ), but not for prospectively ascertained objective family adversity. Severity of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with attenuated cortisol levels among carriers of the rs1360780 CC genotype, while no such effect emerged in carriers of the T allele. These findings point towards the functional involvement of FKBP5 in long-term alterations of neuroendocrine stress regulation related to childhood maltreatment, which have been suggested to represent a premorbid risk or resilience factor in the context of stress-related disorders. PMID:24411633

  4. Impact of hurricanes storm surges on the groundwater resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Biersel, T. P.; Carlson, D.A.; Milner, L.R.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean surges onto coastal lowlands caused by tropical and extra tropical storms, tsunamis, and sea level rise affect all coastal lowlands and present a threat to drinking water resources of many coastal residents. In 2005, two such storms, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Gulf Coast of the US. Since September 2005, water samples have been collected from water wells impacted by the hurricanes' storm surges along the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain in southeastern Louisiana. The private and public water wells tested were submerged by 0.6-4.5 m of surging saltwater for several hours. The wells' casing and/or the associated plumbing were severely damaged. Water samples were collected to determine if storm surge water inundated the well casing and, if so, its effect on water quality within the shallow aquifers of the Southern Hills Aquifer System. In addition, the samples were used to determine if the impact on water quality may have long-term implication for public health. Laboratory testing for several indicator parameters (Ca/Mg, Cl/Si, chloride, boron, specific conductance and bacteria) indicates that surge water entered water wells' casing and the screened aquifer. Analysis of the groundwater shows a decrease in the Ca/Mg ratio right after the storm and then a return toward pre-Katrina values. Chloride concentrations were elevated right after Katrina and Rita, and then decreased downward toward pre-Katrina values. From September 2005 to June 2006, the wells showed improvement in all the saltwater intrusion indicators. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Impact assessment of abiotic resources in LCA: quantitative comparison of selected characterization models.

    PubMed

    Rørbech, Jakob T; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie; Astrup, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247 individual market inventory data sets covering a wide range of societal activities (ecoinvent database v3.0). Log-linear regression analysis was carried out for all pairwise combinations of the 11 methods for identification of correlations in CFs (resources) and total impacts (inventory data sets) between methods. Significant differences in resource coverage were observed (9-73 resources) revealing a trade-off between resource coverage and model complexity. High correlation in CFs between methods did not necessarily manifest in high correlation in total impacts. This indicates that also resource coverage may be critical for impact assessment results. Although no consistent correlations between methods applying similar assessment models could be observed, all methods showed relatively high correlation regarding the assessment of energy resources. Finally, we classify the existing methods into three groups, according to method focus and modeling approach, to aid method selection within LCA. PMID:25208267

  6. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  7. Hydrological externalities and livelihoods impacts: Informed communities for better resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, V. Ratna

    2012-01-01

    SummaryHydrological knowledge or information has mostly remained in the domain of scientific community. The communities that interact with the hydrological aspects such as groundwater and surface water on a day to day basis are hardly aware of the information that could critically influence their livelihoods. From the perspective of the communities' information pertaining to groundwater aquifer characters, potential to provide the water resource, surface groundwater interactions in varying geo-hydrological conditions are important. The 'public good' nature of the resources and their linkages with ecological systems gives rise to externalities that could be pervasive. In a number of countries, especially the developing countries, groundwater is the single largest source of drinking as well as irrigation water. In the absence of scientific information with the communities, extraction of groundwater resources for productive purposes has become a risky venture leading to adverse impacts on livelihoods. The externalities associated with over exploitation of groundwater resources and the resulting widespread well failure is identified as one of the main reasons for pushing farmers into debt trap and one of the reasons for farmer suicides in India. The negative externalities are increasingly becoming severe in the context of climate variability. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of hydrological information to the user communities from a socioeconomic perspective using a newly developed framework 'REDUCE' based on theories of effective communication. It shows, based on the evidence, how farming communities are getting affected in the absence of the basic hydrological information across socioeconomic groups. It is argued, using relevant information that the negative externalities could be mitigated to a large extent with proper dissemination of information among the communities and capacitating them to measure and use the information on their own. In order to

  8. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  9. Impact of age, sex and route of administration on adverse events after opioid treatment in the emergency department: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Raoul; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Piette, Éric; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of opioids for acute pain relief in the emergency department (ED) is well recognized, but treatment with opioids is associated with adverse events ranging from minor discomforts to life-threatening events. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of age, sex and route of administration on the incidence of adverse events due to opioid administration in the ED. METHODS: Real-time archived data were analyzed retrospectively in a tertiary care urban hospital. All consecutive patients (≥16 years of age) who were assigned to an ED bed and received an opioid between March 2008 and December 2012 were included. Adverse events were defined as: nausea/vomiting (minor); systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg, oxygen saturation (Sat) <92% and respiration rate <10 breaths/min (major) within 2 h of the first opioid doses. RESULTS: In the study period, 31,742 patients were treated with opioids. The mean (± SD) age was 55.8±20.5 years, and 53% were female. The overall incidence of adverse events was 12.0% (95% CI 11.6% to 12.4%): 5.9% (95% CI 5.6% to 6.2%) experienced nausea/vomiting, 2.4% (95% CI 2.2% to 2.6%) SBP <90 mmHg, 4.7% (95% CI 4.5% to 4.9%) Sat that dropped to <92% and 0.09% respiration rate <10 breaths/min. After controlling for confounding factors, these adverse events were associated with: female sex (more nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, less Sat <92%); age ≥65 years (less nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, more Sat <92%); and route of administration (intravenous > subcutaneous > oral). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of adverse events associated with opioid administration in the ED is generally low and is associated with age, sex and route of administration. PMID:25664538

  10. Economic Impact of Adverse Drug Events – A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study of 4970 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Hakkarainen, Katja M.; Hägg, Staffan; Carlsten, Anders; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to estimate the direct costs caused by ADEs, including costs for dispensed drugs, primary care, other outpatient care, and inpatient care, and to relate the direct costs caused by ADEs to the societal COI (direct and indirect costs), for patients with ADEs and for the entire study population. Methods We conducted a population-based observational retrospective cohort study of ADEs identified from medical records. From a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council, 4970 were included in the analyses. During a three-month study period in 2008, direct and indirect costs were estimated from resource use identified in the medical records and from register data on costs for resource use. Results Among 596 patients with ADEs, the average direct costs per patient caused by ADEs were USD 444.9 [95% CI: 264.4 to 625.3], corresponding to USD 21 million per 100 000 adult inhabitants per year. Inpatient care accounted for 53.9% of all direct costs caused by ADEs. For patients with ADEs, the average societal cost of illness was USD 6235.0 [5442.8 to 7027.2], of which direct costs were USD 2830.1 [2260.7 to 3399.4] (45%), and indirect costs USD 3404.9 [2899.3 to 3910.4] (55%). The societal cost of illness was higher for patients with ADEs compared to other patients. ADEs caused 9.5% of all direct healthcare costs in the study population. Conclusions Healthcare costs for patients with ADEs are substantial across different settings; in primary care, other outpatient care and inpatient care. Hence the economic impact of ADEs will be underestimated in studies focusing on inpatient ADEs alone. Moreover, the high proportion of indirect costs in the societal COI for patients with ADEs suggests that the observed costs caused by ADEs would be even higher if including indirect costs. Additional studies are needed to identify interventions to prevent and manage ADEs. PMID:24637879

  11. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Methods Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Results Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Limitation Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Conclusions Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels. PMID:26295806

  12. Prevalence and Predictors of Adverse Events in Older Surgical Patients: Impact of the Present on Admission Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hongsoo; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Kovner, Christine; Zhao, Zhonglin; Boockvar, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine the effects of the present on admission (POA) indicator on the prevalence of and factors associated with postsurgical adverse events in older patients. Design and Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of 82,898 surgical patients aged 65 years or older in 252 acute care hospitals in California in 2004. Four…

  13. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.; Baughman, M.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county`s repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have been revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; Baughman, Mike; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena A.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportatin corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county's repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have beem revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings.

  15. Impact of agroecosystems on groundwater resources in the Central High Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystems impact water resources by changing water partitioning at the land surface and by consuming most fresh water through irrigation. The study assesses impacts of agroecosystems on groundwater resources in the Texas High Plains (37,000 km2 area). Borehole samples beneath different agroecos...

  16. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  17. The impact of adverse life events and the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism on the development of eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Akkermann, Kirsti; Kaasik, Kadri; Kiive, Evelyn; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus

    2012-01-01

    Adverse life events have been shown to predict weight fluctuations and dietary restraint, as well as eating disorders during adolescence or early adulthood. Since the s-allele carriers of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are biologically more reactive to stress related stimuli, we aimed to explore whether the eating disturbances are predicted by environmental stressors and moderated by the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The sample was based on the younger cohort of the Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study and included those participating in its second and third wave. The history of stressful life events was self-reported at age 15. Data on eating behaviour and attitudes, anxiety, impulsivity and depressiveness were collected at age 18. The effect of the adverse life events on binge eating and on drive for thinness was found to be moderated by the 5-HTTLPR. Adolescent girls who at age 15 had reported a history of frequent adverse life events had elevated scores in EDI-2 Bulimia subscale at age 18 if they were carrying the s-allele. The effect of the s-allele on binge eating was even more pronounced when solely the experience of sexual abuse was considered. The interaction effect of the 5-HTTLPR and the past sexual abuse was also observed on drive for thinness. These data give further support to the idea that adverse life events in childhood may heighten susceptibility to serotonergic dysregulation following stress, and suggest that in individuals vulnerable to eating disorders this may result in disturbed eating behaviours. PMID:22018958

  18. System Impacts from Interconnection of Distributed Resources: Current Status and Identification of Needs for Further Development

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents and evaluates system impacts from the interconnection of distributed resources to transmission and distribution systems, including a focus on renewable distributed resource technologies. The report also identifies system impact-resolution approaches and actions, including extensions of existing approaches. Lastly, the report documents the current challenges and examines what is needed to gain a clearer understanding of what to pursue to better avoid or address system impact issues.

  19. NEW PUBLIC DATA AND INTERNET RESOURCES IMPACTING PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, along with efforts to improve public access to chemical toxicity information resources and to systematize older toxicity studies, have the potential to significantly improve predictive capabilities in toxicology.

  20. The impact of earth resources exploration from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.

  1. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as

  2. 75 FR 29583 - Special Resource Study and Environmental Impact Statement, Coltsville, Hartford, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Special Resource Study and Environmental Impact Statement, Coltsville, Hartford, CT AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of Termination of...

  3. Quantification of the Impact of Technological Changes on Human Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Norman R.; And Others

    The capability to predict human resource requirements based on the introduction of new technology has long been a research objective within psychology. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantifying the effects of incoming technology. A five-step approach was taken and included critical analysis of the recent literature to…

  4. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  5. Identifying Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitats to Guide River Restoration for Existing Schemes and Mitigate Adverse Effects of Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddendorf, B.; Geris, J.; Malcolm, I.; Wilkinson, M.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    A decrease in longitudinal connectivity in riverine ecosystems resulting from the construction of transverse barriers has been identified as a major threat to biodiversity. For example, Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) have a seasonal variety of hydraulic habitat requirements for their different life stages. However, hydropower impoundments impact the spatial and temporal connectivity of natural habitat along many salmon rivers in ways that are not fully understood. Yet, these changes may affect the sustainability of habitat at local and regional scales and so ultimately the conservation of the species. Research is therefore needed both to aid the restoration and management of rivers impacted by previous hydropower development and guide new schemes to mitigate potentially adverse effects. To this end we assessed the effects of hydropower development on the flow related habitat conditions for different salmon life stages in Scottish rivers at different spatial scales. We used GIS techniques to map the changes in structural connectivity at regional scales, applying a weighting for habitat quality. Next, we used hydrological models to simulate past and present hydrologic conditions that in turn drive reach-scale hydraulic models to assess the impacts of regulation on habitat suitability in both space and time. Preliminary results indicate that: 1) impacts on connectivity depend on the location of the barrier within the river network; 2) multiple smaller barriers may have a potentially lower impact than a single larger barrier; 3) there is a relationship between habitat and connectivity where losing less but more suitable habitat potentially has a disproportionally large impact; 4) the impact of flow regulation can lead to a deterioration of habitat quality, though the effects are spatially variable and the extent of the impact depends on salmon life stage. This work can form a basis for using natural processes to perform targeted and cost-effective restoration of rivers.

  6. Human Resource Management in Hong Kong Preschools: The Impact of Falling Rolls on Staffing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Choi-Wa Dora

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of falling rolls on human resource management in local preschools in Hong Kong. It aims to argue that the developing role of leadership in creating a culture and procedures for collective participation in staff appraisal is important for human resource management in preschool settings.…

  7. The Impacts of the Great Recession on State Natural Resource Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…

  8. Final Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship, if any, between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. More specifically, the study has been designed to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and to identif...

  9. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current

  10. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel.

    PubMed

    Dekel, R; Hobfoll, S E

    2007-03-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors' current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust. PMID:17453549

  11. Downscaling climate model output for water resources impacts assessment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, E. P.; Pierce, D. W.; Cayan, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Water agencies in the U.S. and around the globe are beginning to wrap climate change projections into their planning procedures, recognizing that ongoing human-induced changes to hydrology can affect water management in significant ways. Future hydrology changes are derived using global climate model (GCM) projections, though their output is at a spatial scale that is too coarse to meet the needs of those concerned with local and regional impacts. Those investigating local impacts have employed a range of techniques for downscaling, the process of translating GCM output to a more locally-relevant spatial scale. Recent projects have produced libraries of publicly-available downscaled climate projections, enabling managers, researchers and others to focus on impacts studies, drawing from a shared pool of fine-scale climate data. Besides the obvious advantage to data users, who no longer need to develop expertise in downscaling prior to examining impacts, the use of the downscaled data by hundreds of people has allowed a crowdsourcing approach to examining the data. The wide variety of applications employed by different users has revealed characteristics not discovered during the initial data set production. This has led to a deeper look at the downscaling methods, including the assumptions and effect of bias correction of GCM output. Here new findings are presented related to the assumption of stationarity in the relationships between large- and fine-scale climate, as well as the impact of quantile mapping bias correction on precipitation trends. The validity of these assumptions can influence the interpretations of impacts studies using data derived using these standard statistical methods and help point the way to improved methods.

  12. Impact of single- vs double-layer closure on adverse outcomes and uterine scar defect: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Stéphanie; Demers, Suzanne; Berghella, Vincenzo; Chaillet, Nils; Moore, Lynne; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review and metaanalysis were performed through electronic database searches to estimate the effect of uterine closure at cesarean on the risk of adverse maternal outcome and on uterine scar evaluated by ultrasound. Randomized controlled trials, which compared single vs double layers and locking vs unlocking sutures for uterine closure of low transverse cesarean, were included. Outcomes were short-term complications (endometritis, wound infection, maternal infectious morbidity, blood transfusion, duration of surgical procedure, length of hospital stay, mean blood loss), uterine rupture or dehiscence at next pregnancy, and uterine scar evaluation by ultrasound. Twenty of 1278 citations were included in the analysis. We found that all types of closure were comparable for short-term maternal outcomes, except for single-layer closure, which had shorter operative time (-6.1 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.7 to -3.4; P < .001) than double-layer closure. Single layer (-2.6 mm; 95% CI, -3.1 to -2.1; P < .001) and locked first layer (mean difference, -2.5 mm; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.8; P < .001) were associated with lower residual myometrial thickness. Two studies reported no significant difference between single- vs double-layer closure for uterine dehiscence (relative risk, 1.86; 95% CI, 0.44-7.90; P = .40) or uterine rupture (no case). In conclusion, current evidence based on randomized trials does not support a specific type of uterine closure for optimal maternal outcomes and is insufficient to conclude about the risk of uterine rupture. Single-layer closure and locked first layer are possibly coupled with thinner residual myometrium thickness. PMID:24912096

  13. Adverse impact of fibrin clot inhibitors on intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for superficial bladder tumors.

    PubMed

    Hudson, M A; Yuan, J J; Catalona, W J; Ratliff, T L

    1990-12-01

    Although intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy has proved to be efficacious in the treatment and prophylaxis against tumor recurrence of superficial bladder tumors, its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Previous work has suggested that bacillus Calmette-Guerin organisms attach to the matrix protein, fibronectin, during fibrin clot formation at sites of urothelial disruption and that this attachment was required for the antitumor effect of bacillus Calmette-Guerin to be expressed. Furthermore, drugs inhibiting clot formation were found to abrogate the antitumor effect of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy in a murine bladder tumor model. To examine the effect of inhibitors of fibrin clot formation on the results of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy, a retrospective analysis of 149 evaluable patients receiving intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin for superficial bladder tumors was performed. The over-all response rate free of tumor for 29 patients who concomitantly received inhibitors of fibrin clot formation with bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy was 48%, as compared with 67% for 120 patients who were not receiving these medications (p = 0.0655, chi-square). The most striking difference was noted for patients who failed with recurrent superficial disease. Of the patients who received fibrin clot inhibitors during intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy 35% had recurrent superficial tumors compared to only 8% of those who did not receive these drugs during a mean followup of 29.8 plus or minus 11 months (p = 0.005, chi-square). Our study suggests that inhibitors of fibrin clot formation may have an adverse influence on the results of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for superficial bladder tumors. PMID:2231927

  14. Impact of High-Normal Blood Pressure Measured in Emergency Room on Adverse Cardiac Events in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nam Sik; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Hur, Seung Ho; Seong, In Whan; Hong, Taek Jong; Choi, Donghoon; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Seung, Ki Bae; Chung, Wook Sung; Jang, Yang Soo; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Seung Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prehypertension according to JNC7 is common and is associated with increased vascular mortality. The importance of management in high-normal blood pressure (BP) is underemphasized. Subjects and Methods We analyzed major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry in normal BP (group I) and high-normal BP (group II) patients. Results Among 14871 patients, 159 (61±12.3 years, 122 males) satisfied the study indication. Six-month and one-year clinical follow-up rate was 88.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Group I had 78 patients (60.9±12.4 years). Group II had 81 patients (61.6±12.5 years). Demographics of patients were not different between groups. Treatment strategy was not different. Initial Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0 was less frequent in group II (n=32, 47.1%) than in group I (n=16, 21.9%) (p=0.001). Successful intervention rate was not different between group II (93.8%) and group I (97.1%) (p=0.590). Six-month MACE occurred in 3 patients in group I (4.4%) and 10 in group II (15.6%) (p=0.031). Compared with normal BP, the odds ratio for patients with high-normal BP was 1.147 (p=0.045, 95% confidence interval 1.011-1.402) for 6-month MACE. Conclusion Even though high-normal BP patients had a better baseline clinical status, the prognosis was poorer than patients with normal BP. Therapeutic BP target goal for the patients with acute myocardial infarction should be <140/90 mm Hg, which is recommended in JNC7. PMID:22701132

  15. Resourced Provision: The Impact of Inclusive Practices on a Mainstream Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazzard, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This personal account from a special educational needs co-ordinator illustrates the negative impact that resourced provision has had on one school. The provision caters for children with communication and interaction difficulties and is housed in a mainstream primary school. For this school, while the provision has had a beneficial impact on the…

  16. The Impact of Internet Information Resources on Research Strategies: A Case Study in Alcohol Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne P.; Anglin, Lise; Kavanagh, Lynn T.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Giesbrecht, Norman A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the impact of Internet information resources on the development and adaptation of research strategies based on a study of federal alcohol control policy. Considers how Internet access affects utilization of information services within an organization, and describes measures of utilization and effectiveness for assessing the impact of…

  17. 78 FR 39010 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Resource Management Plan and Associated Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Buffalo Resource Management Plan Revision, Buffalo Field Office, WY... Management Plan (RMP) and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Buffalo Field Office and by this... . Email: BRMP_Rev_WYMail@blm.gov ; Fax: (307) 684-1122; Mail: Buffalo RMP, BLM Buffalo Field Office,...

  18. Environmental Impact Statements. Resource Papers for College Geography, No. 78-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael R.; And Others

    The monograph examines objectives and preparation of environmental impact statements (EISs) and assesses the degree to which these documents are successful in monitoring the environmental impact of development in the United States. The document is part of a series of resource papers developed to supplement college-level geography textbooks. The…

  19. The Impact of Library Resource Utilization on Undergraduate Students' Academic Performance: A Propensity Score Matching Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kot, Felly Chiteng; Jones, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses three cohorts of first-time, full-time undergraduate students (N = 8,652) at a large, metropolitan, public research university to examine the impact of student use of three library resources (workstations, study rooms, and research clinics) on academic performance. To deal with self-selection bias and estimate this impact more…

  20. A National Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing Activities on Drinking Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, C.; Burden, S.; Fleming, M. M.; Knightes, C. D.; Koplos, J.; LeDuc, S. D.; Ring, S.; Stanek, J.; Tuccillo, M. E.; Weaver, J.; Frithsen, J.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently released a draft assessment of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. As part of the draft assessment, we reviewed, analyzed, and synthesized information from over 950 sources and concluded that there are above and below ground mechanisms by which hydraulic fracturing activities have the potential to impact drinking water resources. These mechanisms include: Water withdrawals in times of, or in areas with, low water availability; Spills of hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water; Fracturing directly into underground drinking water resources; Below ground migration of liquids and gases; and Inadequate treatment and discharge of wastewater. Of the potential mechanisms identified in this report, we found specific instances where one or more mechanisms led to impacts on drinking water resources, including contamination of drinking water wells. The number of identified cases, however, was small compared to the number of hydraulically fractured wells. This finding could reflect a rarity of effects on drinking water resources, but may also be due to other limiting factors. These factors include: insufficient pre- and post-fracturing data on the quality of drinking water resources; the paucity of long-term systematic studies; the presence of other sources of contamination precluding a definitive link between hydraulic fracturing activities and an impact; and the inaccessibility of some information on hydraulic fracturing activities and potential impacts. Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or polices of the EPA.

  1. IMPACT OF THE FEDERAL TAX CODE ON RESOURCE RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study assessed the extent to which a variety of federal tax subsidies to extractive industries effect the flow of materials to competing secondary materials industries. The impacts on virgin material supply for steel, paper, lead, copper, and aluminum industries were analyzed...

  2. Impacts of land use and land cover change on water resources and water scarcity in the 20th century: a multi-model multi-forcing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Socioeconomic developments increasingly put pressure on our global fresh water resources. Over the past century, increasing extents of land were converted into (irrigated) agricultural production areas whilst dams and reservoirs were built to get grip on the timing and availability of fresh water resources. Often targeted to be of use at local, regional, or national levels, such human interventions affect, however, terrestrial water fluxes on larger scales. Although many of these interventions have been studied intensively at global and regional scales, the impact of land use and land cover change has often been omitted, and an assessment on how land conversions impact water resources availability and water scarcity conditions was not executed before, despite its importance in the development of sound integrated river basin water management plans. To address this issue, we evaluate in this contribution how land use and land cover change impact water resources and water scarcity conditions in the 20th century, using a multi-model multi-forcing framework. A novelty of this research is that the impact models applied in this study use the dynamic HYDE 3.1 - MIRCA dataset to cover the historical (1971-2010) changes in land use and land cover. Preliminary results show that more than 60% of the global population, predominantly living in downstream areas, is adversely affected by the impacts of land use and land cover change on water resources and water scarcity conditions. Whilst incoming discharge generally (in 97% of the global land area) tends to decrease due to upstream land conversions, we found at the same time increases in local runoff levels for a significant share (27%) of the global land area. Which effect eventually dominates and whether it causes water scarcity conditions is determined by the dependency of a region to water resources originating in upstream areas, and by the increasing rates with which the (locally generated) stream flow is used to fulfil (non

  3. NASA Tools for Climate Impacts on Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Climate and environmental change are expected to fundamentally alter the nation's hydrological cycle and water availability. Satellites provide global or near-global coverage using instruments, allowing for consistent, well-calibrated, and equivalent-quality data of the Earth system. A major goal for NASA climate and environmental change research is to create multi-instrument data sets to span the multi-decadal time scales of climate change and to combine these data with those from modeling and surface-based observing systems to improve process understanding and predictions. NASA and Earth science data and analyses will ultimately enable more accurate climate prediction, and characterization of uncertainties. NASA's Applied Sciences Program works with other groups, including other federal agencies, to transition demonstrated observational capabilities to operational capabilities. A summary of some of NASA tools for improved water resources management will be presented.

  4. Medical and Genetic Differences in the Adverse Impact of Sleep Loss on Performance: Ethical Considerations for the Medical Profession

    PubMed Central

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  5. Medical and genetic differences in the adverse impact of sleep loss on performance: ethical considerations for the medical profession.

    PubMed

    Czeisler, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  6. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio-economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.

  7. A clean-burning biofuel as a response to adverse impacts of woodsmoke and coalsmoke on Navajo health

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Bragg, W.G.; Whittier, J.

    1994-12-31

    Because over 60% of Navajo households are heated with woodfuel and coal, and indoor air pollution from woodsmoke and coalsmoke is problematic, most Navajos are probably at risk of respiratory and other smoke-induced illnesses. A previous study has shown that Navajo children living in homes heated by a wood/coal stove are nearly five times more likely to contract acute lower respiratory tract infections than children from homes that do not use those fuels. Stove and flue improvements to reduce leakage of smoke into the home would help. So would clean-burning solid fuels in replacement of woodfuel and coal. The authors describe a clean-burning fast-growing carbohydrate biofuel, prepared by sun-drying the roots of a wild southwestern gourd plant, Cucurbita foetidissima. They call it {open_quotes}rootfuel.{close_quotes} A test plot is growing during the 1994 season at the NMSU Agricultural Science Center on the Navajo Nation, near Farmington, New Mexico. Irrigation requirements are being measured. In the Fall, a preliminary needs assessment will be conducted to learn more about how fuel usage impacts Navajo health. The acceptability of rootfuel in selected homes will be tested during the upcoming heating season.

  8. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  9. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on Class I areas: part I. impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-07-01

    Published in two parts, this article describes a new emissions cap-and-trade program to reduce acid deposition and visibility impacts in four Class I areas (e.g. wildernesses and national parks) from the proposed Longview Power coal-fired power plant to be located in Maidsville, WV. Part I discusses the air quality impacts of the proposed project. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. 78 FR 65416 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement-Integrated Resource Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is conducting a study of its energy resources in order to update and replace the integrated Resource Plan (IRP) and the associated Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that it completed in 2011. The IRP is a comprehensive study of how TVA will meet the demand for electricity in its service territory over the next 20 years. The 2011 IRP is being updated in......

  11. Social impact evaluation of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppitti, James; Dietz, Thomas

    1983-11-01

    Debate over environmental policy often focuses on social impacts of those policies, but few empirical studies examine the impacts of environmental regulations once they are implemented. A quasi-experimental design based on survey data is used to assess the social impacts of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on the West Virginia chemical industry. Changes in employment, manufacturing process, product line, and manufacturing costs are evaluated. RCRA seems to have produced changes in manufacturing processes, but we find no statistically significant impacts on.jobs, product line, or manufacturing costs.

  12. Nonadditive impacts of temperature and basal resource availability on predator-prey interactions and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Zacharia J; Kishida, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    Predicting the impacts of climate change on communities requires understanding how temperature affects predator-prey interactions under different biotic conditions. In cases of size-specific predation, environmental influences on the growth rate of one or both species can determine predation rates. For example, warming increases top-down control of food webs, although this depends on resource availability for prey, as increased resources may allow prey to reach a size refuge. Moreover, because the magnitude of inducible defenses depends on predation rates and resource availability for prey, temperature and resource levels also affect phenotypic plasticity. To examine these issues, we manipulated the presence/absence of predatory Hynobius retardatus salamander larvae and herbivorous Rana pirica tadpoles at two temperatures and three basal resource levels. and measured their morphology, behavior, growth and survival. Prior work has shown that both species express antagonistic plasticity against one another in which salamanders enlarge their gape width and tadpoles increase their body width to reach a size-refuge. We found that increased temperatures increased predation rates, although this was counteracted by high basal resource availability, which further decreased salamander growth. Surprisingly, salamanders caused tadpoles to grow larger and express more extreme defensive phenotypes as resource levels decreased under warming, most likely due to their increased risk of predation. Thus, temperature and resources influenced defensive phenotype expression and its impacts on predator and prey growth by affecting their interaction strength. Our results indicate that basal resource levels can modify the impacts of increased temperatures on predator-prey interactions and its consequences for food webs. PMID:25820751

  13. Natural thorium resources and recovery: Options and impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ault, Timothy; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Krahn, Steven; Croff, Allen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the front end of the thorium fuel cycle, including the extent and variety of thorium deposits, the potential sources of thorium production, and the physical and chemical technologies required to isolate and purify thorium. Thorium is frequently found within rare earth element–bearing minerals that exist in diverse types of mineral deposits, often in conjunction with other minerals mined for their commercial value. It may be possible to recover substantial quantities of thorium as a by-product from active titanium, uranium, tin, iron, and rare earth mines. Incremental physical and chemical processing is required to obtain a purified thorium product from thorium minerals, but documented experience with these processes is extensive, and incorporating thorium recovery should not be overly challenging. The anticipated environmental impacts of by-product thorium recovery are small relative to those of uranium recovery since existing mining infrastructure utilization avoids the opening and operation of new mines and thorium recovery removes radionuclides from the mining tailings.

  14. The Impact of Library Resources and Services on the Scholarly Activity of Medical Faculty and Residents.

    PubMed

    Quesenberry, Alexandria C; Oelschlegel, Sandy; Earl, Martha; Leonard, Kelsey; Vaughn, Cynthia J

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at an academic medical center library gathered data to determine if library services and resources impacted scholarly activity. A survey was developed and sent out to faculty and residents asking how they used the library during scholarly activity. Sixty-five faculty members and residents responded to the survey. The majority of respondents involved with scholarly activity use the library's services and resources. PubMed is the most frequently used database. The positive results show the library impacts the scholarly activity of medical faculty and residents. PMID:27391176

  15. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    Energy systems and water resources are inextricably linked, especially in the case of bioenergy, which can require up to three orders of magnitude more water than other energy carriers. Water scarcity already affects about 1 in 5 people globally, and stands to be exacerbated in many locales by current biofuel expansion plans. This dissertation engages with several of the analytical and governance challenges raised by this connection between bioenergy expansion and global water resources. My examination begins with an overview of important concepts in water resource analysis, followed by a review of current literature on the water impacts of most major energy pathways. I then report on a case study of ethanol fuel in California. This work employed a coupled agro-climatic and life cycle assessment (LCA) model to estimate the water resource impacts of several bioenergy expansion scenarios at a county-level resolution. It shows that ethanol production in California regularly consumes more than 1000 gallons of water per gallon of fuel produced, and that 99% of life-cycle water consumption occurs in the feedstock cultivation phase. This analysis then delves into the complexity of life cycle impact assessment for water resources. Despite improvements in water accounting methods, impact assessment must contend with the fact that different water sources are not necessarily commensurable, and that impacts depend on the state of the resource base that is drawn upon. I adapt water footprinting and LCA techniques to the bioenergy context, describing comprehensive inventory approaches and developing a process for characterizing (weighting) consumption values to enable comparison across resource bases. This process draws on metrics of water stress, accounting for environmental flow requirements, climatic variability, and non-linearity of water stress effects. My assessment framework was developed in hopes that it would be useful in managing the risks and impacts it describes. The

  16. Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management, and development of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loats, H. L.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the principal water resource users was conducted to determine the impact of new remote data streams on hydrologic computer models. The analysis of the responses and direct contact demonstrated that: (1) the majority of water resource effort of the type suitable to remote sensing inputs is conducted by major federal water resources agencies or through federally stimulated research, (2) the federal government develops most of the hydrologic models used in this effort; and (3) federal computer power is extensive. The computers, computer power, and hydrologic models in current use were determined.

  17. Optimizing biofuel feedstock production based on impacts on regional water resources and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of water pollution on surface water has been of increasing concern as more land and agricultural residues are used for biofuel feedstock production. This study presents the potential impacts of different feedstock production scenarios on regional water resources and quality and further optimize the production using stream discharge and water quality as additional constrains. An integrated watershed hydrology model and optimization algorithm was developed to simulate stream water quality and optimize the change in land use and residue management on the Ohio River Basin, which currently contributes the majority of the flow volume and pollutions of nutrient and sediment to the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico. Various plausible future biofuel feedstock production scenarios, including the projection by the DOE Billion Ton Study, were considered to assess the potential impacts on the region and local streams discharges, evapotranspiration, soil moisture content, sediment erosion, nitrogen and phosphorus loadings. Depending on the associated land use and management changes for biofuel, the resulted impacts on the region water resources and stream qualities are found to be mixed with considerable spatial and temporal variations, thus providing an opportunity to further optimize the biomass production by taking into account its potential implication on the basin water resources and quality. An evolution-based optimization technique was applied to optimize the feedstock production by considering their associated impacts on water. The results confirm the capacity to meet both the biofuel and water resources and quality demands.

