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Sample records for adverse respiratory symptoms

  1. Adverse Respiratory Symptoms and Environmental Exposures Among Children and Adolescents Following Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Amy; Perrin, Keith; Bronfin, Daniel R.; Ratard, Raoult; VanDyke, Russell; Goldshore, Matthew; Magnus, Manya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to environmental exposures and their respiratory effects. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, residents experienced multiple adverse environmental exposures. We characterized the association between upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and environmental exposures among children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study following the return of the population to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (October 2005 and February 2006) among a convenience sample of children and adolescents attending New Orleans health facilities. We used uni-, bi-, and multivariable analyses to describe participants, exposures, and associations with URS/LRS. Results Of 1,243 participants, 47% were Caucasian, 50% were male, and 72% were younger than 11 years of age. Multiple environmental exposures were identified during and after the storm and at current residences: roof/glass/storm damage (50%), outside mold (22%), dust (18%), and flood damage (15%). Self-reported URS and LRS (76% and 36%, respectively) were higher after the hurricane than before the hurricane (22% and 9%, respectively, p<0.0001). Roof/glass/storm damage at home was associated with URS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 2.21) and LRS (AOR=1.35, 95% CI 1.01, 1.80), while mold growth at home was associated with LRS (AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02, 2.12). Conclusions Children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina experienced environmental exposures associated with increased prevalence of reported URS and LRS. Additional research is needed to investigate the long-term health impacts of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:22043101

  2. Reported respiratory symptoms and adverse home conditions after 9/11 among residents living near the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated whether self-reported damage, dust, and odors in homes near the World Trade Center (WTC) after September 11, 2001, were related to increased rates of respiratory symptoms among residents and if multiple sources of exposure were associated with greater health risk. We mailed questionnaires to homes within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and in upper Manhattan (control area). Surveys asked about respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, physician diagnoses, medication use, and conditions in the home after 9/11. Adverse home conditions were associated with new-onset (i.e., began after 9/11) and persistent (i.e., remained 1 year after 9/11) upper and lower respiratory symptoms in the affected area (Cumulative Incidence Ratios [CIRs] 1.20-1.71). Residents reporting longer duration of dust/odors or multiple sources of exposure had greater risk for symptoms compared to those reporting shorter duration and fewer sources. These data suggest that WTC-related contamination in the home after 9/11 was associated with new and persistent respiratory symptoms among residents living near the site. While we cannot eliminate potential biases related to self-reported data, we took strategies to minimize their impact, and the observed effects are biologically plausible.

  3. Ambient wood smoke exposure and respiratory symptoms in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, C M; Dharmage, S C; Matheson, M; Gras, J L; Markos, J; Mészáros, D; Hopper, J; Walters, E H; Abramson, M J

    2010-12-15

    Wood smoke exposure has been associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, with much of the current research focused on wood smoke from domestic heating and cooking. This study examined the association between respiratory symptoms and outdoor wood smoke in Launceston, Tasmania, where ~30% of homes use wood burners for domestic heating. This ecological study examined data from participants of the 2004 Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study postal survey and compared the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in Launceston (n=601) with that in Hobart (n=1071), a larger Tasmanian city with much less wood smoke. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations of interest while adjusting for gender, atopy, history of allergic disease and current smoking status. There were no significant differences in symptom prevalence between Launceston and Hobart. Two subgroup analyses, which examined participants with pre-existing chronic respiratory disease, and those who reported actively using a wood burner in their home, also did not find significant differences. Any impact of wood smoke on non-specific respiratory symptoms might have been overshadowed by other important determinants of respiratory health, such as vehicle exhaust and tobacco smoking, or were too small to have been detected. However, the lack of detectable differences in symptom prevalence might also reflect the success of regulatory action by local governments to reduce wood smoke emissions in Launceston. The results of other epidemiological studies support an association between ambient wood smoke exposure and adverse respiratory health. Further investigations of wood smoke exposure in Australian settings are needed to investigate the lack of significant associations found in this study, especially studies of indoor air quality and health impacts in children and elderly populations.

  4. [GERD related respiratory symptoms: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Abente, Federico; Faerberg, Alejandro; Marty, Pablo Fernández; Corti, Rodolfo

    2006-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause respiratory symptoms. These symptoms are triggered by reflux events that reach the pharynx, causing microaspiration or through vagal reflex. Respiratory symptoms can be vague and coexist with gastroesophageal reflux disease, without a real link between the two entities. To effectively treat these patients, it is important tofind an association between the two diseases. Work up should include the diagnosis of reflux disease, the diagnosis of pharyngeal reflux events--microaspiration--and, if possible, of laryngeal injury. Once the diagnosis has been established, an effective therapy must be offered to the patient. In these patients, medical treatment is less effective when compared to the results in the population with typical symptoms. This may be due to the fact that non-acid reflux episodes are causing the respiratory symptoms or as a result of an irreversible damage generated in the airway. Antireflux surgery is an effective therapy that reduces both acid and non-acid reflux events. This article describes the different diagnostic tests as well as the results obtained with surgical treatment in this population. Additionally, it describes potential applications of esophageal and pharyngeal impedance monitoring in these patients.

  5. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hancox, Robert J; Shin, Hayden H; Gray, Andrew R; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-07-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers.Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms.

  6. Occupational Respiratory and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Egyptian Female Hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Hassan, O M; Bayomy, H

    2015-08-01

    Hairdressing is associated with exposure to a variety of harmful agents which have been linked to respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders in hairdressers. This study aimed to identify respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders in hairdressers compared to office workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 80 female hairdressers and 50 matched controls. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on personal and occupational data, hairdressing activities, the presence of respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the past 12 months. Reported symptoms were compared between hairdressers and controls. The associations between self-reported symptoms and hairdressing activities were investigated. Hairdressers were more likely to report symptoms than controls particularly for those who were older, with higher body mass index and longer duration of work as hairdresser. There were significant associations between frequent hair treatments (bleaching, dye and wave) and hand dermatitis (P < 0.001), running nose (P < 0.05), eye irritation (P < 0.01) and phlegm (P < 0.05). Elbow pain and shoulder and back pain were the most prevalent musculoskeletal pains in the past 12 months (13.8 and 12.5% respectively), back and knee pains were the most frequent chronic pain (7.5%), hand and wrist pain led 12.5% of hairdressers to visit a doctor and shoulder pain and back pain indicated a period of sickness absence in 13.8% of hairdressers. Musculoskeletal disorders were associated with manual handling, prolonged standing, strenuous shoulder movements and awkward body posture. Hairdressing is associated with increased risk to respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders due to adverse work conditions.

  7. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O; Hjelmborg, J

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.54. Significant associations (p<0.05) between perfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms to perfume is suggested by an estimated genetic correlation of 0.39, 95%CI 0.09-0.72.

  8. Respiratory failure as initial symptom of acid maltase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Keunen, R W; Lambregts, P C; Op de Coul, A A; Joosten, E M

    1984-01-01

    Nine patients with adult onset acid maltase deficiency were seen at the Nijmegen University Hospital and the St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg , during the period 1970-1982. Five of these patients developed respiratory failure, and in four this was the initial symptom. The occurrence of respiratory failure as an early symptom of this muscular disease is discussed. Images PMID:6429285

  9. Respiratory failure as initial symptom of acid maltase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Keunen, R W; Lambregts, P C; Op de Coul, A A; Joosten, E M

    1984-05-01

    Nine patients with adult onset acid maltase deficiency were seen at the Nijmegen University Hospital and the St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg , during the period 1970-1982. Five of these patients developed respiratory failure, and in four this was the initial symptom. The occurrence of respiratory failure as an early symptom of this muscular disease is discussed.

  10. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function were found, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  11. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although we found no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  12. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  13. Cotton dust exposure: Analysis of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dangi, Bharat M; Bhise, Anjali R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cotton industry workers are exposed to various hazards in the different departments of textile factories. The major health problems associated with cotton dust are respiratory problems, byssinosis, bronchitis and asthma. Objective: To study the effect of cotton dust exposure on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at cotton mill in the Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: One hundred cotton mill workers of the weaving and spinning area participated in this study while 100 age- and gender-matched male subjects living in the residential area served as the control group. A questionnaire was used to inquire about respiratory symptoms and spirometry was done in both the groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test was used to find the difference between spirometric parameters, and Chi-square test was used to find the difference between respiratory symptoms. Results: Respiratory symptoms were statistically significantly more common in the cotton mill workers compared to control group. Cotton mill workers group also showed significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), ratio of FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate, and no significant difference of FVC between groups. There was an association of duration of exposure and symptoms with spirometric abnormality. Conclusion: Cotton mill workers showed a significant decrease in spirometric parameters and increase in respiratory symptoms. As the duration of exposure and symptoms increased, spirometric abnormality increased. PMID:28360462

  14. Road traffic and adverse respiratory effects in children. SIDRIA Collaborative Group

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, G.; Forastiere, F.; Agabiti, N.; Biggeri, A.; Bisanti, L.; Chellini, E.; Corbo, G.; Dell'Orco, V.; Dalmasso, P.; Volante, T. F.; Galassi, C.; Piffer, S.; Renzoni, E.; Rusconi, F.; Sestini, P.; Viegi, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between traffic indicators in the area of residence and the occurrence of chronic respiratory disorders in children. METHODS: A population based survey was conducted in 10 areas of northern and central Italy (autumn 1994 to winter 1995) in two age groups (6-7 and 13-14 years). Information on several respiratory disorders and on traffic near residences was collected with a questionnaire given to children and to their parents. The sample analysed included 39,275 subjects (response rate 94.4%). Outcomes were: (a) early (first 2 years of life) respiratory diseases, and (b) current respiratory disorders (asthma, wheeze, cough, or phlegm in the past year). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for several potential confounders, were estimated from logistic regression models. Main results were stratified by level of urbanisation (metropolitan areas, other centres). RESULTS: In the metropolitan areas, high frequency of lorry traffic in the street of residence was associated with significantly increased risks for many adverse respiratory outcomes. Among early respiratory diseases, the strongest associations were found for recurrent bronchitis (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.30), bronchiolitis (1.74, 1.09 to 2.77) and pneumonia (1.84, 1.27 to 2.65), although no association was detected for episodes of wheezing bronchitis. All the current respiratory disorders were positively and consistently associated with frequency of lorry traffic, particularly the most severe bronchitic and wheezing symptoms: persistent phelgm for > 2 months (1.68; 1.14 to 2.48), and severe wheeze limiting speech (1.86; 1.26 to 2.73). No or weaker associations with heavy vehicular traffic were detected in urban and rural areas and no increased risks were found in the whole sample with the reported traffic density in the zone of residence. After extensive evaluations, the potential of reporting bias seems unlikely. CONCLUSION: Exposure to

  15. Indoor exposures and respiratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample

    PubMed Central

    Duelien, S; Eagan, T; Eide, G; Gulsvik, A; Bakke, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Limited data are available on the effect of a poor indoor climate on the respiratory health of adults. No data are available regarding the contribution of indoor exposures to the burden of respiratory symptoms in the population. Methods: In 1996–7 a community sample of 3181 adults aged 26–82 years was invited to participate in a survey on indoor climate and respiratory health in Hordaland County, Norway. 2401 subjects agreed to take part. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between eight markers of indoor exposure and physician diagnosed asthma and five respiratory symptoms, after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, educational level, smoking habits, pack years, and occupational airborne exposure. Results: Mould exposure was associated with all the respiratory symptoms; the adjusted odds ratios (OR) varied from 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 2.4) for cough with phlegm to 2.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.9) for grade 2 dyspnoea. Keeping a cat or dog in childhood was associated with grade 2 dyspnoea and attacks of dyspnoea, with adjusted ORs of 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.8), respectively. Having a fitted carpet in the bedroom was negatively associated with three of the five respiratory symptoms. 3–5% of the frequency of the respiratory symptoms in the study population could be attributed to exposure to visible moulds. Conclusion: Mould exposure is an independent risk factor for several respiratory symptoms in a general population covering a wide age span, but it makes only a small contribution to the respiratory symptom burden in the population at large. PMID:16055627

  16. Respiratory symptoms in arable farmworkers: role of storage mites.

    PubMed Central

    Blainey, A D; Topping, M D; Ollier, S; Davies, R J

    1988-01-01

    Storage mites (acarid mites) are related to the house dust mite but are usually found in agricultural environments. They have been shown to cause allergic symptoms in Scottish farmworkers exposed to stored hay, but whether farmworkers who grow and store grain are also at risk is unknown. One hundred and one farmworkers on 22 Essex farms with grain storage facilities (88% of the available workforce) participated in a survey of respiratory symptoms, with skin tests and determination of serum levels of IgE specific for mite species, including storage mites. Of the 101 workers, 21 reported attacks of cough, wheeze, or breathlessness after exposure to stored grain and 15 reported nasal symptoms after grain exposure. Storage mite specific IgE was found in 59% of farmworkers with work related respiratory symptoms, in 60% with work related nasal symptoms, and in only 9% of symptomless farmworkers. Work related respiratory and nasal symptoms were also significantly associated with atopy, and with positive skin test responses and serum IgE specific for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Storage mites were found in grain samples from 16 farms in which grain was sampled, whereas D pteronyssinus was not found in any. The close association between serum storage mite specific IgE and occupational respiratory symptoms suggests that storage mites may be responsible for respiratory symptoms in these Essex farmworkers exposed to grain. PMID:3194876

  17. Air pollution and respiratory symptoms in preschool children

    SciTech Connect

    Braun-Fahrlaender, C.A.; Ackermann-Liebrich, U.; Schwartz, J.; Gnehm, H.P.; Rutishauser, M.; Wanner, H.U. )

    1992-01-01

    A diary study on a random sample of 625 Swiss children aged 0 to 5 yr was conducted in two cities in Switzerland to investigate the association between air pollution and respiratory symptoms. Total suspended particulates (TSP), SO2 and NO2 were measured by city monitor. In addition, passive samplers inside and outside the home measured NO2 concentration during the 6 wk each child was on the diary. Diaries were filled out by parents, and 20% were validated with the attending pediatrician's case notes. Incidence and duration of symptom episodes were examined separately. The study included any episode, episodes of coughing without runny nose, upper respiratory episodes, and episodes of breathing difficulty. In regressions using 6-wk average pollution that controlled for medical history, NO2 measured outdoors but not indoors was associated with the duration of any symptom. Total suspended particulates were a more significant predictor of duration of any symptom than NO2. The 6-wk average TSP was significantly associated with incidence of coughing episodes and marginally significant as a predictor of upper respiratory episodes. Previous day's TSP was a significant predictor of incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Annual average of NO2 was associated with the duration of any episode and of upper respiratory episodes. We conclude that the incidence and duration of respiratory symptom episodes are likely associated with particulate concentrations and duration may be associated with NO2.

  18. Respiratory symptoms and lung function among Danish woodworkers.

    PubMed

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Schaumburg, Inger; Taudorf, Ebbe; Mikkelsen, Anders B; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional study including 54 furniture factories and three control factories was conducted to survey lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among woodworkers. Spirometry was performed on 2423 persons. Questionnaires regarding respiratory symptoms and wood dust exposure were completed by 2033 woodworkers and 474 controls. Personal passive dust measurements were performed on 1579 persons. The arithmetic mean +/- SD for equivalent inhalable dust was relatively low (1.19 +/- 0.86 mg/m3). Woodworkers had increased frequency of coughing with negative interaction between dust exposure and smoking. A dose-response relationship was seen between dust exposure and asthma symptoms, and a positive interaction for asthma was seen between female gender and dust exposure. Increased frequency of wheezing and a cross-shift decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second among workers using pinewood was seen. In conclusion, wood dust exposure might cause respiratory symptoms, despite a relatively low exposure level.

  19. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen . E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  20. Respiratory symptoms and occupational bronchitis in chromite ore miners, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ballal, S G

    1986-10-01

    Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis was determined in a group of 122 subjects (77 exposed miners, 18 partially exposed, 27 controls) working at chromite ore mines in Sudan. The mean ages (+/- s.d.) of the three groups were 36.4 (+/- 7.8), 35.2 (+/- 6.8) and 34.6 (+/- 7.5) years respectively. Methods included a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the British Medical Research Council (MRC 1976) questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, determination of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC%. The majority (66%) of the exposed subjects were non-smokers (NS) and 20 (77%) of the 'ever-smokers' (current and ex-smokers) were smokers of less than 15 cigarettes day-1. Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, dyspnoea) were more frequent among the miners and so was chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of the latter was 26% among the miners compared to 11% and 7% among the partially exposed and the controls respectively. These differences could not be accounted for by cigarette smoking. Sixty-five per cent of the miners diagnosed as having asthma, chronic bronchitis or both were non-smokers. Although the values for the FEV1/FVC% remained normal or near the lower limits of the normal range, the mean value was significantly lower among the miners. It was concluded that the mine dust was the prime cause of the respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis among the miners.

  1. Bronchodilator Responsiveness and Reported Respiratory Symptoms in an Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wan C.; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Chapman, Kenneth R.; Cowie, Robert; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Aaron, Shawn; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Maltais, Francois; Buist, A. Sonia; O’Donnell, Denis E.; Sin, Don D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. Aim To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. Methods 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA) on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and in forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. Results Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. Conclusions Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population. PMID:23554960

  2. Respiratory symptoms in wool textile workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, R.G.; Smith, T.; Jones, C.O.; Gurr, D.; Soutar, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This epidemiological study was intended to investigate exposures to inspirable wool dust in selected wool textile mills, the patterns of respiratory symptoms reported by workers in the industry, and the relationships of symptoms to exposure to dust. Fifteen mills in West Yorkshire representing all stages of the woollen and worsted process, and production of carpet yarns, were included in the study, their size ranging from four to nearly four hundred employees.

  3. High Prevalence of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Among Ethiopian Flower Farm Workers.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Vegard Mjelde; Nigatu, Amare Workiye; Zeleke, Zeyede Kebede; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-01-01

    The flower industry is among the most important export industries in Ethiopia, employing more than 50,000 workers. The working conditions and health status among workers in Ethiopian flower industry are not documented. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted among 213 flower industry workers from 3 flower farms and 60 control workers from supermarkets from February to March 2012. A walk-through survey was also performed on the 3 flower farms. Interviewed flower farm workers have high prevalences of respiratory and dermal symptoms, which are rarely reported among controls. Female workers inside the greenhouses on the 3 flower farms have significantly more respiratory and dermal symptoms than workers outside the greenhouse, also when adjusting for age and education. Limited access to personal protection equipment (PPE) and unsafe pesticide routines are documented. This study indicates that working in these flower greenhouses might be associated with adverse health effects.

  4. Adverse Symptoms of Immunosuppressants: A Survey of Canadian Transplant Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J J; Mansell, H; Blydt-Hansen, T

    2017-02-26

    Adverse symptoms of immunosuppressants (ASI) impact quality of life (QOL) in solid organ transplant recipients, however standardized approaches for active ASI surveillance and intervention are lacking. While management is highly clinician-dependent, clinician views remain largely unexplored. We surveyed Canadian Society of Transplantation members on their perceptions of ASI including frequency, perceived QOL impact, causal attribution, management strategies and success. Sixty-one clinicians participated in the survey of 12 ASI (tremor, diarrhea, nausea, constipation, dyspnea, insomnia, edema, dyspnea, arthralgia, acne, mouth sores, paresthesias), for a 22% response rate. Forty-nine completed the survey (80% completion rate). Diarrhea, dyspepsia and insomnia were most frequent, requiring management in ≥ 2% of patients by 96%, 90% and 82% of respondents, respectively. Diarrhea, insomnia and dyspnea were deemed to have an important QOL impact by 92%, 82% and 69%. Immunosuppressants were universally implicated as causative of tremor, diarrhea, acne and mouth sores. Over 80% reported success in managing mouth sores, dyspepsia and constipation. Management strategies included adjustment of immunosuppressant or other medications, drug therapy and non-pharmacologic approaches, and varied according to perceived causal attribution. More study is needed to compare clinician and patient views. These results will be used to establish priorities for further investigation of ASI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Oropharyngeal and miliary pulmonary tuberculosis without respiratory symptom.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jung Hyun; Kang, Ju Wan; Kim, Jeong Hong

    2014-07-01

    Tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a two month history of sore throat without other general or respiratory symptoms. Oral ex- amination revealed ulcerative and granulomatous lesions on the soft palate and tonsils. Histological examination of the lesions showed granulomatous tissue with caseaous necrosis consistent with tuberculosis. A chest x-ray and computed to- mography of the chest showed miliary tuberculosis of both lungs. The oral lesions improved with antituberculous medication by one month. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions which do not respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy. Pulmonary tuberculosis should also be considered in patients with oral tuberculosis even if they do not have respiratory symptoms.

  6. The World Trade Center residents' respiratory health study: new-onset respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Reibman, Joan; Lin, Shao; Hwang, Syni-An A; Gulati, Mridu; Bowers, James A; Rogers, Linda; Berger, Kenneth I; Hoerning, Anne; Gomez, Marta; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2005-04-01

    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 in New York City resulted in the massive release of pulverized dust and combustion products. The dust and smoke settled in the surrounding area, which encompassed a large residential community. We hypothesized that previously normal residents in the community surrounding the former WTC would have an increased incidence of persistent respiratory symptoms and abnormalities in screening spirometry. A hybrid cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study using a symptom-based questionnaire and onsite screening spirometry in residents in an exposed area and in a control area was performed 12 +/- 4 months after the collapse. Surveys were analyzed from 2,812 residents. New-onset respiratory symptoms were described by 55.8% of residents in the exposed area, compared with 20.1% in the control area after the event. Persistent new-onset symptoms were identified in 26.4 versus 7.5% of residents in the exposed area versus control area, respectively. No differences in screening spirometry between the groups were detected. A small pilot study suggested the possibility of an increase in bronchial hyperresponsiveness in exposed participants with persistent symptoms. The data demonstrate an increased rate of new-onset and persistent respiratory health effects in residents near the former WTC compared with a control population.

  7. Volcanic ash and respiratory symptoms in children on the island of Montserrat, British West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, L; Jarvis, D; Potts, J; Baxter, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: In July 1995 the volcano on the West Indian island of Montserrat erupted after being inactive for several hundred years. Since then, clouds of ash have been released intermittently from the volcano. Some of this ash is <10 µm in diameter and therefore respirable. Concerns were raised that the particles might cause respiratory problems. Aims: To evaluate whether ashfalls had any effect on the respiratory health of children in Montserrat. Methods: A survey of asthma diagnoses, respiratory symptoms, exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and current and previous exposure to volcanic ash was carried out in schools in Montserrat during February 1998. Results: Questionnaire information was available for nearly 80% of the 443 children on the school rolls. The prevalence of wheeze symptoms in the previous 12 months was 18% in children aged 12 years and under and 16% in children aged 13 years and over. In children aged 12 and under, the prevalence of wheeze was greater in those who had ever been heavily or moderately exposed to volcanic ash compared with the group who had only ever been exposed to low levels (wheeze in last 12 months: odds ratio (OR) 4.30; wheeze ever: OR 3.45). The prevalence of EIB in 8–12 year olds was about four times higher in those who were currently heavily exposed to volcanic ash (OR 3.85) compared to those currently exposed to low levels. Conclusions: Volcanic ash emissions adversely affected the respiratory health of Montserrat children. The findings emphasise the need to limit exposures of children to volcanic ash and ensure the appropriate management of respiratory symptoms. PMID:12598669

  8. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E; Lawson, C; Grajewski, B; Petersen, M; Pinkerton, L; Ward, E; Schnorr, T

    2003-01-01

    Background: Potential health effects of the indoor environment in office buildings and aircraft have generated considerable concern in recent years. Aims: To analyse the prevalence of self reported respiratory symptoms and illnesses in flight attendants (FAs) and schoolteachers. Methods: Data were collected as part of a study of reproductive health among female FAs. The prevalences of work related eye, nose, and throat symptoms, wheezing, physician diagnosed asthma, chest illness, and cold or flu were calculated and stratified by smoking status in 1824 FAs and 331 schoolteachers. Results: FAs and teachers were significantly more likely to report work related eye (12.4% and 7.4 %, respectively), nose (15.7% and 8.1%), and throat symptoms (7.5% and 5.7%) than were other working women (2.9% eye, 2.7% nose, and 1.3% throat symptoms). FAs were significantly more likely than teachers and referent working women to report chest illness during the prior three years (32.9%, 19.3%, 7.2%, respectively). Both study groups were more likely to report five or more episodes of cold or flu in the past year than were other working women (10.2% of FAs, 8.2% of teachers, 2.3% of referents), and both groups were more likely to report wheezing than other working women (22.8% of FAs, 28.4% of teachers, 16.4% of referents). FAs were significantly less likely than teachers and other working women to report ever having been diagnosed with asthma (8.2%, 13.3%, 11.8%, respectively). Conclusions: Overall, FAs and schoolteachers report a higher prevalence of work related upper respiratory symptoms, chest illness, and cold or flu than the general working population. PMID:14634183

  9. Pantoea agglomerans in Immunodeficient Patients with Different Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Flores Popoca, Erika Odilia; Miranda García, Maximino; Romero Figueroa, Socorro; Mendoza Medellín, Aurelio; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio; Silva Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine in 32 patients from 4 different Mexican hospitals the frequency of opportunistic bacteria in the 2010 to 2011 time period. The patients were divided in 4 groups. Group 1 included 21 HIV positive patients with acute respiratory syndrome. Four HIV positive patients with tuberculosis symptoms were included in Group 2; two patients with tuberculosis symptoms and one asymptomatic person formed Group 3. Reference Group 4 included 4 patients from whom 4 strains of Mycobacterium spp. had been reported. The strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification, API 20E and 50CH, biochemical test, and antibiotic sensitivity. The strains found were 10 Pantoea agglomerans, 6 Mycobacterium spp., 6 Pseudomonas spp. and 10 strains of normal floral species: Thermoactinomycetes bacterium (1), Enterococcus faecium (2), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (2), Streptococcus oralis (2), Streptococcus anginosus (1), and Enterobacter hormaechei (1). PMID:22619600

  10. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-12-22

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players' unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.

  11. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population. PMID:26925182

  12. Adverse Respiratory Events Associated With Hypnotics Use in Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Insomnia is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the effects of hypnotics on the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD. The case-control study was investigated using data retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with newly diagnosed adverse respiratory events (pneumonia, COPD with acute exacerbation, acute respiratory failure, and cardiopulmonary arrest) were included in the case group. Patients with COPD and no history of adverse respiratory events were randomly selected for the control group, which was frequency-matched with the case group according to index date, age (per 10 years), and sex. Patients who had used hypnotics within 1 month meant active users. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of were calculated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Most of the study participants were male (71.6%), and the mean ages of the participants in the case and control groups were 69.2 (±12.4) and 67.5 (±12.3) years, respectively. After potential confounding factors were adjusting for, the adjusted ORs of adverse respiratory events were 12.0 for active users of benzodiazepines (95% CI, 8.11–17.6) and 10.5 for active users of nonbenzodiazepines (95% CI, 7.68–14.2) compared with the adjusted ORs of those who never used hypnotics. The results of this epidemiological study suggested that hypnotics increased the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD. PMID:26166105

  13. STUDY OF RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATORY CAPACITIES AMONG ROPE WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Munt, D. F.; Gauvain, Suzette; Walford, Joan; Schilling, R. S. F.

    1965-01-01

    In a rope works handling manila, sisal, and St. Helena hemps, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the change in forced expiratory volume (F.E.V.1·0) during the work shift were studied in a group of 41 women and 41 men who represented 93% of the population at risk. Dust concentrations, measured with a modified Hexhlet, ranged from 0·11 to 4·51 mg./m.3 for total dust and 0·02 to 1·46 mg./m.3 for fine dust. The highest concentrations were found in the preparing rooms, in which the workers, all of whom were women, showed on the average a fall in ventilatory capacity during the shift. The workers in the rope walk, all of whom were men, showed a rise in ventilatory capacity during the shift. The difference between the men and women was statistically significant (p < 0·05). No worker gave a characteristic history of byssinosis, although nine women complained of chest tightness associated with their work. Undue breathlessness on exertion and persistent cough and phlegm were also more common among the women, but they were on the average 18 years older than the men. When the ventilatory capacities and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms of women rope workers were compared with those of a group of women employed elsewhere in the dockyard, the only significant difference was that the rope workers had more chest tightness associated with their work (p < 0·02). Exposure of volunteers to St. Helena hemp, which is apparently the most likely of the hard hemps to give rise to respiratory symptoms, caused only a slight fall in ventilatory capacity and a small rise in airways resistance. A sample of St. Helena hemp assayed on guinea-pig ileum had only a relatively small degree of contractor activity. The evidence suggests that the dusts of hard hemps do not cause byssinosis under the conditions in this factory. However, the irritant nature of the dust indicates the need to prevent total dust levels exceeding about 2 mg./m.3. Images

  14. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among patients with systemic arterial hypertension without respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; Pereira, Sheila Alves; Silva Júnior, José Laerte Rodrigues; de Rezende, Aline Pacheco; Castro da Costa, Adeliane; de Sousa Corrêa, Krislainy; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often delayed until later stages of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD among adults on treatment for systemic arterial hypertension independently of the presence of respiratory symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study included adults aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and systemic arterial hypertension diagnosed at three Primary Health Care facilities in Goiania, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using a standardized respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. COPD prevalence was measured considering the value of forced vital capacity and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second <0.70. Results Of a total of 570 subjects, 316 (55%) met inclusion criteria and were invited to participate. Two hundred and thirty-three (73.7%) patients with arterial hypertension reported at least one respiratory symptom, while 83 (26.3%) reported no respiratory symptoms; 41 (17.6%) patients with arterial hypertension and at least one respiratory symptom, and 10 (12%) patients with arterial hypertension but no respiratory symptoms were diagnosed with COPD (P=0.24). The prevalence of COPD in people with no previous COPD diagnosis was greater among those with no respiratory symptoms (100%) than among those with respiratory symptoms (56.1%) (P=0.01). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, individuals aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and arterial hypertension may benefit from spirometric evaluation. PMID:26257517

  15. Incident opioid drug use and adverse respiratory outcomes among older adults with COPD.

    PubMed

    Vozoris, Nicholas T; Wang, Xuesong; Fischer, Hadas D; Bell, Chaim M; O'Donnell, Denis E; Austin, Peter C; Stephenson, Anne L; Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula A

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated risk of adverse respiratory outcomes associated with incident opioid use among older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD).This was a retrospective population-based cohort study using a validated algorithm applied to health administrative data to identify adults aged 66 years and older with COPD. Inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score was used to estimate hazard ratios comparing adverse respiratory outcomes within 30 days of incident opioid use compared to controls.Incident opioid use was associated with significantly increased emergency room visits for COPD or pneumonia (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.29; p=0.04), COPD or pneumonia-related mortality (HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.61-2.88; p<0.0001) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.57-1.98; p<0.0001), but significantly decreased outpatient exacerbations (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94; p=0.0002). Use of more potent opioid-only agents was associated with significantly increased outpatient exacerbations, emergency room visits and hospitalisations for COPD or pneumonia, and COPD or pneumonia-related and all-cause mortality.Incident opioid use, and in particular use of the generally more potent opioid-only agents, was associated with increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes, including respiratory-related mortality, among older adults with COPD. Potential adverse respiratory outcomes should be considered when prescribing new opioids in this population.

  16. Indoor air quality in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Ramos, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to characterize the indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, PM2.5, PM10, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi were assessed in 73 classrooms from 20 public primary schools located in Porto, Portugal. Children who attended the selected classrooms (n = 1134) were evaluated by a standardised health questionnaire completed by the legal guardians; spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide tests. The results indicated that no classrooms presented individual VOC pollutant concentrations higher than the WHO IAQ guidelines or by INDEX recommendations; while PM2.5, PM10 and bacteria levels exceeded the WHO air quality guidelines or national limit values. High levels of total VOC, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher odds of wheezing in children. Thus, indoor air pollutants, some even at low exposure levels, were related with the development of respiratory symptoms. The results pointed out that it is crucial to take into account the unique characteristics of the public primary schools, to develop appropriate control strategies in order to reduce the exposure to indoor air pollutants and, therefore, to minimize the adverse health effects.