  18. Inter-pregnancy weight change impacts placental weight and is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-pregnancy period is considered a teachable moment when women are receptive to weight- management guidance aimed at optimising pregnancy outcome in subsequent pregnancies. In population based studies inter-pregnancy weight change is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes but the impact on placental size is unknown. Methods The association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the primary risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy was investigated in 12,740 women with first two consecutive deliveries at a single hospital using logistic regression. Results Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>1BMI unit) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, low placental weight and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, while weight gain (>3BMI units) increased the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, emergency caesarean section, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth at the second pregnancy. The relationship between weight gain and pre-eclampsia risk was evident in women who were overweight at first pregnancy only (BMI ≥25 units), while that between weight loss and preterm delivery was confined to women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI <25 units). In contrast, the association between weight loss and SGA was independent of first pregnancy BMI. A higher percentage of women who were obese at first pregnancy were likely to experience a large weight gain (P < 0.01) or weight loss (P < 0.001) between consecutive pregnancies compared with the normal BMI reference group. Conclusion Inter-pregnancy weight change in either direction increases the risk of a number of contrasting pregnancy complications, including extremes of placental weight. The placenta may lie on the causal pathway between BMI change and the risk of LGA or SGA birth. PMID:24450357

  19. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    PubMed

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. PMID:26093102

  20. The Impact of Inherited Thrombophilia Types and Low Molecular Weight Heparin Treatment on Pregnancy Complications in Women with Previous Adverse Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Nada; Roje, Damir; Jakus, Ivana Alujevic; Bakotin, Marinela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the distribution of births and spontaneous abortions, first-trimester abortion (FTA) and mid-trimester abortion (MTA), in untreated (n=128) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treated pregnancies (n=50) of the same women with inherited thrombophilias and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO) in previous pregnancies. We particularly investigated the impact of LMWH on reducing the pregnancy complications in two thrombophilia types, "Conventional" and "Novel". Materials and Methods 50 women with inherited thrombophilia (26 Conventional and 24 Novel) and APO in previous pregnancies were included in the study. Conventional group included factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (PT) mutations and antithrombin (AT), protein S (PS), and protein C (PC) deficiency, while the Novel group included methylentetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism. APO was defined as one of the following: preterm birth (PTB), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), placental abruption (PA) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Results There was no difference in distribution of births and spontaneous abortions between Conventional and Novel thrombophilia in untreated pregnancies (χ2=2.7; p=0.100) and LMWH treated pregnancies (χ2=0.442; p=0.506). In untreaed pregnancies thrombophilia type did not have any impact on the frequency of FTA and MTA (χ2=0.14; p=0.711). In birth-ended pregnancies LMWH treatement reduced the incidence of IUFD (p=0.011) in Conventional and FGR, IUFD, and PTB in Novel thrombophilia group. Conclusion The equal impact of two thrombophilia types on the pregnancy outcomes and a more favorable effect of LMWH therapy on pregnancy complications in Novel thrombophilia group point the need for Novel thrombophilias screening and the future studies on this issue should be recommended. PMID:27401656

  1. Impact of climate change on irrigation requirements in terms of groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yilian

    2010-11-01

    Climate change affects not only water resources but also water demand for irrigation. A large proportion of the world’s agriculture depends on groundwater, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In several regions, aquifer resources face depletion. Groundwater recharge has been viewed as a by-product of irrigation return flow, and with climate change, aquifer storage of such flow will be vital. A general review, for a broad-based audience, is given of work on global warming and groundwater resources, summarizing the methods used to analyze the climate change scenarios and the influence of these predicted changes on groundwater resources around the world (especially the impact on regional groundwater resources and irrigation requirements). Future challenges of adapting to climate change are also discussed. Such challenges include water-resources depletion, increasing irrigation demand, reduced crop yield, and groundwater salinization. The adaptation to and mitigation of these effects is also reported, including useful information for water-resources managers and the development of sustainable groundwater irrigation methods. Rescheduling irrigation according to the season, coordinating the groundwater resources and irrigation demand, developing more accurate and complete modeling prediction methods, and managing the irrigation facilities in different ways would all be considered, based on the particular cases.

  2. National Practitioner Data Bank for Adverse Information on Physicians and other Health Care Practitioners: charge for self-queries. Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    This final rule amends the existing regulations implementing the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 (the Act), which established the National Practitioner Data Bank for Adverse Information on Physicians and Other Health Care Practitioners (the Data Bank). The final rule amends the existing fee structure so that the Data Bank can fully recover its costs, as required by law. This rule removes the prohibition against charging for self-queries and, therefore, allows the Data Bank to assess costs in an equitable manner. This is consistent with both the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act which allow the Government to charge fees for the reproduction of records. The Data Bank will continue its current practice of sending to the practitioner in whose name it was submitted--automatically, without a request, and free of charge--a copy of every report received by the Data Bank for purposes of verification and dispute resolution. PMID:10557586

  3. How Does Scale of Implementation Impact the Environmental Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment Integrated with Resource Recovery?

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-01

    Energy and resource consumptions required to treat and transport wastewater have led to efforts to improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Resource recovery can reduce the environmental impact of these systems; however, limited research has considered how the scale of implementation impacts the sustainability of WWTPs integrated with resource recovery. Accordingly, this research uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate how the scale of implementation impacts the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment integrated with water reuse, energy recovery, and nutrient recycling. Three systems were selected: a septic tank with aerobic treatment at the household scale, an advanced water reclamation facility at the community scale, and an advanced water reclamation facility at the city scale. Three sustainability indicators were considered: embodied energy, carbon footprint, and eutrophication potential. This study determined that as with economies of scale, there are benefits to centralization of WWTPs with resource recovery in terms of embodied energy and carbon footprint; however, the community scale was shown to have the lowest eutrophication potential. Additionally, technology selection, nutrient control practices, system layout, and topographical conditions may have a larger impact on environmental sustainability than the implementation scale in some cases. PMID:27001077

  4. 77 FR 14414 - Notice of Intent To Revise Resource Management Plans and an Associated Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, intends to revise six Resource Management Plans (RMPs) with a single associated Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Western Oregon Planning Area and by this notice is......

  5. Expanding Approaches for Understanding Impact: Integrating Technology, Curriculum, and Open Educational Resources in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Lei; Recker, Mimi; Walker, Andrew; Leary, Heather; Yuan, Min

    2015-01-01

    This article reports results from a scale-up study of the impact of a software tool designed to support teachers in the digital learning era. This tool, the Curriculum Customization Service (CCS), enables teachers to access open educational resources from multiple providers, customize them for classroom instruction, and share them with other…

  6. 78 FR 5486 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Resource Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Junction Field Office in Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act... of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP) and Draft...

  7. Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (Monterey, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary of EPA's research relating to potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources will be presented. Background about the study plan development will be presented along with an analysis of the water cycle as it relates to hydraulic fracturing processe...

  8. The Impact of Web Based Resource Material on Learning Outcome in Open Distance Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masrur, Rehana

    2010-01-01

    One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid) course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material…

  9. 78 FR 12347 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... actions, within four management alternatives, designed to address new management challenges and issues... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Lander Field Office Planning Area, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  10. Impact of Water Intensity and Efficiency on Water Resources Sustainability in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BIN, Lingling; XU, Xinyi; YANG, Zhongwen; XU, Kui

    2015-04-01

    Water problems in China have characters of less per capita, highly developed and low efficiency; it is essential to pay close attention to the sustainable utilization of water resources. This paper aims to explore the impact of human activities on the sustainability of water resources in China. Three important factors affecting sustainability significantly were involved: Water Resources (WR), Water Intensity (WI) and Water Efficiency (WE). Assessment of the three factors were conducted in 356 cities in mainland China, and each indicator is graded from "very low" to "very high" according to the eigenvalue magnitude. China is then classified into four zones to differentiate regional variations of the impact of human activities on water sustainability. Results show that 34% of the areas have high WI values and 58% have low WE values. It is recommended that water resource polices be turned to a more sustainable management strategy in areas with high intensity and low efficiency and sustainability significantly low. Zone I regions should be focused on particular attention for its exploitation of water resources reached an extreme state, water efficiency should be highly improved and water-saving management policy implemented to maintain the sustainable development of water resources and ecosystems.

  11. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J E; Gygi, K F

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs.

  12. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  13. [Impact of health care reform on human resources and employment management].

    PubMed

    Brito Quintana, P E

    2000-01-01

    According to those in charge of health sector reform, human resources are the key component of health sector reform processes and offer health services their greatest competitive advantage. With the help of the Observatory for Human Resources within Health Sector Reform promoted by the Pan American Health Organization and other groups, countries of the Region of the Americas have now begun to gather, in a methodical fashion, tangible evidence of the decisive importance of human resources within health sector reform initiatives and particularly of the impact of these initiatives on health personnel. This mutual influence is the main theme of this article, which explores the most disturbing aspects of health sector reform from a human resources perspective, including job instability and conflicting interests of employers and employees. PMID:11026774

  14. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  15. Combined land use and climate change impact on Surface and Ground water resources in the Rio Cobre and Great River basin, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.; Melesse, A. M.; Grey, O.; Webber, D.

    2011-12-01

    Possible adverse impacts of land use and climate change on one hand and population pressure, extended droughts, and environmental degradation on the other hand are major factors limiting water resources availability in the watersheds of Jamaica. The main objective of this study is to analyze the combined impact of land use/ land cover changes as well as climate change on the hydrological processes and water recourses availability in the Rio Cobre and Great River basins. A spatially distributed model SWAT was calibrated and validated in the basin and used for the study of land use and climate change impacts in the watersheds. Different land cover types were tested to analyze its impact on the hydrology of the watershed. The main land cover parameters considered within the Great and Rio Cobre River Watershed includes Agriculture, Tourism, Water, Road Infrastructure, Population, Forestry and land cover Information. The outputs of different Global climate model (GCM) were downscaled to the watershed level and used for assessing the impact of climate change on water resources availability in the area. The analysis of climate change impact on the surface and ground water resources of the basin indicated that the basin will experience a change in water balance due to changes in the major climate variables in the forthcoming decades. The direction of streamflow change follows mainly the direction of changes in rainfall. Many of the models show statistically-significant declines in mean annual streamflow (up to 60% reduction in streamflow) for the different time-periods and scenarios. The combined effect of climate and land-use/land-cover change on the hydrological processes and water recourses variability is an important step to develop sustainable adaptation strategy.

  16. Integrated impacts of future electricity mix scenarios on select southeastern US water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, D.; Meldrum, J.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Davis, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies on the relationship between thermoelectric cooling and water resources have been made at coarse geographic resolution and do not adequately evaluate the localized water impacts on specific rivers and water bodies. We present the application of an integrated electricity generation-water resources planning model of the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint (ACF) and Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) rivers based on the regional energy deployment system (ReEDS) and the water evaluation and planning (WEAP) system. A future scenario that includes a growing population and warmer, drier regional climate shows that benefits from a low-carbon, electricity fuel-mix could help maintain river temperatures below once-through coal-plants. These impacts are shown to be localized, as the cumulative impacts of different electric fuel-mix scenarios are muted in this relatively water-rich region, even in a warmer and drier future climate.

  17. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: the impact of socio-economic factors and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics drugs.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; de Araújo Dantas, Diego; do Nascimento, Gemma Galgani; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Chaves, Katarina Melo; de Lima Silva, Vanessa; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the effects of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs on quality of life (QoL) and side effects in 218 patients with schizophrenia attending the ambulatory services of psychiatric in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socio-economic variables were compared. The five-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate QoL, and side effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale. Data were analysed using the χ (2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Average monthly household incomes in the medication groups were 1.1-2.1 minimum wages ($339-$678). UKU Scale scores showed significant differences in side effects, mainly, clozapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone (p < 0.05). EQ-5D scores showed that all drugs except olanzapine significantly impacted mobility (p < 0.05), and proportions of individuals reporting problems in other dimensions were high: 63.6 % of clozapine users reported mobility problems, 63.7 and 56.3 % of clozapine and ziprasidone users, respectively, had difficulties with usual activities, 68.8 and 54.5 % of ziprasidone and clozapine users, respectively, experienced pain and/or discomfort, and 72.8 % of clozapine users reported anxiety and/or depression. Psychiatric, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects, as well as other side effects, were prevalent in users of atypical antipsychotic drugs, especially clozapine and ziprasidone. Olanzapine had the least side effects. QoL was impacted by side effects and economic conditions in all groups. Thus, the effects of these antipsychotic agents appear to have been masked by aggravating social and economic situations. PMID:24789610

  18. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management: Highway impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An existing section of M-14 freeway constructed in 1964 and a potential extension from Ann Arbor to Plymouth, Michigan provided an opportunity for investigating the potential uses of remote sensing techniques in providing projective information needed for assessing the impact of highway construction. Remote sensing data included multispectral scanner imagery and aerial photography. Only minor effects on vegetation, soils, and land use were found to have occurred in the existing corridor. Adverse changes expected to take place in the corridor proposed for extension of the freeway can be minimized by proper design of drainage ditches and attention to good construction practices. Remote sensing can be used to collect and present many types of data useful for highway impact assessment on land use, vegetation categories and species, soil properties and hydrologic characteristics.

  19. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized patients with confirmed pneumococcal LRTI. Methods We studied a population-based multi-centre cohort of 705 adults hospitalized with LRTI and Streptococcus pneumoniae in LRT specimens or blood: 193 without pulmonary infiltrate or bacteraemia, 250 with X-ray confirmed pneumonia, and 262 with bacteraemia. We compared adverse outcomes in the three groups and used multiple regression analyses to adjust for differences in age, sex, comorbidity, and lifestyle factors. Results Patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia were of similar age but had more comorbidity than the other groups (Charlson index score ≥1: no infiltrate and no bacteraemia 81% vs. infiltrate without bacteraemia 72% vs. bacteraemia 61%), smoked more tobacco, and had more respiratory symptoms. In contrast, patients with a pulmonary infiltrate or bacteraemia had more inflammation (median C-reactive protein: no infiltrate and no bacteraemia 82 mg/L vs. infiltrate without bacteraemia 163 mg/L vs. bacteraemia 316 mg/L) and higher acute disease severity scores. All adverse outcomes increased from patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia to those with an infiltrate and to those with bacteraemia: Length of hospital stay (5 vs. 6 vs. 8 days); intensive care admission (7% vs. 20% vs. 23%); pulmonary complications (1% vs. 5% vs. 14%); and 30-day mortality (5% vs. 11% vs. 21%). Compared with patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia, the adjusted 30-day mortality rate ratio was 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-4.1) in patients with an infiltrate without bacteraemia and 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.5) in bacteraemia patients. Adjustment for acute disease severity and inflammatory markers weakened these

  20. Simulated Impacts of El Nino/Southern Oscillation on United States Water Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M. ); Brown, Robert A. ); Rosenberg, Norman J. ); Izaurralde, R Cesar C. ); Legler, David; Srinivasan, Ragahvan

    2003-02-01

    The El Nino/Southern Oscillation alters global weather patterns with consequences for fresh water quality and supply. ENSO events impact regions and natural resource sectors around the globe. For example, in 1997-98, a strong El Ni?o brought warm ocean temperatures, flooding and record snowfall to the west coast of the US. Research on ENSO events and their impacts has improved long range weather predictions, potentially reducing the damage and economic cost of these anomalous weather patterns. Here, we simulate the impacts of four types of ENSO states on water resources in the conterminous United States. We distinguish between Neutral, El Ni?o, La Ni?a and strong El Ni?o years over the period of 1960-1989. Using climate statistics that characterize these ENSO states to drive the HUMUS water resources model, we examine the effects of 'pure' ENSO events, without complications from transition periods. Strong El Ni?o is not simply an amplification of El Ni?o; it leads to strikingly different consequences for climate and water resources.

  1. The Impact of Resource Constraints on the Psychological Well-Being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of resource constraints on the psychological well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), testing whether resource constraints is one mechanism that partially mediates the relationship between IPV and women's well-being. Although within-woman changes in resource constraints did not mediate the…

  2. Impact of shale gas development on water resources: a case study in northern poland.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86% of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies. PMID:25877457

  3. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resources: A Case Study in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86 % of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  4. Factors Governing the Impact of Emerged Salt Diapirs on Water Resources.

    PubMed

    Zarei, M

    2016-05-01

    Salt diapirs in southern Iran are typically in contact with karstic and alluvial aquifers and consequently they are the most likely sources of groundwater salinization in this arid region. However, there are some salt diapirs that have no significant degradation effect on adjacent aquifers. Assessments of 62 of 122 Iranian-emerged salt diapirs based on geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical investigations indicated that 45% of the studied salt diapirs did not have a negative impact on surrounding water resources, whereas 55% of the salt diapirs have degraded water quality of adjacent aquifers. The impacts ranged from low- to high-grade salinization. We characterize here four major factors that control the impact of salt diapirs on surrounding water resources: (1) the evolutionary stage of the diapir, (2) the geological and (3) hydrogeological setting of the diapir, and (4) human activities. Identification of the major factors governing the influence of salt diapirs on the adjacent aquifers is necessary to understand the mechanism of salt diapir impact on adjacent aquifers, and subsequently to decide how to mitigate the deteriorating effect of the diapirs on the surrounding water resources. PMID:26394154

  5. Multimorbidity in chronic disease: impact on health care resources and costs.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Effective and resource-efficient long-term management of multimorbidity is one of the greatest health-related challenges facing patients, health professionals, and society more broadly. The purpose of this review was to provide a synthesis of literature examining multimorbidity and resource utilization, including implications for cost-effectiveness estimates and resource allocation decision making. In summary, previous literature has reported substantially greater, near exponential, increases in health care costs and resource utilization when additional chronic comorbid conditions are present. Increased health care costs have been linked to elevated rates of primary care and specialist physician occasions of service, medication use, emergency department presentations, and hospital admissions (both frequency of admissions and bed days occupied). There is currently a paucity of cost-effectiveness information for chronic disease interventions originating from patient samples with multimorbidity. The scarcity of robust economic evaluations in the field represents a considerable challenge for resource allocation decision making intended to reduce the burden of multimorbidity in resource-constrained health care systems. Nonetheless, the few cost-effectiveness studies that are available provide valuable insight into the potential positive and cost-effective impact that interventions may have among patients with multiple comorbidities. These studies also highlight some of the pragmatic and methodological challenges underlying the conduct of economic evaluations among people who may have advanced age, frailty, and disadvantageous socioeconomic circumstances, and where long-term follow-up may be required to directly observe sustained and measurable health and quality of life benefits. Research in the field has indicated that the impact of multimorbidity on health care costs and resources will likely differ across health systems, regions, disease combinations, and person

  6. A Water Resources Management Model to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts in North-Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucciarelli, L. F.; Losano, F. T.; Marizza, M.; Cello, P.; Forni, L.; Young, C. A.; Girardin, L. O.; Nadal, G.; Lallana, F.; Godoy, S.; Vallejos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Most recently developed climate scenarios indicate a potential future increase in water stress in the region of Comahue, located in the North-Patagonia, Argentina. This region covers about 140,000 km2 where the Limay River and the Neuquén River converge into the Negro River, constituting the largest integrated basins in Argentina providing various uses of water resources: a) hydropower generation, contributing 15% of the national electricity market; b) fruit-horticultural products for local markets and export; c) human and industrial water supply; d) mining and oil exploitation, including Vaca Muerta, second world largest reserves of shale gas and fourth world largest reserves of shale-oil. The span of multiple jurisdictions and the convergence of various uses of water resources are a challenge for integrated understanding of economically and politically driven resource use activities on the natural system. The impacts of climate change on the system could lead to water resource conflicts between the different political actors and stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a hydrological simulation of the Limay river and Neuquén river basins using WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) considering the operation of artificial reservoirs located downstream at a monthly time step. This study aims to support policy makers via integrated tools for water-energy planning under climate uncertainties, and to facilitate the formulation of water policy-related actions for future water stress adaptation. The value of the integrated resource use model is that it can support local policy makers understand the implications of resource use trade-offs under a changing climate: 1) water availability to meet future growing demand for irrigated areas; 2) water supply for hydropower production; 3) increasing demand of water for mining and extraction of unconventional oil; 4) potential resource use conflicts and impacts on vulnerable populations.

  7. Multimorbidity in chronic disease: impact on health care resources and costs

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Effective and resource-efficient long-term management of multimorbidity is one of the greatest health-related challenges facing patients, health professionals, and society more broadly. The purpose of this review was to provide a synthesis of literature examining multimorbidity and resource utilization, including implications for cost-effectiveness estimates and resource allocation decision making. In summary, previous literature has reported substantially greater, near exponential, increases in health care costs and resource utilization when additional chronic comorbid conditions are present. Increased health care costs have been linked to elevated rates of primary care and specialist physician occasions of service, medication use, emergency department presentations, and hospital admissions (both frequency of admissions and bed days occupied). There is currently a paucity of cost-effectiveness information for chronic disease interventions originating from patient samples with multimorbidity. The scarcity of robust economic evaluations in the field represents a considerable challenge for resource allocation decision making intended to reduce the burden of multimorbidity in resource-constrained health care systems. Nonetheless, the few cost-effectiveness studies that are available provide valuable insight into the potential positive and cost-effective impact that interventions may have among patients with multiple comorbidities. These studies also highlight some of the pragmatic and methodological challenges underlying the conduct of economic evaluations among people who may have advanced age, frailty, and disadvantageous socioeconomic circumstances, and where long-term follow-up may be required to directly observe sustained and measurable health and quality of life benefits. Research in the field has indicated that the impact of multimorbidity on health care costs and resources will likely differ across health systems, regions, disease combinations, and person

  8. Impact of crisis resource management simulation-based training for interprofessional and interdisciplinary teams: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fung, Lillia; Boet, Sylvain; Bould, M Dylan; Qosa, Haytham; Perrier, Laure; Tricco, Andrea; Tavares, Walter; Reeves, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Crisis resource management (CRM) abilities are important for different healthcare providers to effectively manage critical clinical events. This study aims to review the effectiveness of simulation-based CRM training for interprofessional and interdisciplinary teams compared to other instructional methods (e.g., didactics). Interprofessional teams are composed of several professions (e.g., nurse, physician, midwife) while interdisciplinary teams are composed of several disciplines from the same profession (e.g., cardiologist, anaesthesiologist, orthopaedist). Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ERIC were searched using terms related to CRM, crisis management, crew resource management, teamwork, and simulation. Trials comparing simulation-based CRM team training versus any other methods of education were included. The educational interventions involved interprofessional or interdisciplinary healthcare teams. The initial search identified 7456 publications; 12 studies were included. Simulation-based CRM team training was associated with significant improvements in CRM skill acquisition in all but two studies when compared to didactic case-based CRM training or simulation without CRM training. Of the 12 included studies, one showed significant improvements in team behaviours in the workplace, while two studies demonstrated sustained reductions in adverse patient outcomes after a single simulation-based CRM team intervention. In conclusion, CRM simulation-based training for interprofessional and interdisciplinary teams show promise in teaching CRM in the simulator when compared to didactic case-based CRM education or simulation without CRM teaching. More research, however, is required to demonstrate transfer of learning to workplaces and potential impact on patient outcomes. PMID:25973615

  9. Impacts of climate change on water resources in southern Africa: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusangaya, Samuel; Warburton, Michele L.; Archer van Garderen, Emma; Jewitt, Graham P. W.

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that there is consensus that the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases will result in climate change which will cause the sea level to rise, increased frequency of extreme climatic events including intense storms, heavy rainfall events and droughts. This will increase the frequency of climate-related hazards, causing loss of life, social disruption and economic hardships. There is less consensus on the magnitude of change of climatic variables, but several studies have shown that climate change will impact on the availability and demand for water resources. In southern Africa, climate change is likely to affect nearly every aspect of human well-being, from agricultural productivity and energy use to flood control, municipal and industrial water supply to wildlife management, since the region is characterised by highly spatial and temporally variable rainfall and, in some cases, scarce water resources. Vulnerability is exacerbated by the region's low adaptive capacity, widespread poverty and low technology uptake. This paper reviews the potential impacts of climate change on water resources in southern Africa. The outcomes of this review include highlighting studies on detected climate changes particularly focusing on temperature and rainfall. Additionally, the impacts of climate change are highlighted, and respective studies on hydrological responses to climate change are examined. The review also discusses the challenges in climate change impact analysis, which inevitably represents existing research and knowledge gaps. Finally the paper concludes by outlining possible research areas in the realm of climate change impacts on water resources, particularly knowledge gaps in uncertainty analysis for both climate change and hydrological modelling.

  10. A new resource for identifying and assessing the impacts of research.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Saba; Grant, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The impact case studies submitted by UK Higher Education Institutions to the Research Excellence Framework (REF) in 2014 provide a rich resource of text describing impact beyond academia and across all disciplines. Using text mining techniques and qualitative assessment, the 6,679 non-redacted case studies submitted were analysed and the impact described was found to be multidisciplinary, multi-impactful, and multinational. By digging deeper into the data, the health gains from health research in terms of Quality Adjusted Life Years was also estimated. Similar analyses are possible using these case studies, but will require the data to be 're-purposed' from the original intention (i.e., for assessment purposes) for robust analysis. PMID:26108576

  11. ASXL1 but Not TET2 Mutations Adversely Impact Overall Survival of Patients Suffering Systemic Mastocytosis with Associated Clonal Hematologic Non-Mast-Cell Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Damaj, Gandhi; Joris, Magalie; Chandesris, Olivia; Hanssens, Katia; Soucie, Erinn; Canioni, Danielle; Kolb, Brigitte; Durieu, Isabelle; Gyan, Emanuel; Livideanu, Cristina; Chèze, Stephane; Diouf, Momar; Garidi, Reda; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Asnafi, Vahid; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Lavigne, Christian; Launay, David; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD) is a rare and heterogeneous subtype of SM and few studies on this specific entity have been reported. Sixty two patients with Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD) were presented. Myeloid AHNMD was the most frequent (82%) cases. This subset of patients were older, had more cutaneous lesions, splenomegaly, liver enlargement, ascites; lower bone mineral density and hemoglobin levels and higher tryptase level than lymphoid AHNMD. Defects in KIT, TET2, ASXL1 and CBL were positive in 87%, 27%, 14%, and 11% of cases respectively. The overall survival of patients with SM-AHNMD was 85.2 months. Within the myeloid group, SM-MPN fared better than SM-MDS or SM-AML (p = 0.044,). In univariate analysis, the presence of C-findings, the AHNMD subtypes (SM-MDS/CMML/AML versus SM-MPN/hypereosinophilia) (p = 0.044), Neutropenia (p = 0.015), high monocyte level (p = 0.015) and the presence of ASXL1 mutation had detrimental effects on OS (p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis and penalized Cox model, only the presence of ASXL1 mutation remained an independent prognostic factor that negatively affected OS (p = 0.035). SM-AHNMD is heterogeneous with variable prognosis according to the type of the AHNMD. ASXL1 is mutated in a subset of myeloid AHNMD and adversely impact on OS. PMID:24465546

  12. Impact of Hydrologic Variability on Ecosystem Dynamics and the Sustainable Use of Soil and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the key processes by which hydrologic variability affects the probabilistic structure of soil moisture dynamics in water-controlled ecosystems. These in turn impact biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem structure through plant productivity and biodiversity as well as nitrogen availability and soil conditions. Once the long-term probabilistic structure of these processes is quantified, the results become useful to understand the impact of climatic changes and human activities on ecosystem services, and can be used to find optimal strategies of water and soil resources management under unpredictable hydro-climatic fluctuations. Particular applications regard soil salinization, phytoremediation and optimal stochastic irrigation.

  13. Using climate model output to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of general circulation models (GCMs) to provide climate data for regional assessments of the impacts of changing climate on water resources stretches the limits of what the models were designed for. Problems that must be addressed include disagreement on a regional scale among GCMs and between the modeled and observed climate; coarse spatial resolution of the models; and simplistic representation of surface hydrology. It is important that continued progress be made in developing the methodology for using GCM output in climate-impact assessments. 18 refs.

  14. Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management, and development of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the impact of remote data streams on hydrologic computer models. Analysis of responses demonstrated that: most water resources effort suitable to remote sensing inputs is conducted through federal agencies or through federally stimulated research; and, most hydrologic models suitable to remote sensing data are federally developed. Computer usage by major water resources users was analyzed to determine the trends of usage and costs for the principal hydrologic users/models. The laws and empirical relationships governing the growth of the data processing loads were described and applied to project the future data loads. Data loads for ERTS CCT image processing were computed and projected through the 1985 era.

  15. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    PubMed

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  16. Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Jolly, I.; Sophocleous, M.; Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Past land use changes have greatly impacted global water resources, with often opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Increases in rain-fed cropland (460%) and pastureland (560%) during the past 300 years from forest and grasslands decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge (two orders of magnitude) and streamflow (one order of magnitude). However, increased water quantity degraded water quality by mobilization of salts, salinization caused by shallow water tables, and fertilizer leaching into underlying aquifers that discharge to streams. Since the 1950s, irrigated agriculture has expanded globally by 174%, accounting for ???90% of global freshwater consumption. Irrigation based on surface water reduced streamflow and raised water tables resulting in waterlogging in many areas (China, India, and United States). Marked increases in groundwater-fed irrigation in the last few decades in these areas has lowered water tables (???1 m/yr) and reduced streamflow. Degradation of water quality in irrigated areas has resulted from processes similar to those in rain-fed agriculture: salt mobilization, salinization in waterlogged areas, and fertilizer leaching. Strategies for remediating water resource problems related to agriculture often have opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Long time lags (decades to centuries) between land use changes and system response (e.g., recharge, streamflow, and water quality), particularly in semiarid regions, mean that the full impact of land use changes has not been realized in many areas and remediation to reverse impacts will also take a long time. Future land use changes should consider potential impacts on water resources, particularly trade-offs between water, salt, and nutrient balances, to develop sustainable water resources to meet human and ecosystem needs. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Cultural Resources.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes.

  18. Soliciting Feedback from Resource Managers to Inform Response to Extreme Event Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedsworth, L. W.

    2014-12-01

    To date, extreme events have been defined by scientists through a top-down approach, relying on observations for current extremes and climate model projections based on future scenarios for their expected changes. These abstract definitions of extreme events are based on a corresponding characterization of what is "normal" and perhaps the choice of a threshold (e.g., a percentile of a historical distribution for a given climate variable), beyond which would represent an extreme event. However, there are not necessarily direct connections between these definitions and what is considered "extreme" in terms of impacts that challenge resource management. Several researchers have suggested that extreme event definitions would also be informed by input from on-the-ground resource managers who are familiar with the systems being impacted, the climate conditions that pose risks to those systems, and their resilience and adaptive capacity. This research will present preliminary survey work designed to solicit input from air and water quality managers in terms of what is considered an extreme event, how these events have been weathered in the past, and planned for in the future. The survey is based on literature review, interviews with air and water quality managers in California, and outreach to the scientific community. This work is the first step of a multistage research effort to link input from resource managers with scientific information to better inform air and water quality management and impacts of extreme events under a changing climate.

  19. Impacts of climate change and past land use change on the water resources in Pune, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Kumar, S.; Schneider, K.

    2012-12-01

    Global change affects local and regional water resources and is therefore of major concern in current hydrologic research. Especially in regions with scarce water resources, high climate sensitivity, and/or dynamic socio-economic development, research on developing suitable adaptation and mitigation strategies is needed. In this study, we used the well-established and widely-used hydrologic model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to study the impact of climate change and past land use change on water resources. Our study aims at analyzing the impact of global change on the water balance components in the meso-scale Mula and Mutha Rivers catchment upstream of the city of Pune, India. To analyze climate change impacts regional climate model data based on IPCC emission scenario A1B was used by employing a downscaling method that rearranges historically measured data. The hydrologic model was run with the rearranged scenario weather data and model results were analyzed for the scenario period from 2020 to 2099. Past land use changes between 1989 and 2009 were identified with the help of three multi-temporal land use classifications, which were based on multi-spectral satellite data. Two model runs were performed and compared using the land use classifications of 1989 and 2009. Climate change leads to a slight increase of evapotranspiration. Particularly in the rainy season and in the first months of the dry season higher evapotranspiration can be observed. Towards the end of the scenario period low water storages in the major dams of the catchment at the beginning of the dry season indicate severe impacts on water availability. The impacts of land use changes balance out on the catchment scale and are hence more obvious at the sub-basin scale, where e.g., urbanization results in increased runoff and decreased evapotranspiration.

  20. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, H.; Shi, M. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-09-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results show that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.8 × 1010 m3 yr-1, accounting for 2.1% of its renewable water resources and 8.6% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 8.0% of the region's water resources and 11.3% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources.

  1. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, H.; Shi, M. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-04-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results reveal that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.7 × 1010 m3 year-1, accounting for 2.1% of its total water resources and 8.9% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 7.9% of the region's water resources and 11.2% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain and/or pollution intensity is high. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources and through pollution to its environment.