  17. Adverse respiratory effects in rats following inhalation exposure to ammonia: respiratory dynamics and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Wong, Benjamin; Tressler, Justin; Rodriguez, Ashley; Sherman, Katherine; Andres, Jaclynn; Devorak, Jennifer; L Wilkins, William; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory dynamics and histopathology of the lungs and trachea following inhaled exposure to ammonia were investigated. Respiratory dynamic parameters were collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) during (20 min) and 24 h (10 min) after inhalation exposure for 20 min to 9000, 20,000, and 23,000 ppm of ammonia in a head-only exposure system. Body weight loss, analysis of blood cells, and lungs and trachea histopathology were assessed 1, 3, and 24 h following inhalation exposure to 20,000 ppm of ammonia. Prominent decreases in minute volume (MV) and tidal volume (TV) were observed during and 24 h post-exposure in all ammonia-exposed animals. Inspiratory time (IT) and expiratory time (ET) followed similar patterns and decreased significantly during the exposure and then increased at 24 h post-exposure in all ammonia-exposed animals in comparison to air-exposed controls. Peak inspiratory (PIF) and expiratory flow (PEF) significantly decreased during the exposure to all ammonia doses, while at 24 h post-exposure they remained significantly decreased following exposure to 20,000 and 23,000 ppm. Exposure to 20,000 ppm of ammonia resulted in body weight loss at 1 and 3 h post-exposure; weight loss was significant at 24 h compared to controls. Exposure to 20,000 ppm of ammonia for 20 min resulted in increases in the total blood cell counts of white blood cells, neutrophils, and platelets at 1, 3, and 24 h post-exposure. Histopathologic evaluation of the lungs and trachea tissue of animals exposed to 20,000 ppm of ammonia at 1, 3, and 24 h post-exposure revealed various morphological changes, including alveolar, bronchial, and tracheal edema, epithelial necrosis, and exudate consisting of fibrin, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cells. The various alterations in respiratory dynamics and damage to the respiratory system observed in this study further emphasize ammonia-induced respiratory toxicity and the relevance of

  18. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  19. Association between Occupational Stress and Respiratory Symptoms among Lecturers in Universiti Putra Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    M. Y., Nur Aqilah; J., Juliana

    2012-01-01

    There was considerable evidence that a subject’s psychological status may influence respiratory sensations and that some subjects may experience respiratory symptoms regardless of the presence of a respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to determine the association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers. This cross sectional study was conducted in Universiti Putra Malaysia, involved 61 lecturers from various faculties. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society were used to collect the data on socio-demography, stress level and respiratory symptoms. High level of occupational stress (high strain) was determined among 16 of the respondents (26.2%). Breathlessness was the common symptom experienced by the respondents. Female lecturers were significantly experienced high stress level compared to male (p=0.035). They were also significantly having more breathlessness symptom compared to male lecturer (p=0.011). Study highlighted in study population, gender plays a significant role that influenced level of occupational stress and also gender has role in resulting occupational stress level and respiratory symptoms. There was no significant association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms. It can be concluded that this group of lecturers of Universiti Putra Malaysia did not experienced high occupational stress level. Occupational stress level was not statistically significantly associated with all respiratory symptoms being studied. PMID:23121752

  20. Association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers in Universiti Putra Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nur Aqilah, Mohmed Yusof; Juliana, Jalaludin

    2012-09-28

    There was considerable evidence that a subject's psychological status may influence respiratory sensations and that some subjects may experience respiratory symptoms regardless of the presence of a respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to determine the association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers. This cross sectional study was conducted in Universiti Putra Malaysia, involved 61 lecturers from various faculties. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society were used to collect the data on socio-demography, stress level and respiratory symptoms. High level of occupational stress (high strain) was determined among 16 of the respondents (26.2%). Breathlessness was the common symptom experienced by the respondents. Female lecturers were significantly experienced high stress level compared to male (p=0.035). They were also significantly having more breathlessness symptom compared to male lecturer (p=0.011). Study highlighted in study population, gender plays a significant role that influenced level of occupational stress and also gender has role in resulting occupational stress level and respiratory symptoms. There was no significant association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms. It can be concluded that this group of lecturers of Universiti Putra Malaysia did not experienced high occupational stress level. Occupational stress level was not statistically significantly associated with all respiratory symptoms being studied.

  1. Occupation and three-year incidence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline: the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. Inhalation exposures encountered in these jobs may place workers at risk of new-onset respiratory disease. Methods We analyzed data from 8,967 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a longitudinal cohort study. Participants included in this analysis were free of chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other chronic lung conditions at the baseline examination, when they were aged 45-64 years. Using data collected in the baseline and first follow-up examination, we evaluated associations between occupation and the three-year incidence of cough, phlegm, wheezing, and airway obstruction and changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) measured by spirometry. All associations were adjusted for age, cigarettes per day, race, smoking status, and study center. Results During the approximately three-year follow-up, the percentage of participants developing chronic cough was 3%; chronic phlegm, 3%; wheezing, 3%; and airway obstruction, defined as FEV1 < lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV1/FVC < LLN, 2%. The average annual declines in FEV1 and FVC were 56 mL and 66 mL, respectively, among men and 40 mL and 52 mL, respectively, among women. Relative to a referent category of managerial and administrative support occupations, elevated risks of new-onset chronic cough and chronic phlegm were observed for mechanics and repairers (chronic cough: RR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.21; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.57) and cleaning and building service workers (chronic cough: RR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.37; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.08). Despite the elevated risk of new-onset symptoms, employment in cleaning and building services was associated with attenuated lung function decline, particularly among men, who averaged annual declines in FEV1 and FVC of 14 mL and 23 m

  2. Interactive effects of social adversity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia activity on reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)-related cardiac activity has been linked to aggression. However, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to reactive-proactive aggression. In the current study, 84 male and female college students self-reported reactive and proactive aggression, and were assessed for respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of PNS-related cardiac activity, during rest and when they contemplated an emotion-evoking decision-making task. Regression analyses showed that (a) resting RSA was positively linked to reactive aggression in conditions of high social adversity, and (b) RSA reactivity was positively associated with reactive but negatively associated with proactive aggression, in conditions of low social adversity. Main effects were not found for psychophysiological functioning or psychosocial adversity, suggesting the importance of their interaction. Findings support a biosocial basis for aggression and add additional support for the distinctions between reactive and proactive aggression.

  3. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Malo, J; Infante-Rivard, C; Gautrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of welding related respiratory symptoms coexisting with welding related systemic symptoms in welders is unknown. Aims: To determine in a sample of welders the prevalence of coexisting welding related systemic symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA), and the strength and significance of any association between these two groups of symptoms. Methods: A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, a systemic symptoms questionnaire, and a questionnaire on occupational history were administered by telephone to 351 of a sample of 441 welders (79.6%) from two cities in Québec, Canada. Results: The co-occurrence of possible MFF (defined as having at least two symptoms of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, and shortness of breath, occurring at the beginning of the working week, 3–10 hours after exposure to welding fumes) together with welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA (defined as having at least two welding related symptoms of cough, wheezing, and chest tightness) was 5.8%. These two groups of symptoms were significantly associated (χ2 = 18.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a strong association between welding related MFF and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. PMID:12937186

  4. Effects of the home environment on respiratory symptoms of a general population sample in middle Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Carrozzi, L; Paoletti, P; Vellutini, M; DiViggiano, E; Baldacci, S; Modena, P; Pedreschi, M; Mammini, U; di Pede, C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of home environment characteristics were evaluated in a multistage, stratified, cluster sample (N = 3,866) of the general population who lived in the district of Pisa (middle Italy). Each subject completed a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire that contained questions about respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors (e.g., type of heating, fuels used for cooking and heating). Cough and asthma were significantly more frequent in men who did not smoke and who did not use natural gas for cooking and heating. Attacks of shortness of breath accompanied by wheeze, dyspnea, and cardiovascular conditions in female nonsmokers were associated with use of a stove or forced-air circulation for heating; the type of fuel used did not affect this result. Multiple logistic models, which accounted for independent effects of age, smoking status, pack-years, childhood respiratory illness, education, zone of residence, and work exposure to dusts, chemicals, or fumes, showed significantly increased odds ratios for (a) cough and phlegm in males (associated with bottled gas for cooking), (b) wheeze and shortness of breath with wheeze in females (associated with the use of a stove or forced-air circulation). These results, which confirm our previous observations in an unpolluted rural area of north Italy, indicate that characteristics of the home environment, as assessed by questionnaire, may be linked to mild adverse health effects, i.e., respiratory symptoms, in the general population. The results also identify the need to better characterize the dose-response relationship in indoor air pollution monitoring studies that include subsamples of this population.

  5. Trajectories of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Internalizing Symptoms, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Child Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Emily K.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Background: We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms as predicted by interactions among maternal internalizing symptoms, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and child sex. Method: An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of children (n = 251) participated during three study waves. Children's mean ages were 8.23 years…

  6. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    PubMed

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  7. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  8. Respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in workers exposed to tea fluff.

    PubMed

    Hill, B; Waldron, H A

    1996-10-01

    A questionnaire survey of respiratory symptoms was carried out on a group of subjects with exposure to tea fluff in a packaging plant and compared with a group of unexposed workers. The subjects had a higher prevalence of rhinitis, bouts of coughing and chest tightness than the controls. Except in the case of rhinitis however, the differences disappeared when allowance was made for either hay fever or smoking. From the original group of subjects, two smaller groups were chosen, one with and one without symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rates were measured over a 12-day period, including eight working and four non-working days. The mean difference in peak flow was greater on the non-working than on the working days and was not related to age, sex, years of exposure, smoking or atopy. We conclude that there is little evidence to suggest that this group of tea packers shows signs of sensitization but that they are probably exposed to an irritant in the tea fluff.

  9. The Evaluation of a Pulmonary Display to Detect Adverse Respiratory Events Using High Resolution Human Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, S. Blake; Johnson, Ken; Albert, Robert; Syroid, Noah; Drews, Frank; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2006-01-01

    Objective Authors developed a picture-graphics display for pulmonary function to present typical respiratory data used in perioperative and intensive care environments. The display utilizes color, shape and emergent alerting to highlight abnormal pulmonary physiology. The display serves as an adjunct to traditional operating room displays and monitors. Design To evaluate the prototype, nineteen clinician volunteers each managed four adverse respiratory events and one normal event using a high-resolution patient simulator which included the new displays (intervention subjects) and traditional displays (control subjects). Between-group comparisons included (i) time to diagnosis and treatment for each adverse respiratory event; (ii) the number of unnecessary treatments during the normal scenario; and (iii) self-reported workload estimates while managing study events. Measurements Two expert anesthesiologists reviewed video-taped transcriptions of the volunteers to determine time to treat and time to diagnosis. Time values were then compared between groups using a Mann-Whitney-U Test. Estimated workload for both groups was assessed using the NASA-TLX and compared between groups using an ANOVA. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Clinician volunteers detected and treated obstructed endotracheal tubes and intrinsic PEEP problems faster with graphical rather than conventional displays (p < 0.05). During the normal scenario simulation, 3 clinicians using the graphical display, and 5 clinicians using the conventional display gave unnecessary treatments. Clinician-volunteers reported significantly lower subjective workloads using the graphical display for the obstructed endotracheal tube scenario (p < 0.001) and the intrinsic PEEP scenario (p < 0.03). Conclusion Authors conclude that the graphical pulmonary display may serve as a useful adjunct to traditional displays in identifying adverse respiratory events. PMID:16929038

  10. Determinants of respiratory symptoms in insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P; Shapiro, S; Dales, R E; Becklake, M R

    1987-01-01

    The determinants of respiratory symptoms were studied in an active workforce of insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres. Responses to a mailed respiratory symptom questionnaire from 537 insulation workers without diagnosed asbestosis were analysed using logistic regression. Wheezing complaints and breathlessness were related primarily to current cigarette smoking and to symptoms suggesting an asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade. There was also evidence that these complaints were related to occupational exposure (estimated by number of hours worked in the trade) in subjects with prior airways hyperreactivity. An asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade was the major determinant of acute respiratory symptoms in the workplace. The effects of workplace exposures on respiratory symptoms may have been underestimated due to selective withdrawal from the active workforce and due to inaccuracies in the measure of exposure used. PMID:3814550

  11. Human coronavirus NL63 associated with lower respiratory tract symptoms in early life.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Laurent; Regamey, Nicolas; Roiha, Hanna; Deffernez, Christelle; Frey, Urs

    2005-11-01

    Coronavirus NL63 has been identified as a new member of the coronavirus genus, but its role as a cause of respiratory disease needs to be established. We studied the first episode of lower respiratory tract symptoms in a cohort of healthy neonates. NL63 was identified in 6 (7%) of 82 cases and was as frequent as other coronaviruses (9%). NL63 was recovered at the onset of symptoms and was cleared within 3 weeks in half of the cases. Our data suggests that coronavirus NL63 causes lower respiratory tract symptoms and is acquired in early life.

  12. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data. Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52–0.62). Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases. PMID:27196497

  13. Passive cigarette smoke, coal heating, and respiratory symptoms of nonsmoking women in China

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C.A. III Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT ); Xu, X. )

    1993-09-01

    In this study the authors evaluated data from a sample of 973 never-smoking women, ages 20-40, who worked in three similar textile mills in Anhui Province, China. They compared prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms across homes with and without coal heating and homes with different numbers of smokers. Multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age, job title, and mill of employment were also estimated. Respiratory symptoms were associated with combined exposure to passive cigarette smoke and coal heating. Effects of passive cigarette smoke and coal heating on respiratory symptoms appeared to be nearly additive, suggesting a dose-response relationship between respiratory symptoms and home indoor air pollution from these two sources. The prevalence of chest illness, cough, phlegm, and shortness of breath (but not wheeze) was significantly elevated for women living in homes with both smokers and coal heating.

  14. CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS, HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS, AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory symptoms and respiratory hospitalization (for asthma, bronchitis or pneumonia) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of children (ages 7--11 years, N=667) living in a moderately industrialized city in Central Sl...

  15. Joint effects of birth outcomes and childhood body mass index on respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2012-05-01

    Thinness in infancy and higher childhood body mass index (BMI) are risk factors for poor respiratory health. However, few studies have examined the joint effects of birth outcomes and childhood BMI on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms. A total of 78,011 Taiwanese middle-school children were investigated between 1995 and 1996 in a nationwide International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) survey, with standardised height/weight measurement. Their survey data was compared successfully with the birth registration dataset. Childhood BMI was positively associated with all respiratory symptoms, with greater effects and significant risks associated with serious phenotypes in the video questionnaire. Children with a history of low birth weight (LBW), those who were born prematurely (pre-term), or those who were small for gestational age (SGA) were also more likely to have allergic respiratory symptoms. As birthweight and gestational age were not positively associated with childhood BMI, we proposed that LBW, pre-term birth and childhood BMI were independent factors for respiratory symptoms. LBW, pre-term birth and childhood BMI are all independent risk factors for respiratory symptoms in children. Children with a history of LBW, pre-term birth or SGA and a higher current BMI might have larger respiratory burden.