  2. Impacts of varying agricultural intensification on crop yield and groundwater resources: comparison of the North China Plain and US High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Hongwei; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Shen, Yanjun; Reedy, Robert C.; Long, Di; Liu, Changming

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural intensification is often considered the primary approach to meet rising food demand. Here we compare impacts of intensive cultivation on crop yield in the North China Plain (NCP) with less intensive cultivation in the US High Plains (USHP) and associated effects on water resources using spatial datasets. Average crop yield during the past decade from intensive double cropping of wheat and corn in the NCP was only 15% higher than the yield from less intensive single cropping of corn in the USHP, although nitrogen fertilizer application and percent of cropland that was irrigated were both ˜2 times greater in the NCP than in the USHP. Irrigation and fertilization in both regions have depleted groundwater storage and resulted in widespread groundwater nitrate contamination. The limited response to intensive management in the NCP is attributed in part to the two month shorter growing season for corn to accommodate winter wheat than that for corn in the USHP. Previous field and modeling studies of crop yield in the NCP highlight over application of N and water resulting in low nitrogen and water use efficiencies and indicate that cultivars, plant densities, soil fertility and other factors had a much greater impact on crop yields over the past few decades. The NCP-USHP comparison along with previous field and modeling studies underscores the need to weigh the yield returns from intensive management relative to the negative impacts on water resources. Future crop management should consider the many factors that contribute to yield along with optimal fertilization and irrigation to further increase crop yields while reducing adverse impacts on water resources.

  3. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  4. 77 FR 46518 - Draft Resource Management Plan/General Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Revised Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Resource Management Plan/General Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Plan/ General Plan (RMP/GP) Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Revised Draft Environmental Impact... recreation lands ] within the vicinity of Los Banos, California. The general project location is south...

  5. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  6. 18 CFR 701.309 - Appeal of initial adverse determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appeal of initial adverse determination. 701.309 Section 701.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.309 Appeal of initial adverse determination....

  7. 18 CFR 701.309 - Appeal of initial adverse determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Appeal of initial adverse determination. 701.309 Section 701.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.309 Appeal of initial adverse determination....

  8. 18 CFR 701.309 - Appeal of initial adverse determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appeal of initial adverse determination. 701.309 Section 701.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.309 Appeal of initial adverse determination....

  9. 18 CFR 701.309 - Appeal of initial adverse determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal of initial adverse determination. 701.309 Section 701.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.309 Appeal of initial adverse determination....

  10. 18 CFR 701.309 - Appeal of initial adverse determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appeal of initial adverse determination. 701.309 Section 701.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.309 Appeal of initial adverse determination....

  11. Prevalence of cutaneous adverse events associated with long-term disease-modifying therapy and their impact on health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFN-β) are disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis that are administered through subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) injections. Skin reactions associated with DMTs are common and may influence patient’s health-related quality of life (QoL). We aimed to determine the prevalence of cutaneous adverse events associated with long-term DMT use, and to assess the impact of cutaneous adverse events on QoL. Methods A cross-sectional study among patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with their first DMT for at least 2 years. Cutaneous events were assessed from photographs of injection-sites by dermatologists blinded for DMT. Generic and dermatology-specific health-related QoL were assessed using validated patient-reported questionnaires. Results A total of 229 patients were enrolled, of whom 156 (68%) had at least one skin reaction. The prevalence of cutaneous adverse events was higher for SC DMTs (75-82%) compared to IM DMT (41%) (P < 0.001). Erythema and lipoatrophy were the most common skin reactions, observed in 156 (68%) and 45 (20%) patients, respectively. Dermatology-specific, but not generic, QoL was significantly lower among patients with skin reactions compared to those without. Conclusions The prevalence of cutaneous adverse events was high in long-term DMT-treatment. Patients with cutaneous adverse events had a lower perceived dermatology-specific QoL. PMID:24131589

  12. Impact of renal function deterioration on adverse events during anticoagulation therapy using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Aiba, Takeshi; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Hirose, Sayako; Wada, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Okamura, Hideo; Noda, Takashi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kamakura, Shiro; Shimizu, Wataru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Kazunori; Kusano, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Renal function is crucial for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC). The incidence of renal function deterioration during anticoagulation therapy and its impact of adverse events are unknown. In 807 consecutive NVAF patients treated with NOAC and with estimated creatinine clearance (eCCr) ≥ 50 ml/min (mean age 68 ± 11 years, mean CHADS2 score = 1.8 ± 1.4, CHA2DS2-VASc score = 2.8 ± 1.8, HAS-BLED score = 1.7 ± 1.1), we analyzed the time course of renal function and clinical outcomes, and compared these with the data of general Japanese inhabitants from the Suita Study (n = 2140). Of the 807 patients, 751 (93 %) maintained eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min (group A) whereas the remaining 56 (7 %) fell into the eCCr < 50 ml/min (group B) during the 382 ± 288 days of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that advanced age, lower body weight, and congestive heart failure were independent predictors for renal function deterioration in patients with eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min at baseline. Major and/or minor bleedings were more commonly observed in group B than in group A (21 vs. 8 %; P = 0.0004). The CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores were also significant predictors of renal function deterioration (P < 0.0001). The incidences of renal function deterioration were 1.4, 3.4, 10.5 and 11.7 % in patients with CHADS2 score of 0, 1, 2 and ≥3, respectively. As to CHA2DS2-VASc score, renal function deterioration occurred in 0, 1.7, 9.8 and 15.0 % with a score of 0, 1-2, 3-4 and ≥5, respectively. In the Suita Study of the general population, on the other hand, 122 of 2140 participants with eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min at baseline (5.7 %) fell into the eCCr < 50 ml/min during about 2 years. The incidence of renal function deterioration increased with the CHADS2 score in the general population as well as in our patients. Renal function deterioration was

  13. Assessing the impacts of extended drought conditions and global warming on groundwater resources in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, O.; Franz, K.; Simpkins, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Extended drought conditions that affected much of the U.S. throughout 2012 and continued into 2013 are bringing climate change to the forefront of public attention. Long-term effects of an extended dry spell on groundwater is especially concerning as these resources are essential for meeting drinking water demands, supporting agricultural and industrial activities, and maintaining water levels in rivers and lakes. Thus, the impact of extended drought conditions on the entire hydrologic cycle needs to be well understood to guide future resource and land management decisions. This study aims to explore the impact of extended drought conditions on groundwater resources in a representative Iowa watershed using Regional Climate Model scenarios implemented through HydroGeoSphere, a physically-based, surface water-groundwater model. Estimating the impacts of climate changes on groundwater resources requires representation of the full hydrological system, i.e. the connection between the atmospheric and surface-subsurface processes, in a realistic way. In the HydroGeoSphere model, surface and subsurface flow equations are solved simultaneously, and the interdependence of processes like actual evapotranspiration and recharge is handled explicitly. Using such state-of-the-art modeling tools, we seek to address the consequences of changing climate extremes (that have already been experienced and expected to continue over long periods in the future) on the hydrologic cycle of our pilot study area, the South Fork watershed in north-central Iowa. The results will provide a baseline for investigating mitigation strategies in agricultural practices and water use due to changes in the wet and dry cycles of the regional hydrologic cycle.

  14. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  15. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Irrigated Agriculture in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J.; Young, C. A.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural productivity is strongly dependent on the availability of water, necessitating accurate projections of water resources, the allocation of water resources across competing sectors, and the effects of insufficient water resources on crops to assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity. To explore the interface of water and agriculture in California's Central Valley, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model was coupled to the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) water resources model, deployed over the region, and run using both historical and future climate scenarios. This coupling brings water supply constraints to DSSAT and sophisticated agricultural water use, management, and diagnostics to WEAP. A 30-year simulation of WEAP-DSSAT forced using a spatially interpolated observational dataset was run from 1980-2009. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Surface Resistance and Evapotranspiration (MOD16) and Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) data were used to evaluate WEAP-DSSAT evapotranspiration calculations. Overall WEAP-DSSAT reasonably captures the seasonal cycle of observed evapotranspiration, but some catchments contain significant biases. Future climate scenarios were constructed by adjusting the spatially interpolated observational dataset with North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program differences between future (2050-2069) and historical (1980-1999) regional climate model simulations of precipitation and temperature. Generally, within the Central Valley temperatures warm by approximately 2°C, precipitation remains constant, and crop water use efficiency increases. The overall impacts of future climate on irrigated agricultural yields varies across the Central Valley and is highly dependent on crop, water resources demand assumptions, and agricultural management.

  16. Wilderness designation of Bureau of Land Management lands and impacts on the availability of energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, E.H.; Voelker, A.H.

    1983-02-01

    In 1964 Congress mandated the establishment of the National Wilderness Preservation System - a collection of federal lands dedicated to the preservation of selected parts of our once vast wilderness. Because wilderness management precludes many traditional land uses, controversy has plagued the efforts of land-management agencies to select and recommend areas for wilderness inclusion. This study examines potential impacts on the supply of energy resources from the possible withdrawal by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) of some part of the 24.3 million acres of public lands now under study for inclusion in the wilderness system. Except for uranium, the energy-resource potential of the total WSA-acreage is low. Wilderness designation of some WSAs is therefore not expected to cause serious impacts on the future availability of energy resources. Because the significance of land withdrawals by the BLM will depend to some extent on the availability of other federal lands for mineral activities, an up-to-date estimate of the current and future status-of-access to western federal lands for mineral activities was prepared. Overall conclusions of the report are that (1) the inclusion of some BLM land in the National Wilderness Preservation System will not interfere with the nation's required supply of energy resources, (2) there is sufficient federal land currently available in the West for mineral activities, (3) the availability of western federal land for mineral activities will increase in the future, (4) the administration should continue to support the major land-review programs, and (5) the administration should accelerate the review process for WSAs in regions that have a high energy-resource potential.

  17. Impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects.

    PubMed

    Keyfitz, N

    1984-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects by investigating whether ecological considerations can improve the accuracy of population projections. It identifies the degree to which population is resources-determined. The basic classic relationship that resources determine population is increasingly inapplicable as the level of technology rises and institutions are formed. The major defect in attmepts to relate population directly to land and energy flow is that they suppose all other factors remain constant. If, however, the increase of population on the fixed land itself pushes technology, and that in turn makes it possible for a larger population to live on the same land, the attempt to express population as a pure function of land is entirely frustrated. Given a challenge that is severe but not overwhelming, a natural environment that is difficult but not impossible, plus a culture that builds responsiveness into its children in each generation, the inert adjustment of population numbers to food supplies seems to give way to the active adjustment of food supplies to population. Those who need the most because of their poverty are the ones who advance the least. Government is another intermediate agent between the environment that would limit population and the population itself. It acts as an agent of adaptation of population to land. The emergence of the world grain market, which has detached individuals from dependence on their local ecological base, has lifted the resource constraint. A method to improve the accuracy of population projections is proposed, based on projecting the condition of resources and the environment, followed by the intermediate variables of technology and institutions for a given future time. Population projection for each year to that date would be done by interpolation, rather than by extrapolation. Birth control, the effect of urbanization and the impact of development

  18. Modernization of the International Volcanic Ash Website - a global resource for ashfall preparedness and impact guidance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K.; Leonard, G.; Stewart, C.; Wilson, T. M.; Randall, M.; Stovall, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    The internationally collaborative volcanic ash website (http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ash/) has been an important global information resource for ashfall preparedness and impact guidance since 2004. Recent volcanic ashfalls with significant local, regional, and global impacts highlighted the need to improve the website to make it more accessible and pertinent to users worldwide. Recently, the Volcanic Ash Impacts Working Group (Cities and Volcanoes Commission of IAVCEI) redesigned and modernized the website. Improvements include 1) a database-driven back end, 2) reorganized menu navigation, 3) language translation, 4) increased downloadable content, 5) addition of ash-impact case studies, 7) expanded and updated references , 8) an image database, and 9) inclusion of cooperating organization's logos. The database-driven platform makes the website more dynamic and efficient to operate and update. New menus provide information about specific impact topics (buildings, transportation, power, health, agriculture, water and waste water, equipment and communications, clean up) and updated content has been added throughout all topics. A new "for scientists" menu includes information on ash collection and analysis. Website translation using Google translate will significantly increase user base. Printable resources (e.g. checklists, pamphlets, posters) provide information to people without Internet access. Ash impact studies are used to improve mitigation measures during future eruptions, and links to case studies will assist communities' preparation and response plans. The Case Studies menu is intended to be a living topic area, growing as new case studies are published. A database of all images from the website allows users to access larger resolution images and additional descriptive details. Logos clarify linkages among key contributors and assure users that the site is authoritative and science-based.

  19. Resource Contingency Program - Oregon : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hermiston Power Project.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA`s Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA`s intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future.

  20. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  1. Water Resource Impacts Embedded in the Western US Electrical Energy Trade; Current Patterns and Adaptation to Future Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A.; Herron, S.; Qiu, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources are a key element in the global coupled natural-human (CNH) system, because they are tightly coupled with the world's social, environmental, and economic subsystems, and because water resources are under increasing pressure worldwide. A fundamental adaptive tool used especially by cities to overcome local water resource scarcity is the outsourcing of water resource impacts through substitutionary economic trade. This is generally understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as ';virtual water' trade. This work employs generalized CNH methods to reveal the trade in water resource impacts embedded in electrical energy within the Western US power grid, and utilizes a general equilibrium economic trade model combined with drought and demand growth constraints to estimate the future status of this trade. Trade in embedded water resource impacts currently increases total water used for electricity production in the Western US and shifts water use to more water-limited States. Extreme drought and large increases in electrical energy demand increase the need for embedded water resource impact trade, while motivating a shift to more water-efficient generation technologies and more water-abundant generating locations. Cities are the largest users of electrical energy, and in the 21st Century will outsource a larger fraction of their water resource impacts through trade. This trade exposes cities to risks associated with disruption of long-distance transmission and distant hydrological droughts.

  2. Global water resources assessment at a sub-annual timescale: Application to climate change impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Several reports have assessed water scarcity globally using the widely accepted withdrawal-to-water resources ratio (hereafter WWR). This index is defined as the ratio of annual withdrawal to the annual renewable water resources (runoff). The index has also been used widely to assess the impact of climate change on global water resources. Here, we ask whether it is appropriate to use the WWR to assess the impact of climate change. Global warming is projected to increase the mean annual runoff in many parts of the world. Therefore, in these regions, the WWR decreases, by definition. However, water scarcity may not always be alleviated in these regions. Global warming is also projected to increase the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation, decrease snowfall, and change the timing of snowmelt. These phenomena may increase the temporal gap between water availability and water demand, which might worsen local water scarcity, even if the mean annual runoff is increased. To assess the impact of climate change on global water resources incorporating subannual time-scale phenomena, this study applies a new water scarcity index, the cumulative withdrawal-to-demand ratio (hereafter CWD). This index is defined as the ratio of the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from local water resources to the accumulation of daily water demand. To estimate daily water withdrawal and water demand, we used the state-of-the-art H08 global water resources model. Our results indicated that global warming increased the mean annual runoff in 52% of the total land area globally. However, in 22% of the area where runoff increased, the CWD showed increased water stress. Those regions included India, northern China, and northern Europe. For India, the increase in water stress was attributed to the seasonal gap between runoff increase and water demand. The increased runoff was concentrated in a few months, while the high water demand months differed and were much longer. For Europe

  3. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  4. The impact of climate change on water resources: Assessment at the scale of the Indian subcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechlivanidis, Ilias; Olsson, Jonas; Bosshard, Thomas; Sharma, Devesh; Sharma, Kc; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The large increase in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases has led to the global climate change phenomenon which is expected to have a strong impact on water resources on local, regional and global scales. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to climate change since the region is characterized by a strong hydro-climatic gradient due to monsoon and the geographic features, and hence poses extraordinary challenges to understand, quantify and predict future availability in water resources. In here, the impact of climate change on the hydro-climatology of the subcontinent is investigated by comparing statistics of current and projected future fluxes resulting from three emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). The use of different emission scenarios allows for the definition of uncertainty of future impacts. Climate projections from the CORDEX-South Asia framework have been bias-corrected using the DBS (Distribution Based Scaling) method and used to force the HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment) hydrological model to generate projections of evapotranspiration, runoff, soil moisture deficit, snow depth, and applied irrigation water to soil. In addition, we assess the changes on high and low flows from all river systems as well as the changes in the annual cycles. Overall, the high uncertainty in the climate projections is propagated in the hydrological impact model, and as a result the spatiotemporal distribution of change is subject to the climate projection. In general, results from all scenarios indicate a -20 to +50% change in long-term average precipitation and evapotranspiration, yet a higher change (-100 to +100%) in runoff. Analysis of annual cycles showed that climate change impacts vary between seasons whereas the effect is dependent on the region's hydro-climatic gradient. Future scenarios project a graduate increase in temperature from 1 up to 76°C on average, which further affects the need for irrigation and snow

  5. Measuring the impact of computer resource quality on the software development process and product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Valett, Jon; Hall, Dana

    1985-01-01

    The availability and quality of computer resources during the software development process was speculated to have measurable, significant impact on the efficiency of the development process and the quality of the resulting product. Environment components such as the types of tools, machine responsiveness, and quantity of direct access storage may play a major role in the effort to produce the product and in its subsequent quality as measured by factors such as reliability and ease of maintenance. During the past six years, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has conducted experiments with software projects in an attempt to better understand the impact of software development methodologies, environments, and general technologies on the software process and product. Data was extracted and examined from nearly 50 software development projects. All were related to support of satellite flight dynamics ground-based computations. The relationship between computer resources and the software development process and product as exemplified by the subject NASA data was examined. Based upon the results, a number of computer resource-related implications are provided.

  6. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety. PMID:25078411

  7. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    PubMed

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy. PMID:26627262

  8. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A.; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M.; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well-being—energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy. PMID:26627262

  9. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices. PMID:27017840

  10. Climate change impact on water resources - Example of an anthropized basin (Llobregat, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, P.-A.; Pouget, L.; Mc Ennis, S.; Guiu Carrio, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Escaler, I.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate change is one of the central topics of study by water agencies and companies. Indeed, the forecasted increase of atmospheric temperature may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation and affect the hydrological cycle: runoff, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc… Moreover, global change combining climate change but also land use and water demand changes, may cause very important impacts on water availability and quality. Global change scenarios in Spain describe a general trend towards increased temperature and water demand, and reduced precipitation as a result of its geographical situation and socio-economic characteristics. The European project WATER CHANGE (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program) aims to develop a modeling system to assess the Global Change impacts, and their associated uncertainties, on water availability for water supply and water use. Its objective is to help river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. This work presents the results obtained by applying the modelling system to the Llobregat river basin (Spain). This is an anthropized catchment of about 5000 km2, where water resources are used for different purposes, such as drinking water production, agriculture irrigation, industry and hydroelectric energy production. Based on future global change scenarios, the water resources system has been assessed in terms of water deficit and supply. A cost-benefit analysis has also been conducted in order to evaluate every realistic measure that could optimize and improve the system.

  11. The EPA's Study on the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burden, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's clean energy future. The United States has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, which enable greater access to gas in rock formations deep underground. These advances have spurred a significant increase in the production of both natural gas and oil across the country. However, as the use of hydraulic fracturing has increased, so have concerns about its potential human health and environmental impacts, especially for drinking water. In response to public concern, the US Congress requested that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conduct scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. In 2011, the EPA began research to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, if any, and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency of such impacts. The study is organized around the five stages of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle, from water acquisition through the mixing of chemicals and the injection of fracturing fluid to post-fracturing treatment and/or disposal of wastewater. EPA scientists are using a transdisciplinary research approach involving laboratory studies, computer modeling, toxicity assessments, and case studies to answer research questions associated with each stage of the water cycle. This talk will provide an overview of the EPA's study, including a description of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle and a summary of the ongoing research projects.

  12. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  13. Development of spatial water resources vulnerability index considering climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Jun, Kyung Soo; Chung, Eun-Sung; Sung, Jin-Young; Lee, Kil Seong

    2011-11-15

    This study developed a new framework to quantify spatial vulnerability for sustainable water resources management. Four hydrologic vulnerability indices--potential flood damage (PFDC), potential drought damage (PDDC), potential water quality deterioration (PWQDC), and watershed evaluation index (WEIC)--were modified to quantify flood damage, drought damage, water quality deterioration, and overall watershed risk considering the impact of climate change, respectively. The concept of sustainability in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was applied in selecting all appropriate indicators (criteria) of climate change impacts. In the examination of climate change, future meteorological data was obtained using CGCM3 (Canadian Global Coupled Model) and SDSM (Statistical Downscaling Model), and future stream run-off and water quality were simulated using HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran). The four modified indices were then calculated using TOPSIS, a multi-attribute method of decision analysis. As a result, the ranking obtained can be changed in consideration of climate change impacts. This study represents a new attempt to quantify hydrologic vulnerability in a manner that takes into account both climate change impacts and the concept of sustainability. PMID:21940039

  14. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2015-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. In Australia an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a three-year programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. In this presentation the methodology for undertaking bioregional assessments will be described and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia

  15. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2016-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. Surface water and groundwater modelling is now complete for two regions where coal seam gas development may proceed, namely the Clarence-Moreton and Gloucester regions in eastern New South Wales. This presentation will discuss how the results of these

  16. Modelling the Impact of Human Actors on Groundwater Resources under Conditions of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.; Reichenau, T. G.; Krimly, T.; Dabbert, S.; Schneider, K.; Mauser, W.; Hennicker, R.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources, activities of human actors and climate change are related in many different and complex ways because of the existence of and strong interactions between various influencing factors, including those that are natural-environmental and socio-economic. The GLOWA-Danube research cooperation has developed the integrated simulation system DANUBIA to simulate water-related influences of global change in different spatial and temporal contexts. DANUBIA is a modular system comprised of 17 dynamically-coupled, process-based model components and a framework which controls the interaction of these components with respect to space and time. This contribution describes approaches and capabilities of DANUBIA with regard to the simulation of global change effects on human decisions in water related fields with a focus on agriculture and groundwater. In agriculture, market prices and legislation can be equally or even more important than water availability in determining farmers' behavior and thus in determining the agricultural impact on water resources quantity and quality. The DANUBIA simulation framework and the associated DeepActor-framework for simulation of decision-making by human actors are presented together with the model components which are most relevant to the interactions between agriculture and groundwater. The approach for developing combination climate and socio-economic scenarios is explained. Exemplary scenario results are shown for the Upper Danube Catchment in Southern Germany. References Barthel, R., Janisch, S., N. Schwarz, A. Trifkovic, D. Nickel, C. Schulz, W. Mauser (2008): An integrated modelling framework for simulating regional-scale actor responses to global change in the water domain. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 1095-1121 (doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.02.004) Barthel, R., Reichenau T., Krimly, T., Dabbert, S., Schneider, K., Mauser, W. (2012) Integrated modeling of climate change impacts on agriculture and groundwater

  17. Manipulation of host-resource dynamics impacts transmission of trophic parasites.

    PubMed

    Luong, Lien T; Grear, Daniel A; Hudson, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Many complex life cycle parasites rely on predator-prey interactions for transmission, whereby definitive hosts become infected via the consumption of an infected intermediate host. As such, these trophic parasites are embedded in the larger community food web. We postulated that exposure to infection and, hence, parasite transmission are inherently linked to host foraging ecology, and that perturbation of the host-resource dynamic will impact parasite transmission dynamics. We employed a field manipulation experiment in which natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) were provisioned with a readily available food resource in clumped or uniform spatial distributions. Using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques, replicated supplemented and unsupplemented control sites were monitored before and after treatment for changes in infection levels with three gastro-intestinal helminth parasites. We predicted that definitive hosts subject to food supplementation would experience lower rates of exposure to infective intermediate hosts, presumably because they shifted their diet away from the intermediate host towards the more readily available resource (sunflower seeds). As predicted, prevalence of infection by the trophically transmitted parasite decreased in response to supplemental food treatment, but no such change in infection prevalence was detected for the two directly transmitted parasites in the system. The fact that food supplementation only had an impact on the transmission of the trophically transmitted parasite, and not the directly transmitted parasites, supports our hypothesis that host foraging ecology directly affects exposure to parasites that rely on the ingestion of intermediate hosts for transmission. We concluded that the relative availability of different food resources has important consequences for the transmission of parasites and, more specifically, parasites that are embedded in the food web. The broader

  18. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2013-04-01

    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  19. The impact of library instruction: do first-year medical students use library resources specifically highlighted during instructional sessions?*

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Ryan S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The research sought to determine if first-year medical students consulted and cited resources specifically highlighted during library instructional sessions. Methods: Students attended a library resources instructional session. Resources that pertained to the students' assignment were demonstrated and discussed. The students created a report including citations from relevant literature. The citations were analyzed and categorized as: a resource discussed at the instructional session, a resource found on the course LibGuide, a library resource, course material, or some other resource. All citations were subcategorized as print or electronic. Results: Three years (2008–2011) of data analyzing 2,983 citations showed that 49.55% of all citations were from resources discussed during library instructional sessions; 21.86% came from resources with links on the course LibGuide; 77.51% were from library resources; and 90.68% came from electronic resources. Conclusion: Students cited resources specifically highlighted during library instructional sessions for their assignments. The percentage of all citations coming from resources highlighted during the instructional sessions or found on the course LibGuide indicates that library instruction had an impact on the students' work. PMID:23930092

  20. Caught in the Web: The Impact of Library Instruction on Business Students' Perceptions and Use of Print and Online Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Shawn V.; Miree, Cynthia E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated whether library instruction could impact undergraduate business students' attitudes and uses of three information formats: print materials, library databases, and Web resources. Results indicate that after library instruction, student held more favorable attitudes toward print resources and used them more than…

  1. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  2. Final Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (02-24-2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship, if any, between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. More specifically, the study has been designed to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and to identif...

  3. Explaining Disproportionately High Rates of Adverse Birth Outcomes among African Americans: The Impact of Stress, Racism, and Related Factors in Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giscombe, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci

    2005-01-01

    Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors…

  4. Quantifying military training impacts using soil chemical and mechanical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  5. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. PMID:21296115

  6. Aging and selective engagement: the moderating impact of motivation on older adults' resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Germain, Cassandra M; Swaim, Elizabeth L; Osowski, Nicole L

    2009-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine age differences in the impact of motivation in a social cognitive task. We tested the hypothesis that aging is associated with an increase in the selective engagement of cognitive resources in support of performance. Different-aged adults read descriptions of 2 people in order to determine which was better suited for a particular job. These descriptions contained behaviors that were either consistent or inconsistent with the job, and participants performed the task under conditions of high versus low accountability. Examination of memory for behavioral information revealed that accountability disproportionately affected older adults' performance, with the locus of this effect being in conscious recollection processes. This supports the aforementioned selective engagement hypothesis by demonstrating that the differential impact of the motivational manipulation was based in deliberative memory processes. PMID:19357075

  7. Climate change impact on freshwater resources in a deltaic environment: A groundwater modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Alexopoulos, John D.; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kotsopoulos, Spyros; Ghionis, George; Poulos, Serafim

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect the hydrological cycle, altering seawater level and groundwater recharge to coastal aquifers with various other associated impacts on natural ecosystems and human activities. As the sustainable use of groundwater resources is a great challenge for many countries in the world, groundwater modeling has become a very useful and well established tool for studying groundwater management problems. This study investigates the impacts of climate change on the groundwater of the deltaic plain of River Pinios (Central Greece). Geophysical data processing indicates that the phreatic aquifer extends mainly in the central and northern parts of the region. A one-layer transient groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport model of the aquifer system is calibrated and validated. Impacts of climate change were evaluated by incorporating the estimated recharge input and sea level change of different future scenarios within the simulation models. The most noticeable and consistent result of the climate change impact simulations is a prominent sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifer mainly as a result of sea level change which underlines the need for a more effective planning of environmental measures.

  8. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  9. Assessing the Impact of Chlorinated-Solvent Sites on Metropolitan Groundwater Resources

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Narter, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated-solvent compounds are among the most common groundwater contaminants in the U.S.A. The majority of the many sites contaminated by chlorinated-solvent compounds are located in metropolitan areas, and most such areas have one or more chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites. Thus, contamination of groundwater by chlorinated-solvent compounds may pose a potential risk to the sustainability of potable water supplies for many metropolitan areas. The impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on metropolitan water resources was assessed for Tucson, AZ, by comparing the aggregate volume of extracted groundwater for all pump-and-treat systems associated with contaminated sites in the region to the total regional groundwater withdrawal. The analysis revealed that the aggregate volume of groundwater withdrawn for the pump-and-treat systems operating in Tucson, all of which are located at chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites, was 20% of the total groundwater withdrawal in the city for the study period. The treated groundwater was used primarily for direct delivery to local water supply systems or for reinjection as part of the pump-and-treat system. The volume of the treated groundwater used for potable water represented approximately 13% of the total potable water supply sourced from groundwater, and approximately 6% of the total potable water supply. This case study illustrates the significant impact chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites can have on groundwater resources and regional potable-water supplies. PMID:24116872

  10. Impact of Postoperative Venous Thromboembolism on Postoperative Morbidity, Mortality, and Resource Utilization after Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Newhook, Timothy E; LaPar, Damien J; Walters, Dustin M; Gupta, Shruti; Jolissaint, Joshua S; Adams, Reid B; Brayman, Kenneth L; Zaydfudim, Victor M; Bauer, Todd W

    2015-12-01

    The impact of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hepatectomy on patient morbidity, mortality, and resource usage remains poorly defined. Better understanding of thromboembolic complications is needed to improve perioperative management and overall outcomes. About 3973 patients underwent hepatectomy within NSQIP between 2005 and 2008. Patient characteristics, operative features, and postoperative correlates of VTE were compared with identify risk factors for VTE and to assess its overall impact on postoperative outcomes. Overall incidence of postoperative VTE was 2.4 per cent. Risk factors for postoperative VTE included older age, male gender, compromised functional status, degree of intraoperative blood transfusion, preoperative albumin level (all P < 0.05), and extent of hepatectomy (P = 0.004). Importantly, major postoperative complications, including acute renal failure, pneumonia, sepsis, septic shock, reintubation, prolonged ventilation, cardiac arrest, and reoperation were all associated with higher rates of VTE (all P < 0.05). Operative mortality was increased among patients with VTE (6.5% vs 2.4%, P = 0.03), and patients with VTE had a 2-fold increase in hospital length of stay (12.0 vs 6.0 days, P < 0.001). Postoperative VTE remains a significant source of morbidity, mortality, and increased resource usage after hepatectomy in the United States. Routine aggressive VTE prophylaxis measures are imperative to avoid development of VTE among patients requiring hepatectomy. PMID:26736156

  11. Quantifying the Impacts of Irrigation Technology Adoption on Water Resources in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Anthony; Cotterman, Kayla; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Producers in key agricultural regions worldwide are contending with increasing demand while simultaneously managing declining water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the largest aquifer system in the United States, and supplied most of the water to irrigate 6 million hectares in 2012. Water levels in the central and southern sections of the aquifer have steadily declined, as groundwater recharge in this semi-arid region is insufficient to meet water demands. Individual irrigators have responded to these declines by moving from less efficient irrigation technologies to those that apply water more precisely. Yet, these newer technologies have also allowed for water to be pumped from lower-yielding wells, thus extending the life of any given well and allowing drawdown to continue. Here we use a dataset of the annual irrigation technology choices from every irrigator in the state of Kansas, located in the Central High Plains. This irrigation data, along with remotely-sensed Leaf Area Index, crop choice, and irrigated area, drives a coupled surface/groundwater simulation created using the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to examine the impacts of changing irrigation technology on the regional water cycle, and water levels in the HPA. The model is applied to simulate cases in which no irrigation technology change had occurred, and complete adoption of newer technologies to better understand impacts of management choices on regional water resources.

  12. Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S.W.; Clement, T.P.; Villholth, K.G.; Perera, A.P.G.R.L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C.R.; Hyndman, D.W.; Cunningham, K.J.; Kaluarachchi, J.J.; Yeh, W.W.-G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Impacts of Land Use Changes on Water Resources: Examples from Australia and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Brown, A.; Zhang, X.