  16. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  17. Evaluation of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in pyrochlore mine workers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira; Barros, José Cerqueira; Oliveira, Fabrício Borges; Brunherotti, Marisa Andrade; Quemelo, Paulo Roberto Veiga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer. Results: The study involved 147 workers (all male). The mean age was 41.37 ± 8.71 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 12.26 ± 7.09 years. We found that 33 (22.44%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms and that 26 (17.69%) showed abnormalities in the spirometry results. However, we found that the spirometry results did not correlate significantly with the presence of respiratory symptoms or with the duration of occupational exposure. Conclusions: The frequencies of respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes were low when compared with those reported in other studies involving occupational exposure to dust. No significant associations were observed between respiratory symptoms and spirometry results. PMID:27832236

  18. Urban air pollution and emergency room admissions for respiratory symptoms: a case-crossover study in Palermo, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Air pollution from vehicular traffic has been associated with respiratory diseases. In Palermo, the largest metropolitan area in Sicily, urban air pollution is mainly addressed to traffic-related pollution because of lack of industrial settlements, and the presence of a temperate climate that contribute to the limited use of domestic heating plants. This study aimed to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution and emergency room admissions for acute respiratory symptoms. Methods From January 2004 through December 2007, air pollutant concentrations and emergency room visits were collected for a case-crossover study conducted in Palermo, Sicily. Risk estimates of short-term exposures to particulate matter and gaseous ambient pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide were calculated by using a conditional logistic regression analysis. Results Emergency departments provided data on 48,519 visits for respiratory symptoms. Adjusted case-crossover analyses revealed stronger effects in the warm season for the most part of the pollutants considered, with a positive association for PM10 (odds ratio = 1.039, 95% confidence interval: 1.020 - 1.059), SO2 (OR = 1.068, 95% CI: 1.014 - 1.126), nitrogen dioxide (NO2: OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.021 - 1.065), and CO (OR = 1.128, 95% CI: 1.074 - 1.184), especially among females (according to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, NO2, SO2, and 1 mg/m3 in CO exposure). A positive association was observed either in warm or in cold season only for PM10. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, in our setting, exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of emergency room (ER) visits for acute respiratory symptoms, particularly during the warm season. ER admittance may be considered a good proxy to evaluate the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health. PMID:21489245

  19. Childhood adversity increases vulnerability for behavioral symptoms and immune dysregulation in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Witek Janusek, Linda; Tell, Dina; Albuquerque, Kevin; Mathews, Herbert L

    2013-03-01

    Women respond differentially to the stress-associated with breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, with some women experiencing more intense and/or sustained behavioral symptoms and immune dysregulation than others. Childhood adversity has been identified to produce long-term dysregulation of stress response systems, increasing reactivity to stressors encountered during adulthood. This study determined whether childhood adversity increased vulnerability for more intense and sustained behavioral symptoms (fatigue, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms), poorer quality of life, and greater immune dysregulation in women (N=40) with breast cancer. Evaluation was after breast surgery and through early survivorship. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine intra-individual and inter-individual differences with respect to initial status and to the pattern of change (i.e. trajectory) of outcomes. At initial assessment, women exposed to childhood emotional neglect/abuse had greater perceived stress, fatigue, depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life, as well as lower natural killer cell activity (NKCA). Although these outcomes improved over time, women with greater childhood emotional neglect/abuse exhibited worse outcomes through early survivorship. No effect was observed on the pattern of change for these outcomes. In contrast, childhood physical neglect predicted sustained trajectories of greater perceived stress, worse quality of life, and elevated plasma IL-6; with no effect observed at initial assessment. Thus, childhood adversity leaves an enduring imprint, increasing vulnerability for behavioral symptoms, poor quality of life, and elevations in IL-6 in women with breast cancer. Further, childhood adversity predisposes to lower NKCA at a critical time when this immune-effector mechanism is most effective at halting nascent tumor seeding.

  20. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  1. Lung function, respiratory symptoms and venous thromboembolism risk: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Y; London, S J; Cushman, M; Chamberlain, A M; Rosamond, W D; Heckbert, S R; Zakai, N; Folsom, A R

    2016-12-01

    Essentials The association of lung function with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patterns were associated with a higher risk of VTE. Symptoms were also associated with a higher risk of VTE, but a restrictive pattern was not. COPD may increase the risk of VTE and respiratory symptoms may be a novel risk marker for VTE.

  2. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS AND ASSOCIATION WITH LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone-induced respiratory symptoms are known to be functions of concentration, minute ventilation, and duration of exposure. The purposes of this study were to identify an exposure-response model for symptoms, to determine whether response was related to age, and to assess the re...

  3. Association of Interleukin-8 and Neutrophils with Nasal Symptom Severity During Acute Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez, Kelsey M.; Hayney, Mary S.; Xie, Yaoguo; Zhang, Zhengjun; Barrett, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL-8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of the illness episode using the well-validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Global symptom severity was calculated by the area under the curve (AUC) plotting duration versus WURSS total. Of the specimens tested, 56% were positively identified for one or more of nine different respiratory viruses. During acute respiratory infection illness, both IL-8 and neutrophils positively correlate with AUC (rs = 0.082, P = 0.022; rs = 0.080, P = 0.030). IL-8 and neutrophils correlate with nasal symptom severity: runny nose (r = 0.13, P = <0.00001; r = 0.18, P = <0.003), plugged nose (r = 0.045, P = 0.003; r = 0.14, P = 0.058), and sneezing (r = −0.02, P = <0.0001; r = −0.0055, P = 0.31). Neutrophils correlate with some quality of life measures such as sleeping well (r = 0.15, P = 0.026). Thus, the study demonstrates that IL-8 and neutrophils are correlated with severity of nasal symptoms during acute respiratory infection. Further research is necessary to determine if the concentration of these or other biomarkers can predict the overall duration and severity of acute respiratory infection illness. PMID:25132248

  4. Older Adults’ Use of Care Strategies in Response to General and Upper Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Quandt, Sara A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the use of complementary and medical treatments, both individually and in combination, to address common general and upper respiratory symptoms. Data for the analysis were collected from a series of 18 daily diary questionnaires administered to community-living older African American and white adults living in rural counties in North Carolina. Participants reported symptoms experienced on each diary day and the treatment strategies they used each day in response to the particular symptom(s). Older adults used diverse categories of strategies to treat symptoms; treatment strategies were used inconsistently across symptoms. Use of only complementary strategies, only medical conventional strategies, or both complementary and medical strategies to treat any one symptom rarely corresponded to the use of the same strategy to address other symptoms. Future research would benefit from analyzing how older adults use health care strategies across symptom categories. PMID:24652871

  5. Assessment of Pulmonary Function Parameters and Respiratory Symptoms in Shipyard Workers of Asaluyeh City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aghilinejad, Mashallah; Nassiri-Kashani, Mohammad Hassan; Bahrami-Ahmadi, Amir; Dehghani, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workers in shipyard companies are exposed to different respiratory hazards. The present case-control study was designed to evaluate pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms among shipyard workers in Asaluyeh city in Southwest Iran. Material and Method: Between March and October 2015 we recruited participants from two separate populations: shipyard workers as cases and office workers from the same shipyard company, who are not exposed to the same respiratory hazards, as controls. History was obtained from all participants and they all underwent physical examination and spirometry. Results: Respiratory signs and symptoms were present in a significantly higher number of shipyard workers compared to the unexposed office workers. Similarly, there were significant spirometric differences between cases and controls. Conclusion: It seems that workplace hazards play a more significant role than other factors such as air pollution in development of respiratory diseases, and future studies for investigating respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function parameters, biological monitoring and measurement of respiratory hazard need to be performed. PMID:27904543

  6. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N.

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  7. Increased detection of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses with real-time PCR in samples from patients with respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Alma C; van Loon, Anton M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Jansen, Nicolaas J G; Nijhuis, Monique; Breteler, Els Klein; Schuurman, Rob; Rossen, John W A

    2007-07-01

    Respiratory samples (n = 267) from hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms were tested by real-time PCR, viral culture, and direct immunofluorescence for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses. Compared with conventional diagnostic tests, real-time PCR increased the diagnostic yields for these viruses from 24% to 43% and from 3.5% to 36% for children and adults, respectively.

  8. Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms not due to asthma.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Chetan A; Batterby, Eugenie; Van Asperen, Peter; Cooper, Peter; Selvadurai, Hiran; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2014-10-01

    This manuscript describes two interesting patients who had exercise-induced symptoms that unmasked an alternative underlying diagnosis. The first is an 8-year-old boy who was treated for asthma all his life but really had exercise-induced stridor (labelled as wheeze) causing significant exercise limitation, which was due to a double aortic arch with the right arch compressing the trachea. The second case describes the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction in a 13-year-old anxious high achiever. He also initially had exercise-induced symptoms treated as exercise-induced wheeze but again had a stridor due to vocal cord dysfunction. Both these cases demonstrate the importance of detailed history including during exercise, which can unmask alternative diagnosis. Another important message is that if there is no response to bronchodilator treatment with absence of typical signs and symptoms of asthma, alternative diagnosis should be considered.

  9. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and nasal cellularity in Indonesian wood workers: a dose-response analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borm, P; Jetten, M; Hidayat, S; van de Burgh, N; Leunissen, P; Kant, I; Houba, R; Soeprapto, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: It was hypothesised that inflammation plays a dominant part in the respiratory effects of exposure to wood dust. The purpose of this study was to relate the nasal inflammatory responses of workers exposed to meranti wood dust to (a) levels of exposure, (b) respiratory symptoms and (c) respiratory function. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in 1997 in a woodworking plant that used mainly meranti, among 982 workers exposed to different concentrations of wood dust. Personal sampling (n=243) of inhalable dust measurements indicated mean exposure in specific jobs, and enabled classification of 930 workers in three exposure classes (<2, 2–5, and >5 mg/m3) based on job title. Questionnaires were used to screen respiratory symptoms in the entire population. Lung function was measured with two different techniques, conventional flow-volume curves and the forced oscillation technique. Nasal lavage was done to assess inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. Results: A negative trend between years of employment and most flow-volume variables was found in men, but not in women workers. Current exposure, however, was not related to spirometric outcomes, respiratory symptoms, or nasal cellularity. Some impedance variables were related to current exposure but also with better function at higher exposure. Conclusions: Exposure to meranti wood dust did not cause an inflammation in the upper respiratory tract nor an increase of respiratory symptoms or decrease of lung function. These data do not corroborate the hypothesis that inflammation plays a part in airway obstruction induced by wood dust. PMID:11983850

  10. [Foreign body in the esophagus as a cause of respiratory symptoms in children. Clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Rodríguez, Verónica; Doormann, Flavia; Bellia Munzón, Patricio; Bellia Munzón, Gastón

    2017-04-01

    Foreign bodies in esophagus are avoidable accidents that occur most often in children younger than 3 years. The most common presenting symptoms are dysphagia, drooling and vomiting. Occasionally a foreign body in the esophagus may present with respiratory symptoms such as cough, stridor and respiratory distress. This is more common in young children and when the object remains lodged in the esophagus for a prolonged period. Clinical suspicion is essential for early diagnosis, which allows to avoid potential complications. We describe 3 children with a foreign body impacted in the esophagus who presented mainly respiratory symptoms. We alert pediatricians on symptomatic variation in the presentation of a foreign body ingestion and we underline the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

  11. [Respiratory symptoms in the textile industry. Their prevalence in the Vale do Ave].

    PubMed

    da Costa, J T; Barros, H; Macedo, J A; Ribeiro, H; Mayan, O; Pinto, A S

    1997-01-01

    Some workers in the textile industry have respiratory symptoms related to their occupation. This study is aimed at evaluating the frequency of respiratory symptoms in textile industries in the North of Portugal. We evaluated 3529 workers from 20 factories (19 deal with synthetic fibres and cotton and the other deals with sisal.) Among the workers, there were 34.5% with respiratory symptoms - 24,5% referred nasal symptoms, 22,6% with bronchial symptoms and 12,6% associated both. The workers who dealt with cotton presented a higher frequency of bronchial symptoms (25,0%) than the ones dealing with synthetic fibres (12,7% p < 0,000001). The same was noticed among the workers in the opening and spinning areas, who showed a higher frequency of bronchial symptoms (28,3%) than the ones in weaving areas (12,7% p < 0,000001). We did not find any differences concerning the frequency of symptoms among the workers handling both natural fibres (cotton and sisal). Individually all the symptoms were more frequent among the workers handling natural fibres. The most frequent symptom depended on the fibre. Cough was more frequently mentioned among the workers handling synthetic fibres (9.6%) and cotton (15.7%). Among the workers who handle sisal, dyspnea was the most frequently mentioned (16.9%). Productive cough was the most frequent association (7.2% sisal; 2.8% synthetic; 8.0% cotton), and the association between dyspnea and wheezing the least mentioned (6.4% sisal; 0.5% synthetic; 5.9% cotton). The workers with bronchial symptoms (synthetic fibre and cotton) have more years of exposure and greater smoking habits. In a covariance adjusted for age and smoking habits, the workers with bronchial symptoms, exposed to cotton have more years of exposure.

  12. Respiratory viruses, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in acute exacerbations and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, T; Harper-Owen, R; Bhowmik, A; Moric, I; Sanderson, G; Message, S; Maccallum, P; Meade, T W; Jeffries, D J; Johnston, S L; Wedzicha, J A

    2001-11-01

    The effects of respiratory viral infection on the time course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation were examined by monitoring changes in systemic inflammatory markers in stable COPD and at exacerbation. Eighty-three patients with COPD (mean [SD] age, 66.6 [7.1] yr, FEV(1), 1.06 [0.61] L) recorded daily peak expiratory flow rate and any increases in respiratory symptoms. Nasal samples and blood were taken for respiratory virus detection by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, and plasma fibrinogen and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at stable baseline and exacerbation. Sixty-four percent of exacerbations were associated with a cold occurring up to 18 d before exacerbation. Seventy-seven viruses (39 [58.2%] rhinoviruses) were detected in 66 (39.2%) of 168 COPD exacerbations in 53 (64%) patients. Viral exacerbations were associated with frequent exacerbators, colds with increased dyspnea, a higher total symptom count at presentation, a longer median symptom recovery period of 13 d, and a tendency toward higher plasma fibrinogen and serum IL-6 levels. Non-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) respiratory viruses were detected in 11 (16%), and RSV in 16 (23.5%), of 68 stable COPD patients, with RSV detection associated with higher inflammatory marker levels. Respiratory virus infections are associated with more severe and frequent exacerbations, and may cause chronic infection in COPD. Prevention and early treatment of viral infections may lead to a decreased exacerbation frequency and morbidity associated with COPD.

  13. Risk factors for sensitisation and respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to acid anhydrides: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R. D.; van Tongeren, M. J.; Harris, J. M.; Gardiner, K.; Venables, K. M.; Newman, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between exposure to acid anhydrides and the risk of developing immediate skin prick test responses to acid anhydride human serum albumin (AA-HSA) conjugates or work related respiratory symptoms; to assess whether these relations are modified by atopy or smoking. METHODS: A cohort of 506 workers exposed to phthalic (PA), maleic (MA), and trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was defined. Workers completed questionnaires relating to employment history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking habits. Skin prick tests were done with AA-HSA conjugates and common inhalant allergens. Exposure to acid anhydrides was measured at the time of the survey and a retrospective exposure assessment was done. RESULTS: Information was obtained from 401 (79%) workers. Thirty four (8.8%) had new work related respiratory symptoms that occurred for the first time while working with acid anhydrides and 12 (3.2%) were sensitised, with an immediate skin prick test reaction to AA-HSA conjugates. Sensitisation to acid anhydrides was associated with work related respiratory symptoms and with smoking at the time of exposure to acid anhydride. When all subjects were included and all three acid anhydrides were taken into account there was no consistent evidence for an exposure-response relation, but with the analysis restricted to a factory where only TMA was in use there was an increased prevalence of sensitisation to acid anhydrides and work related respiratory symptoms with increasing full shift exposure. This relation was apparent within the current occupational exposure standard of 40 micrograms.m-3 and was not modified significantly by smoking or atopy. CONCLUSIONS: Intensity of exposure and cigarette smoking may be risk factors for sensitisation to acid anhydrides. Exposure is also a risk factor for respiratory symptoms. As there was evidence for sensitisation to TMA at full shift exposures within the occupational exposure standard this standard should be reviewed.

  14. Economic adversity and depressive symptoms in mothers: Do marital status and perceived social support matter?

    PubMed

    Kingston, Sharon

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that marriage and perhaps other forms of interpersonal support can buffer the negative effects of poverty. The current study tests the hypothesis that marital status, perceived social support and neighborhood collective efficacy can moderate the effects of economic adversity on depressive symptoms among parents. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to analyze data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Participants were 1,957 mothers of minor children. Analysis of main effects revealed associations between neighborhood SES (β = −0.69, SE (0.15), p < .001), family income (β = −0.11, SE (0.05), p = .02) financial strain (β = 0.51, SE (0.18), p = .004), being single (β = 0.63, SE (0.24), p = .009) and perceived social support (β = −0.22, SE (0.03), p < .001) on depressive symptoms. The hypothesis that interpersonal resources can buffer the effects of economic adversity was not supported. There were no significant interactions between marital status and economic adversity. There was a significant interaction between perceived social support and neighborhood level socioeconomic status (β = −0.07, SE (0.03), p = .04) but the effects of social support were weakest in neighborhoods characterized by low socioeconomic status.

  15. Smoking and chronic respiratory symptoms: prevalence in male and female smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Liard, R; Perdrizet, S; Correman, J; Bidou, S

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between respiratory symptoms and smoking habits, according to sex, was studied in 899 adults (average age 39, 55 per cent male) in a Paris industrial medical center. The relative risk of having chronic bronchitis among smokers, compared to nonsmokers, was higher in females (3.3) than in males (1.6). The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, dyspnoea and wheezing was more closely associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day in females than in males. No confounding factor was found to be responsible for these results. PMID:7356091

  16. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections Using Community-Submitted Symptoms and Specimens for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Jennifer; Rowe, Aaron; Brownstein, John S.; Chunara, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory systems for surveillance of acute respiratory infection give real-time information about infections circulating in the community, yet to-date are limited to self-reported syndromic information only and lacking methods of linking symptom reports to infection types. We developed the GoViral platform to evaluate whether a cohort of lay volunteers could, and would find it useful to, contribute self-reported symptoms online and to compare specimen types for self-collected diagnostic information of sufficient quality for respiratory infection surveillance. Volunteers were recruited, given a kit (collection materials and customized instructions), instructed to report their symptoms weekly, and when sick with cold or flu-like symptoms, requested to collect specimens (saliva and nasal swab). We compared specimen types for respiratory virus detection sensitivity (via polymerase-chain-reaction) and ease of collection. Participants were surveyed to determine receptivity to participating when sick, to receiving information on the type of pathogen causing their infection and types circulating near them. Between December 1 2013 and March 1 2014, 295 participants enrolled in the study and received a kit. Of those who reported symptoms, half (71) collected and sent specimens for analysis. Participants submitted kits on average 2.30 days (95 CI: 1.65 to 2.96) after symptoms began. We found good concordance between nasal and saliva specimens for multiple pathogens, with few discrepancies. Individuals report that saliva collection is easiest and report that receiving information about what pathogen they, and those near them, have is valued and can shape public health behaviors. Community-submitted specimens can be used for the detection of acute respiratory infection with individuals showing receptivity for participating and interest in a real-time picture of respiratory pathogens near them. PMID:26075141

  17. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections Using Community-Submitted Symptoms and Specimens for Molecular Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jennifer; Rowe, Aaron; Brownstein, John S; Chunara, Rumi

    2015-05-27

    Participatory systems for surveillance of acute respiratory infection give real-time information about infections circulating in the community, yet to-date are limited to self-reported syndromic information only and lacking methods of linking symptom reports to infection types. We developed the GoViral platform to evaluate whether a cohort of lay volunteers could, and would find it useful to, contribute self-reported symptoms online and to compare specimen types for self-collected diagnostic information of sufficient quality for respiratory infection surveillance. Volunteers were recruited, given a kit (collection materials and customized instructions), instructed to report their symptoms weekly, and when sick with cold or flu-like symptoms, requested to collect specimens (saliva and nasal swab). We compared specimen types for respiratory virus detection sensitivity (via polymerase-chain-reaction) and ease of collection. Participants were surveyed to determine receptivity to participating when sick, to receiving information on the type of pathogen causing their infection and types circulating near them. Between December 1 2013 and March 1 2014, 295 participants enrolled in the study and received a kit. Of those who reported symptoms, half (71) collected and sent specimens for analysis. Participants submitted kits on average 2.30 days (95 CI: 1.65 to 2.96) after symptoms began. We found good concordance between nasal and saliva specimens for multiple pathogens, with few discrepancies. Individuals report that saliva collection is easiest and report that receiving information about what pathogen they, and those near them, have is valued and can shape public health behaviors. Community-submitted specimens can be used for the detection of acute respiratory infection with individuals showing receptivity for participating and interest in a real-time picture of respiratory pathogens near them.

  18. Respiratory Symptoms, Sensitization, and Exposure–Response Relationships in Spray Painters Exposed to Isocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Preller, Liesbeth; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Jonkers, Irene C. L.; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Wouters, Inge M.; Doekes, Gert; Wisnewski, Adam V.; Heederik, Dick

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Associations between oligomeric isocyanate exposure, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of isocyanate oligomers. Objectives: To investigate exposure–response relationships of respiratory symptoms and sensitization in a large population occupationally exposed to isocyanate oligomers during spray painting. Methods: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and sensitization was assessed in 581 workers in the spray-painting industry. Personal exposure was estimated by combining personal task-based inhalatory exposure measurements and time activity information. Specific IgE and IgG to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were assessed in serum by ImmunoCAP assay and enzyme immunoassays using vapor and liquid phase HDI–human serum albumin (HDI–HSA) and HSA conjugates prepared with oligomeric HDI. Measurements and Main Results: Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent in exposed workers than among comparison office workers. Log–linear exposure–response associations were found for asthmalike symptoms, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease–like symptoms, and work-related chest tightness (prevalence ratios for an interquartile range increase in exposure of 1.2, 1.3 and 2.0, respectively; P ⩽ 0.05). The prevalence of specific IgE sensitization was low (up to 4.2% in spray painters). Nevertheless, IgE to N100 (oligomeric HDI)–HSA was associated with exposure and work-related chest tightness. The prevalence of specific IgG was higher (2–50.4%) and strongly associated with exposure. Conclusions: The results provide evidence of exposure–response relationships for both work-related and non–work-related respiratory symptoms and specific sensitization in a population exposed to oligomers of HDI. Specific IgE was found in only a minority of symptomatic individuals. Specific IgG seems to be merely an indicator of exposure. PMID:17656675

  19. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  20. Home Renovation, Family History of Atopy, and Respiratory Symptoms and Asthma Among Children Living in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Chen, Weiqing; Simckes, Maayan; Zelicoff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association of indoor air pollution with the respiratory health of children, we evaluated the associations of children’s respiratory symptoms with asthma and recent home renovation. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a school recruitment sample of 31 049 children aged 2 to 14 years in 25 districts of 7 cities of northeast China in 2008–2009. The children’s parents completed standardized questionnaires characterizing the children’s histories of respiratory symptoms and illness, recent home renovation information, and other associated risk factors. Results. The effects of home renovation in the past 2 years were significantly associated with cough, phlegm, current wheeze, doctor-diagnosed asthma, and current asthma. The associations we computed when combining the status of home renovation and family history of atopy were higher than were those predicted from the combination of the separate effects. However, the interactions between home renovation and family history of atopy on a multiplicative scale were not statistically significant (P > .05). Conclusions. Home renovation is associated with increases in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. The effects of different renovation materials on child respiratory health should be studied further. PMID:24228648

  1. Prevention of occupational respiratory symptoms among certified safe farm intervention participants.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Lange, Jeff L; Kline, Aaron; Rautiainen, Risto H; Grafft, LaMar

    2011-01-01

    Certified Safe Farm (CSF) is a multifaceted intervention including clinical Occupational and wellness screening, education, and on-farm safety audits with set safety standards, and performance incentives. Five years of respiratory health outcomes are reported in 150 CSF intervention farmers and 158 matched controls. Standardized health interviews and occupational histories were analyzed with descriptive statistics to determine prevalence rates. There was a 100% response rate from the standardized telephone interviews, and respectively a 94% and 89 % response rate from the self-administered occupational health history questionnaire for the CSF intervention and the comparison population. The overall rate for occupational respiratory conditions was 17/100 person-years. At baseline there was no difference between the prevalence of respiratory symptoms between the CSF and control groups. However, over the course of the intervention, the CSF farmers increased their use of personal protective respiratory equipment at work, and experienced fewer episodes of acute symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). The Certified Safe Farm intervention appeared to affect increased use of respiratory protection and decreased symptoms of ODTS.

  2. Respiratory symptoms, immunological responses, and aeroallergen concentrations at a sawmill.

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, D M; Graneek, B J; Lacey, J; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Williamson, P A; Venables, K M; Newman Taylor, A J

    1994-01-01

    After identification of a case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to exposure to wood dust at a sawmill, all employees at the sawmill where he worked were studied with an occupational, environmental, and symptom questionnaire, spirometry, skin prick tests, and serum specific IgG measurements. Ninety five of current and 14 of 17 ex-sawmill workers were studied. As a basis for comparison, a group of 58 workers from a nearby light engineering factory were also studied. Few women (6) were employed and they were excluded from the analysis. Workers at the sawmill were stratified into high and low exposure groups depending on their place of work. This division was supported both by their subjective assessment of the dustiness of their environment and the results of personal dust samples. There were no significant differences between the three groups in age, height, smoking habits, exposure to other causes of extrinsic allergic alveolitis, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity, atopic state, or cutaneous reactivity to moulds. In the high exposure group the prevalence of work related cough and nasal and eye symptoms was higher than in the low exposure and comparison groups. The prevalence of work related wheeze was similar in both the high exposure and comparison groups, but was lower in the low exposure group. The prevalences of chronic bronchitis and symptomatic bronchial hyper-reactivity were similar in the high and low exposure groups but were lower in the comparison group. Serum concentrations of specific IgG against extracts of sawdust and Trichoderma koningii were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the other two groups. The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of extrinsic allergic alveolitis was 4.4% in the high exposure group, greater than in the low exposure group (0%), and the comparison group (1.9%). In conclusion extrinsic allergic alveolitis probably occurs in British sawmills, and among the exposed population its

  3. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  4. Brief Report: Social Skills, Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms, and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Emily; Bernier, Raphael; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical models describe respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation and social competence. Recent findings also link RSA to individual differences in social functioning within autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, associations between RSA and symptoms of internalizing/externalizing…

  5. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION DECREMENTS IN HUMANS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short duration exposure to ozone (<8 hr) is known to result in lung function decrements and respiratory symptoms in humans. The magnitudes of these responses are functions of ozone concentration (C), activity level measured by minute ventilation (Ve), duration of exposure (T), a...

  6. Respiratory symptoms associated with the use of azodicarbonamide foaming agent in a plastics injection molding facility.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, L W; Robins, T G; Fine, L J; Hansen, D J

    1987-01-01

    Respiratory health variables were studied cross-sectionally in 227 employees of a plastics molding facility where numerous complaints had been apparently associated with the use of azodicarbonamide foaming agent in injection molding. Pre- and postshift respiratory status measures and azodicarbonamide concentrations were also obtained for 17 employees. Cross-sectional pulmonary function differences by injection molding status were not observed. Modest decrements in pulmonary function measures were observed between start and end of shift but with no dose-effect relationship. A strong association was observed for injection molding workers for eye/nose/throat irritation, cough, and wheezing. Additionally, wheezing, chest tightness, and symptoms of chronic bronchitis were strongly associated with work in injection molding during periods in which azodicarbonamide was in use. These results suggest respiratory symptom causation by some combination of azodicarbonamide itself, reaction products of azodicarbonamide formed during injection molding, or other unidentified agents uniquely associated with the process of injection molding with azodicarbonamide foaming agent.

  7. Are respiratory viruses involved in preseasonal symptoms or severity in Japanese cedar pollinosis?

    PubMed Central

    Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takanashi, Ikuo; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Respiratory virus infections are involved in asthma exacerbations. However, there are no reports of the relationship between respiratory virus infections and Japanese cedar pollinosis. Objective: We studied the relationship between respiratory viral infection and the appearance of preseasonal symptoms and the severity of seasonal symptoms in Japanese cedar pollinosis. Methods: In 36 patients with asthma and with no symptoms (PreAsyP) and 54 patients with asthma and with symptoms (PreSyP) before the cedar pollen shedding commenced (preseason), and 37 patients with mild-to-moderate severity (InMild/Mod) and 45 patients with severe to extreme severity (InSev/Ext) after cedar shedding commenced (in season), the occurrence of respiratory viruses and nasal smear cytology were examined. Results: In total, seven infections with respiratory viruses were detected among the subjects. Human rhinovirus (HRV) C infection was detected in one subject in each of the PreAsyP and PreSyP groups, and one HRVA infection occurred in the InMild/Mod group. In the InSev/Ext group, one HRVA, one HRVC, one respiratory syncytial virus, and one human metapneumovirus were detected. There was no significant difference in the rate of detection of viral infections between the PreAsyP and the PreSyP groups (p = 0.077), and between the InMild/Mod group and the InSev/Ext group (p = 0.24, Wilcoxon rank sum test). When cells types in nasal smears were identified and their abundance examined, the rate of neutrophilia in the subjects in the PreSyP group was 54%, which was statistically higher (p < 0.01) than the subjects in the PreAsyP group (25%). Interestingly, in the subjects in the InSev/Ext group, the proportion of eosinophils (40%) was larger (p < 0.05) than in the subjects in the InMild/Mod group (19%). Conclusion: These results provided no evidence that respiratory virus infections contributed to preseasonal symptoms and severity in season of Japanese cedar pollinosis. Nasal

  8. Lung function and respiratory symptoms among female hairdressers in Palestine: a 5-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nemer, Maysaa; Kristensen, Petter; Nijem, Khaldoun; Bjertness, Espen; Skare, Øivind; Skogstad, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hairdressers are exposed to chemicals at the workplace which are known to cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. This study aimed to examine changes in self-reported respiratory symptoms over 5 years, as well as to examine the lung function decline and determine whether it is within the expected range, to assess the dropout rate and reasons for leaving the profession, and to examine the associations between occupational factors and lung function changes at follow-up. Design Prospective study. Setting Female hairdressing salons in Hebron city, Palestine. Participants 170 female hairdressers who participated in a baseline survey in 2008 were followed up in 2013. A total of 161 participants participated in 2013. Outcome measures Change in reported respiratory symptoms and change in lung function over follow-up. Dropout from the profession and reasons for it. Differences between current and former hairdressers in respiratory symptoms and lung function at follow-up. Ambient air ammonia levels in 13 salons. Results Current hairdressers reported more respiratory symptoms in 2013 compared with baseline. Former hairdressers reported fewer symptoms at follow-up. At follow-up, current hairdressers showed a significant decrease in forced vital capacity of 35 mL/year (95% CI 26 to 44 mL/year) and of 31 mL/year (95% CI 25 to 36 mL/year) for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). 28 (16%) of the hairdressers quit the job during the 5-year follow-up, 8 (28%) because of health problems. Hairdressers who had been working for 4 years or more at baseline showed a stronger decline in FEV1 compared with those who worked less than 4 years (difference 13, 95% CI 1 to 25). Conclusions Current hairdressers developed more respiratory symptoms and larger lung function decline than former hairdressers during follow-up. Few hairdressers left their profession because of respiratory health problems. Working for more years is associated with lung function decline among

  9. Respiratory symptoms and spirometry in experienced coal miners: effects of both distant and recent coal mine dust exposures.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, P K; Attfield, M D

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether respiratory symptoms were associated with the lower concentrations of respirable coal mine dust that were required by the U.S. Coal Mine Health and Safety Act (CMHSA) of 1969. The subjects were 1,866 male miners who had participated in the National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (NSCWP) and been tested at least twice, initially in either Round 1 (R1) (1969-71) or Round 2 (R2) (1972-75) and then finally in Round 4 (R4) (1985-88). Self-reported information elicited with a standardized questionnaire was used to determine the presence at the final round (i.e., R4) of chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, and wheeze. Cumulative coal mine dust exposure was characterized for both the pre- and post-CMHSA periods. Controlling for age and other potential confounders, increased risks for the symptoms were associated with higher levels of both measurements of exposure. Moreover, the adverse effects of the lower, post-CMHSA exposure were evident for shortness of breath and wheeze especially among subjects who had little pre-CMHSA coal mining experience. These findings provide additional evidence of the limitations of the current 2.0 mg/m3 coal mine dust standard to prevent respiratory disease.