    2006-12-01

    Land use changes can significantly modify the hydrological regime of the catchments, affecting water resources and environment. This paper looks at the impacts of land use changes on water resources in both Australia and China and discusses the need for proper planning supported by scientific understanding. In Australia, massive clearing of native forest and woodland for agriculture since the European settlement has caused serious dryland salinity problem in many parts of the country. When deep-rooted perennial vegetation is replaced with agricultural crops, evapotranspiration decreases leading to increased groundwater recharge and streamflow. It has been suggested that by putting trees back to the landscape would reduce groundwater recharge and hence decrease salt load. Plantations can deliver positive hydrologic outcomes in terms of salinity control, but only if established appropriately. In China, extensive soil conservation measures including terraces, sediment-trapping dams, and afforestation have been implemented in catchments from the Loess Plateau since the 1950s. These measures have aimed to reduce soil erosion and improve agricultural productivity. While significant reductions in sediment yield from these catchments have been observed, it is at the cost of decreased streamflow. Analysis showed that on average the annual sediment yield from these catchments decreased by 51%, while reduction in annual stream flow varied between 20 to 45 % with greater reduction in low flows. The development of national plans to expand plantation area in the coming decades in both Australia and China mean that reductions in stream flow are likely. While there are clear environmental benefits associated with an expansion of plantation forestry, including decreased groundwater recharge, reduced erosion, improved water quality, and carbon sequestration, it is essential that proper planning and assessment of such land use changes is undertaken to minimize negative impacts on

  14. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs. PMID:21138290

  15. Impact of a Bundled Payment System on Resource Utilization During Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Maximilian; Smith, Harvey E.; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Passias, Peter G.; Schoenfeld, Andrew; Isaacs, Robert E.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Radcliff, Kris E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a bundled payment system, a single payment covers all costs associated with a single episode of care. Spine surgery may be well suited for bundled payments because of clearly defined episodes of care, but the impact on current practice has not been studied. We sought to examine how a theoretical bundled payment strategy with financial disincentives to resource utilization would impact practice patterns. Methods A multiple-choice survey was administered to spine surgeons describing eight clinical scenarios. Respondents were asked about their current practice, and then their practice in a hypothetical bundled payment system. Respondents could choose from multiple types of implants, bone grafts, and other resources utilized at the surgeon's discretion. Results Forty-three respondents completed the survey. Within each scenario, 24%-49% of respondents changed at least one aspect of management. The proportion of cases performed without implants was unchanged for four scenarios and increased in four by an average of 8%. Use of autologous iliac crest bone graft increased across all scenarios by an average of 18%. Use of neuromonitoring decreased in all scenarios by an average of 21%. Differences in costs were not statistically significant. Conclusions Financial disincentives to resource utilization may result in some changes to surgeons’ practices but these appear limited to items with less clear benefits to patients. Choices of implants, which account for the majority of intra-operative costs, did not change meaningfully. A bundling strategy targeting peri-operative costs solely related to surgical practice may not yield substantive savings while rationing potentially beneficial treatments to patient care. Level of Evidence: 5. PMID:27441177

  16. Impacts of warming revealed by linking resource growth rates with consumer functional responses.

    PubMed

    West, Derek C; Post, David M

    2016-05-01

    Warming global temperatures are driving changes in species distributions, growth and timing, but much uncertainty remains regarding how climate change will alter species interactions. Consumer-Resource interactions in particular can be strongly impacted by changes to the relative performance of interacting species. While consumers generally gain an advantage over their resources with increasing temperatures, nonlinearities can change this relation near temperature extremes. We use an experimental approach to determine how temperature changes between 5 and 30 °C will alter the growth of the algae Scenedesmus obliquus and the functional responses of the small-bodied Daphnia ambigua and the larger Daphnia pulicaria. The impact of warming generally followed expectations, making both Daphnia species more effective grazers, with the increase in feeding rates outpacing the increases in algal growth rate. At the extremes of our temperature range, however, warming resulted in a decrease in Daphnia grazing effectiveness. Between 25 and 30 °C, both species of Daphnia experienced a precipitous drop in feeding rates, while algal growth rates remained high, increasing the likelihood of algal blooms in warming summer temperatures. Daphnia pulicaria performed significantly better at cold temperatures than D. ambigua, but by 20 °C, there was no significant difference between the two species, and at 25 °C, D. ambigua outperformed D. pulicaria. Warming summer temperatures will favour the smaller D. ambigua, but only over a narrow temperature range, and warming beyond 25 °C could open D. ambigua to invasion from tropical species. By fitting our results to temperature-dependent functions, we develop a temperature- and density-dependent model, which produces a metric of grazing effectiveness, quantifying the grazer density necessary to halt algal growth. This approach should prove useful for tracking the transient dynamics of other density-dependent consumer-resource

  17. Impact of Land-use Dynamics on Water Resources of Upper Kharun Catchment (UKC), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use and its spatial pattern and dynamics strongly influence water resources and demand which are the crucial elements to be considered in water management. The core of integrated water resources management consists of coordinating water supply and demand in a given socio-economic-ecological context and guided by a set of objectives (for example: sustainability, equity, impact awareness, stakeholder involvement). Fulfilling the coordinating function requires reliable information on the water balance components today and future developments which are under the strong influence of land-use dynamics. The information needs to be gained by simulation runs based on hydrological modeling tools with high resolution input regarding land-use (and further features of the basin relevant to runoff generation and precipitation). This research combines the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and an advanced procedure for spatio-temporal land-use mapping that considers and integrates the intra annual variation within a single map and hence better represents an area with different level of urbanization and multiple crop rotations. Due to its relevant impact on the water balance special attention is paid to aspects of irrigation. The study reveals that an increasing pumping rate of groundwater for irrigation is the main reason for decreasing the groundwater contribution to streamflow and subsequently a lowering in discharge and water yield. On the other hand, annual surface runoff is increased significantly by an expansion in built up areas over the decades in the respective parts of the study area. On the UKC scale, the impact of land-use change on the water balance until 2021 is small. However, the impact on water resources is clearly visible and significant at sub-catchment level (increase: surface runoff; decrease: percolation; decrease: groundwater contribution to streamflow and increase: actual evapotranspiration), where expanding urban areas and intensification of

  18. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  19. The impact of climat change on shortages of rainfall and water resources in Dunajec basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limanówka, Danuta; Malota, Agnieszka; Cebulak, Elżbieta; Kasina, Michał; Doktor, Radosław; Pyrc, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Dunajec basin as a one of the larger and with the biggest potential of water resources in the whole Upper Vistula basin, has a big significant impact on the whole Vistula basin. However, there are periods of shortage of rainfall which result are droughts. These may have effects as devastating as excess in rainfall. Analysis of historical "proxy data" and contemporary instrumental measurements and observations allowed to extract the years that have experienced long lasting periods of high temperatures and shortages of rainfall. Drought periods caused low water levels in large areas of the basin. The collected historical material and the measurement was used to develop scenarios for the years 2001-2060 to determine the impact of climate change on the frequency and extent of occurrence of shortage of rainfall in the future and the impact on the water regime across the whole Vistula. In analysis of climate variability for the first time were used daily data derived from the results of six regional simulations generated in different models in the EU project ENSEMBLES Detailed analysis were performed for DMI-HIRLAM 5 ARPEGE & KNMI-RACMO2_ECHAM5 simulation.

  20. The Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources and Groundwater Quality in the Patcham Catchment, England.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Smith, M.; Pope, D. J.; Gumm, L.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of partially treated wastewater for artificial recharge will also be extensively studied in both the field and laboratory. The Chalk is a major aquifer and regionally supplies 70% of potable water supplies. The long term sustainable use of this resource is of paramount importance and the outcomes of this project will better inform and enhance long term management strategies for this. Project partners include water companies, regulatory bodies and industry consultancies. The four main objectives of the CLIMAWAT project are: i) better improve the prediction of the impact of climate change on this groundwater resource; ii) better understand and quantify how recharge mechanisms will vary due to the uncertainty associated with climate change; iii) better understand the storage mechanisms and fate of contaminants (e.g. nitrates and pesticides) in this aquifer and iv) investigate the impact of using partially treated wastewater for artificial recharge. An extensive field monitoring and data collection programme is underway in the Patcham Catchment (SE of England). Simultaneous monitoring of climatic, unsaturated zone potentiometric, groundwater level and chemistry data will allow for a better understanding of how changes in recharge patterns will effect groundwater quality and quantity. Isoptopic analysis of sampled groundwaters has allowed for interpretations and a better understanding of the storage and movement of water through this aquifer. The laboratory experimental programme is also underway and the results from this will compliment the field based studies to further enhance the understanding of contaminant behaviour in the both unsaturated and saturated zones. Core experiments are being used to investigate how nutrient and other

  1. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of

  2. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in the hospitality sector and using a broad sample. Statistical analysis of the global energy consumption obtained from bills shows that the energy consumption may be predicted within 90% confidence interval only with the outdoor temperature. In this article a simplified methodology is presented and applied to identify the climate change impact in hospitality sector using the building energy and water signature. This methodology is applied to sixteen hotels (nine in Lisbon and seven in Algarve) with four and five stars rating. The results show that is expect an increase in water and electricity consumption (manly due to the increase in

  3. Impacts of water resources development on flow regimes in the Brazos River.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Adrian L; Lopes, Vicente L

    2009-10-01

    The Brazos River, the second largest basin in Texas, represents one of the most highly developed river systems in the state. Thirty-nine reservoirs with capacities greater than 5,000 acre-feet are currently in operation in the basin. Impacts on stream ecosystems are evidenced by changes in flow regimes and resulting changes in fish assemblages over the past 50 years. These changes have been widely attributed to human impacts, through the construction of dams, diversion of water supplies for agricultural and municipal uses, and land use change. However, streamflow regimes result from a complex mix of drivers that include climate, topography, land cover, land use practices, reservoir management practices, dam releases, and water consumption patterns, making determination of anthropogenic impacts problematic. This study quantifies changes in flow regime and probable historical drivers including precipitation, dam construction, population growth, and changing water demand in the Brazos River basin over the past 100 years. Results indicate that the climate of the basin has been relatively stable over the study period, while large-scale changes in human population densities and intense water resources development are correlated with impacts on flow regimes, decreasing the frequency and magnitude of high flow events and stabilizing low flows. These changes have resulted in an increase of habitat generalist fish species, a decrease of native obligate riverine fishes, and an overall homogenization of species assemblages. The results of this study indicate the importance of combining ecological data with an assessment of social drivers for a greater understanding of the dynamics of river basin systems. PMID:18819012

  4. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  5. A Spatial Extrapolation Approach to Assess the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, J.; Tilmant, A.; Anctil, F.

    2015-12-01

    The typical approach to assess climate change impacts on water resources systems is based on a vertical integration/coupling of models: GCM models are run to project future precipitations and temperatures, which are then downscaled and used as inputs to hydrologic models whose outputs are processed by water systems models. From a decision-making point of view, this top-down vertical approach presents some challenges. For example, since the range of uncertainty that can be explored with GCM is limited, researchers are relying on ensembles to enlarge the spread, making the modeling approach even more demanding in terms of computation time and resource. When a particular water system must be analyzed, the question is to know whether this computationally intensive vertical approach is necessary in the first place or if we could extrapolate projections available in neighboring systems to feed the water system model? This would be equivalent to a horizontal approach. The proposed study addresses this question by comparing the performance of a water resource system under future climate conditions using the vertical and horizontal approaches. The methodology is illustrated with the hydropower system of the Gatineau River Basin in Quebec, Canada. Vertically obtained hydrologic projections available in those river basins are extrapolated and used as inputs to a stochastic multireservoir optimization model. Two different extrapolation techniques are tested. The first one simply relies on the ratios between the drainage areas. The second exploits the covariance structure found in historical flow data throughout the region. The analysis of the simulation results reveals that the annual and weekly energy productions of the system derived from the horizontal approach are statistically equivalent to those obtained with the vertical one, regardless of the extrapolation technique used.

  6. Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaspour, Karim C.; Faramarzi, Monireh; Ghasemi, Samaneh Seyed; Yang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    As water resources become further stressed due to increasing levels of societal demand, understanding the effect of climate change on various components of the water cycle is of strategic importance in management of this essential resource. In this study, we used a hydrologic model of Iran to study the impact of future climate on the country's water resources. The hydrologic model was created using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and calibrated for the period from 1980 to 2002 using daily river discharges and annual wheat yield data at a subbasin level. Future climate scenarios for periods of 2010-2040 and 2070-2100 were generated from the Canadian Global Coupled Model (CGCM 3.1) for scenarios A1B, B1, and A2, which were downscaled for 37 climate stations across the country. The hydrologic model was then applied to these periods to analyze the effect of future climate on precipitation, blue water, green water, and yield of wheat across the country. For future scenarios we found that in general, wet regions of the country will receive more rainfall while dry regions will receive less. Analysis of daily rainfall intensities indicated more frequent and larger-intensity floods in the wet regions and more prolonged droughts in the dry regions. When aggregated to provincial levels, the differences in the predictions due to the three future scenarios were smaller than the uncertainty in the hydrologic model. However, at the subbasin level the three climate scenarios produced quite different results in the dry regions of the country, although the results in the wet regions were more or less similar.

  7. Impact of Water Resorts Development along Laguna de Bay on Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jago-on, K. A. B.; Reyes, Y. K.; Siringan, F. P.; Lloren, R. B.; Balangue, M. I. R. D.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanization and land use changes in areas along Laguna de Bay, one of the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, have resulted in increased economic activities and demand for groundwater resources from households, commerce and industries. One significant activity that can affect groundwater is the development of the water resorts industry, which includes hot springs spas. This study aims to determine the impact of the proliferation of these water resorts in Calamba and Los Banos, urban areas located at the southern coast of the lake on the groundwater as a resource. Calamba, being the "Hot Spring Capital of the Philippines", presently has more than 300 resorts, while Los Banos has at least 38 resorts. Results from an initial survey of resorts show that the swimming pools are drained/ changed on an average of 2-3 times a week or even daily during peak periods of tourist arrivals. This indicates a large demand on the groundwater. Monitoring of actual groundwater extraction is a challenge however, as most of these resorts operate without water use permits. The unrestrained exploitation of groundwater has resulted to drying up of older wells and decrease in hot spring water temperature. It is necessary to strengthen implementation of laws and policies, and enhance partnerships among government, private sector groups, civil society and communities to promote groundwater sustainability.

  8. Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management and development of water resources, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Lists are presented of water resource agencies from the federal, state, Water Resources Research Institute, university, local, and private sectors. Information is provided on their water resource activities, computers, and models used. For Basic doc., see N75-25263.

  9. Nurses must report adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    There is renewed determination throughout the European Union (EU) to reduce the economic cost and high death rate associated with adverse drug reactions through better pharmacovigilance. Timely reporting and sharing of information concerning adverse drug reactions is vital to the success of this initiative. In the UK, the reporting of serious adverse drug reactions is facilitated by the Yellow Card Scheme, yet despite being well placed to monitor the effect of medicines on patients, nurses do not make full use of the scheme. This article sets out the impact of adverse drug reactions in the EU and argues that it is essential that nurses must be at the vanguard of adverse reaction reporting if the EU's pharmacovigilance initiative is to be a success. PMID:23905231

  10. Assessment of climate change impact on water resources in the Upper Senegal basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamine Mbaye, Mamadou; Hagemann, Stefan; Haensler, Andreas; Stacke, Tobias; Thierno Gaye, Amadou

    2015-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on water resources and the effect of statistical bias correction on the projected climate change signal in hydrological variables over the Upper Senegal Basin (West Africa). Original and bias corrected climate data from the regional climate model REMO were used as input for the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology-Hydrology Model (MPI-HM) to simulate river discharge, runoff, soil moisture and evapotranspiration. The results during the historical period (1971-2000) show that using the bias corrected input yields a better representation of the mean river flow regimes and the 10th and 90th percentiles of river flow at the outlet of the Upper Senegal Basin (USB). The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient is 0.92 using the bias corrected input, which demonstrates the ability of the model in simulating river flow. The percent bias of 3.88% indicates a slight overestimation of the river flow by the model using the corrected input. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of the bias correction and its necessity for the simulation of historical river regimes. As for the potential changes of hydrological variables by the end of 21st century (2071-2100), a general decrease of river discharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture is found under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) in all simulations. The decrease is higher under RCP8.5 with uncorrected data in the northern basin. However, there are some localized increases in some parts of the basin (e.g Guinean Highlands). The projected climate change signal of these above variables has the same spatial pattern and tendency for the uncorrected and bias corrected data although the magnitude of the corrected signal is somewhat lower than that uncorrected. Furthermore, the available water resources are projected to substantially decrease by more than -50% in the majority of the basin (especially in driest and hottest northern basin

  11. The impact of coal combustion residue effluent on water resources: a North Carolina example.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Schwartz, Grace; Romanski, Autumn; Smith, S Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The combustion of coal to generate electricity produces about 130 million tons of coal combustion residues (CCRs) each year in the United States; yet their environmental implications are not well constrained. This study systematically documents the quality of effluents discharged from CCR settling ponds or cooling water at ten sites and the impact on associated waterways in North Carolina, compared to a reference lake. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements in over 300 samples from CCR effluents, surface water from lakes and rivers at different downstream and upstream points, and pore water extracted from lake sediments. The data show that CCR effluents contain high levels of contaminants that in several cases exceed the U.S. EPA guidelines for drinking water and ecological effects. This investigation demonstrates the quality of receiving waters in North Carolina depends on (1) the ratio between effluent flux and freshwater resource volumes and (2) recycling of trace elements through adsorption on suspended particles and release to deep surface water or pore water in bottom sediments during periods of thermal water stratification and anoxic conditions. The impact of CCRs is long-term, which influences contaminant accumulation and the health of aquatic life in water associated with coal-fired power plants. PMID:23020686

  12. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Lebanon - a Look Crop Water Consumptive Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajalla, N. F.

    2009-04-01

    Potential climate change impacts on Lebanon could be harsh as a result of increased temperature which could eventually lead to loss of vegetative cover. Rising temperatures in a range of 1.8-4.0 oC as projected by the Intergovernmental Climate Change IPCC in 2007 would lead to a reduction in the snow cap of mountainous areas in Lebanon. This would result in increased surface runoff and reduced recharge of groundwater. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of climate change on water resources in Lebanon by delving into plant consumptive use of water at different vegetation scales using the CROPWAT model (FAO, 1992). Baseline climatic data (temperature, humidity, wind speed and daily sunshine) based on available 30 years data series (1956-2002) were used. The paper will evaluate the sensitivity of evapotranspiration to climate change by determining crop water requirement under scenarios of varying temperature and relative humidity. CROPWAT will be used to analyze the water consumption by plants in two differently sized watersheds with a variety of vegetative covers (forest, shrub, agricultural, etc.) and in different agroclimatic regions - namely Wadi Barsa lying on the coastal strip and Wadi Charbine located inland. The work is on-going and it is expected that by the time of presentation at the conference the authors will be able to present results indicating whether available precipitation will be sufficient for maintaining groundcover and agricultural crops in the two agroclimatic regions of Lebanon.

  13. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  14. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  15. Modeling the impacts of dryland agricultural reclamation on groundwater resources in Northern Egypt using sparse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzman, Harris; Coulibaly, Paulin; Adeel, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Demand for freshwater in many dryland environments is exerting negative impacts on the quality and availability of groundwater resources, particularly in areas where demand is high due to irrigation or industrial water requirements to support dryland agricultural reclamation. Often however, information available to diagnose the drivers of groundwater degradation and assess management options through modeling is sparse, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study presents an approach for generating transient groundwater model inputs to assess the long-term impacts of dryland agricultural land reclamation on groundwater resources in a highly data-sparse context. The approach was applied to the area of Wadi El Natrun in Northern Egypt, where dryland reclamation and the associated water use has been aggressive since the 1960s. Statistical distributions of water use information were constructed from a variety of sparse field and literature estimates and then combined with remote sensing data in spatio-temporal infilling model to produce the groundwater model inputs of well-pumping and surface recharge. An ensemble of groundwater model inputs were generated and used in a 3D groundwater flow (MODFLOW) of Wadi El Natrun's multi-layer aquifer system to analyze trends in water levels and water budgets over time. Validation of results against monitoring records, and model performance statistics demonstrated that despite the extremely sparse data, the approach used in this study was capable of simulating the cumulative impacts of agricultural land reclamation reasonably well. The uncertainty associated with the groundwater model itself was greater than that associated with the ensemble of well-pumping and surface recharge estimates. Water budget analysis of the groundwater model output revealed that groundwater recharge has not changed significantly over time, while pumping has. As a result of these trends, groundwater was estimated to be in a deficit of

  16. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on hydrology and water resources in Swaziland: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matondo, Jonathan I.; Peter, Graciana; Msibi, Kenneth M.

    It has been identified that, long-term climatic changes (Pleistocene ice ages) have been caused by periodic changes in the distribution of incoming solar radiation due to the variations in the earth’s orbital geometry, that is the tilt, precision of equinoxes and eccentricity which take place with periodicity ranging from 41 to 9508 thousand years. However, it has been considered that the major potential mechanism of climate change over the next few hundred years will be anthropogenic green house gas warming up. A number of gases that occur naturally in the atmosphere in small quantities are known as ”greenhouse gases. Water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, and nitrous oxide trap solar energy in much the same way as do the glass panes of a greenhouse or a closed automobile. This natural greenhouse gases effect has kept the earth’s atmosphere some 30 °C hotter, than it would otherwise be, making it possible for humans to exist on earth. Human activities, however, are now raising the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere and thus increasing their ability to trap energy. The enhanced greenhouse gas effect is expected to cause high temperature increase globally (1-3.5 °C) and this will lead to an increase in precipitation in some regions while other regions will experience reduced precipitation (±20%). The impact of expected climate change will affect almost all the sectors of the human endeavor. However, the major purpose of this project is to evaluate the impact of climate change on hydrology and water resources and establish the appropriate adaptation strategies for Swaziland. The impact of climate change on hydrology and water resources will be evaluated using General Circulation Model results (rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, air temperature, etc.) as inputs to a rainfall runoff model. Water use in all the sectors of the human endeavor will be determined in order to establish the water availability given different climate change

  17. Exposure of Particulate Matters PM10 and PM2.5 to Pregnant Ladies during First Trimester and its Impact on Adverse Birth Outcomes in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Goyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant exposure to criteria air pollutants at different level of concentrations is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The present study advocates the importance of the early period of pregnancy (first trimester) for association between growth in term of small gestational age (SGA) and birth weight (BW) with PM2.5 and PM10 for megacity Delhi. The association of PM10 and PM2.5 average concentration, SGA, pre term birth (PTB) and lower birth weight (LBW < 2500g or 5.5 pounds) outcomes have been investigated among 1749 live births in a large hospital during the year 2012 New Delhi, India. The air pollutants PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in single pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes. Growth in term of SGA is associated with PM2.5 levels (OR = 0.99, confidence interval (CI) = 0.99 - 1.0) and PM10 levels (OR= 0.99, CI= 0.99 - 1.001) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth weight outcome in terms of lower birth weight (LBW) has been found to be significantly associated with PM2.5 (OR= 0.99, CI = 0.98 - 1.00) exposure in the first trimester. A very significant decrease of 0.1% has been observed in growth of infant in terms of SGA with per 10 mg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Also, 0.1 % statistically significant adverse association of BW in terms of LBW has been found with per 10 mg/m3 increased vulnerability of PM2.5 during first trimester of gestation.

  18. Multilevel modeling of NPP change and impacts of water resources in the Lower Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haiming; Zhan, Jinyan; Jiang, Qun'ou; Yuan, Yongwei; Li, Zhihui

    Net primary productivity (NPP) lays the foundation for provision of various ecosystem services, and understanding the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP is of great significance to formulating appropriate management measures to guarantee the sustainable provision of essential ecosystem services. This study analyzed the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP in the lower Heihe River Basin, a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. First, NPP was estimated with the C-FIX model, and then the multilevel model was used to analyze the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP during 2000-2008. Finally decomposition analysis was used to further analyze the contribution of influencing factors to NPP change during 2000-2008. The average NPP increased by approximately 9.07% during 2000-2008, and results of the multilevel model indicate that both the socioeconomic variables and demographic variables are useful in explaining NPP change. In particular, coefficients of rainfall and evapotranspiration which represent the water availability reached 0.0456 and 0.2956, respectively. Results of decomposition analysis suggested that the water availability played an important role in increasing NPP, with a contribution rate of 44.17%, and it is necessary to carry out some policies that can promote the water use efficiency to increase NPP under the background of climate change and intensified human activities. There are some uncertainties in the results of this study, but these results still can provide valuable reference information for the water resource management to increase the ecosystem service supply in the lower Heihe River Basin.

  19. Forecasting the impact of an 1859-calibre superstorm on satellite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenwald, Sten; Green, James; Taylor, William

    2006-01-01

    We have developed simple models to assess the economic impacts to the current satellite resource caused by the worst-case scenario of a hypothetical superstorm event occurring during the next sunspot cycle. Although the consequences may be severe, our worse-case scenario does not include the complete failure of the entire 937 operating satellites in the current population, which have a replacement value of ˜170-230 billion, and supporting a ˜90 billion/year industry. Our estimates suggest a potential economic loss of <70 billion for lost revenue (˜44 billion) and satellite replacement for GEO satellites (˜24 billion) caused by a 'once a century' single storm similar to the 1859 superstorm. We estimate that 80 satellites (LEO, MEO, and GEO) may be disabled as a consequence of a superstorm event. Additional impacts may include the failure of many of the GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo satellite systems in MEO. Approximately 97 LEO satellites, which normally would not have re-entered for many decades, may prematurely de-orbit by ca 2021 as a result of the temporarily increased atmospheric drag caused by a superstorm event occurring in ca. 2012. The 100 billion International Space Station may lose significant altitude, placing it in critical need for re-boosting by an amount potentially outside the range of typical Space Shuttle operations, which are in any case scheduled to end in 2010. Currently, the ability to forecast extreme particle events and coronal mass ejections, or predict their fluences and geoseverity in the 24-h prior to the event, appears to be no better than 50/50. Our analysis of economic impacts is a first attempt at estimation whose approach will suggest ways in which better estimates may eventually be obtained.

  20. Evaluation of potential impacts on Great Lakes water resources based on climate scenarios of two GCMs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.M.; Quinn, F.H.; Clites, A.H.; Assel, R.A.; Eberhardt, A.J.; Luukkonen, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    The results of general circulation model predictions of the effects of climate change from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (model CGCM1) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's Hadley Centre (model HadCM2) have been used to derive potential impacts on the water resources of the Great Lakes basin. These impacts can influence the levels of the Great Lakes and the volumes of channel flow among them, thus affecting their value for interests such as riparians, shippers, recreational boaters, and natural ecosystems. On one hand, a hydrological modeling suite using input data from the CGCM1 predicts large drops in lake levels, up to a maximum of 1.38 m on Lakes Michigan and Huron by 2090. This is due to a combination of a decrease in precipitation and an increase in air temperature that leads to an increase in evaporation. On the other hand, using input from HadCM2, rises in lake levels are predicted, up to a maximum of 0.35 m on Lakes Michigan and Huron by 2090, due to increased precipitation and a reduced increase in air temperature. An interest satisfaction model shows sharp decreases in the satisfaction of the interests of commercial navigation, recreational boating, riparians, and hydropower due to lake level decreases. Most interest satisfaction scores are also reduced by lake level increases. Drastic reductions in ice cover also result from the temperature increases such that under the CGCM1 predictions, most of Lake Erie has 96% of its winters ice-free by 2090. Assessment is also made of impacts on the groundwater-dependent region of Lansing, Michigan.

  1. Adverse event recording post hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Doody, K; Mohamed, K M S; Butler, A; Street, J; Lenehan, B

    2013-01-01

    Accurate recording of adverse events post hip fracture surgery is vital for planning and allocating resources. The purpose of this study was to compare adverse events recorded prospectively at point of care with adverse recorded by the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) System. The study examined a two month period from August to September 2011 at University Hospital Limerick. Out of a sample size of 39, there were 7 males (17.9%) and 32 females (82.1%) with an age range of between 53 and 98 years. The mean age was 80.5 years. 55 adverse events were recorded, in contrast to the HIPE record of 13 (23.6%) adverse events. The most common complications included constipation 10 (18.2%), anaemia 8 (14.5%), urinary retention 8 (14.50%), pneumonia 5 (9.1%) and delirium 5 (9.1%). Of the female cohort, 24 (68.8%) suffered an adverse event, while only 4 (57%) males suffered an adverse event. PMID:24579408

  2. Advancing global hydro-climatological data archives to support climate change impact assessments on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saile, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variations and changing climate will very likely alter the rate and nature of hydrological processes and consequently affect water resources in many regions. Current General Circulation Models and downscaling methods that are increasingly used to assess changes in the water cycle and water resource vulnerabilities introduce a cascade of uncertainties that cannot realistically be dealt with at the moment and are too inaccurate to support improved decision-making for water management and for future water systems design. Therefore, water managers need not only improved hydrological and climate modelling and downscaling methods but also access to adequate hydro-meteorological monitoring networks. The Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H), a joint effort by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and several global observing systems, aims at integrating in-situ and remote sensing hydrological observations with hydrological model results held by its partner institutions to support a wide range of hydrological applications including research of global and regional climate change. Adhering to the different needs of all data users (scientists, policy makes and other stakeholders) and bridging the gap between the distributed datasets, currently a new information system is being developed to enable web-based discovery, access and analysis of observation data and derived products served through GTN-H. This system is built on international standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) using open standardized web services, namely (1) Catalogue Services for data discovery, (2) Web Map Services for data visualization and (3) Web Feature Services, Web Coverage Services and Sensor Observation Services for data access. This presentation will give an overview about the GTN-H data archive and the design of the new information system including an outlook of its potential use for water related climate change impact assessments.

  3. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  4. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Senegal River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we assess the impact of climate change on water resources by using uncorrected and bias corrected data from the regional climate model REMO simulations over the Senegal River Basin. Both simulations were used as input of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology - Hydrological Model over the Upper Senegal Basin.Applying the bias correction simulations of present day climate (1971-2000) substantially improved for both temporal and spatial variations of the analyzed climate parameters (precipitation, temperature) when compared to observations and independent station data. Additionally, the bias corrected input give better representation of the mean river flow, the low flows (10th percentile) and the high flows (90thpercentile) at the outlet of the USB.For the future, the regional climate model projections for precipitation show a general decrease by the end of 21stcentury (2071-2100) for both scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 and datasets in the majority of the basin, except the Guinean highlands where a slight increase is found. In case of the potential changes of the maximum consecutive number of dry days and wet days, the northern basin is likely to face the most pronounced increase of dry days and decrease of wet days, although slight increase of heavy rainfall is found with similar spatial patterns in both data. Furthermore, a general temperature increase is projected over the entire basin for both scenarios, but more pronounced under the RCP8.5 scenario. Warm night's percent is found to be higher than warm day's percent. As for the potential changes of the basin's hydrology, a general decrease of river discharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture is found under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in all simulations. The decrease is higher under RCP8.5 with uncorrected data in the northern basin. However, there are some localized increases of runoff in some parts of the basin. Furthermore, the available water resources are projected to substantially decrease

  5. The Impact of Water Diversion on Groundwater Resources in an Inland River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Zheng, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is one of the most intensely exploited and ecologically stressed inland river basins in the world. The HRB is characterized by three distinct ecohydrological systems: the mountainous upper reach where most of the water resources for the HRB originate from the rainfall, snow and permafrost; the middle reach with an arid climate and irrigated agriculture; and the lower reach dominated by wide stretches of Gobi desert. The study site, Zhangye Basin, is situated in the middle reach. It contains 92% population of the HRB and consumes about 80% of water resources as a regional agricultural and industrial center. To improve the deteriorating health of the ecosystems in the lower HRB, the Chinese government initiated the Heihe Water Diversion Project (HWDP) in 2000, which stipulated that at least 0.95 billion cubic meters of surface water must be delivered from the middle reach to the lower reach annually. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model has been developed for the Zhangye Basin to understand groundwater-surface water interactions in the Zhangye Basin and assess how the HWDP project has impacted the groundwater availability and water budgets in the region. The flow model has been reasonably calibrated using multiple sources of field data. The output of the groundwater model provided estimates of head differences before and after the HWDP project between 1999 and 2010. The results show that the groundwater level has declined widely, except in the Zhangye urban area where the groundwater level has increased by 0.5 to 7m and a few other localized spots. The calculated water budgets indicate that the spring discharge to the Heihe River has been continuously decreasing, and the total river leakage to the aquifer has been increasing. These results are in reasonable agreement with those from previous studies based on independent water balance calculation. The groundwater model is being integrated with surface water and land use data to

  6. Assessment of impacts of proposed coal-resource and related economic development on water resources, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming; a summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, Timothy Doak; Hillier, Donald E.

    1981-01-01

    Expanded mining and use of coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States will have substantial impacts on water resources, environmental amenities, and social and economic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a 3-year assessment of the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, where increased coal-resource development has begun to affect the environment and quality of life. Economic projections of the overall effects of coal-resource development were used to estimate water use and the types and amounts of waste residuals that need to be assimilated into the environment. Based in part upon these projections, several physical-based models and other semiquantitative assessment methods were used to determine possible effects upon the basin's water resources. Depending on the magnitude of mining and use of coal resources in the basin, an estimated 0.7 to 2.7 million tons (0.6 to 2.4 million metric tons) of waste residuals may be discharged annually into the environment by coal-resource development and associated economic activities. If the assumed development of coal resources in the basin occurs, annual consumptive use of water, which was approximately 142,000 acre-feet (175 million cubic meters) during 1975, may almost double by 1990. In a related analysis of alternative cooling systems for coal-conversion facilities, four to five times as much water may be used consumptively in a wet-tower, cooling-pond recycling system as in once-through cooling. An equivalent amount of coal transported by slurry pipeline would require about one-third the water used consumptively by once-through cooling for in-basin conversion. Current conditions and a variety of possible changes in the water resources of the basin resulting from coal-resource development were assessed. Basin population may increase by as much as threefold between 1975 and 1990. Volumes of wastes requiring treatment will increase accordingly. Potential problems associated

  7. The impact of glutathione S-transferase genotype and phenotype on the adverse drug reactions to azathioprine in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Fangbin; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; Bi, Huichang; Huang, Min

    2015-10-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is a thiopurine prodrug which is widely used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the use is limited in one-third of patients because of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or a lack of clinical response. It has been considered that the polymorphic enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) plays an important role in the in vivo process of AZA and the occurrence of its myelotoxicity. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) mutation is another pharmacogenetic polymorphism which is probably involved in AZA metabolism and tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association among GST polymorphism, enzyme activity and AZA-related ADRs in Chinese Han patients with IBD. We found that the patients who became neutropenic had a significantly higher GSTs activity when compared with of the patients who did not develop ADRs (analysis of variance, P < 0.001). There was also a significant underrepresentation of GSTP1*-105V allele among patients developing ADRs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.125, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.022-0.709, P = 0.0012). The patients with higher GST activity constituted a pharmacogenetic high risk group for leucopenia during AZA treatment. GST-P1 Ile105/Ile105 genotype appeared to be a promising marker indicating predisposition to AZA-related ADRs. PMID:26432087

  8. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  9. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, volumes, and physical-chemical properties of chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base flui...