  10. The expert network and electronic portal for children with respiratory and allergic symptoms: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Data on baseline characteristics of children with asthma to predict individual treatment responses are lacking. We aimed to set up a data-collection system which can easily fill this gap in clinical practice. A web-based application was developed, named 'Portal for children with respiratory and allergic symptoms', hereafter called Electronic Portal (EP). It contains health- and disease-related questionnaires on respiratory- and allergic diseases. All patients, 1–18 years of age, with respiratory- and/or allergic complaints are invited to enter the EP before their first visit. By using the EP large amounts of data, gathered during routine patient care can be used for research purposes. This may help to further investigate the different treatment related asthma phenotypes and will be helpful to monitor risk factors for other atopic diseases and respiratory infections. PMID:23324209

  11. Dust exposure, respiratory symptoms, and longitudinal decline of lung function in young coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Carta, P; Aru, G; Barbieri, M T; Avataneo, G; Casula, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the role of dust exposure on incidence of respiratory symptoms and decline of lung function in young coal miners. METHODS: The loss of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow (MEF), carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO)) with time and the incidence of respiratory symptoms in 909 Sardinian coal miners (followed up between 1983 and 1993 with seven separate surveys) has been compared with the past and current individual exposures to respirable mixed coal dust. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used simultaneously controlling for age, smoking, past occupational exposures, and other relevant covariates. RESULTS: According to the relatively low dust exposures experienced during the follow up few abnormal chest x ray films were detected. In the cross sectional analysis of initial data, significant associations between individual cumulative exposure to dust, decrements in FEV1 and MEFs, and increasing prevalence of respiratory symptoms were detected after allowing for the covariates included in the model. The yearly decline of FVC, FEV1, and single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO/VA) was still significantly related to the individual exposure to dust experienced during the follow up, even after allowing for age, smoking, initial cumulative exposure to dust, and initial level of each functional variable. In logistic models, dust exposure was a significant predictor of the onset of respiratory symptoms besides age and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that even moderate exposures to mixed coal dust, as in our study, significantly affect lung function and incidence of symptoms of underground miners. Although the frequency of chest x ray examination might be fixed at every three or four years, yearly measurements of lung function (spirometry, MEFs, and TLCO) are recommended for evaluation of the respiratory risk from the coal mine environment to

  12. Indoor air microbes and respiratory symptoms of children in moisture damaged and reference schools.

    PubMed

    Meklin, T; Husman, T; Vepsäläinen, A; Vahteristo, M; Koivisto, J; Halla-Aho, J; Hyvärinen, A; Moschandreas, D; Nevalainen, A

    2002-09-01

    Microbial indoor air quality and respiratory symptoms of children were studied in 24 schools with visible moisture and mold problems, and in eight non-damaged schools. School buildings of concrete/brick and wooden construction were included. The indoor environment investigations included technical building inspections for visible moisture signs and microbial sampling using six-stage impactor for viable airborne microbes. Children's health information was collected by questionnaires. The effect of moisture damage on concentrations of fungi was clearly seen in buildings of concrete/brick construction, but not in wooden school buildings. Occurrence of Cladosporium, Aspergillus versicolor, Stachybotrys, and actinobacteria showed some indicator value for moisture damage. Presence of moisture damage in school buildings was a significant risk factor for respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren. Association between moisture damage and respiratory symptoms of children was significant for buildings of concrete/brick construction but not for wooden school buildings. The highest symptom prevalence was found during spring seasons, after a long exposure period in damaged schools. The results emphasize the importance of the building frame as a determinant of exposure and symptoms.

  13. Relation between respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function and peak flow variability in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Boezen, H. M.; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D. S.; Rijcken, B.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A study was carried out to determine whether subjects with respiratory symptoms are more likely to have impaired lung function or increased airway lability, and to quantify these relationships in a population of adults. METHODS--Data were collected from 511 participants (aged 20-70 years) from the Dutch part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). The symptoms analysed were: wheeze, dyspnoea > or = grade 3, nocturnal dyspnoea, cough and phlegm, and history of allergy. Lung function was measured by peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). PEF variability was used as an index for bronchial lability. RESULTS--Both FEV1 and PEF were decreased with increasing numbers of symptoms. Subjects with one symptom had an increased risk of having an FEV1 value of < 70% (OR = 4.2) and this risk increased with an increasing number of symptoms. Subjects with three or more symptoms had an increased risk of having a PEF value of < 70%, a diurnal variation in PEF of > 10% (both OR = 4.4), and an increased risk of high between day variation (OR = 6.6). CONCLUSIONS--Subject-reported symptoms are related to impaired lung function and to increased variability of peak flow. PMID:7701448

  14. Newly Reported Respiratory Symptoms and Conditions Among Military Personnel Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: A Prospective Population-Based Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    of breath), 2) chronic bronchitis or emphysema , and 3) asthma . Deployers had a higher rate of newly reported respiratory symptoms than nondeployers (14...vs. 10%), while similar rates of chronic bronchitis or emphysema (1% vs. 1%) and asthma (1% vs. 1%) were observed. Deployment was associated with...respiratory outcomes: 1) respiratory symptoms (persistent or recurring cough or shortness of breath), 2) chronic bronchitis or emphysema , and 3) asthma

  15. Effects of Extended-Release Guanfacine on ADHD Symptoms and Sedation-Related Adverse Events in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Guanfacine extended release (GXR) is a selective alpha[subscript 2A]-adrenoceptor agonist that is shown to be an effective nonstimulant treatment for the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This report documents the time course and predictors of symptom efficacy and sedation-related adverse events (AEs) that emerge…

  16. Factors relating to the development of respiratory symptoms in coffee process workers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K E; Trigg, C J; Baxter, P J; Topping, M; Lacey, J; Crook, B; Whitehead, P; Bennett, J B; Davies, R J

    1991-05-01

    After several cases of occupational asthma had been reported in a coffee processing factory in England, 197 coffee workers representing 80% of the production workforce were studied to determine the factors affecting the development of work related respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, and dyspnoea. Two computer administered questionnaires concerning the presence of respiratory symptoms and the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms were used. Workers underwent skin prick testing to green coffee bean extract (GCB) and 11 common inhalant allergen extracts and bronchial provocation testing with methacholine. The presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to GCB and castor bean extract (CAB) were determined by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST). The prevalence of work related respiratory symptoms was 12.7%, bronchial hyperresponsiveness 30%, atopy 54%, positive GCB skin prick test 14.7%, positive GCB RAST 14%, and positive CAB RAST 14.7%. None of the workers was sensitised to fungi present in the factory and the numbers of certain species of fungi, despite being greater than may be found out of doors or in an uncontaminated indoor environment, were fewer than are generally associated with the presence of work related respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers. Storage mites were not isolated. Green coffee bean extract and CAB RAST were significantly correlated using the McNemar test but there was limited allergenic cross reactivity in RAST inhibition studies of the two extracts. The only factors that were significantly and independently associated with work related symptoms were CAB RAST and duration of employment. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not independently associated with work related respiratory symptoms. The significant independent associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness included GCB RAST, duration of employment, and resting forced expiratory volume in one second. Exposure to CAB, a highly potent antigen, may be overriding

  17. Factors relating to the development of respiratory symptoms in coffee process workers.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K E; Trigg, C J; Baxter, P J; Topping, M; Lacey, J; Crook, B; Whitehead, P; Bennett, J B; Davies, R J

    1991-01-01

    After several cases of occupational asthma had been reported in a coffee processing factory in England, 197 coffee workers representing 80% of the production workforce were studied to determine the factors affecting the development of work related respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, and dyspnoea. Two computer administered questionnaires concerning the presence of respiratory symptoms and the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms were used. Workers underwent skin prick testing to green coffee bean extract (GCB) and 11 common inhalant allergen extracts and bronchial provocation testing with methacholine. The presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to GCB and castor bean extract (CAB) were determined by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST). The prevalence of work related respiratory symptoms was 12.7%, bronchial hyperresponsiveness 30%, atopy 54%, positive GCB skin prick test 14.7%, positive GCB RAST 14%, and positive CAB RAST 14.7%. None of the workers was sensitised to fungi present in the factory and the numbers of certain species of fungi, despite being greater than may be found out of doors or in an uncontaminated indoor environment, were fewer than are generally associated with the presence of work related respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers. Storage mites were not isolated. Green coffee bean extract and CAB RAST were significantly correlated using the McNemar test but there was limited allergenic cross reactivity in RAST inhibition studies of the two extracts. The only factors that were significantly and independently associated with work related symptoms were CAB RAST and duration of employment. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not independently associated with work related respiratory symptoms. The significant independent associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness included GCB RAST, duration of employment, and resting forced expiratory volume in one second. Exposure to CAB, a highly potent antigen, may be overriding

  18. Peripheral eosinophilia and respiratory symptoms in rubber injection press operators: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R J; Bascom, R; Yang, W N; Fisher, J F; Baser, M E; Greenhut, J; Baker, J H

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate a suspected association between an outbreak of acute respiratory illness and eosinophilia and employment as a rubber worker, we performed a retrospective review of medical records of rubber workers employed from September 1983 to July 1984 in a plant housing a thermoinjection process. Twenty-five workers met the case definition of a respiratory illness requiring a physician visit. The predominant respiratory illness was acute in onset with cough, chest tightness, and dyspnea. Peripheral eosinophilia, up to 40% of white blood cells in a peripheral smear, was seen in 10 of 18 (56%) cases. Twenty-one of 25 white males with respiratory symptoms were employed in the thermoinjection process (odds ratio = 22, p less than .001). Smoking and employment in this process contributed independently to an increased risk of being a case as determined by a logistic regression analysis. Return to the plant building caused recurrence of symptoms in most cases, and these workers have been transferred or left the company. We conclude that a strong previously unrecognized association exists between employment in this neoprene rubber thermoinjection process and the development of an acute respiratory illness.

  19. Residence Near a Major Road and Respiratory Symptoms in U.S. Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Caron, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Background There is evidence that exposure to motor vehicle exhaust is associated with respiratory disease. Studies in children have observed associations with wheeze, hospital admissions for asthma, and decrements in pulmonary function. However, a relationship of adult respiratory disease with exposure to vehicular traffic has not been established. Methods We studied a sample of U.S. male veterans drawn from the general population of southeastern Massachusetts. Information on respiratory symptoms and potential risk factors was collected by questionnaire. We assessed distance from residential addresses to major roadways using geographic information system methodology. Results Adjusting for cigarette smoking, age, and occupational exposure to dust, men living within 50 m of a major roadway were more likely to report persistent wheeze (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.7) compared with those living more than 400 m away. The risk was observed only for those living within 50 m of heavily trafficked roads (≥10,000 vehicles/24 h): OR = 1.7; CI = 1.2–2.4). The risk of patients experiencing chronic phlegm while living on heavily trafficked roads also increased (OR = 1.4; CI = 1.0–2.0), although there was little evidence for an association with chronic cough. This association was not dependent on preexisting doctor-diagnosed chronic respiratory or heart disease. Conclusions Exposure to vehicular emissions by living near busy roadways might contribute to symptoms of chronic respiratory disease in adults. PMID:14569190

  20. The association of respiratory symptoms and indoor housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in eastern North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Gregory D.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.; Talton, Jennifer; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A.; Summers, Phillip; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Farm labor housing has been described as among the worst in the nation, oftentimes with poor and unsanitary, indoor living conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between indoor environmental risk factors and respiratory health among migrant farmworker occupants (N=352) living in employer-provided housing. A cross-sectional sample of adult, Latino male farm laborers were administered a questionnaire to identify the prevalence of major respiratory symptoms. Self-reported and independent observations were made to evaluate environmental respiratory risk factors and indoor housing conditions, including but not limited to, the presence of cockroaches, rodents, pesticides, and visible signs of mold. Spirometry was performed to evaluate lung function using FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Bivariate analysis was applied to evaluate associations between respiratory symptoms and selected indoor environmental risk factors. Findings for respiratory health included, prevalence of wheeze (11.4%), coughing up phlegm (17.3%), tightness of chest (16.8%) and runny or stuffy nose (34.4%). Respiratory risks identified inside the dwellings included, the use of pesticides or bug sprays for cockroaches (31.5%), rat or mouse poison (19.5%), visible signs of water damage in the bathroom (22.5%) and mold in the sleeping room (11.1%). Spirometry values were normal for most occupants, although statistically significant associations were found between; mold and coughing up phlegm when not having a cold (p=0.0262); presence of mold and asthma (p=0.0084); pesticides used in the home and tightness of chest (p=0.0001) and, use of tobacco and coughing up phlegm (p=0.0131). Although causal inference can be difficult to establish from a cross sectional study, findings from this study represents suggestive evidence that indoor environmental risk factors may be contributory factors for respiratory health problems among this vulnerable population. PMID:25275405

  1. The association of respiratory symptoms and indoor housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Chatterjee, Arjun B; Talton, Jennifer; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A; Summers, Phillip; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Farm labor housing has been described as among the worst in the nation, oftentimes with poor and unsanitary indoor living conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between indoor environmental risk factors and respiratory health among migrant farmworker occupants (N = 352) living in employer-provided housing. A cross-sectional sample of adult Latino male farm laborers were administered a questionnaire to identify the prevalence of major respiratory symptoms. Self-reported and independent observations were made to evaluate environmental respiratory risk factors and indoor housing conditions, including but not limited to, the presence of cockroaches, rodents, pesticides, and visible signs of mold. Spirometry was performed to evaluate lung function using FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FVC (forced vital capacity), and FEV1 /FVC ratio. Bivariate analysis was applied to evaluate associations between respiratory symptoms and selected indoor environmental risk factors. Findings for respiratory health included prevalence of wheeze (11.4%), coughing up phlegm (17.3%), tightness of chest (16.8%), and runny or stuffy nose (34.4%). Respiratory risks identified inside the dwellings included the use of pesticides or bug sprays for cockroaches (31.5%), rat or mouse poison (19.5%), visible signs of water damage in the bathroom (22.5%), and mold in the sleeping room (11.1%). Spirometry values were normal for most occupants, although statistically significant associations were found between mold and coughing up phlegm when not having a cold (P = .0262); presence of mold and asthma (P = .0084); pesticides used in the home and tightness of chest (P = .0001); and use of tobacco and coughing up phlegm (P = .0131). Although causal inference can be difficult to establish from a cross-sectional study, findings from this study represents suggestive evidence that indoor environmental risk factors may be contributory factors for respiratory health

  2. Occupation and the Prevalence of Respiratory Health Symptoms and Conditions: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; London, Stephanie J.; Charles, Luenda E.; Pompeii, Lisa A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations between occupation and respiratory health in a large, population-based cohort of adults in the United States. Methods Data from 15,273 participants, aged 45-64 years, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study were used to examine associations of current or most recent job held with the prevalence of self-reported chronic cough, chronic bronchitis, wheeze, asthma, and measures of lung function collected by spirometry. Results Eleven percent of participants reported wheeze and 9% were classified as having airway obstruction. Compared to individuals in managerial and administrative jobs, increased prevalences of respiratory outcomes were observed among participants in selected occupations, including construction and extractive trades (wheeze: prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35, 2.73; airway obstruction: PR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.65). Conclusions Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. PMID:22157701

  3. Respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in apparently healthy workers exposed to flour dust.

    PubMed

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Kolopp, M N; Toamain, J P

    1994-06-01

    Our aim was to measure the levels of exposure to wheat flour dust in a modern industrial bakery, and to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms, sensitization to wheat flour antigens and airway responsiveness in the workforce. Forty four flour-exposed male workers and 164 unexposed controls were examined. Inspirable dust concentrations were measured using personal samplers. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, sensitization to wheat flour antigens by skin-prick tests, and methacholine airway challenge (MAC) test using an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MAC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by 20% or more. The linear dose-response slope (DRS) was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at last dose divided by the total dose administered. Inspirable dust concentrations were within acceptable limits in all working areas but one. The proportion of subjects with one or more symptoms and with airway hyperresponsiveness was significantly greater among flour-exposed workers than among controls. Using logistic or linear regression analysis, airway responsiveness was found to be strongly related to working at the bakery and to the baseline level of lung function. A positive skin-prick test was found in only 11% of flour-exposed workers and 6% of controls. In conclusion, our data show that despite exposure to relatively low concentration levels of inspirable flour dust, subjects working in the baking industry are at risk of developing both respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness.

  4. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and asthma prevalence in a U.S.-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Stephen, George A; McRill, Cheryl; Mack, Maura D; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Flood, Timothy J; Lebowitz, Michael D

    2003-03-01

    The authors studied children who were 10-12 yr of age and who resided in sister cities in a U.S.-Mexico border region to determine the prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms. The relationship of symptoms to ambient levels of particulate matter less than 10 microm in diameter (PM10), and to several indoor environmental conditions, was assessed. The study was conducted in the border cities of Ambos Nogales (Nogales, Arizona [United States], and Nogales, Sonora [Mexico]). At the beginning of the 11-wk study, during the autumn of 1996, 631 students and their parents completed baseline questionnaires. While in school, the children completed daily symptom diaries and daily peak expiratory flow maneuvers. PM10 values and daily temperatures were also measured. The authors found that the prevalence of self-reported asthma among 5th-grade students was comparable on both sides of the border (i.e., 7.6% on the Arizona side and 6.9% on the Sonora side). Wheezing was a frequent complaint (29.5-35.6%), as was cough (16.8-29.6%). Smoking in the home was common on both sides of the border, and it was associated with a greater occurrence of self-reported asthma and respiratory complaints. Increased respiratory symptoms were also associated with increased ambient PM10 levels. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing and frequent cough among all children in this study, combined with the limitations inherent in self-reporting, suggest that asthma may actually be more prevalent than has been previously reported.