  10. Integrating Technology, Curriculum, and Online Resources: A Multilevel Model Study of Impacts on Science Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This scale-up study investigated the impact of a teacher technology tool (Curriculum Customization Service, CCS), curriculum, and online resources on earth science teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and on students' achievement and engagement with science learning. Participants included 73 teachers and over 2,000 ninth-grade students…

  11. Methods for Predicting and Assessing the Impact of Technology on Human Resource Parameters: Report of the Literature. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Norman R.; Dieterly, Duncan L.

    The literature review was undertaken to establish the current status of the methodology for forecasting and assessing technology and for quantizing human resource parameters with respect to the impact of incoming technologies. The review of 140 selected documents applicable to the study was undertaken with emphasis on the identification of methods…

  12. Impact of Local Resources on Hospitalization Patterns of Medicare Beneficiaries and Propensity to Travel outside Local Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how local health care resources impact travel patterns of patients age 65 and older across the rural urban continuum. Methods: Information on inpatient hospital discharges was drawn from complete 2004 hospital discharge files from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) for New York,…

  13. The Impact of Resources on Women's Strategies for Coping with Work-Home Conflict: Does Sociocultural Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2012-01-01

    The study examined differences in the impact of resources on strategies for coping with work-home conflict (WHC) among Jewish (n = 59) and Muslim Arab (n = 87) women from dual-earner families in Israel. A distinction was made between three main types of coping strategies: taking initiative, help seeking (active strategies), and redefinition (a…

  14. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  15. Tourism Impacts of Three Mile Island and Other Adverse Events: Implications for Lincoln County and Other Rural Counties Bisected by Radioactive Wastes Intended for Yucca Mountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes key research implications of Three Mile Island and other major hazard events as related to tourism. Examines how the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will impact tourism in southern Nevada and other visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors. (AIM)

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Mahanadi River basin (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilhare, R.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Streamflow estimation using hydrological modeling and assessing the impact of climate change on it can increasingly help in dealing with the challenges that water resource managers and planners. In the present study, continuous distributed hydrological model named Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used for streamflow estimation at five gauging stations within Mahanadi river basin, Orissa, India. Further streamflow response to climate change has been examined. For this, the SWAT model has been first calibrated and validated for the period of 1951-2007. Then, with the aim of evaluating the impact of climate change on the basin hydrology for the period of 2010-2099, downscaled and bias corrected data from the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) models (i.e. bcc-csm1-1, inmcm4, mpi-esm-Ir, mri-cgcm3 and noresm1-m) under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios were used to derive the SWAT model. We find that streamflow variations are more sensitive to changing climate in the monsoon (JJAS) and pre-monsoon (FMAM) seasons than that of the post-monsoon season. Moreover, simulated runoff for the projected period (2010-2099) was found to be changing in a range of -17 to 59% in the monsoon, -18 to 65% in the post-monsoon, -76 to 451% in pre-monsoon under the RCP 4.5 scenario and for the RCP 8.5 streamflow changes have been assessed between -5 to 107% in monsoon, -0.45 to 105% in post-monsoon, -61 to 202% in pre-monsoon period. Keywords: SWAT; Climate Change; CMIP; RCP; Mahanadi

  17. Impact of climate change on water resources status: A case study for Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Jacob, Daniela

    2013-02-01

    SummaryAn assessment of the impact of global climate change on the water resources status of the island of Crete, for a range of 24 different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime is presented. Three "state of the art" Global Climate Models (GCMs) and an ensemble of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) under emission scenarios B1, A2 and A1B provide future precipitation (P) and temperature (T) estimates that are bias adjusted against observations. The ensemble of RCMs for the A1B scenario project a higher P reduction compared to GCMs projections under A2 and B1 scenarios. Among GCMs model results, the ECHAM model projects a higher P reduction compared to IPSL and CNCM. Water availability for the whole island at basin scale until 2100 is estimated using the SAC-SMA rainfall-runoff model And a set of demand and infrastructure scenarios are adopted to simulate potential water use. While predicted reduction of water availability under the B1 emission scenario can be handled with water demand stabilized at present values and full implementation of planned infrastructure, other scenarios require additional measures and a robust signal of water insufficiency is projected. Despite inherent uncertainties, the quantitative impact of the projected changes on water availability indicates that climate change plays an important role to water use and management in controlling future water status in a Mediterranean island like Crete. The results of the study reinforce the necessity to improve and update local water management planning and adaptation strategies in order to attain future water security.

  18. Evaluating the impact of pulse oximetry on childhood pneumonia mortality in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Jessica; Wu, Lindsey; Hay Burgess, Deborah; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Mukanga, David; Ghani, Azra C

    2015-12-01

    It is estimated that pneumonia is responsible for 15% of childhood deaths worldwide. Recent research has shown that hypoxia and malnutrition are strong predictors of mortality in children hospitalized for pneumonia. It is estimated that 15% of children under 5 who are hospitalized for pneumonia have hypoxaemia and that around 1.5 million children with severe pneumonia require oxygen treatment each year. We developed a deterministic compartmental model that links the care pathway to disease progression to assess the impact of introducing pulse oximetry as a prognostic tool to distinguish severe from non-severe pneumonia in under-5 year olds across 15 countries with the highest burden worldwide. We estimate that, assuming access to supplemental oxygen, pulse oximetry has the potential to avert up to 148,000 deaths if implemented across the 15 countries. By contrast, integrated management of childhood illness alone has a relatively small impact on mortality owing to its low sensitivity. Pulse oximetry can significantly increase the incidence of correctly treated severe cases as well as reduce the incidence of incorrect treatment with antibiotics. We also found that the combination of pulse oximetry with integrated management of childhood illness is highly cost-effective, with median estimates ranging from US$2.97 to $52.92 per disability-adjusted life year averted in the 15 countries analysed. This combination of substantial burden reduction and favourable cost-effectiveness makes pulse oximetry a promising candidate for improving the prognosis for children with pneumonia in resource-poor settings. PMID:26633766

  19. Attributing a Value Onto Groundwater Resources: The Impact of Environmental Cost on Monitoring Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleologos, E.

    2009-04-01

    European and U.S. regulations mandate a minimum number of wells in order to monitor for groundwater pollution from landfills. The optimum number and location of a network of wells is assessed by conducting numerical flow and transport simulations, which account for the heterogeneity of aquifers, and a decision-making analysis, which accounts for the probability of failure, the cost of monitoring measures, and the cost of remediation. An optimal monitoring network seeks to maximize the probability of detection, minimize the extent of polluted area, and minimize the cost of a system. The current work focuses on the decision-making part and specifically on the impact of the environmental cost on the selection of an optimal network. The results of a stochastic analysis by Yenigul et al. are utilized to determine the optimal configuration of wells subject to the above three objectives. When the standard practice is followed to set the remediation cost as a substitute of the environmental cost the optimal decision on monitoring network coincides with the minimum-mandated number of wells. A broader definition of environmental cost is proposed here that considers that the full value of groundwater resources is not recovered after remediation. The lost value of groundwater is defined as the value change from drinking water, before a pollution event, to irrigation water, which is returned after remediation. When this expanded notion of environmental cost is utilized higher monitoring standards are seen to be optimal.

  20. Economic impact of public resource supply constraints in northeast Oregon. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, E.C.; Holland, D.W.; Haynes, R.W.; Quigley, T.M.

    1997-04-01

    Traditional, fixed-price (input-output) economic models provide a useful framework for conceptualizing links in a regional economy. Apparent shortcomings in these models, however, severely restrict our ability to deduce valid prescriptions for public policy and economic development. A more efficient approach using regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as well as a brief survey of relevant literature is presented. Computable general equilibrium results under several different resource policy scenarios are examined and contrasted with a fixed-price analysis. In the most severe CGE scenario, elimination of Federal range programs caused the loss of 1,371 jobs (2.3 percent of regional employment) and $29 million (1.6 percent) of house income; and an 80-percent reduction in Federal log supplies resulted in the loss of 3,329 jobs (5.5 percent of regional employment), and $76 millin (4.2 percent) of household income. These results do not include positive economic impacts associated with improvement in salmon runs. Economic counter scenarios indicate that increases in tourism and high-technology manufacturing and growth in the population of retirees can largely offset total employment and income losses.

  1. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of a Critical Telecommunications Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.; Atcitty, C.; Zuffranieri, J.; Arent, D.

    2006-03-01

    Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages, as documented by analyses of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) outage reports by the National Reliability Steering Committee (under auspices of the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions). There are two major issues that are having increasing impact on the sensitivity of the power distribution to telecommunication facilities: deregulation of the power industry, and changing weather patterns. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. But does the diversity in power sources actually increase the reliability of offered power to the office equipment, or does the complexity of installing and managing the extended power system induce more potential faults and higher failure rates? This report analyzes a system involving a telecommunications facility consisting of two switch-bays and a satellite reception system.

  2. Impacts of large solar installations on water resources and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Dale, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Low carbon emission technologies such as solar energy may provide alternative pathways for sustainable energy production to meet the current and future energy requirements. Solar energy installations in arid and semi arid regions are increasing, due to technological advances and policy support. Solar power generation, however, uses large amounts of water for construction and operation. A major challenge for the future is how to meet expanding energy demand with limited water resources in arid and semiarid regions. This must be achieved in the context of increasing demand for alternative uses (e.g. agricultural and domestic consumption). Here, we investigate case studies of the land use and water consumption for solar electricity generation in the southwestern United States and northwest India under current and future energy demand scenarios, and the potential impacts on local and regional food security. We use a systems dynamic model to estimate current and projected water use compared with agricultural and domestic water use. We simulate the land and water use under scenarios involving a moratorium on or expansion of water intensive wet cooled concentrated solar technologies. This is compared with estimates of water consumption to produce the equivalent amount of electricity using the current grid mix. Finally, we explore, using detailed life cycle assessments, opportunities for co-locating solar infrastructure and agricultural crops/biofuels to maximize efficiency of land and water use. This investigation helps in understanding the energy-water-land tradeoffs associated with rapid expansion of solar infrastructure and implications for food security.

  3. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  4. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on class I areas: part II. Mitigation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-08-01

    This is the second of two articles describing a plan that was developed to mitigate the effects of acid deposition and visibility impairment in four Class I areas from the proposed Longview Power Project. Part I (published in July 2005) discussed the air quality impacts of the proposed coal-fired power plant. Part II discusses the mitigation plan. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Improving models to assess impacts of climate change on Mediterranean water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, water availability for human consumption has faced major constraints due to increasing pollution and reduced water availability. Water resources availability can gain additional stresses and pressures in the context of potential climate change scenarios. For the last decades, the climate change paradigm has been the scope of many researchers and the focus of decision makers, policies and environmental/climate legislation. Decision-makers face a wide range of constrains, as they are forced to define new strategies that merge planning, management and climate change adaptations. In turn, decision-makers must create integrated strategies aiming at the sustainable use of resources. There are multiple uncertainties associated with climate change impact assessment and water resources. Typically, most studies have dealt with uncertainties in emission scenarios and resulting socio-economic conditions, including land-use and water use. Less frequently, studies have address the disparities between the future climates generated by climate models for the same greenhouse gas concentrations; and the uncertainties related with the limited knowledge of how watersheds work, which also limits the capacity to simulate them with models. Therefore, the objective of this study is to apply the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrological model to a catchment in Alentejo, southern Portugal; and to evaluate the uncertainty associated both to the calibration of hydrological models and the use of different climate change scenarios and models (a combination of 4 GCM (General Circulation Models) and 1 RCM (Regional Circulation Models) for the scenarios RCP 4.5 and 8.5. The Alentejo region is highly vulnerable to the effects of potential climate changes with particular focus on water resources availability, despite several reservoirs used for freshwater supply and agriculture irrigation (e.g. the Alqueva reservoir - the largest artificial lake of the Iberian Peninsula

  6. An Impact Evaluation of the Resource Access Projects, 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empson, Judith V.; And Others

    Each year, Head Start makes at least 10 percent of its enrollment opportunities available to children with handicapping conditions. Currently, 15 Resource Access Projects (RAPs) form a national network offering a training and technical assistance program identifying resources, providing resource materials to Head Start grantees, facilitating…

  7. The impact of earth resources exploration from space. [technology assessment/LANDSAT satellites -technological forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of Earth Resources Technology Satellites in solving global problems is examined. Topics discussed are: (1) management of food, water, and fiber resources; (2) exploration and management of energy and mineral resources; (3) protection of the environment; (4) protection of life and property; and (5) improvements in shipping and navigation.

  8. The iImpact of Reasons for Attending University on Academic Resourcefulness and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennett, Deborah J.; Reed, Maureen J.; Stuart, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    It is a well-known phenomenon that generally resourceful students are more likely to employ specific self-control skills, such as academic resourcefulness, to overcome stressors in their life, and as a result, are more likely to be better adjusted, to receive higher grades, and to remain in university than their less resourceful counterparts. To…

  9. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2010-07-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 year flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and access to these products and services is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure

  10. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-05-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure and institutional arrangements

  11. Impact of information letters on the reporting rate of adverse drug reactions and the quality of the reports: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an important method for pharmacovigilance, but under-reporting and poor quality of reports are major limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate if repeated one-page ADR information letters affect (i) the reporting rate of ADRs and (ii) the quality of the ADR reports. Methods All 151 primary healthcare units in the Region Västra Götaland, Sweden, were randomly allocated (1:1) to an intervention (n = 77) or a control group (n = 74). The intervention consisted of one-page ADR information letters administered at three occasions during 2008 to all physicians and nurses in the intervention units. The number of ADR reports received from the 151 units was registered, as was the quality of the reports, which was defined as high if the ADR was to be reported according to Swedish regulations, that is, if the ADR was (i) serious, (ii) unexpected, and/or (iii) related to the use of new drugs and not labelled as common in the Summary of Product Characteristics. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate if the ADR information letter had reached the intended recipient. Results Before the intervention, no significant differences in reporting rate or number of high quality reports could be detected between the randomization groups. In 2008, 79 reports were sent from 37 intervention units and 52 reports from 30 control units (mean number of reports per unit ± standard deviation: 1.0 ± 2.5 vs. 0.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.34). The number of high quality reports was higher in intervention units than in control units (37 vs. 15 reports, 0.5 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.048). According to the returned questionnaires (n = 1,292, response rate 57%), more persons in the intervention than in the control group had received (29% vs. 19%, P < 0.0001) and read (31% vs. 26%, P < 0.0001) an ADR information letter. Conclusions This study suggests that repeated ADR information letters to physicians and nurses do not increase

  12. Forecasting the Impact of an 1859-calibre Superstorm on Satellite Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odenwald, Sten; Green, James; Taylor, William

    2005-01-01

    We have assembled a database of operational satellites in orbit as of 2004, and have developed a series of simple models to assess the economic impacts to this resource caused by various scenarios of superstorm events possible during the next sunspot cycle between 2010 and 2014. Despite the apparent robustness of our satellite assets against the kinds of storms we have encountered during the satellite era, our models suggest a potential economic loss exceeding $10(exp 11) for satellite replacement and lost profitability caused by a once a century single storm similar to the 1859 superstorm. From a combination of power system and attitude control system (the most vulnerable) failures, we estimate that 80 satellites (LEO, MEO, GEO) may be disabled as a consequence of a superstorm event. Additional consequences may include the failure of many of the GPS, GLONASS and Galileo satellite systems in MEO. Approximately 98 LEO satellites that normally would not have re-entered for many decades, may prematurely de-orbit in ca 2021 as a result of the temporarily increased atmospheric drag caused by the superstorm event occurring in 2012. The $10(exp 11) International Space Station may lose at least 15 kilometers of altitude, placing it in critical need for re-boosting by an amount that is potentially outside the range of typical Space Shuttle operations during the previous solar maximum in ca 2000, and at a time when NASA plans to decommission the Space Shuttle. Several LEO satellites will unexpectedly be placed on orbits that enter the ISS zone of avoidance, requiring some action by ground personnel and ISS astronauts to avoid close encounters. Radiation effects on astronauts have also been considered and could include a range of possibilities from acute radiation sickness for astronauts inside spacecraft, to near-lethal doses during EVAs. The specifics depends very sensitively on the spectral hardness of the accompanying SPE event. Currently, the ability to forecast extreme

  13. Coal mining and the resource community cycle: A longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Lockie, S.; Franettovich, M.; Petkova-Timmer, V.; Rolfe, J.; Ivanova, G.

    2009-09-15

    Two social impact assessment (SIA) studies of Central Queensland's Coppabella coal mine were undertaken in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. As ex post studies of actual change, these provide a reference point for predictive assessments of proposed resource extraction projects at other sites, while the longitudinal element added by the second study illustrates how impacts associated with one mine may vary over time due to changing economic and social conditions. It was found that the traditional coupling of local economic vitality and community development to the life cycle of resource projects - the resource community cycle - was mediated by labour recruitment and social infrastructure policies that reduced the emphasis on localised employment and investment strategies. and by the cumulative impacts of multiple mining projects within relative proximity to each other. The resource community cycle was accelerated and local communities forced to consider ways of attracting secondary investment and/or alternative industries early in the operational life of the Coppabella mine in order to secure significant economic benefits and to guard against the erosion of social capital and the ability to cope with future downturns in the mining sector.

  14. Measuring Impact of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies Office Funding: Considerations for Development of a Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.; Bennett, Mitchell; Segneri, Brittany

    2015-04-25

    This paper reviews existing methodologies and reporting codes used to describe extracted energy resources such as coal and oil and describes a comparable proposed methodology to describe geothermal resources. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of assessing the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow for GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to inform development of a geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and we sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for assessing and reporting on GTO funding according to resource knowledge and resource grade (or quality). This methodology would allow GTO to target funding or measure impact by progression of projects or geological potential for development.

  15. Global change impact on water resources at the regional scale - a reflection on participatory modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Roland; Büttner, Hannah; Nickel, Darla; Seidl, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Participatory modeling (PM) has become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources research and management. This is mainly because of the notion that models developed by scientists for scientific purposes are often not suitable for practical management for several reasons, such as (too) high complexity, low user-friendliness and lack of problem/solution orientation. Participation is seen as a key concept for bridging the gap between modelers and stakeholders. In this submission we focus on the PM-process in the GLOWA-Danube (GD) project (German Ministry of Education and Research, 2001-2011). GD was carried out by an interdisciplinary consortium of 17 research organizations. The main goal was to develop and to use the integrated modelling system DANUBIA as a tool to evaluate the impact of global change on the Upper Danube Catchment (Southern Germany, 77,000 km^2) and to discuss the implications with relevant stakeholders. An intensive stakeholder dialoged was carried out to include the perspective of stakeholders and end-users in the model and scenario development - with the final goal of facilitating implementation of DANUBIA in practical management after termination of the scientific project. This contribution looks at the specific conditions for PM in the field of global change scenarios and complex integrated models. The different phases of the PM process in GD are presented along with a discussion of the respective results. Overall, the impact of stakeholder interaction on the model development was much lower than expected. The ultimate goal of using the PM process to develop DANUBIA as a tool used in practical management after termination of the scientific project was not reached. However, implications of climate change and modelling could be discussed with the stakeholders involved and relevant learning processes on both sides (scientists and stakeholders) were facilitated in the final phase. In the

  16. Identifying military impacts on archaeology deposits based on differences in soil organic carbon and chemical elements at soil horizon interfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  17. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. Methods We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Results Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Conclusions Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern

  18. Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Medications on Sleep.

    PubMed

    Doghramji, Karl; Jangro, William C

    2016-09-01

    Psychotropic medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and benzodiazepines are widely prescribed. Most of these medications are thought to exert their effects through modulation of various monoamines as well as interactions with receptors such as histamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Through these interactions, psychotropics can also have a significant impact on sleep physiology, resulting in both beneficial and adverse effects on sleep. PMID:27514301

  19. 8 Years of ALPhA's Impacts / 45 Years of Developing Experimentalists with Few Resources: A Talk in Two Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Lowell

    In 2007, faculty with a shared interest in the health of advanced physics laboratory courses (those offered 'beyond the first year of college') created ALPhA, the Advanced Laboratory Physics Association. Over the past 8 years, ALPhA activities have involved faculty from a sizeable fraction of the physics departments in the United States. In the first part of this talk, I will overview ALPhA's efforts and its impact. In the second part of the talk I will discuss the advanced laboratory curricula at the University of Wisconsin - River Falls, which was developed over several decades using minimal resources for maximum impact. Supported by NSF Grant DUE-1122993.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Population Growth, Climate Change, and Land Use Change on Water Resources in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    India is poised to become the most populous country in the world by 2019 and reach a population of over 2 billion by 2050 based on current growth rates. It is also a region which will be under severe socio-economic and environmental stress if mitigation efforts are not adapted. In the past 10 years the population of India has grown by an average rate of 17 million people per year. In addition to unprecedented population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization are straining the overburdened environmental system. This rapid growth in population, urbanization and industrialized will result in increased demand for food, requiring expansion of agricultural resources. Since total agricultural land in India has been relatively constant over the past 10 years the demand for additional food has to be partly met by enhanced production on existing land. Arable land in India has declined by around 3% according to FAOSTAT while the total agricultural area under irrigation has increased by about 9% thus further straining its water resources. In addition projections for future climate indicate that India is one of the regions where water resources are expected to be negatively impacted. Total agriculture water withdrawal in India increased by approximately 18 % from 2000-2010 while the total per capita water withdrawal increased by over 9% from 2000-2010. Total freshwater withdrawal as percentage of renewable water resources was around 40% in 2010. In addition, recent mandates of biofuel policies in India are also expected to impact its water resources. The combined impact of these various factors on future water availability in India could be one of the most severe globally due its unprecedented increase in population, food production and industrialization. In this study we assess the impact of land use and climate change on water resources over southern India in the face of a growing population and interest in development of national biofuel supplies. We use

  1. The Impact of External Resources on Conflict and Violence in Dating Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine I.

    Eighty-six college-aged, heterosexual couples completed questionnaires and subsequently were interviewed separately in order to test the hypothesis derived from social exchange theory that higher levels of conflict or violence will be reported in dating relationships in which one partner has fewer external resources. External resources were…

  2. The Impact of the Structure, Function, and Resources of the Campus Security Office on Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Patricia Anne

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is college and university safety. This national quantitative study utilized resource dependency theory to examine relationships between the incidence of reported campus crimes and the structure, function, and resources of campus security offices. This study uncovered a difference in reported total crime rates,…

  3. Sexual Resourcefulness and the Impact of Family, Sex Education, Media and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennett, Deborah J.; Humphreys, Terry P.; Schultz, Kristen E.

    2012-01-01

    Building on a recently developed theoretical model of sexual self-control, 178 undergraduate women completed measures of learned resourcefulness, reasons for consenting to unwanted advances, and sexual self-efficacy--variables consistently shown to be unique predictors of sexual resourcefulness. Additional measures assessed in this investigation…

  4. Water resource impacts of climate and land cover change in New Zealand: Balancing scientific supply and policy demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. B.; Rouse, H. L.; Duncan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land cover have a range of effects on water resources. The policies in place to manage these potential changes depend on the biophysical drivers, the societal and environmental vulnerabilities, and the environmental (or resource management) governance institutions in place. As the science advances, so too will the policy, and as policy needs are identified, so too will the science advance. To illustrate the co-evolution of water resource science and policy, their dependence on environmental and social contexts, and their potential for further evolution, examples are drawn from New Zealand. Climate change is projected to have a range of impacts on the water resource system, including both increases and decreases in water supply, more severe droughts and floods, and degraded aquatic ecosystems. This is expected to have significant implications for the country's water-based agricultural economy and other societal values. Consequently, recent central government policy has directed all regional resource managers to take into consideration the foreseeable impacts of climate change, yet in many places projections of potential water resource change are lacking. In a similar vein, land cover change, such as the clearance of forest for dairy farming or the expansion of forests for carbon farming, also alters the quantity, quality and timing of water supply. In contrast to climate change, however, there has been no specific direction given from central government regarding land cover management, but rather a requirement to integrate land use change in broader limit setting. Going beyond this, two of the 16 regional authorities have already put in place policies that restrict forest expansion based on the potential reductions in catchment water supply. The differential responses to potential climate and land cover change depend on a range of scientific and societal factors, including the vulnerability of the water resource system and

  5. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    PubMed

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  6. Earth Observation in Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, Stephane

    Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability of a project is among the major key issues to be dealt with. The EO-MINERS project (Earth Observation for Monitoring and Observing Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation) is a newly EU funded Research and Technological Development project started in February 2010. EO-MINERS scientific and technical objectives are to: i) assess policy requirements at macro (public) and micro (mining companies) levels and define environmental, socio-economic, societal and sustainable development criteria and indicators to be possibly dealt using EO (Earth Observation); ii) use existing EO knowledge and carry out new developments on demonstration sites to further demonstrate the capabilities of integrated EO-based methods and tools in monitoring, managing and contributing reducing the environmental and societal footprints of the extractive industry during all phases of a mining project, from the exploration to the exploitation and closure stages; iii) contribute making reliable and objective information about affected ecosystems, populations and societies, to serve as a basis for a sound "trialogue" between industrialists, governmental organisations and stakeholders. EO-MINERS also is designed to embed the outcomes of the project firmly in the GEO process through a review the existing GEO Tasks covering the 9 societal benefit and 5 transverse areas defined by GEO work plan 2007-2009. This analysis will be used to identify synergies and gaps between EO-MINERS and GEO, with the aim of mapping mining and

  7. Modelling the Loktak Lake Basin to Assess Human Impact on Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliza, K.

    2015-12-01

    Loktak Lake is an internationally important, Ramsar designated, fresh water wetland system in the state of Manipur, India. The lake was also listed under Montreux Record on account of the ecological modifications that the lake system has witnessed over time. A characteristic feature of this lake is the extensive occurrence of coalesced, naturally or otherwise, vegetative masses floating over it. A contiguous 40 km2 area of Phumdis, as these vegetative masses are locally referred to, also constitutes the only natural home of the endemic and endangered species of Manipur's brow-antlered deer popularly known as Sangai. Appropriately notified as Keibul Lamjao National Park by Government of India, this natural feature is known to be the world's largest floating park. Water quality and sediment deposition on account of soil erosion in its catchments are some of the emerging concerns along with a reported enhanced frequency and duration of flooding of the shore areas, reduced fish catch within a visibly deteriorated overall natural ecosystem. Disturbances of watershed processes, command area management practices, ineffective as indeed largely absent, waste management practices and management interventions linked to the Loktak Hydroelectric Project are often cited as the principal triggers that are seen to be responsible for the damage. An effective management protocol for the Lake requires a rigorous understanding of its hydrobiology and eco-hydrodynamics. The present study is carried out to establish such a characterization of the various rivers systems draining directly into the Lake using MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 HD and MIKE 11 ECO Lab modelling platforms. Water quality modelling was limited to dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and water temperature. Model calibration was done using the available measured water quality data. The derived results were then investigated for causal correlation with anthropogenic influences to assess human impact on water

  8. Assessment of the Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing at Bakken on Regional Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Lin, T.; Lim, S.; Borders, M.

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil production at the Bakken Shale of western North Dakota increased more than ten-fold from 2008 to 2014. Although unconventional oil production uses less water than conventional oil production per unit of energy, the cumulative water needs for unconventional oil production due to multiple drilling and fracturing operations may be locally or temporally significant. We collected and analyzed the data for a total of 8453 horizontal wells developed at Bakken in western North Dakota during 2007-2014. The hydraulic fracturing activities mainly occurred in a core area of four counties, including Dunn, McKenzie, Mountrail, and Williams. The annual total water used for hydraulic fracking in western North Dakota increased from 302 ac-ft in 2007 to 21,605 ac-ft in 2014, by more than 70 times in 8 years. The four-county core area accounted for about 90% of total hydraulic fracturing water use in western North Dakota. Compared to the total water uses of all types, hydraulic fracturing water use in the four-county core area accounted for 0.7% in 2007 and 43.1% in 2014. Statewide, this percentage increased from 0.1% to 6.1% in the same time period. As horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies matured for unconventional oil development at Bakken, the total depth and the total length of laterals per well seemed to reach an optimal value in the last four years (2011-2014). However, the number of fracturing stages and the volume of fracking water used per completion are still on the rise. The average water use per well increased from about 1.7 ac-ft in 2007 to 11.4 ac-ft in 2014. Correspondingly, the water intensity (volume of fracking water used per foot of laterals) increased from 67 gallon/ft in 2007 to about 372 gallon/ft 2014. The results helped us better understand the environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing at Bakken and better manage the water resources in the region.

  9. A Training Partnership Focused on Climate Change Impact on Water Resources and Coastal Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Brekke, L. D.; Arnold, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning in 2010 the COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu), a part of the UCAR Community Programs (UCP) at UCAR, entered into partnership with several Climate Change and Water Working Group (CCAWWG, http://www.ccawwg.us/) agencies to pilot a new training program. With funding coming from the Bureau of Reclamation and the US Army Corps of Engineers, a series of self-paced online lessons and live courses targeted at technical climate change and water science professionals have already been delivered. Since it's release in 2012, the first self-paced lesson developed under this partnership entitled, "Preparing Hydro-climate Inputs for Climate Change in Water Resource Planning", has been taken over 2600 times. Users have come from federal, state, and local agencies as well as academia, government and private sectors around the US as well as from other countries. Additionally, the most popular multi-day course, Hydrologic Impacts Under Climate Change (HIUCC), has been offered to a diverse audience in both residence and virtual formats. This presentation provides an overview of the training materials developed through this partnership as well as plans for future offerings. A recommended set of lessons for all users who wish explore the open materials will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials covering climate change influences on water temperature for inland streams and watershed and channel sedimentation. These self-paced, online materials are currently freely available on the of the MetEd Web site (http://www.meted.ucar.edu) via the "Education & Training", "Climate" topic area. Users interested in directly accessing the materials can take these and many other lessons at http://meted.ucar.edu/climate. Additionally, the presentation highlights opportunities for learners to register for ongoing multi-day courses taught both live in person and at a distance. Now, in the beginning of the 6th year of partnership, new initiatives to train non

  10. Climate change impact on the management of water resources in the Seine River basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorchies, David; Thirel, Guillaume; Chauveau, Mathilde; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Perrin, Charles; Dehay, Florine

    2013-04-01

    It is today commonly accepted that adaptation strategies will be needed to cope with the hydrological consequences of projected climate change. The main objective of the IWRM-Net Climaware project is to design adaptation strategies for various socio-economic sectors and evaluate their relevance at the European scale. Within the project, the Seine case study focuses on dam management. The Seine River basin at Paris (43800km²) shows major socio-economic stakes in France. Due to its important and growing demography, the number of industries depending on water resources or located on the river sides, and the developed agricultural sector, the consequences of droughts and floods may be dramatic. To mitigate the extreme hydrological events, a system of four large multi-purpose reservoirs was built in the upstream part of the basin between 1949 and 1990. The IPCC reports indicate modifications of the climate conditions in northern France in the future. An increase of mean temperature is very likely, and the rainfall patterns could be modified: the uncertainty on future trends is still high, but summer periods could experience lower quantities of rainfall. Anticipating these changes are crucial: will the present reservoirs system be adapted to these conditions? Here we propose to evaluate the capacity of the Seine River reservoirs to withstand future projected climate conditions using the current management rules. For this study a modeling chain was designed. We used two hydrological models: GR4J, a lumped model used as a benchmark, and TGR, a semi-distributed model. TGR was tuned to explicitly account for reservoir management rules. Seven climatic models forced by the moderate A1B IPCC scenario and downscaled using a weather-type method (DSCLIM, Pagé et al., 2009), were used. A quantile-quantile type method was applied to correct bias in climate simulations. A model to mimic the way reservoirs are managed was also developed. The evolution of low flows, high flows and

  11. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues. PMID:27040337

  12. Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: the impact of economic, social, and cultural resources.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert R; Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh; Goodman, William M

    2014-02-01

    While the "social determinants of health" view compels us to explore how social structures shape health outcomes, it often ignores the role individual agency plays. In contrast, approaches that focus on individual choice and personal responsibility for health often overlook the influence of social structures. Amartya Sen's "capabilities" framework and its derivative the "health capabilities" (HC) approach attempts to accommodate both points of view, acknowledging that individuals function under social conditions over which they have little control, while also acting as agents in their own health and well-being. This paper explores how economic, social, and cultural resources shape the health capability of people with diabetes, focusing specifically on dietary practices. Health capability and agency are central to dietary practices, while also being shaped by immediate and broader social conditions that can generate habits and a lifestyle that constrain dietary behaviors. From January 2011 to December 2012, we interviewed 45 people with diabetes from a primary care clinic in Ontario (Canada) to examine how their economic, social, and cultural resources combine to influence dietary practices relative to their condition. We classified respondents into low, medium, and high resource groups based on economic circumstances, and compared how economic resources, social relationships, health-related knowledge and values combine to enhance or weaken health capability and dietary management. Economic, social, and cultural resources conspired to undermine dietary management among most in the low resource group, whereas social influences significantly influenced diet among many in the medium group. High resource respondents appeared most motivated to maintain a healthy diet, and also had the social and cultural resources to enable them to do so. Understanding the influence of all three types of resources is critical for constructing ways to enhance health capability, chronic

  13. Resource redistribution patterns induced by rapid vegetation shifts and their impacts on land degradation at the desert margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.

    2008-12-01

    A common form of land degradation at the desert margins involves the rapid interconversion of vegetation between grasses and woody plants, with ecohydrological and biogeochemical consequences. Here we show, using a combination of field experiments and a spatially explicit model, that the process of degradation can be facilitated both by an increase in heterogeneity (shrub encroachment in to grasslands) and in homogeneity (exotic annual grass invasion into desert shrublands) of soil resources, depending on the plant functional type inducing the change in soil resource distribution. The changes in resource distribution affect patterns of plant productivity and degradation potential. The distribution of soil resources (nutrients and soil moisture), in turn, are controlled by the feedbacks between aeolian/hydrologic transport processes, vegetation and disturbance. Disturbances like fire and grazing greatly affect the rates and patterns of resource redistribution in these systems. Thus, the feedbacks among ecological-hydrological and geomorphic processes acting at patch scale affect the emerging vegetation patterns in these arid landscapes with impacts on regional climate and desertification.

  14. The Use of Vascular Closure Devices and Impact on Major Bleeding and Net Adverse Clinical Events (NACE) in Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty: A Sub-Analysis of the BRAVO study

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Brian; Singh, Vikas; Kini, Annapoorna; Mehran, Roxana; Jacobs, Evan; Knopf, David; Alfonso, Carlos E.; Martinez, Claudia A.; Martinezclark, Pedro; O’Neill, William; Heldman, Alan W.; Yu, Jennifer; Baber, Usman; Kovacic, Jason; Dangas, George; Sharma, Samin; Sartori, Samantha; Cohen, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of suture-mediated vascular closure devices on net adverse clinical events (NACE) after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV). Background Ischemic and bleeding complications are common following transfemoral BAV however; previous studies have been single center and limited by varying definitions of major bleeding. Methods The Effect of Bivalirudin on Aortic Valve Intervention Outcomes (BRAVO) study was a retrospective observational study conducted at two high-volume academic centers over a 6-year period designed to compare the effect of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin. This is a sub-analysis of 428 consecutive patients who underwent BAV (with 10-13 French sheaths) to compare the effect of hemostasis with vascular closure devices versus manual compression utilizing standardized definitions. NACE was defined as the composite of major bleeding and major adverse clinical events (MACE). All events were adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee who were blinded to antithrombin use. Results Pre-closure was performed in 269 (62.8%) of patients. While bivalirudin was used more frequently in those with pre-closure (60.6% vs. 37.7%, p<0.001), a history of prior BAV (11.1% vs. 3.6%, p=0.04) and peripheral vascular disease (30.7% vs. 19.7%, p=0.01) was more common in those not undergoing pre-closure (n=159, 37%). Other clinical and demographic features were well balanced between groups. Vascular closure was associated with a significant reduction in NACE (24.5% vs 10.0% p<0.001). Results remained significant after adjusting for baseline differences and bivalirudin use (OR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.68; p=0.001). Conclusions Our study suggests that suture-mediated vascular closure is associated with a substantial reduction in NACE after transfemoral BAV. Large randomized clinical trials should be conducted to confirm our results. PMID:23436434

  15. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  16. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

  17. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. Methods A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Results Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52% - 65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71% - 75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. Conclusions This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single

  18. The transition to foraging for dense and predictable resources and its impact on the evolution of modern humans.

    PubMed

    Marean, Curtis W

    2016-07-01

    Scientists have identified a series of milestones in the evolution of the human food quest that are anticipated to have had far-reaching impacts on biological, behavioural and cultural evolution: the inclusion of substantial portions of meat, the broad spectrum revolution and the transition to food production. The foraging shift to dense and predictable resources is another key milestone that had consequential impacts on the later part of human evolution. The theory of economic defendability predicts that this shift had an important consequence-elevated levels of intergroup territoriality and conflict. In this paper, this theory is integrated with a well-established general theory of hunter-gatherer adaptations and is used to make predictions for the sequence of appearance of several evolved traits of modern humans. The distribution of dense and predictable resources in Africa is reviewed and found to occur only in aquatic contexts (coasts, rivers and lakes). The palaeoanthropological empirical record contains recurrent evidence for a shift to the exploitation of dense and predictable resources by 110 000 years ago, and the first known occurrence is in a marine coastal context in South Africa. Some theory predicts that this elevated conflict would have provided the conditions for selection for the hyperprosocial behaviours unique to modern humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298470

  19. Embedded resource accounting for coupled natural-human systems: An application to water resource impacts of the western U.S. electrical energy trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Rushforth, Richard; Tidwell, Vincent C.

    2014-10-01

    In complex coupled natural-human systems (CNH), multitype networks link social, environmental, and economic systems with flows of matter, energy, information, and value. Embedded Resource Accounting (ERA) is a systems analysis framework that includes the indirect connections of a multitype CNH network. ERA is conditioned on perceived system boundaries, which may vary according to the accountant's point of view. Both direct and indirect impacts are implicit whenever two subnetworks interact in such a system; the ratio of two subnetworks' impacts is the embedded intensity. For trade in the services of water, this is understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as "virtual water" trade. ERA is a generalization of input-output, footprint, and substance flow methods, and is a type of life cycle analysis. This paper presents results for the water and electrical energy system in the western U.S. This system is dominated by California, which outsources the majority of its water footprint of electrical energy. Electricity trade increases total water consumption for electricity production in the western U.S. by 15% and shifts water use to water-stressed Colorado River Basin States. A systemic underaccounting for water footprints occurs because state-level processes discount a portion of the water footprint occurring outside of the state boundary.

  20. Procedural frames in negotiations: how offering my resources versus requesting yours impacts perception, behavior, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Trötschel, Roman; Loschelder, David D; Höhne, Benjamin P; Majer, Johann M

    2015-03-01

    Although abundant negotiation research has examined outcome frames, little is known about the procedural framing of negotiation proposals (i.e., offering my vs. requesting your resources). In a series of 8 experiments, we tested the prediction that negotiators would show a stronger concession aversion and attain better individual outcomes when their own resource, rather than the counterpart's, is the accentuated reference resource in a transaction. First, senders of proposals revealed a stronger concession aversion when they offered their own rather than requested the counterpart's resources-both in buyer-seller (Experiment 1a) and in classic transaction negotiations (Experiment 2a). Expectedly, this effect reversed for recipients: When receiving requests rather than offers, recipients experienced a stronger concession aversion in buyer-seller (Experiment 1b) and transaction negotiations (Experiment 2b). Experiments 3-5 investigated procedural frames in the interactive process of negotiations-with elementary schoolchildren (Experiment 3), in a buyer-seller context (Experiments 4a and 4b), and in a computer-mediated transaction negotiation void of buyer and seller roles (Experiment 5). In summary, 8 experiments showed that negotiators are more concession averse and claim more individual value when negotiation proposals are framed to highlight their own rather than the counterpart's resources. PMID:25751716

  1. Cultural resource management: The risk of compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, S.A.

    1994-02-01

    The statutory mandate for federal agencies to involve American Indians in the management of cultural resources may create a cultural risk for the people those statutes are intended to protect. A conceptual framework is given to help understand this dilemma. Factors that can exacerbate the severity of the adverse cultural impacts for tribal people are also examined. Policy recommendations are offered for reducing tensions among an the participants in the statutory process.

  2. 78 FR 35959 - Notice of Availability of Draft Resource Management Plan and Associated Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... with the publication of the Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register on July 19, 2007 (72 FR... Environmental Impact Statement for the South Dakota Field Office Management Plan Revision, SD AGENCY: Bureau of...) and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the South Dakota Field Office and by this notice...

  3. Impact of Coping Resources on the Well-Being of Custodial Grandmothers and Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory C.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Montoro-Rodriguez, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The authors blended elements from the Stress Process Model and the Family Stress Model to investigate the direct and indirect effects of custodial grandmothers’ (CGMs’) coping resources (i.e., active strategies, passive strategies, and social support) on their psychological distress, their parenting practices, and their grandchild’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Participants included African American and White CGMs (N = 733, M age = 56) who provided full-time care to a grandchild (Mage = 9.8). Structural equation modeling revealed that social support and active coping were related to lower CGM distress and less ineffective parenting, whereas passive coping was associated with increased distress and more ineffective parenting. Ineffective parenting had direct effects on grandchildren’s outcomes, whereas CGM coping resources had direct effects on ineffective parenting and indirect effects (through ineffective parenting) on grandchildren’s externalizing and internalizing difficulties. The authors conclude that CGM coping resources affect the psychological well-being of both generations. PMID:26089583

  4. Impact of resource availability on species composition and diversity in freshwater nematodes.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Iris C; Traunspurger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term effects of resource availability in a freshwater nematode community. We carried out a mesocosm experiment where natural nematode communities were exposed to nutrient addition/depletion over 2 years. Compared to the nutrient-addition treatment, species richness and diversity were strongly reduced upon nutrient depletion. The functional group of bacterial feeders particularly suffered severely from nutrient depletion. The decrease in diversity of bacterial feeders was linked to reduced species richness and diversity of large omnivorous species, as predicted by trophic-dynamic models. Tilman's (1976) statement, that under low nutrient levels the best competitor dominates the system, was applicable in our system. Upon nutrient depletion, resource depletion led to a monoculture of 1 small bacterial feeder, but even after 2 years of resource depletion, up to 16 species still coexisted. Our results provide strong evidence that freshwater nematode systems can be regulated by nutrient competition. PMID:15365809

  5. Automating Natural Disaster Impact Analysis: An Open Resource to Visually Estimate a Hurricane s Impact on the Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Alan M; Freer, Eva B; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Fernandez, Steven J; Chinthavali, Supriya; Kodysh, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-01

    An ORNL team working on the Energy Awareness and Resiliency Standardized Services (EARSS) project developed a fully automated procedure to take wind speed and location estimates provided by hurricane forecasters and provide a geospatial estimate on the impact to the electric grid in terms of outage areas and projected duration of outages. Hurricane Sandy was one of the worst US storms ever, with reported injuries and deaths, millions of people without power for several days, and billions of dollars in economic impact. Hurricane advisories were released for Sandy from October 22 through 31, 2012. The fact that the geoprocessing was automated was significant there were 64 advisories for Sandy. Manual analysis typically takes about one hour for each advisory. During a storm event, advisories are released every two to three hours around the clock, and an analyst capable of performing the manual analysis has other tasks they would like to focus on. Initial predictions of a big impact and landfall usually occur three days in advance, so time is of the essence to prepare for utility repair. Automated processing developed at ORNL allowed this analysis to be completed and made publicly available within minutes of each new advisory being released.

  6. Use of South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS) to Assess Impacts of Biofuel Expansion on Water Resources in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, L.; De Mattos, J. Z.; Scarpare, F.; Galdos, M. V.; Scanlon, B.; Long, D.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale expansion of sugarcane production in Brazil is very positive in terms of biofuels and greenhouse gases; however, potential impacts on water resources are uncertain. The objective of this analysis is to assess potential impacts of biofuel expansion in Central South Brazil on water resources using the South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS). SALDAS is driven by 3 hourly atmospheric forcing. Limited surface observations have resulted in use of remotely sensed data merged with surface observations to calculate precipitation and shortwave radiation fields. SALDAS simulates partitioning of water and energy in response to spatiotemporal variability in climate forcing and land use change related to biofuel expansion. The impacts of land use changes related to biofuel expansion will be examined by evaluating water and energy fluxes in areas of different land use and substituting space for time. Output from SALDAS will be compared with coarser resolution Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and other more traditional modeling approaches, such as CROPWAT, to estimate changes in water use from biofuel expansion. Land surface models provide an excellent reconnaissance tool to better understand the hydrology of regional systems in response to climate and land use in data constrained regions.

  7. Climate change impact on water resources for several river basins: a European, Asian and African case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, L.; Coppola, E.; Gao, X.; Im, E. S.; Giorgi, F.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns resulting from changes in climate are expected to impact the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources (IPCC 2007). Because climate change doesn't occur uniformly throughout the globe, climate change is expected to impact each region differently. Few examples are reported where a possible change in water availability could heavily effects the life of peoples: • The Volta River in Africa is responsible for 70% of the electricity production in Ghana. • More than the 80% of the northern Italian GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is connected to the Po River. • The Miyun Reservoir in China is the major water supply for Beijing and already in the last decades Beijing suffered from water storage deficiency. • The Soyang, Chungju, and Daecheong Basins in Korea provide municipal, industrial, and irrigational water to downstream users, as well as control flooding and generate hydropower. The Soyang and Chungju dams supply water to Seoul the largest metropolitan areas in Korea. These River Basins have been reconstructed using the CHYM hydrological model and by coupling CHYM with the regional climate model RegCM3 the possible impact on water resources has been quantified.

  8. Impacts of climate and land use change on future water resources in the Yadkin River Basin, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, K. L.; Vose, J. M.; Hwang, T.; Coulston, J.; Band, L. E.; Wear, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid changes in climate and socio-economic systems are affecting hydrologic processes and fresh water availability. In particular, temperatures, population growth and urban development are all expected to increase in the Southern United States over the next 50 years, which will further stress regional water resources. With improved knowledge of the interactions among land use-land cover (LULC), climate change, and hydrologic processes, decision makers and natural resource managers can explore opportunities to increase the resilience of water resources to future changes. To address this need, we investigated the impacts of climate and LULC changes on water resources throughout the Yadkin River watershed in North Carolina. From forested headwaters in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Yadkin River flows through agricultural areas and regions of expanding urbanization in the Piedmont. We selected small watersheds representative of each region for detailed analyses, including changes in LULC, climate, and stream flow. We found no significant trends in water yield, precipitation, or evapotranspiration in representative watersheds dominated by forest, agriculture, or medium intensity development using historic climate and USGS stream gauge data. This suggests that precipitation and LULC have been relatively stable throughout the Yadkin watershed over the last two to three decades. However, our approach melding the National Land Cover Data and U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Plots indicate that the watershed will experience rapid and substantial changes in land use over the next 50 years, particularly as forest is replaced by urban development. Preliminary analyses with a distributed ecohydroloic model (RHESSys), suggest water yield is sensitive to LULC even without climate change. We will present results that quantify the impact of these changes on hydrologic processes by applying projections of future climate (9 scenarios) and multiple realizations of LULC

  9. The Impact of Technological Change on the Role of the Human Resources Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocik, Edward J.

    1986-01-01

    The author states that human resources managers must not react defensively to the introduction of technological advances into their businesses. He says that managers should properly view new technology as a viable basis for strengthening and expanding their companies and providing greater long-term job security for their employees. (CT)

  10. Impact of flight regulations on effective use of unmanned aircraft systems for natural resources applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland assessment, monitoring, and management as has been shown by prior studies. Additionally, numerous other applications in natural resources have shown the value of using UAVs. In order to have UAVs become a dependable tool for public...

  11. The Impact of Childhood Hearing Loss on the Family: Mothers' and Fathers' Stress and Coping Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Most, Tova; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Haddad-eid, Eliana; Brand, Devora

    2016-01-01

    Parenting children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) presents unique long-term challenges that can place the parents at a greater risk for elevated levels of parenting stress. Adaptation of families to the various challenges presented by childhood hearing loss is influenced by their personal and social coping resources available for managing…

  12. IMPACT OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-ATLANTIC REGION HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of hydrology and water resources to climate variation and climate change is assessed for the Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of the United States. Observed streamflow, groundwater, and water-quality data are shown to vary in association with climate variation. Projectio...

  13. Technology's Impact on Human Resource Development across the Life Span: Pedagogy Starts with Andragogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Pamela Clinton; Cowell, Charles E.; Jorden, Debra; McWhorter, Rochell; Dobbs, Rita L.; Allen, W. Clayton

    2006-01-01

    Human Resource Development (HRD) programs are faced with overwhelming challenges as there is a dearth of computer literate employees to meet the growing demands of the workplace. In other words, many employees are technologically and computer challenged thus impeding the instruction and learning process. Innovative organizations utilize computer…

  14. Free Agent Learners: The New Career Model and Its Impact on Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opengart, Rose; Short, Darren C.

    2002-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) executives from the United States (n=7), Brazil (n=1), and Britain (n=3) reported some shift toward free-agent attitudes and long-term employability among high-potential and high-tech employees. Organizations increasingly view learning as a recruitment and retention tool. The focus of HRD is shifting from training…

  15. Predicting Plausible Impacts of Sets of Climate and Land Use Change Scenarios on Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global changes in climate and land use can alTect the quantity and quality of water resources. Hence, we need a methodology to predict these ramifications. Using the Little Miami River (LMR) watershed as a case study, this paper describes a spatial analytical approach integrating...

  16. 76 FR 57759 - Notice of Availability of Draft Resource Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... opening of the comment period. DATES: To ensure that comments will be considered, the BLM must receive... Area, Kremmling Cretaceous Ammonite Research Natural Area, Kremmling Potential Conservation Area... the comment period. The KFO reviewed its wilderness resource inventory and ensured it was current...

  17. The Impact of Basic Skills on Human Resource Management in the Retailing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Alice Bird

    A recent survey of retailing firms, ranging from single stores to nationwide chains, showed that the most significant human resources challenge facing these organizations is how to attract and retain qualified employees. Faced with the many changes in the retailing industry and in the composition of the work force that have taken place over the…

  18. 76 FR 72718 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Baker Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... should the diverse landscapes and resources within the Planning Area be managed? Issue 2: Renewable Energy Development--How should the BLM Baker Field Office manage renewable energy development? Issue 3... planning criteria for review and was published in the Federal Register on January 15, 2008 (73 FR...

  19. Virtual HR: The Impact of Information Technology on the Human Resource Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sharyn D.; Lepak, David P.; Bartol, Kathyrn M.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 357 complete pairs of human resources executives and professionals from the same company showed that information technology has increased autonomy, the responsiveness of their information dissemination, and networking with other professionals; they spend more time in technology support activities. Organizational climate moderated…

  20. Self Care Resource Corner: Its Impact on Appropriate Health Service Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClaran, Diane M.; Breakey, Robin Sarris

    In an effort to intervene before students enter the medical care system at the University of Michigan, a Self Care Resource Corner and accompanying materials were developed and implemented. The objective was to encourage students to view themselves as the primary decision makers for health-related conditions before seeking care from clinicians.…

  1. The Impact of Childhood Hearing Loss on the Family: Mothers' and Fathers' Stress and Coping Resources.

    PubMed

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Most, Tova; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Haddad-eid, Eliana; Brand, Devora

    2016-01-01

    Parenting children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) presents unique long-term challenges that can place the parents at a greater risk for elevated levels of parenting stress. Adaptation of families to the various challenges presented by childhood hearing loss is influenced by their personal and social coping resources available for managing these stressors and challenges. The current study examined differences in parenting stress and personal (i.e., acceptance of the child who is D/HH and parents' sense of parenting self-efficacy) and social (i.e., formal and informal social support) coping resources between mothers and fathers of children who are D/HH in the Arab sector in Israel. Further, the study examined the relations between coping resources and parenting stress among these parents. Participants included 30 Israeli Arab mother-father couples (n = 60) having a child who is D/HH aged 3-8 years. Findings revealed no significant differences between mothers and fathers regarding parenting stress, child acceptance, or parental support systems. However, mothers reported significantly higher self-efficacy. In addition, correlation analysis indicated that higher coping resources decreased parenting stress levels. Theoretical and practical implications of parental gender in the context of cultural background are discussed regarding parent intervention programs. PMID:26363022

  2. Revealing the Impact of Climate Variability on the Wind Resource Using Data Mining Techniques (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, A.; Lundquist, J.

    2011-12-01

    A data mining technique called 'k-means clustering' can be used to group winds at the NWTC into 4 major clusters. The frequency of some winds in the clusters is correlated with regional pressure gradients and climate indices. The technique could also be applied to wind resource assessment and selecting scenarios for flow modeling.

  3. 77 FR 12076 - Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Integrated Water Resource Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... PEIS in the Federal Register on November 16, 2011 (76 FR 71070) with a public comment period ending on... of Reclamation (Reclamation), in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology... In response to long-standing water resource problems in the basin, Reclamation and Ecology...

  4. Predicting Plausible Impacts of Sets of Climate and Land Use Change Scenario on Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the new decade ushers in, there will be new challenges. The world’s population is increasing and the land use patterns are changing. Inevitably with these global changes, there will be various environmental consequences. For example, our water resources, both in terms of qu...

  5. Critiquing Human Resource Development's Dominant Masculine Rationality and Evaluating Its Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critique human resource development's (HRD) dominant philosophy, practices, and research; illustrate how they negatively affect women HRD practitioners and recipients; and recommend alternative conceptualizations of the field. This article is grounded in a critical feminist theoretical framework, draws on critical…

  6. 78 FR 29153 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Resource Management Plan and Environmental... Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as...

  7. What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

  8. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Water Supply Security through Adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is to describe the water resources adaptation program (WRAP) at the U.S.EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, and to highlight initial research results on hydroclimatic periodicity and changes and on adaptation measures including sustainable water in...

  9. FISH RESOURCES AND AQUATIC HABITAT IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Its purpose is to provide information on the fish resources, water quality, and aquatic ecology of the Ohio...

  10. The impact of climate change on the U.S. wind energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Kirk-Davidoff; Daniel Barrie

    2013-03-19

    The growing need for low-carbon emitting electricity sources has resulted in rapid growth in the wind power industry. The size and steadiness of the offshore wind resource has attracted growing investment in the planning of offshore wind turbine installations. Decisions about the location and character of wind farms should be made with an eye not only to present but also future wind resource, which may change as increasing carbon dioxide forces reductions in the poleward temperature gradient, and thus potentially in the mean tropospheric westerly winds. I propose to use the new North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program climate projections to estimate the change of the wind power resource under various carbon dioxide loading scenarios and for a range of climate models. We will compare our assessment with both our assessment based on the IPCC AR4 model runs, to explore the extent to which improved model resolution changes the prediction for the wind power resource, and with present day estimates from reanalysis and scatterometer winds.

  11. Impacts of emerging organic contaminants on freshwater resources: review of recent occurrences, sources, fate and effects.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amrita; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Reinhard, Martin

    2010-11-15

    Rapid urbanization and frequent disposal of wastewater to surface water cause widespread contamination of freshwater supplies with emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, insecticides, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, including hormones. Although these organic contaminants may be present at trace levels, their adverse effects on aquatic life, animals and even humans are a growing concern. Numerous studies have been published on the occurrence and fate of emerging organic contaminants in different parts of the world, spanning a wide range of sources and aquatic environments including freshwater catchments, effluent wastewater streams, lakes, rivers, reservoirs, estuaries and marine waters. This paper reviews recent studies on the occurrence and fate of frequently detected pharmaceuticals and hormones and identifies areas that merit further research. PMID:20934204

  12. The Impact of Admission Serum Creatinine Derived Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate on Major Adverse Cardiac Events in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Uluganyan, Mahmut; Karaca, Gurkan; Ulutas, Turker Kemal; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Tusun, Eyup; Murat, Ahmet; Koroglu, Bayram; Uyarel, Huseyin; Bakhshaliyev, Nijad; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of Cockroft-Gault (C-G) derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was assessed. Methods A total of 884 patients were classified into four categories according to admission creatine derived eGFR: < 60, 60 - < 90, 90 - < 120, and ≥ 120 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results In-hospital and long-term MACEs were significantly higher in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028). Multivariate analysis demonstrated 7.78-fold (95% CI: 0.91 - 66.8) higher mortality risk in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup. Conclusion As an easily applicable bedside method, C-G derived eGFR could be important for prediction of in-hospital and long-term mortality and MACE in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. PMID:26985253

  13. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  14. Understanding the Impacts of Energy Production and Climate Change on Water Resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Levitt, D.; Herr, J.; Geza, M.; Middleton, R.; Nealon, T.; Wolfsberg, A.

    2008-12-01

    Unconventional fuels, primarily oil shale and coal-to-liquid conversions, are under consideration as solutions to our dependence on foreign fuels. However, they are energy intensive, have a higher carbon footprint than conventional fossil fuels and present significant demands on water resources in the Rocky Mountain West. We are applying the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF)basin-scale hydrologic model to address the impacts of climate change and variability on water resources within the context of energy and fuel development in the upper Colorado River basin. WARMF performs physics based energy and water balances on a sub-watershed basis and routes flow through soils and a network of streams, lakes and reservoirs to a watershed outlet. A climate change module has been developed to modify historical meteorological data in order to examine the impacts of climate change scenarios in the basin. The model is parameterized and calibrated for the White, Upper Colorado and Gunnison Rivers in Colorado from their headwaters to the Utah border. These rivers are the most likely to be impacted by new extractions of water for oil shale development in the Piceance Basin in Western Colorado. The model predicts that a three degree Celsius change in temperature could result in an average annual reduction in stream flow by 15 to 20 percent and a shift toward earlier snowmelt runoff. In addition, model output is used within a systems dynamics modeling framework to examine water resource management strategies for a range of energy production growth scenarios and the interdependencies between water use, energy production, carbon management, population growth, infrastructure, and economics in western basins.

  15. The Impact of Anthropogenic Global Warming on the Wind Power Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Barrie, D.

    2009-12-01

    The growing need for low-carbon emitting electricity sources has resulted in rapid growth in the wind power industry. The size and steadiness of the offshore wind resource has attracted growing investment in the planning of offshore wind turbine installations. Decisions about the location and character of wind farms should be made with an eye not only to present but also future wind resource, which may change as increasing carbon dioxide forces reductions in the poleward temperature gradient, and thus potentially in the mean tropospheric westerly winds. Analysis of the IPCC AR4 SRESa1b model projections shows a consistent pattern of enhanced wind power resource over the U.S. south central plains, and reduced wind power over the Atlantic. Over the crucial near-shore region, the multi-model ensemble mean shows reduced winds, but there is significant model disagreement here. In this presentation we diagnose the relative roles of mass rearrangement and momentum flux changes in driving surface wind changes in response to global warming. In addition, results from high-resolution downscaled projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) are analyzed. Preliminary results show agreement with the large scale model projections at large scale. However, regional details show important deviations from the large scale patterns, including enhanced wind resource in the Gulf of Maine, and off the Delmarva Penninsula. Multimodel ensemble estimate of change in wind power resource (percentage change in monthly mean of cube of surface wind) from the decade 1990-2000 to the decade 2090-2100, across seven of the IPCC AR4 SRESA1B models runs (BCCR, CNRM, CSIRO, GFDL, MIROC (medium resolution), ECHAM2, and MRI). Models chosen are those which provided daily surface wind data on the WCRP CMIP3 data archive. Colors in indicate the mean percentage increase, while thatching indicates that this mean change exceeds the standard deviation among the model

  16. High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Laxson, A.; Hand, M. M.; Blair, N.

    2006-10-01

    This study used two different models to analyze a number of alternative scenarios of annual wind power capacity expansion to better understand the impacts of high levels of wind generated electricity production on wind energy manufacturing and installation rates.

  17. An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations

  18. Impacts of Past Land Use Changes on Water Resources: An Analog for Assessing Effects of Proposed Bioenergy Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Schilling, K.; Young, M.; Duncan, I. J.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.

    2011-12-01

    Interest is increasing in renewable energy sources, including bioenergy. However, potential impacts of bioenergy crops on water resources need to be better understood before large scale expansion occurs. This study evaluates the potential for using past land use change impacts on water resources as an analog for assessing future bioenergy crop effects. Impacts were assessed for two cases and methods: (1) changes from perennial to annual crops in the Midwest U.S. using stream hydrograph separation; and (2) changes from perennial grasses and shrubs to annual crops in the Southwest U.S. using unsaturated zone and groundwater data. Results from the Midwest show that expanding the soybean production area by 80,000 km2 increased stream flow by 32%, based on data from Keokuk station in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Using these relationships, further expansion of annual corn production for biofuels by 10 - 50% would increase streamflow by up to 40%, with related increases in nitrate, phosphate, and sediment pollutant transport to the Gulf of Mexico. The changes in water partitioning are attributed to reducing evapotranspiration, increasing recharge and baseflow discharge to streams. Similar results were found in the southwestern US, where changes from native perennial grasses and shrubs to annual crops increased recharge from ~0.0 to 24 mm/yr, raising water tables by up to 7 m in some regions and flushing accumulated salts into underlying aquifers in the southern High Plains. The changes in water partitioning are related to changes in rooting depth from deep rooted native vegetation to shallow rooted crops and growing season length. Further expansion of annual bioenergy crops, such as changes from Conservation Reserve Program to corn in the Midwest, will continue the trajectory of reducing ET, thereby increasing recharge and baseflow to streams and nutrient export. We hypothesize that changing bioenergy crops from annual crops to perennial grasses, such as switchgrass

  19. Adverse antibiotic drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bint, A J; Burtt, I

    1980-07-01

    There is enormous potential for drug interactions in patients who, today, often receive many drugs. Antibiotics are prominent amongst the groups of drugs commonly prescribed. Many interactions take place at the absorption stage. Antacids and antidiarrhoeal preparations, in particular, can delay and reduce the absorption of antibiotics such as tetracyclines and clindamycin, by combining with them in the gastrointestinal tract to form chelates or complexes. Other drugs can affect gastric motility, which in turn often controls the rate at which antibiotics are absorbed. Some broad spectrum antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora of the gut which may be related to malabsorption states. The potentiation of toxic side effects of one drug by another is a common type of interaction. Antibiotics which are implicated in this type of interaction are those which themselves possess some toxicity such as aminoglycosides, some cephalosporins, tetracyclines and colistin. Some of the most important adverse interactions with antibiotics are those which involve other drugs which have a low toxicity/efficacy ratio. These include anticoagulants such as warfarin, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin and phenobarbitone and oral antidiabetic drugs like tolbutamide. Risk of interaction arises when the metabolism of these drugs is inhibited by liver microsomal enzyme inhibitors such as some sulphonamides and chloramphenicol, or is enhanced by enzyme inducers such as rifampicin. PMID:6995091

  20. ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR. PMID:19967009

  1. Explore the impacts of river flow and quality on biodiversity for water resources management by AI techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Li-Chiu

    2016-04-01

    Water resources development is very challenging in Taiwan due to her diverse geographic environment and climatic conditions. To pursue sustainable water resources development, rationality and integrity is essential for water resources planning. River water quality and flow regimes are closely related to each other and affect river ecosystems simultaneously. This study aims to explore the complex impacts of water quality and flow regimes on fish community in order to comprehend the situations of the eco-hydrological system in the Danshui River of northern Taiwan. To make an effective and comprehensive strategy for sustainable water resources management, this study first models fish diversity through implementing a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) based on long-term observational heterogeneity data of water quality, stream flow and fish species in the river. Then we use stream flow to estimate the loss of dissolved oxygen based on back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs). Finally, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir which is the main reservoir in this study area. In addition to satisfying the water demands of human beings and ecosystems, we also consider water quality for river flow management. The ecosystem requirement takes the form of maximizing fish diversity, which can be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement is to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply while the water quality requirement is to reduce the loss of dissolved oxygen in the river among flow stations. The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can offer diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operation strategies for producing downstream flows that could better meet both human and ecosystem needs as well as maintain river water quality. Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), Artificial neural networks (ANNs), Non

  2. Impacts of the Snake River drawdown experiment on fisheries resources in Little Goose and Lower Granite Reservoirs, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D D; Geist, D R

    1992-09-01

    In March 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated a test to help evaluate physical and environmental impacts resulting from the proposed future drawdown of Snake River reservoirs. Drawdown would reduce water levels in Snake River reservoirs and is being proposed as a solution to decrease the time it takes for salmon and steelhead smolts to migrate to the ocean. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated impacts to specific fisheries resources during the drawdown experiment by surveying Lower Granite Reservoir to determine if fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas and steelhead (0. mykiss) access to tributary creeks were affected. In addition, shoreline areas of Little Goose Reservoir were monitored to evaluate the suitability of these areas for spawning by fall chinook salmon. Relative abundance of fish species in nearshore areas was also determined during the drawdown, and stranded resident fish and other aquatic organisms were observed.