  5. The relationship of cumulative and proximal adversity to onset of substance dependence symptoms in two American Indian communities

    PubMed Central

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M.; Keane, Ellen M.; Spicer, Paul; Turner, R. Jay

    2007-01-01

    The proximal and distal effects of adversity on the onset of symptoms of substance dependence during adolescence were explored in two culturally distinct American Indian (AI) reservation communities (Northern Plains and Southwest). Data (N=3,084) were from the American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP). The age-related risk of symptom onset increased gradually from age 11 through age 16, remained relatively high through age 18, then declined rapidly. Both tribe and gender were related to onset of dependence symptoms; men and Northern Plains tribal members were at greatest risk and Southwest women were at particularly low risk of symptom onset across adolescence. For all tribe and gender groups, both proximal and cumulative distal experiences of adversity were associated with substantially increased risk of symptom onset. The relationship of adversity to onset of substance dependence symptoms remained strong when previous symptoms of psychiatric disorder and childhood conduct problems were considered. These findings suggest that efforts to help children and adolescents in AI communities develop constructive mechanisms for coping with adversity may be especially valuable in substance dependence prevention. PMID:17640829

  6. Respiratory Symptoms due to Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde and MDF Dust in a MDF Furniture Factory in Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate factors associated with respiratory symptoms in workers in a medium-density fiberboard (MDF) furniture factory in Eastern Thailand. Data were collected from 439 employees exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust using questionnaire and personal sampler (Institute of Occupational Medicine; IOM). The average concentration of formaldehyde from MDF dust was 2.62 ppm (SD 367), whereas the average concentration of MDF dust itself was 7.67 mg/m(3) (SD 3.63). Atopic allergic history was a factor associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among the workers exposed to formaldehyde and were associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among those exposed to MDF dust. Exposure to MDF dust at high level (>5 mg/m(3)) was associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms. Excluding allergic workers from the study population produced the same kind of results in the analysis as in all workers. The symptoms were associated with the high concentrations of formaldehyde and MDF dust in this factory. If the concentration of MDF dust was >5 mg/m(3), the risk of irritation and allergic symptoms in the respiratory system increased. The respiratory health of the employees with atopic allergic history exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust should be monitored closely.

  7. Respiratory Symptoms due to Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde and MDF Dust in a MDF Furniture Factory in Eastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate factors associated with respiratory symptoms in workers in a medium-density fiberboard (MDF) furniture factory in Eastern Thailand. Data were collected from 439 employees exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust using questionnaire and personal sampler (Institute of Occupational Medicine; IOM). The average concentration of formaldehyde from MDF dust was 2.62 ppm (SD 367), whereas the average concentration of MDF dust itself was 7.67 mg/m3 (SD 3.63). Atopic allergic history was a factor associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among the workers exposed to formaldehyde and were associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among those exposed to MDF dust. Exposure to MDF dust at high level (>5 mg/m3) was associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms. Excluding allergic workers from the study population produced the same kind of results in the analysis as in all workers. The symptoms were associated with the high concentrations of formaldehyde and MDF dust in this factory. If the concentration of MDF dust was >5 mg/m3, the risk of irritation and allergic symptoms in the respiratory system increased. The respiratory health of the employees with atopic allergic history exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust should be monitored closely. PMID:28119784

  8. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria-Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Texcalac, Jose-Luis; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR) of PM2.5 (24-h average) was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%); an increase of 34 ppb (IQR) of NO2 (1-h maximum) was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4%) and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR) in O3 levels (1 hr maximum) to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%). Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average). Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles. PMID:19014608

  9. Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Moshammer, Hanns Michael; Kundi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in Punjab, Pakistan. Respiratory symptoms of 800 workers were documented by questionnaire. Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured. Results Prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough) was generally high and highest in the weaving section of the cotton industry (20–40% depending on symptoms). This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m3 in compact units). In contrast, endotoxin levels were highest in the spinning section (median 1521 EU/m3), where high humidity is maintained. Conclusions There are still poor working conditions in the cotton industry in Pakistan where workers are exposed to different occupational hazards. More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms). There is a dire need for improvements in occupational health and safety in this industrial sector with particular focus on power looms. PMID:25838509

  10. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  11. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvholm, B.; Bake, B.; Lavenius, B.; Thiringer, G.; Vokmann, R.

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  12. [Respiratory symptoms caused by the use of electrocautery in physicians being trained in surgery in a Mexican hospital].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Meza, María Cristina; González-Baltazar, Raquel; Aldrete-Rodríguez, María Guadalupe; Carmona-Navarro, David Enrique; López-Cardona, María Guadalupe

    2013-03-01

    In order to determine the frequency of respiratory symptoms among residents from surgical specialties dures exposed to the electrocautery smoke, a cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2012. 50 third-year residents from different surgical specialties coming from a third-level hospital belonging to the Institute of Security and Social Services of the State Workers in Jalisco, Mexico, were included. The subject selection was non-probabilistic. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms developed in Cuba was used for data collection. The most common symptoms were sensation of a lump in the throat (58%), and a sore throat (22%). The specialty with the highest rate of exposure was neurosurgery (24.1 min/surgical procedure). All, the physicians from this specialty had respiratory symptoms. We conclude that the cauterization smoke may be considered a risk for developing respiratory symptoms among physicians with surgical specialties.

  13. Fertilizer use and self-reported respiratory and dermal symptoms among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.].

  14. Nxwisen, ntzarrin or ntzo'lin? Mapping children's respiratory symptoms among indigenous populations in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lisa; Diaz, Janet; Jenny, Alisa; Diaz, Anaite; Bruce, Nigel; Balmes, John

    2007-10-01

    Estimating the prevalence of asthma is an epidemiologic challenge, particularly in rural areas of lesser-developed countries characterized by low literacy and poor access to health care. To avoid under or over reporting of symptoms, questionnaires must use terminology familiar to participants and that accurately describes the triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness characteristic of asthma. In preparation for a large longitudinal cohort study entitled Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) that will examine the effects of variable early lifetime woodsmoke exposure on the respiratory health of Mam-speaking children residing in communities in the western highlands of Guatemala, we conducted individual interviews (n=18) and five focus groups (n=46) with indigenous women from 17 of these communities to elicit and define local Mam and Spanish terms for common respiratory symptoms used to describe their own and their children's respiratory symptoms. Focus group participants were also shown an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video of wheezing children and adults. We developed a conceptual framework that can be used as an efficient model for future studies investigating health and/or disease terminology in isolated communities, an integral step in the development of standardized questionnaires. Among this Mam-speaking population, wheeze was best described as nxwisen or ntzarrin, "breathing sounds that are heard in the neck but come from the chest." The variation in understanding of terms between women with and without children with a history of wheeze (such that for those without wheezing children some terms were virtually unrecognized), has important implications for large-scale population surveys within countries and comparative surveys such as ISAAC. It is important to use linguistically and culturally appropriate terminology to describe wheeze in prevalence studies of

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy and Respiratory Symptoms in Children

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Navarro-Olivos, Efraín; Sly, Peter D.; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can act as an adjuvant in the development of the immune system and affect the inflammatory response of neonates. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We randomly assigned 1,094 pregnant women (18-35 years of age) to receive 400 mg/d of algal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks of gestation through delivery. Birth outcomes and respiratory symptoms information until 18 months were available for 869 mother-child pairs. Questionnaires were administered, and maternal blood samples were obtained at baseline. Maternal atopy was based on specific IgE levels. During follow-up, information on infants’ respiratory symptoms was collected through questionnaires administered at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Negative binomial regression models were used to evaluate the effect of supplementation on respiratory symptoms in infants. RESULTS: Among infants of atopic mothers, a statistically significant protective effect of DHA treatment was observed on phlegm with nasal discharge or nasal congestion (0.78; 95% CI, 0.60-1.02) and fever with phlegm and nasal discharge or nasal congestion (0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.99), adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that DHA supplementation during pregnancy may decrease the incidence of respiratory symptoms in children with a history of maternal atopy. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00646360; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:24626819

  16. Fine Particulate Matter in Urban Environments: A Trigger of Respiratory Symptoms in Sensitive Children

    PubMed Central

    Dunea, Daniel; Iordache, Stefania; Pohoata, Alin

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to study children’s respiratory illness levels in Targoviste (Romania) in relationship to the outdoor concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5). We monitored and analysed the PM2.5 concentrations according to a complex experimental protocol. The health trial was conducted over three months (October–December 2015) and required the active cooperation of the children’s parents to monitor carefully the respiratory symptoms of the child, i.e., coughing, rhinorrhoea, wheezing, and fever, as well as their outdoor program. We selected the most sensitive children (n = 25; age: 2–10 years) with perturbed respiratory health, i.e., wheezing, asthma, and associated symptoms. The estimated average PM2.5 doses were 0.8–14.5 µg·day−1 for weekdays, and 0.4–6.6 µg·day−1 for the weekend. The frequency and duration of the symptoms decreased with increasing age. The 4- to 5-year old children recorded the longest duration of symptoms, except for rhinorrhoea, which suggested that this age interval is the most vulnerable to exogenous trigger agents (p < 0.01) compared to the other age groups. PM2.5 air pollution was found to have a direct positive correlation with the number of wheezing episodes (r = 0.87; p < 0.01) in November 2015. Monitoring of wheezing occurrences in the absence of fever can provide a reliable assessment of the air pollution effect on the exacerbation of asthma and respiratory disorders in sensitive children. PMID:27983715

  17. Household Crowding, Social Mixing Patterns and Respiratory Symptoms in Seven Countries of the African Meningitis Belt

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Claire F.; Trotter, Caroline L.; Nascimento, Maria C.; Jusot, Jean-François; Omotara, Babatunji A.; Hodgson, Abraham; Ali, Oumer; Alavo, Serge; Sow, Samba; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Stuart, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the variation in household crowding and social mixing patterns in the African meningitis belt and to assess any association with self-reported recent respiratory symptoms. Methods In 2010, the African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium (MenAfriCar) conducted cross-sectional surveys in urban and rural areas of seven countries. The number of household members, rooms per household, attendance at social gatherings and meeting places were recorded. Associations with self-reported recent respiratory symptoms were analysed by univariate and multivariate regression models. Results The geometric mean people per room ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 between Ghana and Ethiopia respectively. Attendance at different types of social gatherings was variable by country, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 per week. Those who attended 3 or more different types of social gatherings a week (frequent mixers) were more likely to be older, male (OR 1.27, p<0.001) and live in urban areas (OR 1.45, p<0.001). Frequent mixing and young age, but not increased household crowding, were associated with higher odds of self-reported respiratory symptoms (aOR 2.2, p<0.001 and OR 2.8, p<0.001 respectively). A limitation is that we did not measure school and workplace attendance. Conclusion There are substantial variations in household crowding and social mixing patterns across the African meningitis belt. This study finds a clear association between age, increased social mixing and respiratory symptoms. It lays the foundation for designing and implementing more detailed studies of social contact patterns in this region. PMID:24988195

  18. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study.

  19. Particulate Matter and Respiratory Symptoms among Adults Living in Windhoek, Namibia: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamatui, Ndinomholo; Beynon, Caryl

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to assess respiratory health risks associated with Particulate Matter (PM) exposure among the residents of Windhoek, Namibia. Objectives: To measure particulate pollution concentration in Windhoek through monitoring of particulate matter concentration and to identify any associations between particulate pollution, individual location, and respiratory health among the Windhoek resident’s. Methods: an adapted standardized self-administered questionnaire was used to collect respiratory health related data as well as previous exposure, while PM monitoring was done using the ASTM (American Standard Test Method) D1739 reference method. Results: A high prevalence was observed for cough (43%), breathlessness (25%), and asthma (11.2%). PM was found to be a significant risk factor for episodes of coughing and phlegm, while high PM exposure category had an increased odds ratio (OR) for episodes of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.5, 95% CI (95% confidence intervals): 0.8–8.0). No association was observed between location and respiratory health outcomes. Conclusions: The study found high levels of PM concentration across all Windhoek suburbs which were above the German, American, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Enactment of legislation relating to the control and monitoring of PM related emissions at the point of generation is required at both a country and city level. PMID:28125028

  20. Indoor nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms and lung function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, D; Leaderer, B; Chinn, S; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important pollutant of indoor and outdoor air, but epidemiological studies show inconsistent health effects. These inconsistencies may be due to failure to account for the health effects of nitrous acid (HONO) which is generated directly from gas combustion and indirectly from NO2. Methods: Two hundred and seventy six adults provided information on respiratory symptoms and lung function and had home levels of NO2 and HONO measured as well as outdoor levels of NO2. The association of indoor HONO levels with symptoms and lung function was examined. Results: The median indoor HONO level was 3.10 ppb (IQR 2.05–5.09), with higher levels in homes with gas hobs, gas ovens, and in those measured during the winter months. Non-significant increases in respiratory symptoms were observed in those living in homes with higher HONO levels. An increase of 1 ppb in indoor HONO was associated with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage predicted (–0.96%; 95% CI –0.09 to –1.82) and a decrease in percentage FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (–0.45%; 95% CI –0.06 to –0.83) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Measures of indoor NO2 were correlated with HONO (r = 0.77), but no significant association of indoor NO2 with symptoms or lung function was observed. After adjustment for NO2 measures, the association of HONO with low lung function persisted. Conclusion: Indoor HONO levels are associated with decrements in lung function and possibly with more respiratory symptoms. Inconsistencies between studies examining health effects of NO2 and use of gas appliances may be related to failure to account for this association. PMID:15923247

  1. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  2. Respiratory Paradoxical Adverse Drug Reactions Associated with Acetylcysteine and Carbocysteine Systemic Use in Paediatric Patients: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Bavoux, Françoise; Boyer-Gervoise, Marie-José; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Chalumeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine) that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. Design The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. Setting Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. Patients The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg) and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. Results The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old) were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27), worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35), dyspnoea (n = 18), cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11), and bronchospasm (n = 1). Fifty-one (86%) children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. Conclusion Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence. PMID:21818391

  3. Airway hyperresponsiveness, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, and lung function in workers exposed to irritants.

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, A M; Pal, T M; Boleij, J S; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic fibre plants. Respiratory symptoms were recorded with a self administered Dutch version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, with additional questions on allergy. Airway responsiveness was measured by a 30 second tidal breathing histamine challenge test. On the basis of job titles and working department, the current state of exposure of all workers was characterised as (1) no exposure, reference group; (2) white collar workers; (3) SO2 HCl, SO4(2); (4) polyester vapour; (5) oil mist and vapour; (6) polyamide and polyester vapour; (7) multiple exposure. Workers exposed to airway irritants were not simultaneously exposed to airborne dust. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at < or = 32 mg/ml histamine, was present in 23% of the subjects. The association between exposure groups and prevalence of symptoms was estimated by means of multiple logistic regression; the association with level of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF)) was estimated by means of multiple linear regression. Both methods allow simultaneous adjustment for potential confounding factors. The exposure groups were associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lower prevalence of symptoms was found for workers exposed to SO2, HCl, and SO4(2-), most likely due to pre-employment selection procedures. Current smoking, AHR, and a history of allergy were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, independent of each other, and independent of irritant exposure. The association between exposure and prevalence of

  4. Airway hyperresponsiveness, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, and lung function in workers exposed to irritants.

    PubMed

    Kremer, A M; Pal, T M; Boleij, J S; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic fibre plants. Respiratory symptoms were recorded with a self administered Dutch version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, with additional questions on allergy. Airway responsiveness was measured by a 30 second tidal breathing histamine challenge test. On the basis of job titles and working department, the current state of exposure of all workers was characterised as (1) no exposure, reference group; (2) white collar workers; (3) SO2 HCl, SO4(2); (4) polyester vapour; (5) oil mist and vapour; (6) polyamide and polyester vapour; (7) multiple exposure. Workers exposed to airway irritants were not simultaneously exposed to airborne dust. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at < or = 32 mg/ml histamine, was present in 23% of the subjects. The association between exposure groups and prevalence of symptoms was estimated by means of multiple logistic regression; the association with level of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF)) was estimated by means of multiple linear regression. Both methods allow simultaneous adjustment for potential confounding factors. The exposure groups were associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lower prevalence of symptoms was found for workers exposed to SO2, HCl, and SO4(2-), most likely due to pre-employment selection procedures. Current smoking, AHR, and a history of allergy were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, independent of each other, and independent of irritant exposure. The association between exposure and prevalence of

  5. Indicators of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S. office buildings as risk factors for respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms: analyses of the EPA BASE data.