  3. Resource consumption and environmental impacts of the agrofood sector: life cycle assessment of italian citrus-based products.

    PubMed

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance. PMID:19184189

  4. Resource Consumption and Environmental Impacts of the Agrofood Sector: Life Cycle Assessment of Italian Citrus-Based Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance.

  5. Resources, resources, resources....

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Several resources provided by different types of organizations are available to transgender people in the New York area. Some of these organizations include the Gender Identity Project, Harlem United Community AIDS Center, Hetrick Martin Institute, SafeSpace and Youth Enrichment Services (YES). Organization telephone numbers, addresses, and their targeted audiences are provided. PMID:11364801

  6. Compensatory vapor loss and biogeochemical attenuation along flowpaths mute the water resources impacts of insect-induced forest mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, J. A.; Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Reed, D. E.; Gutmann, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Forested montane catchments are critical to the amount and quality of downstream water resources. In western North America more than 60 million people rely on mountain precipitation, and water managers face uncertain response to an unprecedented forest die-off from mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation. Reduced snow interception and transpiration are expected to increase streamflow, while increased organic matter decay is expected to increase biogeochemical stream fluxes. Tree- to plot-scale observations have documented some of the expected changes, but there has been little significant change to streamflow or water quality at the larger scales relevant to water resources. A critical gap exists in our understanding of why tree-scale process changes have not led to the expected, large-scale increases in streamflow and biogeochemical fluxes. We address this knowledge gap with observations of water and biogeochemical fluxes at nested spatial scales including tree, hillslope, and catchments from 3 to 700 ha with more than 75% mortality. Catchment discharge showed reduced water yield consistent with co-located eddy covariance observations showing increased vapor losses following MPB. Stable water isotopes showed progressive kinetic fractionation (i.e. unsaturated transition layer above the evaporating surface) in snowpack, soil water and streams indicating greater abiotic evaporation from multiple water sources offsetting decreased interception and transpiration. In the 3rd to 5th years following MPB forest mortality, soil water DOC and DON were similar beneath killed and healthy trees, but concentrations were elevated 2-10 times in groundwater of MPB-impacted sites as compared to unimpacted. Stream water DOC and DON were about 3 times as large during snowmelt runoff in ephemeral zero-order channels of MPB-impacted sites compared to unimpacted. Processing in the headwater streams of MPB-impacted forests rapidly attenuated dissolved organic matter. From the MPB-impacted

  7. Crayfish impact desert river ecosystem function and litter-dwelling invertebrate communities through association with novel detrital resources.

    PubMed

    Moody, Eric K; Sabo, John L

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in plant species distributions due to global change are increasing the availability of novel resources in a variety of ecosystems worldwide. In semiarid riparian areas, hydric pioneer tree species are being replaced by drought-tolerant plant species as water availability decreases. Additionally, introduced omnivorous crayfish, which feed upon primary producers, allochthonous detritus, and benthic invertebrates, can impact communities at multiple levels through both direct and indirect effects mediated by drought-tolerant plants. We tested the impact of both virile crayfish (Orconectes virilis) and litter type on benthic invertebrates and the effect of crayfish on detrital resources across a gradient of riparian vegetation drought-tolerance using field cages with leaf litter bags in the San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona. Virile crayfish increased breakdown rate of novel drought-tolerant saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), but did not impact breakdown of drought-tolerant seepwillow (Baccharis salicifolia) or hydric Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Gooding's willow (Salix goodingii). Effects on invertebrate diversity were observed at the litter bag scale, but no effects were found at the cage scale. Crayfish decreased alpha diversity of colonizing macroinvertebrates, but did not affect beta diversity. In contrast, the drought-tolerant litter treatment decreased beta diversity relative to hydric litter. As drought-tolerant species become more abundant in riparian zones, their litter will become a larger component of the organic matter budget of desert streams which may serve to homogenize the litter-dwelling community and support elevated populations of virile crayfish. Through impacts at multiple trophic levels, crayfish have a significant effect on desert stream ecosystems. PMID:23667600

  8. Crayfish Impact Desert River Ecosystem Function and Litter-Dwelling Invertebrate Communities through Association with Novel Detrital Resources

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Eric K.; Sabo, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in plant species distributions due to global change are increasing the availability of novel resources in a variety of ecosystems worldwide. In semiarid riparian areas, hydric pioneer tree species are being replaced by drought-tolerant plant species as water availability decreases. Additionally, introduced omnivorous crayfish, which feed upon primary producers, allochthonous detritus, and benthic invertebrates, can impact communities at multiple levels through both direct and indirect effects mediated by drought-tolerant plants. We tested the impact of both virile crayfish (Orconectes virilis) and litter type on benthic invertebrates and the effect of crayfish on detrital resources across a gradient of riparian vegetation drought-tolerance using field cages with leaf litter bags in the San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona. Virile crayfish increased breakdown rate of novel drought-tolerant saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), but did not impact breakdown of drought-tolerant seepwillow (Baccharis salicifolia) or hydric Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Gooding's willow (Salix goodingii). Effects on invertebrate diversity were observed at the litter bag scale, but no effects were found at the cage scale. Crayfish decreased alpha diversity of colonizing macroinvertebrates, but did not affect beta diversity. In contrast, the drought-tolerant litter treatment decreased beta diversity relative to hydric litter. As drought-tolerant species become more abundant in riparian zones, their litter will become a larger component of the organic matter budget of desert streams which may serve to homogenize the litter-dwelling community and support elevated populations of virile crayfish. Through impacts at multiple trophic levels, crayfish have a significant effect on desert stream ecosystems. PMID:23667600

  9. The Role of Mastery and Social Resources in the Associations between Disability and Depression in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Haley, William E.; Small, Brent J.; Mortimer, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the impacts of mastery and social resources on depression and, in particular, whether they modify the link between disability and depression. Results reveal that a higher level of mastery and greater satisfaction with support had significant direct effects on depression and also buffered the adverse impact of disability on depression.…

  10. The Impact of Water Regulation on the Availability of Shale Gas Resources for Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Visions for a large increase in North American production of natural gas from shale are based heavily on the sharp rise in the estimated available resource. Those estimates are prepared by looking at the underlying geology as well as the cost and availability of technologies for extracting gas. We add to that equation the potential current and future regulation of water injection (subsurface) and runoff (surface). Using the political science theory of "veto points" we show that US water legislation is organized in ways that allow for large numbers of political forces to block (or make costly) access to gas resources. By our estimate, 26% of the shale gas resource will be unavailable-a fraction that could rise if there are strong contagion effects as jurisdictions that have traditionally had industry-friendly regulatory systems apply much stricter rules. This work has potentially large implications for visions of the new natural gas revolution and the price of North American (and potentially world) natural gas.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Julie B. Williams; Brenda Pace

    2013-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during 2013. Throughout the year, thirty-eight cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is also a cave; fourteen additional caves; seven prehistoric archaeological sites ; four historic archaeological sites; one historic trail; one nuclear resource (Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, a designated National Historic Landmark); and nine historic structures located at the Central Facilities Area. Of the monitored resources, thirty-three were routinely monitored, and five were monitored to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations along with the effects of ongoing project activities. On six occasions, ground disturbing activities within the boundaries of the Power Burst Facility/Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (PBF/CITRC) were observed by INL CRM staff prepared to respond to any additional finds of Native American human remains. In addition, two resources were visited more than once as part of the routine monitoring schedule or to monitor for additional damage. Throughout the year, most of the cultural resources monitored had no visual adverse changes resulting in Type 1determinations. However, Type 2 impacts were noted at eight sites, indicating that although impacts were noted or that a project was operating outside of culturally cleared limitations, cultural resources retained integrity and noted impacts did not threaten National Register eligibility. No new Type 3 or any Type 4 impacts that adversely impacted cultural resources and threatened National Register eligibility were observed at cultural resources monitored in 2013.

  12. Impacts of Varying Penetration of Distributed Resources with & without Volt/Var Control: Case Study of Varying Load Types

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Li, Fangxing; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Irminger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a follow-up to an earlier one on impacts of distributed energy resources (DR) on distribution feeders. As DR penetration level on the feeder increases, there can be impacts to distribution system/feeder capacity, line losses, and voltage regulation. These can vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system or loading. The question is how high of a DR level can be accommodated without any major changes to system operation, system design and protection. Our objective for this work was to address the question of how the DR impacts vary in regards to both DR voltage regulation capability and load mix. A dynamic analysis was used to focus on the impacts of DR with and without volt/var control with different load composition on the distribution feeder. The study considered an example 10MVA distribution feeder in which two inverter-based DRs were used to provide voltage regulation. The results due to DR without voltage regulation capability are compared with DR capable of providing local (at its bus) voltage regulation. The analysis was repeated for four different feeder load compositions consisting of (1) constant power, (2) constant impedance, (3) constant current and (4) ZIP (equal combination of previous three).

  13. Advection and dispersion heat transport mechanisms in the quantification of shallow geothermal resources and associated environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Mar; García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Velasco, Violeta

    2016-02-01

    Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs) are increasingly being used to exploit shallow geothermal energy. This paper presents a new methodology to provide a response to the need for a regional quantification of the geothermal potential that can be extracted by BHEs and the associated environmental impacts. A set of analytical solutions facilitates accurate calculation of the heat exchange of BHEs with the ground and its environmental impacts. For the first time, advection and dispersion heat transport mechanisms and the temporal evolution from the start of operation of the BHE are taken into account in the regional estimation of shallow geothermal resources. This methodology is integrated in a GIS environment, which facilitates the management of input and output data at a regional scale. An example of the methodology's application is presented for Barcelona, in Spain. As a result of the application, it is possible to show the strengths and improvements of this methodology in the development of potential maps of low temperature geothermal energy as well as maps of environmental impacts. The minimum and maximum energy potential values for the study site are 50 and 1800 W/m(2) for a drilled depth of 100 m, proportionally to Darcy velocity. Regarding to thermal impacts, the higher the groundwater velocity and the energy potential, the higher the size of the thermal plume after 6 months of exploitation, whose length ranges from 10 to 27 m long. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in the calculation of heat exchange rate and its impacts for different scenarios and for a wide range of Darcy velocities. The results of this analysis lead to the conclusion that the consideration of dispersion effects and temporal evolution of the exploitation prevent significant differences up to a factor 2.5 in the heat exchange rate accuracy and up to several orders of magnitude in the impacts generated. PMID:26605833

  14. Possible Climate Change/Variability and Human Impacts, Vulnerability of African Drought Prone Regions, its Water Resources and Capacity Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew Gan, Thian; Huelsmann, Stephen; Qin, XiaoSheng; Lu, Xi Xi; Liong, Shie-Yui; Rutschmann, Peter; Disse, Markus; Koivusalo, Harri

    2016-04-01

    The climate, water resources and historical droughts of Africa, drought indices, vulnerability, impact of global warming and landuse to drought-prone regions in West, Southern, and Greater Horn of Africa, which have suffered recurrent severe droughts in the past are reviewed first. Recent studies detected warming and drying trends in Africa since the mid-20th century. Based on the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, and that of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), both northern and southern Africa are projected to experience drying such as decreasing precipitation, runoff and soil moisture in the 21st Century and could become more vulnerable to impact of droughts. The daily maximum temperature is projected to increase up to 8oC (RCP8.5 of CMIP5), precipitation indices such as total wet day precipitation (PRCPTOT) and heavy precipitation days (R10mm) could decrease, while warm spell duration (WSDI) and consecutive dry days (CDD) could increase. Uncertainties of the above long-term projections, teleconnections to climate anomalies such as ENSO and Madden Julian Oscillation which could also affect water resources of Africa, and capacity building in terms of physical infrastructure and non-structural solutions, are also discussed. Given traditional climate and hydrologic data observed in Africa are generally limited, satellite data should also be exploited to fill in the data gap for Africa in future.

  15. Where to locate a tree plantation within a low rainfall catchment to minimise impacts on groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, J. F.; Webb, J. A.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Chisari, R.; Dresel, P. E.

    2014-08-01

    Despite the fact that there are many studies that consider the impacts of plantation forestry on water resources, and others that explore the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater recharge in dry regions, there is little marriage of the two subjects in forestry management guidelines and legislation. Here we carry out an in-depth analysis of the groundwater and surface water regime in a low rainfall, high evapotranspiration paired catchment study to examine the impact of reforestation, using water table fluctuations and chloride mass balance methods to estimate groundwater recharge. Recharge estimations using the chloride mass balance method were shown to be more likely representative of groundwater recharge regimes prior to the planting of the trees, and most likely prior to widespread land clearance by European settlers. These estimations were complicated by large amounts of recharge occurring as a result of runoff and streamflow in the lower parts of the catchment. Water table fluctuation method estimations of recharge verified that groundwater recharge occurs predominantly in the lowland areas of the study catchment. This leads to the conclusion that spatial variations in recharge are important considerations for locating tree plantations with respect to conserving water resources for downstream users. For dry regions, this means planting trees in the upland parts of the catchments, as recharge is shown to occur predominantly in the lowland areas.

  16. NATIONAL PROGRAM (NCLAN) TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information presented in this paper supports the thesis that O3 has a major impact on crop production in North America. ssessment methodologies were developed along with results of field research that are critical to the prediction of O3 effects on crop productivity. ummary o...

  17. The Impact of Traditional and Alternative Energy Production on Water Resources: Assessment and Adaptation Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water, fuel and energy issues are intricately related and cannot be addressed in isolation. With increasing population, increasing energy demand, continued migration towards and population growth within water stressed regions of the U.S., and with the continuing impacts of climat...

  18. 75 FR 25288 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Pocatello Field Office, Idaho AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... ] (PRMP/FEIS) for the Pocatello Field Office and by this notice is announcing its availability. DATES: BLM... in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Pocatello Field Office PRMP/FEIS have been sent...

  19. Impact craters: their importance in geologic record and implications for natural resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Levie, D. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Impacting bodies of sufficient size traveling at hypervelocities carry tremendous potential energy. This relatively infrequent process results in the instantaneous formation of unique structures that are characterized by extensive fracturing and brecciation of the target material. Impacts onto continental shield areas can create rich ore deposits, such as the Sudbury mining district in Canada. Impacts into the sedimentary column can instantaneously create hydrocarbon reservoirs out of initially nonporous rocks, such as at Red Wing Creek and Viewfield in the Williston basin. Associated reservoirs are usually limited to a highly deformed central uplift in larger craters, or to the fractured rim facies in smaller craters. The presence of reservoirs and trapping mechanisms is largely dependent, however, upon the preservation state of the crater in the subsurface. A catastrophic extraterrestrial event (a large asteroid impact) has also been suggested as the cause for the extinction of the dinosaurs, but the latest theory proposes a companion star with a 26 m.y. periodicity as the cause for numerous lifeform extinctions over a similar time interval. Regardless of their magnitude and distribution over the earth, it is clear that catastrophic extraterrestrial events have been responsible for altering the geologic column locally, regionally, and quite possibly on a global scale.

  20. Online Data Resources in Chemical Engineering Education: Impact of the Uncertainty Concept for Thermophysical Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kang, Jeong Won; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W.; Diky, Vladimir; Muzny, Chris D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Chirico, Robert D.; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of uncertainty for thermophysical properties and its critical impact for engineering applications in the core courses of chemical engineering education. To facilitate the translation of developments to engineering education, we employ NIST Web Thermo Tables to furnish properties data with their associated expanded…

  1. Economic impacts of climate change on water resources in the coterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A national-scale simulation-optimization model was created to generate estimates of economic impacts associated with changes in water supply and demand as influenced by climate change. Water balances were modeled for the 99 assessment sub-regions, and are presented for 18 water r...

  2. 77 FR 39503 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Proposed Rawlins Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., the project. The project proposal includes up to 1,000 wind turbine generators (WTG) and associated... Madre Wind Farm Project AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability... Madre (CCSM) Wind Energy Project (Volume II) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and by...

  3. IMPACT OF THE FEDERAL TAX CODE ON RESOURCE RECOVERY. A CONDENSATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report assesses the extent to which a variety of federal tax subsidies to extractive industries affect the flow of materials from competing secondary materials industries. The impacts of tax subsidies on virgin material supply curves and prices for the steel, paper, lead, cop...

  4. 77 FR 35999 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Lower Sonoran and Sonoran Desert National Monument, Arizona AGENCY... Desert National Monument (SDNM), Arizona, and by this notice is announcing its availability. DATES: BLM... in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: The Lower Sonoran and Sonoran Desert National Monument...

  5. Technological and Social Impact Assessment of Resource Extraction: The Case of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Girard

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report of work in progress on the assessment of the social impact of coal extraction. The research is directed at examining the implications for the human community of the underground and surface mining methods of coal extraction. (BT)

  6. Teaching Sustainable Water Resources and Low Impact Development: A Project Centered Course for First-Year Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfrani, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Teaching Sustainable Water Resources and Low Impact Development: A Project Centered Course for First-Year Undergraduates Christina M. Cianfrani Assistant Professor, School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 893 West Avenue, Amherst, MA 01002 Sustainable water resources and low impact development principles are taught to first-year undergraduate students using an applied design project sited on campus. All students at Hampshire College are required to take at least one natural science course during their first year as part of their liberal arts education. This requirement is often met with resistance from non-science students. However, ‘sustainability’ has shown to be a popular topic on campus and ‘Sustainable Water Resources’ typically attracts ~25 students (a large class size for Hampshire College). Five second- or third-year students are accepted in the class as advanced students and serve as project leaders. The first-year students often enter the class with only basic high school science background. The class begins with an introduction to global water resources issues to provide a broad perspective. The students then analyze water budgets, both on a watershed basis and a personal daily-use basis. The students form groups of 4 to complete their semester project. Lectures on low impact design principles are combined with group work sessions for the second half of the semester. Students tour the physical site located across the street from campus and begin their project with a site analysis including soils, landcover and topography. They then develop a building plan and identify preventative and mitigative measures for dealing with stormwater. Each group completes TR-55 stormwater calculations for their design (pre- and post-development) to show the state regulations for quantity will be met with their design. Finally, they present their projects to the class and prepare a formal written report. The students have produced a wide variety of creative

  7. Evolving shale gas management: water resource risks, impacts, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Brian G; Riha, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Unconventional shale gas development promises to significantly alter energy portfolios and economies around the world. It also poses a variety of environmental risks, particularly with respect to the management of water resources. We review current scientific understanding of risks associated with the following: water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing; wastewater treatment, discharge and disposal; methane and fluid migration in the subsurface; and spills and erosion at the surface. Some of these risks are relatively unique to shale gas development, while others are variations of risks that we already face from a variety of industries and activities. All of these risks depend largely on the pace and scale of development that occurs within a particular region. We focus on the United States, where the shale gas boom has been on-going for several years, paying particular attention to the Marcellus Shale, where a majority of peer-reviewed study has taken place. Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, and other stakeholders are challenged with responding to these risks, and we discuss policies and practices that have been adopted or considered by these various groups. Adaptive Management, a structured framework for addressing complex environmental issues, is discussed as a way to reduce polarization of important discussions on risk, and to more formally engage science in policy-making, along with other economic, social and value considerations. Data suggests that some risks can be substantially reduced through policy and best practice, but also that significant uncertainty persists regarding other risks. We suggest that monitoring and data collection related to water resource risks be established as part of planning for shale gas development before activity begins, and that resources are allocated to provide for appropriate oversight at various levels of governance. PMID:24664241

  8. The impacts of climate changes in the renewable energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2010-02-01

    Assessment of renewable energy resources such as surface solar radiation and wind current has great relevance in the development of local and regional energy policies. This paper examines the variability and availability of these resources as a function of possible climate changes for the Caribbean region. Global climate changes have been reported in the last decades, causing changes in the atmospheric dynamics, which affects the net solar radiation balance at the surface and the wind strength and direction. For this investigation, the future climate changes for the Caribbean are predicted using the parallel climate model (PCM) and it is coupled with the numerical model regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) to simulate the solar and wind energy spatial patterns changes for the specific case of the island of Puerto Rico. Numerical results from PCM indicate that the Caribbean basin from 2041 to 2055 will experience a slight decrease in the net surface solar radiation (with respect to the years 1996-2010), which is more pronounced in the western Caribbean sea. Results also indicate that the easterly winds have a tendency to increase in its magnitude, especially from the years 2070 to 2098. The regional model showed that important areas to collect solar energy are located in the eastern side of Puerto Rico, while the more intense wind speed is placed around the coast. A future climate change is expected in the Caribbean that will result in higher energy demands, but both renewable energy sources will have enough intensity to be used in the future as alternative energy resources to mitigate future climate changes.

  9. The impact of initial and recurrent cockpit resource management training on attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    It is noted that previous analyses of the boomerang effect (attitude change as a result of training in the direction opposite of that intended) in aviation training environments were limited in that each subscale of the cockpit management attitudes questionnaire (CMAQ) was examined independently. This study develops and utilizes a new algorithm for grouping subjects such that a global attitude change score is derived from the attitude change scores on each CMAQ subscale. By evaluating global attitude change in addition to the more specific attitude change on each subscale, it might be possible to better comprehend the effects of crew resource management training on pilot attitudes.

  10. Impact of the underground injection control program on energy resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.P.

    1983-10-01

    Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that underground sources of drinking water be protected from endangerment by well injection. The Act, as amended through 1980, and the resultant Underground Injection Control (UIC) program regulations and guidance describe minimum requirements for achieving this protection. Injection wells used in the development of energy resources, for example, those related to oil and natural gas production, and the solution mining of uranium, are regulated under the UIC program. The major features of the program requirements that affect such energy related wells are considered here from the Federal-Regional perspective.

  11. Impact of Transmission on Resource Adequacy in Systems with Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Variable generation is on track to become a significant contributor to electric power systems worldwide. Thus, it is important to analyze the effect that renewables will have on the reliability of systems. In this paper we present a new tool being implemented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, which allows the inclusion of variable generation in the power system resource adequacy. The tool is used to quantify the potential contribution of transmission to reliability in highly interconnected systems and an example is provided using the Western Interconnection footprint.

  12. Risks of hazardous waste sites versus asteroid and comet impacts: accounting for the discrepancies in U.S. resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, M B

    2000-12-01

    Approximately $6 billion is spent annually in the United States on the cleanup of sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, or Superfund). The current health risks posed by such sites are thought to be quite small; the expenditures are justified primarily as protecting hypothetical future residents of these sites. Approximately 0.05% of this amount, or $3 million, is spent annually by the U.S. government on the detection of asteroids or comets that could strike the earth. Such damaging impacts do occur from time to time--most recently in 1908 in an unpopulated region of Siberia--but no person is confirmed ever to have died as a result. Anticipated impacts over the course of 1 million years would yield deaths that, when annualized, total approximately 4,000 per year. The risk reduction goal for CERCLA is 15 orders of magnitude greater than that for asteroid/comet detection. A modest increase in resources devoted to asteroid detection would greatly increase the chances of early detection of a threatening object, allowing an effective defense to be attempted. This article argues that the much lower risk-to-resources ratio for CERCLA cleanups than for asteroid and comet detection can be explained by four primary factors: (1) the regard for future generations, since CERCLA benefits mainly the unborn; (2) concrete fears, since toxics are much more feared than asteroids or comets; (3) the source of the threat, since toxic contamination is caused by human beings, unlike impacts from space objects; and (4) the greater political constituencies for hazardous waste cleanup than for space object detection. PMID:11314738

  13. Extraction of potential adverse drug events from medical case reports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The sheer amount of information about potential adverse drug events published in medical case reports pose major challenges for drug safety experts to perform timely monitoring. Efficient strategies for identification and extraction of information about potential adverse drug events from free‐text resources are needed to support pharmacovigilance research and pharmaceutical decision making. Therefore, this work focusses on the adaptation of a machine learning‐based system for the identification and extraction of potential adverse drug event relations from MEDLINE case reports. It relies on a high quality corpus that was manually annotated using an ontology‐driven methodology. Qualitative evaluation of the system showed robust results. An experiment with large scale relation extraction from MEDLINE delivered under‐identified potential adverse drug events not reported in drug monographs. Overall, this approach provides a scalable auto‐assistance platform for drug safety professionals to automatically collect potential adverse drug events communicated as free‐text data. PMID:23256479

  14. Using Literature-Based Discovery to Explain Adverse Drug Effects.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Dimitar; Kastrin, Andrej; Dinevski, Dejan; Burgun, Anita; Žiberna, Lovro; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    We report on our research in using literature-based discovery (LBD) to provide pharmacological and/or pharmacogenomic explanations for reported adverse drug effects. The goal of LBD is to generate novel and potentially useful hypotheses by analyzing the scientific literature and optionally some additional resources. Our assumption is that drugs have effects on some genes or proteins and that these genes or proteins are associated with the observed adverse effects. Therefore, by using LBD we try to find genes or proteins that link the drugs with the reported adverse effects. These genes or proteins can be used to provide insight into the processes causing the adverse effects. Initial results show that our method has the potential to assist in explaining reported adverse drug effects. PMID:27318993

  15. Climatic regime shifts and their impacts on marine ecosystem and fisheries resources in Korean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang Ik; Lee, Jae Bong; Kim, Suam; Oh, Jai-Ho

    2000-10-01

    There were climatic regime shifts over the North Pacific in 1976 and 1988 which affected the dynamics of the marine ecosystem and fisheries resources in Korean waters. Precipitation in Korean waters showed a decadal scale climatic jump, especially of Ullungdo Island, reflecting the regime shift that occurred in the North Pacific. The variation was also detected in East Asian atmospheric systems. The Aleutian Low and North Pacific High Pressure Systems showed substantial changes in 1976 and around 1987-89. 1976 was an unusually warm year for Korea; mean sea surface temperature (SST) was higher than ‘normal’ and was accompanied by a northward shift in the thermal front. Post 1976, the volume transport of the Kuroshio Current increased and higher seawater and air temperatures persisted until 1988. Other shifts occurred after 1976 such as an increase in mixed layer depth (MLD) and biological changes in the ecosystem of Korean waters including decreases in spring primary production and an increase in autumn primary production. Primary production increased again after 1988, and was followed by a significant increase in zooplankton biomass after 1991. The 1976 regime shift was manifested by a decreased biomass and production of saury, but an increase in biomass and production of sardine and filefish in Korean waters. After 1988, recruitment, biomass, and production of sardine collapsed while those of mackerel substantially increased. Based on these observations, hypotheses on the relationship between the climate-driven oceanic changes and changes in fisheries resources were developed and are discussed.

  16. The impact of temperature on marine phytoplankton resource allocation and metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toseland, A.; Daines, S. J.; Clark, J. R.; Kirkham, A.; Strauss, J.; Uhlig, C.; Lenton, T. M.; Valentin, K.; Pearson, G. A.; Moulton, V.; Mock, T.

    2013-11-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for ~50% of the CO2 that is fixed annually worldwide, and contribute massively to other biogeochemical cycles in the oceans. Their contribution depends significantly on the interplay between dynamic environmental conditions and the metabolic responses that underpin resource allocation and hence biogeochemical cycling in the oceans. However, these complex environment-biome interactions have not been studied on a larger scale. Here we use a set of integrative approaches that combine metatranscriptomes, biochemical data, cellular physiology and emergent phytoplankton growth strategies in a global ecosystems model, to show that temperature significantly affects eukaryotic phytoplankton metabolism with consequences for biogeochemical cycling under global warming. In particular, the rate of protein synthesis strongly increases under high temperatures even though the numbers of ribosomes and their associated rRNAs decreases. Thus, at higher temperatures, eukaryotic phytoplankton seem to require a lower density of ribosomes to produce the required amounts of cellular protein. The reduction of phosphate-rich ribosomes in warmer oceans will tend to produce higher organismal nitrogen (N) to phosphate (P) ratios, in turn increasing demand for N with consequences for the marine carbon cycle due to shifts towards N-limitation. Our integrative approach suggests that temperature plays a previously unrecognized, critical role in resource allocation and marine phytoplankton stoichiometry, with implications for the biogeochemical cycles that they drive.

  17. A modular class of multisite monthly rainfall generators for water resource management and impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Kilsby, Chris G.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryThis study introduces a class of stochastic multisite monthly rainfall generators devised for application in water resources management problems, such as the sensitivity analysis of droughts and extreme rainfall scenarios under external climatic and non-climatic forcing mechanisms. The modelling framework relies on three elements: (1) a classical deseasonalisation scheme based on log-transformed observations, (2) the nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach and (3) parametric Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). As the bootstrap and GAMLSS modules are alternative techniques for simulating each month, the free choice between them makes the structure of the model modular and flexible, so that it can be easily adapted to different climatic conditions, and can be customized based on the specific water resource problem. The model was set up and calibrated to simulate monthly rainfall from six locations in England and Wales to produce a suitable input for drought analysis. The results of the case study point out that the model can capture several characteristics of the rainfall series. In particular, it enables the simulation of low and high rainfall scenarios more extreme than those observed as well as the reproduction of the distribution of the annual accumulated rainfall, and of the relationship between the rainfall and circulation indices such as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST), thus making the framework well-suited for sensitivity analysis under alternative climate scenarios and additional forcing variables.

  18. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on the Levels of Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and Their Value for Predicting Short-Term Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Antonia; Bauça, Josep Miquel; Yañez, Aina; Fueyo, Laura; Gomez, Cristina; de la Peña, Monica; Pierola, Javier; Rodriguez, Alberto; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Abad, Jorge; Mediano, Olga; Amilibia, Jose; Masdeu, Maria Jose; Teran, Joaquin; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Mayos, Mercè; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background Placental growth factor (PlGF) induces angiogenesis and promotes tissue repair, and plasma PlGF levels change markedly during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with AMI is a subject of debate. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between PlGF levels and both the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and short-term outcomes after ACS in patients with and without OSA. Methods A total of 538 consecutive patients (312 OSA patients and 226 controls) admitted for ACS were included in this study. All patients underwent polygraphy in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. The severity of disease and short-term prognoses were evaluated during the hospitalization period. Plasma PlGF levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results Patients with OSA were significantly older and more frequently hypertensive and had higher BMIs than those without OSA. After adjusting for age, smoking status, BMI and hypertension, PlGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with OSA compared with patients without OSA (19.9 pg/mL, interquartile range: 16.6–24.5 pg/mL; 18.5 pg/mL, interquartile range: 14.7–22.7 pg/mL; p<0.001), and a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was associated with higher PlGF concentrations (p<0.003). Patients with higher levels of PlGF had also an increased odds ratio for the presence of 3 or more diseased vessels and for a Killip score>1, even after adjustment. Conclusions The results of this study show that in patients with ACS, elevated plasma levels of PlGF are associated with the presence of OSA and with adverse outcomes during short-term follow-up. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335087 PMID:26930634

  19. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  20. What shapes research impact on policy? Understanding research uptake in sexual and reproductive health policy processes in resource poor contexts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the impact that research evidence has on policy is complex. It involves consideration of conceptual issues of what determines research impact and policy change. There are also a range of methodological issues relating to the question of attribution and the counter-factual. The dynamics of SRH, HIV and AIDS, like many policy arenas, are partly generic and partly issue- and context-specific. Against this background, this article reviews some of the main conceptualisations of research impact on policy, including generic determinants of research impact identified across a range of settings, as well as the specificities of SRH in particular. We find that there is scope for greater cross-fertilisation of concepts, models and experiences between public health researchers and political scientists working in international development and research impact evaluation. We identify aspects of the policy landscape and drivers of policy change commonly occurring across multiple sectors and studies to create a framework that researchers can use to examine the influences on research uptake in specific settings, in order to guide attempts to ensure uptake of their findings. This framework has the advantage that distinguishes between pre-existing factors influencing uptake and the ways in which researchers can actively influence the policy landscape and promote research uptake through their policy engagement actions and strategies. We apply this framework to examples from the case study papers in this supplement, with specific discussion about the dynamics of SRH policy processes in resource poor contexts. We conclude by highlighting the need for continued multi-sectoral work on understanding and measuring research uptake and for prospective approaches to receive greater attention from policy analysts. PMID:21679384

  1. Impact assessment of combined climate and management scenarios on groundwater resources and associated wetland (Majorca, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Lucila; von Igel, Wolf; Javier Elorza, F.; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    SummaryClimate change impact on a groundwater dependent wetland and natural recharge has been investigated in the Inca-Sa Pobla coastal aquifer for the year 2025. Temperature and precipitation based on the downscaled output from a general circulation model (GCM) was coupled to a groundwater model to estimate the impacts of climate change and management practices on groundwater. Management practices were based on changes in the volume of water extracted for agricultural and domestic purposes. Climate change impacts on the hydrogeological system were based on downscaled HadCM3 outputs for future medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) greenhouse gas scenarios developed by the IPCC [IPCC, 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. In: Houghton, J.T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., Van Der Linden, P.J., Dai, X., Maskell, K., Johnson, C.A. (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp]. Assessment of the impacts on the water level of the wetland were carried out by estimating the flow rate of springs discharging from the aquifer obtained by changes of agricultural land use and water supply allocation and variation of recharge according climate scenarios. The greatest reduction in recharge was observed in scenario A2 (-21%), while recharge in scenario B2 remained relatively unchanged (-4%). However, as uncertainties arising from GCM outputs maybe greater than the differences simulated here results are only indicative of the system response. In order to preserve the spring discharge at its current level (17 Mm 3/yr), which successfully prevents the wetland from drying up, a decrease in groundwater extraction is needed. In addition, the reallocation of agricultural wells is recommended under both scenarios. Spring discharge was affected the most by agricultural wells located near the wetland, as indicated by

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Braun

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2009 (FY 2009). Throughout the year, thirty-eight cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is a cave, two additional caves, twenty-two prehistoric archaeological sites, six historic homesteads, two historic stage stations, two historic trails, and two nuclear resources, including Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. Several INL project areas were also monitored in FY 2009 to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations and monitor the effects of ongoing project activities. Although impacts were documented at a few locations and trespassing citations were issued in one instance, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resources were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that several INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources.