    PubMed

    Mendell, Mark J; Cozen, Myrna; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Brightman, Howard S; Erdmann, Christine A; Girman, John R; Womble, Susan E

    2006-05-01

    We assessed associations between indicators for moisture in office buildings and weekly, building-related lower respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms in office workers, using the U.S. EPA BASE data, collected in a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings. We estimated the strength of associations between the symptom outcomes and moisture indicators in multivariate logistic regression models as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for potential confounding factors and adjusting for correlation among workers in buildings. This analysis identified associations between building-related symptoms and several indicators of moisture or contamination in office buildings. One set of models showed almost a tripling of weekly building-related lower respiratory symptoms in association with lack of cleaning of the drip pans under air-conditioning cooling coils (OR [CI] = 2.8 (1.2-6.5)). Other models found that lack of cleaning of either drip pans or cooling coils was associated with increased mucous membrane symptoms (OR [CI] = 1.4 (1.1-1.9)). Slightly increased symptoms were also associated with other moisture indicators, especially mucous membrane symptoms and past water damage to building mechanical rooms (OR [CI] = 1.3 (1.0-1.7)). Overall, these findings suggest that the presence of moisture or contamination in ventilation systems or occupied spaces in office buildings may have adverse respiratory or irritant effects on workers. The analysis, however, failed to confirm several risks identified in a previous study, such as condition of drain pans or outdoor air intakes, and other hypothesized moisture risks. Studies with more rigorous measurement of environmental risks and health outcomes will be necessary to define moisture-related risks in buildings.

  6. Contrasting diagnosis performance of forced oscillation and spirometry in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Barbosa, Wellington Ribeiro; Lopes, Agnaldo José; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis is directly responsible for 10% to 20% of all mortality. The best way to improve the prognosis is early detection and treatment. The forced oscillation technique is easy to perform and offers a detailed exam, which may be helpful in the early detection of respiratory changes. This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the clinical potential of the forced oscillation technique in the detection of early respiratory alterations in rheumatoid arthritis patients with respiratory complaints and (2) to compare the sensitivity of forced oscillation technique and spirometric parameters. METHODS: A total of 40 individuals were analyzed: 20 healthy and 20 with rheumatoid arthritis (90% with respiratory complaints). The clinical usefulness of the parameters was evaluated by investigating the sensibility, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01641705. RESULTS: The early adverse respiratory effects of rheumatoid arthritis were adequately detected by the forced oscillation technique parameters, and a high accuracy for clinical use was obtained (AUC>0.9, Se = 80%, Sp = 95%). The use of spirometric parameters did not obtain an appropriate accuracy for clinical use. The diagnostic performance of the forced oscillation technique parameters was significantly higher than that of spirometry. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study provide substantial evidence that the forced oscillation technique can contribute to the easy identification of initial respiratory abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis patients that are not detectable by spirometric exams. Therefore, we believe that the forced oscillation technique can be used as a complementary exam that may help to improve the treatment of breathing disorders in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:23018292

  7. Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle makers exposed to stannic chloride solution and other potentially hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, B.S.; Davis, F.; Johnson, B.

    1985-04-01

    Concern about upper respiratory tract irritation and other symptoms among workers at a glass bottle manufacturing plant led to an epidemiologic and an industrial hygiene survey. Questionnaire responses from 35 hot end and 53 cold end workers indicated that the incidence of wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, and cough was significantly elevated among hot end workers. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, hot end workers reported higher, but not significantly higher, rates of wheezing and chest pain. Among smokers, hot end workers reported significantly higher rates of dyspnea on exertion and cough than did cold end workers. Data suggest that reported exposure to stannic chloride solution likely caused these symptoms. The industrial hygiene survey, conducted when stannic chloride use had been reduced, cleaning had been done, and ventilation improved, focused on measuring air contaminants that might possibly cause symptoms. Levels of hydrogen chloride, which apparently was formed by the combination of stannic chloride and water in the presence of heat, were elevated. The finding of increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among hot end workers was consistent with this exposure. Recommendations were made to reduce hazardous exposures at this plant. Individuals responsible for occupational health should be aware that relatively benign substances, such as stannic chloride and water, can combine spontaneously to form hazardous substances.

  8. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  9. Adherence to reduced-polluting biomass fuel stoves improves respiratory and sleep symptoms in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the use of improved stoves has not been critically examined. Methods Sleep-related symptom questionnaires were obtained from children <15 years of age in 56 families residing in the communities of Lliupapuquio, Andahuaylas province in Peru before and 2 years after installation of less-polluting Inkawasi cooking stoves. Results 82 children with lifetime exposures to indoor fuel pollution were included. When compared to those alternating between both types of stoves or those using traditional stoves only, those children who exclusively used Inkawasi cooking stoves showed significant improvements in sleep and respiratory related symptoms, but some minor albeit significant improvements occurred when both stoves were concomitantly used. Conclusions Improvements in respiratory and sleep-related symptoms associated with elevated indoor biomass pollution occur only following implementation and exclusive utilization of improved kitchen stoves. PMID:24433576

  10. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  11. BYSSINOSIS AND OTHER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS IN FLAX WORKERS IN NORTHERN IRELAND

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, P. C.; Pemberton, J.; Merrett, J. D.; Carey, G. C. R.; McAulay, I. R.

    1965-01-01

    A study of byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms in 2,528 flax workers aged 35 years and over in Northern Ireland is reported. This represented 82·5% of the total available population. Only 3% of workers were not seen because of absence or a refusal to co-operate. Workers were interviewed using a questionnaire based on the Questionnaire on Respiratory Symptoms (Medical Research Council, 1960a) with additional questions relating to respiratory symptoms at work. Byssinosis was found in workers in all stages of the industry, though its prevalence was highest in flax preparers; wet spinners and wet polishers did not appear to be at serious risk of developing the condition. When the effects of other relevant factors had been allowed for, e.g., age, duration of employment, and smoking habits, differences between the prevalence in the two sexes were found to be very small. The associations between byssinosis and the age of workers and their durations of employment in flax-preparing occupations were complex, and it was thought that a selective discharge of affected workers before the study might, in part at least, explain the absence of marked associations between these variables. Marked associations were found between both chronic bronchitis and exertional dyspnoea and the type of occupation in the mill. Workers in the early preparing occupations had a considerably higher prevalence of these conditions than expected on a null hypothesis. There were also marked associations between byssinosis and bronchitis, and between byssinosis and dyspnoea. The possible importance of these associations with regard to the aetiology of byssinosis is discussed, and it is suggested that byssinosis represents an acute, specific effect of certain textile dusts on the respiratory system, superimposed on a non-specific chronic bronchitic process. PMID:14261704

  12. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust emission in garage working places. Long-term working as garage workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health.

  13. Brief report: social skills, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia in autism.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Emily; Bernier, Raphael; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2014-03-01

    Theoretical and empirical models describe respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation and social competence. Recent findings also link RSA to individual differences in social functioning within autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, associations between RSA and symptoms of internalizing/externalizing psychopathology in ASD have not been explored. We assessed RSA, social functioning, and internalizing/externalizing symptoms among boys with and without ASD. Compared with controls, participants with ASD evidenced reduced parasympathetic cardiac control, which correlated with social behavior. Symptoms were associated with deficiencies in RSA, over-and-above the contribution of social functioning. These findings yield a more nuanced understanding of parasympathetic function in ASD, and suggest a role for integrative intervention strategies that address socioemotional difficulties.

  14. Predictive validity of parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms in adolescence on adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Du Rietz, Ebba; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Brikell, Isabell; Jangmo, Andreas; Sariaslan, Amir; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kuntsi, Jonna; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-02-10

    There is scarcity of research investigating the validity of self-report of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms compared to other informants, such as parents. This study aimed to compare the predictive associations of ADHD symptoms rated by parents and their children across adolescence on a range of adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood. Parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms were assessed in 2960 individuals in early (13-14 years) and late adolescence (16-17 years). Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the associations between parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms at both time points and adverse life outcomes in young adulthood obtained from Swedish national registries. Both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes, although associations of parent-ratings were more often statistically significant and were generally stronger (OR = 1.12-1.49, p < 0.05) than self-ratings (OR = 1.07-1.17, p < 0.05). After controlling for the other informant, parent-ratings of ADHD symptoms in both early and late adolescence significantly predicted academic and occupational failure, criminal convictions and traffic-related injuries, while self-ratings of ADHD symptoms only in late adolescence predicted substance use disorder and academic failure. Our findings suggest that both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms in adolescence provides valuable information on risk of future adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes, however, self-ratings are not valuable once parent-ratings have been taken into account in predicting most outcomes. Thus, clinicians and researchers should prioritize parent-ratings over self-ratings.

  15. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in flour processing workers in the baking industry.

    PubMed

    Shamssain, M H

    1995-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 63 flour processing male bakery workers in Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The studied population was nonsmoking and no significant difference was noted in age, race, sex, or height between the groups. The exposed workers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean percent predicted values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FMF), forced expiratory flow between the first 200 ml and 1,200 ml of FVC (FEF 200-1,200), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were, respectively, 11.2%, 20.0%, 31.0%, 27.4%, and 36.1% lower in the exposed group compared with the controls. The prevalence of forced expiratory ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37% while in the controls it was 8%. The prevalence of PEF rate less than 5 1/s in the exposed group was 32% while in the controls it was 11%. The exposed workers reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the controls. The prevalence of nasal symptoms, phlegm, and cough in the exposed workers was 53.9%, 30.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that exposure to flour dust in flour processing workers in the baking industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary functions and a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and that these workers show signs of airway obstruction, compared to workers not exposed to flour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Signs and Symptoms that Differentiate Acute Sinusitis from Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kearney, Diana H.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Jeong, Jong H.; Haralam, Mary Ann; Bowen, A’Delbert; Flom, Lynda L.; Wald, Ellen R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Differentiating acute bacterial sinusitis from viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is challenging; 20% to 40% of children diagnosed with acute sinusitis based on clinical criteria likely have an uncomplicated URI. The objective of this study was to determine which signs and symptoms could be used to identify the subgroup of children who meet current clinical criteria for sinusitis but who nevertheless have a viral URI. Methods We obtained sinus radiographs in consecutive children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis. We considered the subgroup of children with completely normal sinus radiographs to have an uncomplicated URI despite meeting the clinical diagnostic criteria for sinusitis. We examined the utility of signs and symptoms in identifying children with URI. Results Of 258 children enrolled, 54 (20.9%) children had completely normal radiographs. The absence of green nasal discharge, the absence of disturbed sleep, and mild symptoms were associated with a diagnosis of URI. No physical exam findings were particularly helpful in distinguishing between children with normal vs. abnormal radiographs. Conclusions Among children meeting current criteria for the diagnosis of acute sinusitis, those with mild symptoms are significantly more likely to have a URI than those with severe symptoms. In addition to assessing overall severity of symptoms, practitioners should ask about sleep disturbance and green nasal discharge when assessing children with suspected sinusitis; their absence favors a diagnosis of URI. PMID:23694838

  17. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  18. Outpatient upper respiratory tract viral infections in children with malaria symptoms in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Waitumbi, John N; Kuypers, Jane; Anyona, Samuel B; Koros, Joseph N; Polhemus, Mark E; Gerlach, Jay; Steele, Matthew; Englund, Janet A; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2010-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in children 5 through 10 years of age presenting to outpatient clinics in Nyanza Province, Kenya, in which nasal swab and blood specimens were collected during the high malaria transmission season. Patients presenting with malaria-like symptoms within 4 days of fever onset were enrolled in the study. Plasmodium parasitemia was determined by blood smear microscopy. Nasal swabs were screened for a panel of respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. Influenza A, rhinoviruses, and other respiratory viruses were detected in 18%, 26%, and 12% of 197 specimens, respectively. Four of 36 patients with influenza A had a positive malaria blood slide, compared with 20 of 52 patients with rhinovirus. A significant burden of disease caused by influenza A in febrile children during the study period was observed, highlighting the need for further research into the burden of influenza disease in regions where malaria is holoendemic.

  19. Reported Exercise-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Inci, Demet; Guggenheim, Refoel; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Wildhaber, Johannes H.; Moeller, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Unlimited physical activity is one of the key issues of asthma control and management. We investigated how reliable reported exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) are in predicting exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatic children. Methods In this prospective study, 179 asthmatic children aged 7 - 15 years were asked for specific questions on respiratory symptoms related to exercise and allocated into two groups according to whether they complained about symptoms. Group I (n = 134) consisted of children answering “yes” to one or more of the questions and group II (n = 45) consisted of children answering “no” to all of the questions. Results Sixty-four of 179 children showed a positive exercise challenge test (ECT). There was no difference in the frequency of a positive test between children in group I (n = 48) and group II (n = 12) (P = 0.47). The sensitivity of a positive report for ERRS to predict a positive ECT was only 37%, with a specificity of 0.72. Conclusion According to current guidelines, the report or lack of ERRS has direct consequences on treatment decisions. However, the history of ERRS did not predict EIB and one-third of asthmatic children without complaints of ERRS developed EIB during the ECT. This raises the question of the need for objective measures of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in pediatric asthma management. PMID:28392861

  20. Respiratory rehabilitation: a physiotherapy approach to the control of asthma symptoms and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Laurino, Renata André; Barnabé, Viviane; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M.; Stelmach, Rafael; Cukier, Alberto; do Patrocínio T. Nunes, Maria

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining) improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held once a week for three months or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements. RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients. PMID:23184206

  1. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in lifeguards exposed to nitrogen trichloride in indoor swimming pools

    PubMed Central

    Massin, N.; Bohadana, A. B.; Wild, P.; Hery, M.; Toamain, J. P.; Hubert, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the levels of exposure to nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools and to examine how they relate to irritant and chronic respiratory symptoms, indices of pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in lifeguards working in the pools. METHOD: 334 lifeguards (256 men; 78 women) recruited from 46 public swimming pools (n = 228) and 17 leisure centre swimming pools (n = 106) were examined. Concentrations of NCl3 were measured with area samplers. Symptoms were assessed by questionnaire and methacholine bronchial challenge (MBC) test by an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MBC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by > or = 20%. The linear dose- response slope was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at the last dose divided by the total dose given. RESULTS: 1262 samples were taken in the 63 pools. Mean NCl3 concentrations were greater in leisure than in public pools. A significant concentration-response relation was found between irritant eye, nasal, and throat symptoms-but not chronic respiratory symptoms-and exposure concentrations. Among women, the prevalence of MBC+ was twice as great as in men. Overall, no relation was found between bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that lifeguards exposed to NCl3 in indoor swimming pools are at risk of developing irritant eye, nasal, and throat symptoms. Exposure to NCl3 does not seem to carry the risk of developing permanent bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but this association might have been influenced by self selection. The possibility that subjects exposed to NCl3 are at risk of developing transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness cannot be confidently ruled out.   PMID:9624280

  2. Respiratory and ocular symptoms among employees of a hotel indoor waterpark resort--Ohio, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-02-06

    During January--March 2007, the Warren County Combined Health District (WCCHD) received 665 reports of respiratory and eye irritation from patrons and lifeguards at a hotel indoor waterpark resort in Ohio. Tests revealed normal water chemistry and air chlorine concentrations, and exposure to airborne trichloramine in the waterpark was suspected as the cause of the symptoms. Because of the number of symptom reports and WCCHD's limited ability to measure trichloramine, the district requested an investigation by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). This report describes the results of that investigation, which revealed that trichloramine concentrations in the waterpark ranged from below the limit of detection to 1.06 mg/m3, and some concentrations were at levels that have been reported to cause irritation symptoms (>/=0.5 mg/m3). Lifeguards reported significantly more work-related symptoms (e.g., cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and eye irritation) than unexposed hotel employees. Lifeguards also reported significantly more eye irritation and cough on days when hotel occupancy was high versus low. Insufficient air movement and distribution likely led to accumulation of trichloramine and exacerbation of symptoms. Based on recommendations to increase air movement and distribution at pool deck level, hotel management modified the ventilation system extensively, and subsequently no new cases were reported to WCCHD. The results of this investigation