  3. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D; Freeman, Olivia E; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn't been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM's future success in Tanzania. PMID:26186210

  4. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D.; Freeman, Olivia E.; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn’t been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM’s future success in Tanzania. PMID:26186210

  5. Economic Impacts of Climate Variability in South Africa and Development of Resource Prediction Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of food and water supplies and economic growth in South Africa leads to the realization that climate variability plays a major role. Summer rainfall in the period of 1980-99 is closely associated (variance = 48%) with year-to-year changes in the gross domestic product (GDP). Given the strong links between climate and resources, statistical models are formulated to predict maize yield, river flows, and GDP directly. The most influential predictor is cloud depth (outgoing longwave radiation) in the tropical Indian Ocean in the preceding spring (September-November). Reduced monsoon convection is related to enhanced rainfall over South Africa in the following summer and greater economic prosperity during the subsequent year. Methodologies are outlined and risk-reduction strategies are reviewed. It is estimated that over U.S.$1 billion could be saved annually through uptake of timely and reliable long-range forecasts.

  6. Climate Change Impacts on US Precipitation Extremes and Consequences for Hydraulic Infrastructures and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.; Kumar, D.; Mishra, V.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation extremes in the conterminous United States are expected to intensify and grow more frequent with climate change. However, translating this climate insight to metrics relevant for hydraulic infrastructures or water resources remains a challenge. The primary issue is one of scale, which in turn may ultimately stem from the space-time variability in, and our lack of understanding of, fine-scale precipitation processes. Here we examine the hypothesis that credible metrics for civil engineers and hydrologists can be obtained through extreme value analysis of regional climate model simulations. Specifically, we develop intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) simulations, and characterize uncertainties by comparing with observations. We attempt to understand the nature of the insights, if any, that can be extracted despite the uncertainties.

  7. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of Critical Telecommunications Facilities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D. G.; Arent, D. J.; Johnson, L.

    2006-06-01

    This paper documents a probabilistic risk assessment of existing and alternative power supply systems at a large telecommunications office. The analysis characterizes the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to significant telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improving the robustness of telecommunication facilities is to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power during power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide additional on-site electric power sources to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  8. The Impact of Obesity on Perioperative Resource Utilization after Elective Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, Ryan F.; Higgins, Dominique M.; Mallory, Grant W.; Puffer, Ross C.; Jacob, Jeffrey T.; Curry, Timothy B.; Kor, Daryl J.; Clarke, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective To determine the effect of obesity on the resource utilization and cost in 3270 consecutive patients undergoing elective noninstrumented decompressive surgeries for degenerative spine disease at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 2005 and 2012. Methods Groups were assessed for baseline differences (age, gender, and American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] classification, procedure type, and number of operative levels). Outcome variables included the transfusion requirements during surgery, the total anesthesia and surgical times, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, standardized costs, as well as the ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS). Regression analysis was used to evaluate for strength of association between obesity and outcome variables. Results Baseline differences between the groups (nonobese: n = 1,853; obese: n = 1,417) were found with respect to age, ASA class, gender, procedure type, and number of operative levels. After correcting for differences, we found significant associations between obesity and surgical (p < 0.0001) and anesthesia times (p < 0.0001) and hospital LOS (p < 0.0001). Additionally, ICU admission rates (p = 0.02) and requirement for postoperative ventilation (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in obese patients. Finally, mean difference in total cost ($1,632, p < 0.0001) was significantly higher for the obese cohort. Conclusion Obesity is associated with increased resource utilization and cost in patients undergoing a noninstrumented decompressive surgery for degenerative spine disease. PMID:26225277

  9. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  10. The potential impact of climate change on Australia's soil organic carbon resources

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Peter R; Post, Wilfred M; Hennessy, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents a significant pool of carbon within the biosphere. Climatic shifts in temperature and precipitation have a major influence on the decomposition and amount of SOC stored within an ecosystem and that released into the atmosphere. We have linked net primary production (NPP) algorithms, which include the impact of enhanced atmospheric CO2 on plant growth, to the SOCRATES terrestrial carbon model to estimate changes in SOC for the Australia continent between the years 1990 and 2100 in response to climate changes generated by the CSIRO Mark 2 Global Circulation Model (GCM). Results We estimate organic carbon storage in the topsoil (0–10 cm) of the Australian continent in 1990 to be 8.1 Gt. This equates to 19 and 34 Gt in the top 30 and 100 cm of soil, respectively. By the year 2100, under a low emissions scenario, topsoil organic carbon stores of the continent will have increased by 0.6% (49 Mt C). Under a high emissions scenario, the Australian continent becomes a source of CO2 with a net reduction of 6.4% (518 Mt) in topsoil carbon, when compared to no climate change. This is partially offset by the predicted increase in NPP of 20.3% Conclusion Climate change impacts must be studied holistically, requiring integration of climate, plant, ecosystem and soil sciences. The SOCRATES terrestrial carbon cycling model provides realistic estimates of changes in SOC storage in response to climate change over the next century, and confirms the need for greater consideration of soils in assessing the full impact of climate change and the development of quantifiable mitigation strategies. PMID:17150091

  11. Could Crop Roughness Impact the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, B. J.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    The high concentration of both large-scale agriculture and wind power production in the United States Midwest region raises new questions concerning the interaction of the two activities. For instance, it is known from internal boundary layer theory that changes in the roughness of the land-surface resulting from crop choices could modify the momentum field aloft. Upward propagation of such an effect might impact the properties of the winds encountered by modern turbines, which typically span a layer from about 40 to 120 meters above the surface. As direct observation of such interaction would require impractical interference in the planting schedules of farmers, we use numerical modeling to quantify the magnitude of crop-roughness effects. To simulate a collocated farm and turbine array, we use version 3.4.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The hypothetical farm is inserted near the real location of the 2013 Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX). Reanalyses provide representative initial and boundary conditions. A month-long period spanning August 2013 is used to evaluate the differences in flows above corn (maize) and soybean crops at the mature, reproductive stage. Simulations are performed comparing the flow above each surface regime, both in the absence and presence of a wind farm, which consists of a parameterized 11x11 array of 1.8 MW Vestas V90 turbines. Appreciable differences in rotor-layer wind speeds emerge. The use of soybeans results in an increase in wind speeds and a corresponding reduction in rotor-layer shear when compared to corn. Despite the turbulent nature of flow within a wind farm, high stability reduces the impact of crop roughness on the flow aloft, particularly in the upper portion of the rotor disk. We use these results to estimate the economic impact of crop selection on wind power producers.

  12. Modeling climate change impacts on groundwater resources using transient stochastic climatic scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderniaux, Pascal; BrouyèRe, Serge; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Burton, Aidan; Fowler, Hayley J.; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have highlighted the potential negative impact of climate change on groundwater reserves, but additional work is required to help water managers plan for future changes. In particular, existing studies provide projections for a stationary climate representative of the end of the century, although information is demanded for the near future. Such time-slice experiments fail to account for the transient nature of climatic changes over the century. Moreover, uncertainty linked to natural climate variability is not explicitly considered in previous studies. In this study we substantially improve upon the state-of-the-art by using a sophisticated transient weather generator in combination with an integrated surface-subsurface hydrological model (Geer basin, Belgium) developed with the finite element modeling software "HydroGeoSphere." This version of the weather generator enables the stochastic generation of large numbers of equiprobable climatic time series, representing transient climate change, and used to assess impacts in a probabilistic way. For the Geer basin, 30 equiprobable climate change scenarios from 2010 to 2085 have been generated for each of six different regional climate models (RCMs). Results show that although the 95% confidence intervals calculated around projected groundwater levels remain large, the climate change signal becomes stronger than that of natural climate variability by 2085. Additionally, the weather generator's ability to simulate transient climate change enabled the assessment of the likely time scale and associated uncertainty of a specific impact, providing managers with additional information when planning further investment. This methodology constitutes a real improvement in the field of groundwater projections under climate change conditions.

  13. The potential impact of climate change on Australia's soil organic carbon resources

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Peter; Post, Wilfred M; Hennessy, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents a significant pool of carbon within the biosphere. Climatic shifts in temperature and precipitation have a major influence on the decomposition and amount of SOC stored within an ecosystem and that released into the atmosphere. We have linked net primary production (NPP) algorithms, which include the impact of enhanced atmospheric CO2 on plant growth, to the SOCRATES terrestrial carbon model to estimate changes in SOC for the Australia continent between the years 1990 and 2100 in response to climate changes generated by the CSIRO Mark 2 Global Circulation Model (GCM). We estimate organic carbon storage in the topsoil (0-10 cm) of the Australian continent in 1990 to be 8.1 Gt. This equates to 19 and 34 Gt in the top 30 and 100 cm of soil, respectively. By the year 2100, under a low emissions scenario, topsoil organic carbon stores of the continent will have increased by 0.6% (49 Mt C). Under a high emissions scenario, the Australian continent becomes a source of CO2 with a net reduction of 6.4% (518 Mt) in topsoil carbon, when compared to no climate change. This is partially offset by the predicted increase in NPP of 20.3% Climate change impacts must be studied holistically, requiring integration of climate, plant, ecosystem and soil sciences. The SOCRATES terrestrial carbon cycling model provides realistic estimates of changes in SOC storage in response to climate change over the next century, and confirms the need for greater consideration of soils in assessing the full impact of climate change and the development of quantifiable mitigation strategies.

  14. Impacts of climate change on water resources in watersheds of four European lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanova, Anastassi; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The hydrologic impacts of projected climate change were assessed for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: the Ria de Aveiro lagoon in Portugal, the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain, the Vistula lagoon in Poland and Kaliningrad region and the Tyligulski lagoon in Ukraine. The eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied to each of the four case study areas individually, considering basin-specific characteristics and management settings. All four watersheds were calibrated and validated towards river discharge at one or more gauges, reaching satisfactory to very good modelling results, depending on the quality and availability of input data (i.e. observed climate and discharge data). For the assessment of climate change impacts we forced the four model set-ups with scenario data from the ENSEMBLES project. Therefore a set of 15 climate scenarios, all running until the end of the 21st century, was applied to SWIM for one reference and three future periods of 30 years each. We evaluated the long-term changes of total freshwater inflow to the four lagoons and compared the results considering average trends and uncertainties induced by the different climate scenarios. The comparison not only shows differences in the magnitude of potential impacts among the four regions but also differences in the direction of change. In Spain and Portugal an average decrease in discharge of about -5% and -15% can be expected, while at the same time the total inflow to the Vistula and the Tyligulski lagoon is projected to increase by 18% and 20% on average by the end of the century. The agreement of climate projections among scenarios is varies between regions and in consequence the uncertainty in model outputs also differs between the four case studies. In the watershed of the Tyligulski lagoon the projected changes in river discharge vary between -70% and 120%, whereas the results for the Ria de Aveiro lagoon range between -1% and -27% for the last three

  15. CIT in Context: The Impact of Mental Health Resource Availability and District Saturation on Call Dispositions

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C; Ottati, Victor C.; Draine, Jeff; Morabito, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The goals of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs include improving safety during encounters between police and persons with mental illnesses, diverting persons with mental illnesses away from the criminal justice system, and increasing referral and access to mental health services. CIT is a systemic intervention, and as such, its implementation and effectiveness are influenced by existing practices and infrastructures. However, little research has considered the context in which CIT programs are implemented. In this paper, we present research on CIT in four Chicago police districts that vary in terms of two contextual factors hypothesized to influence the impact of CIT training on how calls involving persons with mental illnesses are resolved. Using data from 112 patrol officers in four Chicago police districts, we consider the impact of mental health services availability and CIT saturation (the percentage of district personnel that are CIT certified). Findings indicate that CIT training increased direction to mental health services primarily in districts with greater availability of mental health services. In districts with low service availability, higher CIT saturation increased direction to mental services. The opposite pattern emerged for contact only or informal call resolution. No effects were found for arrest as a call outcome. PMID:21820177

  16. Groundwater resources in Brazil: a review of possible impacts caused by climate change.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ricardo; Conicelli, Bruno P

    2012-06-01

    Groundwater has a strategic role in times of climate change mainly because aquifers can provide water for long periods, even during very long and severe drought. The reduction and/or changes on the precipitation pattern can diminish the recharge mainly in unconfined aquifer, causing available groundwater restriction. The expected impact of long-term climate changes on the Brazilian aquifers for 2050 will lead to a severe reduction in 70% of recharge in the Northeast region aquifers (comparing to 2010 values), varying from 30% to 70% in the North region. Data referring to the South and Southeast regions are more favorable, with an increase in the relative recharge values from 30% to 100%. Another expected impact is the increase in demand and the decrease in the surface water availability that will make the population turn to aquifers as its main source of water for public or private uses in many regions of the country. Thus, an integrated use of surface and groundwater must therefore be considered in the water use planning. The solution of water scarcity is based on three factors: society growth awareness, better knowledge on the characteristics of hydraulic and chemical aquifers and effective management actions. PMID:22634744

  17. Quantifying the human impact on water resources: a critical review of the water footprint concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, J.; Hadjikakou, M.; Zoumides, C.

    2014-06-01

    The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly) simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it.

  18. Changes of Glaciation and Their Probable Impact on Water Resources in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severskiy, I.

    2009-04-01

    In the Central Asia the main limiting factor of sustainable development is increasing water shortage. Even now the overwhelming part of territory of Kazakhstan and the adjacent countries of Central Asia are characterized by a condition of the strongest water stress. Fresh water deficiency is, to this or that extent, observed practically on all the territory of Central Asia and transboundary character of the main rivers is one of the main risk factors for sustainable development of national economy of the countries in this region. For the last 20 years a great number of scientific publications appeared in which their authors express an increasingly serious fears about significant reduction of water resources in the arid regions of the world as a reaction to global warming. One of the arguments substantiating such forecasts is the indisputable fact of a continuous intensive degradation of glaciers. Predominating opinion about the inevitability of glaciers disappearance in Central Asia Mountains cannot be accepted as an axiom. Taking into account stability in the sum of precipitation and especially in the snow resources, one can suppose that glaciers in this region will not disappear during this century. Despite the reduction of glaciers, annual runoff volumes and runoff distribution within a year remained unchanged during the last decades. During the same period, norms of atmospheric precipitation and maximum snow-water storage in the zone of runoff formation remained stable. All these suggest the existence of a certain compensation mechanism. Research, based on data analysis of repeated photogrammetric surveys of a group of glaciers and temperature regime of permafrost in Zailiyskiy Alatau range (Northern Tien Shan), suggests that such mechanism can be more and more significant (with climate warming) participation of melting waters of underground ice (buried glaciers, rock glaciers, permafrost) in runoff formation. During last decade the Global Climate system

  19. Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: examples from the Northern Forest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monz, Christopher A.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Goonan, Kelly A.; Manning, Robert E.; Wimpey, Jeremy; Carr, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mountain summits present a unique challenge to manage sustainably: they are ecologically important and, in many circumstances, under high demand for recreation and tourism activities. This article presents recent advances in the assessment of resource conditions and visitor disturbance in mountain summit environments, by drawing on examples from a multiyear, interdisciplinary study of summits in the northeastern United States. Primary impact issues as a consequence of visitor use, such as informal trail formation, vegetation disturbance, and soil loss, were addressed via the adaption of protocols from recreation ecology studies to summit environments. In addition, new methodologies were developed that provide measurement sensitivity to change previously unavailable through standard recreation monitoring protocols. Although currently limited in application to the northeastern US summit environments, the methods presented show promise for widespread application wherever summits are in demand for visitor activities.

  20. Impact of distributed energy resources on the reliability of a critical telecommunications facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, David; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Arent, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    This report documents a probabilistic risk assessment of an existing power supply system at a large telecommunications office. The focus is on characterizing the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  1. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529–40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr‑1 from 1992–2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  2. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, Volumes, and Physical-chemical Properties of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Daiss, R.; Williams, L.; Singer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base fluid, proppant, and additives. Additives, comprised of one or more chemicals, are serve a specific engineering purpose (e.g., friction reducer, scale inhibitor, biocide). As part of the USEPA's Draft Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, we investigated the different types, volumes injected, and physical-chemical properties of HF fluid chemicals. The USEPA identified 1,076 chemicals used in HF fluids, based on 10 sources covering chemical use from 2005 to 2013. These chemicals fall into different classes: acids, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, bases, hydrocarbon mixtures, polysaccharides, and surfactants. The physical-chemical properties of these chemicals vary, which affects their movement through the environment if spilled. Properties range from fully miscible to insoluble, from highly hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. Most of these chemicals are not volatile. HF fluid composition varies from site to site depending on a range of factors. No single chemical or set of chemicals are used at every site. A median of 14 chemicals are used per well, with a range of four to 28 (5th and 95th percentiles). Methanol was the chemical most commonly reported in FracFocus 1.0 (72% of disclosures), and hydrotreated light petroleum distillates and hydrochloric acid were both reported in over half the disclosures. Operators store chemicals on-site, often in multiple containers (typically in 760 to 1,500 L totes). We estimated that the total volume of all chemicals used per well ranges from approximately 10,000 to 110,000 L. The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the USEPA.

  3. Impact of global and climate stresses on fresh water resources in the coastal zone: a Dutch example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Essink, G.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal groundwater systems throughout the world are under stress. It is expected that fresh water resources in these systems will be jeopardized by a combination of climate change, sea level rise and especially anthropogenic activities, such as increasing extraction rates. In addition, operational water management and man-induced land-subsidence will indirectly lead to upconing of saline groundwater and salinisation of fresh water aquifers and surface water systems. As such, sectors such as agriculture, drinking water supply and nature are threatened. In this presentation, the focus is on a coastal groundwater system that is already be jeopardized by a relatively high sea water level: the low-lying Dutch Delta. This delta can be considered as a blueprint for other deltas in future times as ground surface is already some meters below mean sea level. Numerical variable-density groundwater models are made for national, regional and local salinisation problems, related top sea level rise. They are used to quantify possible effects of sea level rise on hydraulic heads, seepage fluxes, salt loads to surface waters, and changes in fresh groundwater resources as a function of time. Our results show that the impact of sea level rise is limited to areas within 10 km of the coastline and main rivers because the increased head in the groundwater system at the coast can easily be released though the highly permeable Holocene confining layer. In addition, measures to compensate the effects of salinisation are shown. The solutions will be in delta, water as well as agro technologies.one of influence of a sea level rise in the groundwater system, South-Holland, The Netherlands odelling results show that a drier climate in combination with a sea level rise will reduce the fresh water resources in the Dutch coastal lowlands

  4. Modelling Climate Change Impacts on the Seasonality of Water Resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Pham Quy; Sakata, Masahiro; Vinh, Tran Quoc

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in mainland Southeast Asia was assessed using downscaled global climate models coupled with the SWAT model. The results indicated that temperature and evapotranspiration will increase in all months of future years. The area could warm as much as 3.4°C in the 2090s, with an increase of annual evapotranspiration of up to 23% in the same period. We found an increase in the seasonality of precipitation (both an increase in the wet season and a decrease in the dry season). The greatest monthly increase of up to 29% and the greatest monthly decrease of up to 30% are expected in the 2090s. As a result, decreases in dry season discharge and increases in wet season discharge are expected, with a span of ±25% for the highest monthly changes in the 2090s. This is expected to exacerbate the problem of seasonally uneven distribution of water resources: a large volume of water in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season, a pattern that indicates the possibility of more frequent floods in the wet season and droughts in the dry season. PMID:25243206

  5. Modelling climate change impacts on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Giang, Pham Quy; Toshiki, Kosuke; Sakata, Masahiro; Kunikane, Shoichi; Vinh, Tran Quoc

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in mainland Southeast Asia was assessed using downscaled global climate models coupled with the SWAT model. The results indicated that temperature and evapotranspiration will increase in all months of future years. The area could warm as much as 3.4(°)C in the 2090 s, with an increase of annual evapotranspiration of up to 23% in the same period. We found an increase in the seasonality of precipitation (both an increase in the wet season and a decrease in the dry season). The greatest monthly increase of up to 29% and the greatest monthly decrease of up to 30% are expected in the 2090 s. As a result, decreases in dry season discharge and increases in wet season discharge are expected, with a span of ± 25% for the highest monthly changes in the 2090 s. This is expected to exacerbate the problem of seasonally uneven distribution of water resources: a large volume of water in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season, a pattern that indicates the possibility of more frequent floods in the wet season and droughts in the dry season. PMID:25243206

  6. Long-term impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality in adulthood and the mediating role of psychosocial resources.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Ulla; Huurre, Taina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Haukkala, Ari; Aro, Hillevi

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this 16-year prospective follow-up study was to investigate the association between parental divorce in childhood and intimate relationship quality in adulthood. The mediating role of psychosocial resources (parent-child relationships at 16 years, self-esteem and social support at 32 years) in this association was also studied. All 16 year olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age (n = 1,471). Results showed that women and men from divorced families were more often divorced or separated at the age of 32 years than those from nondivorced families. However, parental divorce was associated with poorer intimate relationship quality only among women. Women from divorced families also had poorer relationships with their father and mother in adolescence, and they had lower self-esteem and satisfaction with social support in adulthood than women from intact families. No such associations were found among men. The impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality among women was partially mediated by mother-daughter relationship, self-esteem, and satisfaction with social support. The mediating role of mother-daughter relationship was not direct, however, but was mediated via self-esteem and satisfaction with social support. Our findings indicate that parental divorce affects daughters more than sons. In the context of parental divorce, the mother-daughter relationship in adolescence is important for the development of later psychosocial resources and, via them, for intimate relationship quality. PMID:21639631

  7. Impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act on energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, S. A.; Copenhaver, E. D.; Weeter, D. W.; Calzonetti, F. J.; Tevepaugh, C. W.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1980-10-01

    The signficant characteristics of the waste streams of representative technologies of different energy supply alternatives are reported, including coal combustion and conversion, solar, geothermal, oil sands, oil shales, and petroleum refining. The overall relationship of RCRA and energy issues was examined, with special emphasis on how RCRA's hazardous waste provisions impact with these technologies. The issues addressed were: the magnitude of energy related waste; public and private sector responses to RCRA and energy waste problems; the relationship of RCRA to other environmental and public health protection policies; the effect of RCRA on the deployment of energy supply; the role of reuse, recovery, and utilization of energy waste; and possible health and environmental effects associated with solid or hazardous wastes of various energy supply systems.

  8. Climate change impacts on groundwater resources: modelled deficits in a chalky aquifer, Geer basin, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouyère, Serge; Carabin, Guy; Dassargues, Alain

    An integrated hydrological model (MOHISE) was developed in order to study the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle in representative water basins in Belgium. This model considers most hydrological processes in a physically consistent way, more particularly groundwater flows which are modelled using a spatially distributed, finite-element approach. Thanks to this accurate numerical tool, after detailed calibration and validation, quantitative interpretations can be drawn from the groundwater model results. Considering IPCC climate change scenarios, the integrated approach was applied to evaluate the impact of climate change on the water cycle in the Geer basin in Belgium. The groundwater model is described in detail, and results are discussed in terms of climate change impact on the evolution of groundwater levels and groundwater reserves. From the modelling application on the Geer basin, it appears that, on a pluri-annual basis, most tested scenarios predict a decrease in groundwater levels and reserves in relation to variations in climatic conditions. However, for this aquifer, the tested scenarios show no enhancement of the seasonal changes in groundwater levels. Un modèle hydrologique intégré (MOHISE) a été développé afin d'étudier l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle hydrologique de bassins versants représentatifs de Belgique. Ce modèle prend en compte tous les processus hydrologiques d'une manière physiquement consistante, plus particulièrement les écoulements souterrains qui sont modélisés par une approche spatialement distribuée aux éléments finis. Grâce à cet outil numérique précis, après une calibration et une validation détaillées, des interprétations quantitatives peuvent être réalisées à partir des résultats du modèle de nappe. Considérant des scénarios de changements climatiques de l'IPCC, l'approche intégrée a été appliquée pour évaluer l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle de l

  9. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. PMID:25732020

  10. Air quality impacts of distributed energy resources implemented in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Dabdub, Donald; Brouwer, Jacob; Knipping, Eladio; Kumar, Naresh; Darrow, Ken; Hampson, Anne; Hedman, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    Emissions from the potential installation of distributed energy resources (DER) in the place of current utility-scale power generators have been introduced into an emissions inventory of the northeastern United States. A methodology for predicting future market penetration of DER that considers economics and emission factors was used to estimate the most likely implementation of DER. The methodology results in spatially and temporally resolved emission profiles of criteria pollutants that are subsequently introduced into a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model of the region. The DER technology determined by the methodology includes 62% reciprocating engines, 34% gas turbines, and 4% fuel cells and other emerging technologies. The introduction of DER leads to retirement of 2625 MW of existing power plants for which emissions are removed from the inventory. The air quality model predicts maximum differences in air pollutant concentrations that are located downwind from the central power plants that were removed from the domain. Maximum decreases in hourly peak ozone concentrations due to DER use are 10 ppb and are located over the state of New Jersey. Maximum decreases in 24-hr average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations reach 3 microg/m3 and are located off the coast of New Jersey and New York. The main contribution to decreased PM2.5 is the reduction of sulfate levels due to significant reductions in direct emissions of sulfur oxides (SO(x)) from the DER compared with the central power plants removed. The scenario presented here represents an accelerated DER penetration case with aggressive emission reductions due to removal of highly emitting power plants. Such scenario provides an upper bound for air quality benefits of DER implementation scenarios. PMID:18672714

  11. A review of environmental impacts of salts from produced waters on aquatic resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Salts are frequently a major constituent of waste waters produced during oil and gas production. These produced waters or brines must be treated and/or disposed and provide a daily challenge for operators and resource managers. Some elements of salts are regulated with water quality criteria established for the protection of aquatic wildlife, e.g. chloride (Cl−), which has an acute standard of 860 mg/L and a chronic standard of 230 mg/L. However, data for establishing such standards has only recently been studied for other components of produced water, such as bicarbonate (HCO3−), which has acute median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranging from 699 to > 8000 mg/L and effects on chronic toxicity from 430 to 657 mg/L. While Cl− is an ion of considerable importance in multiple geographical regions, knowledge about the effects of hardness (calcium and magnesium) on its toxicity and about mechanisms of toxicity is not well understood. A multiple-approach design that combines studies of both individuals and populations, conducted both in the laboratory and the field, was used to study toxic effects of bicarbonate (as NaHCO3). This approach allowed interpretations about mechanisms related to growth effects at the individual level that could affect populations in the wild. However, additional mechanistic data for HCO3−, related to the interactions of calcium (Ca2 +) precipitation at the microenvironment of the gill would dramatically increase the scientific knowledge base about how NaHCO3 might affect aquatic life. Studies of the effects of mixtures of multiple salts present in produced waters and more chronic effect studies would give a better picture of the overall potential toxicity of these ions. Organic constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback waters, etc. are a concern because of their carcinogenic properties and this paper is not meant to minimize the importance of maintaining vigilance with respect to potential organic contamination.

  12. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  13. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard

    2014-09-16

    Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. In this contribution we summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. We present strain-specific growth model results from two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp.), a fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and a freshwater strain of the order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1, BGY). Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive species, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 2.0 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low rank sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on site rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank sites are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations. Keywords: algae

  14. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  15. Greenhouse gas impacts of declining hydrocarbon resource quality: Depletion, dynamics, and process emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Adam Robert

    This dissertation explores the environmental and economic impacts of the transition to hydrocarbon substitutes for conventional petroleum (SCPs). First, mathematical models of oil depletion are reviewed, including the Hubbert model, curve-fitting methods, simulation models, and economic models. The benefits and drawbacks of each method are outlined. I discuss the predictive value of the models and our ability to determine if one model type works best. I argue that forecasting oil depletion without also including substitution with SCPs results in unrealistic projections of future energy supply. I next use information theoretic techniques to test the Hubbert model of oil depletion against five other asymmetric and symmetric curve-fitting models using data from 139 oil producing regions. I also test the assumptions that production curves are symmetric and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions. Results show that if symmetry is enforced, Gaussian production curves perform best, while if asymmetry is allowed, asymmetric exponential models prove most useful. I also find strong evidence for asymmetry: production declines are consistently less steep than inclines. In order to understand the impacts of oil depletion on GHG emissions, I developed the Regional Optimization Model for Emissions from Oil Substitutes (ROMEO). ROMEO is an economic optimization model of investment and production of fuels. Results indicate that incremental emissions (with demand held constant) from SCPs could be 5-20 GtC over the next 50 years. These results are sensitive to the endowment of conventional oil and not sensitive to a carbon tax. If demand can vary, total emissions could decline under a transition because the higher cost of SCPs lessens overall fuel consumption. Lastly, I study the energetic and environmental characteristics of the in situ conversion process, which utilizes electricity to generate liquid hydrocarbons from oil shale. I model the energy inputs and outputs

  16. 50 CFR 21.48 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect public resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... asphyxiation. Persons using shotguns must use nontoxic shot, as listed in 50 CFR 20.21(j). Persons using egg... WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE... order is to reduce the occurrence and/or minimize the risk of adverse impacts to public resources...

  17. Environmental impacts caused by the uncontrolled human activities on water resources availability in the Niger Inland Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Ibrahim; Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Some, Corentin; Abdou, Ali; Mariko, Adama; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    The Niger River basin is a significant source of water and food for West Africa. As an agricultural region, the basin is highly dependent on the water availability that is currently under pressure from increased demand with rising populations and climate variability and change. The Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest flood plains (about 40.000skm) in Africa and serves a number of interlinked human activities, such as irrigation, fishing, livestock, and reservoirs. Future changes in the dynamics of river flow may change the inundation dynamics of the delta and impact these activities. At the same time, the population in the basin is likely to double in the next 30 years, putting additional pressure on the Delta's water resources and land use. Most hydrological models do not adequately represent these dynamics of the Inland Delta. Here we present an overview of the hydrological processes that occur over the Niger inland delta. We used digital elevation model and satellite images to analyze the spatio-temporal variations in relation to observed river flow. Based on this analysis, we have developed a representation of these processes fore hydrological models for the basin. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area on the discharge of the main river, characterized by a strong reduction of about 15% to 50% as a result of evaporation and water abstractions for irrigation.

  18. The possible role of resource requirements and academic career-choice risk on gender differences in publication rate and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Otis, Shayna; Woodruff, Teresa; Amaral, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias, especially at higher career levels, in many areas including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals experience as they pursue a career in academia within seven STEM disciplines. We built a unique database that comprises 437,787 publications authored by 4,292 faculty members at top United States research universities. Our analyses reveal that gender differences in publication rate and impact are discipline-specific. Our results also support two hypotheses. First, the widely-reported lower publication rates of female faculty are correlated with the amount of research resources typically needed in the discipline considered, and thus may be explained by the lower level of institutional support historically received by females. Second, in disciplines where pursuing an academic position incurs greater career risk, female faculty tend to have a greater fraction of higher impact publications than males. Our findings have significant, field-specific, policy implications for achieving diversity at the faculty level within the STEM disciplines. L. A. N. Amaral gratefully acknowledges the support of NSF awards SBE 0624318 and 0830388, and ThomsonReuters for access to the WoS data. J. Duch and M. Sales-Pardo's work have been partially supported by the Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  19. Automation impact study of Army training management 2: Extension of sampling and collection of installation resource data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, T.F.; McCallum, M.C.; Hunt, P.S.; Slavich, A.L.; Underwood, J.A.; Toquam, J.L.; Seaver, D.A.

    1989-05-01

    This automation impact study of Army training management (TM) was performed for the Army Development and Employment Agency (ADEA) and the Combined Arms Training Activity (CATA) by the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of the study was to provide the Army with information concerning the potential costs and savings associated with automating the TM process. This study expands the sample of units surveyed in Phase I of the automation impact effort (Sanquist et al., 1988), and presents data concerning installation resource management in relation to TM. The structured interview employed in Phase I was adapted to a self-administered survey. The data collected were compatible with that of Phase I, and both were combined for analysis. Three US sites, one reserve division, one National Guard division, and one unit in the active component outside the continental US (OCONUS) (referred to in this report as forward deployed) were surveyed. The total sample size was 459, of which 337 respondents contributed the most detailed data. 20 figs., 62 tabs.

  20. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference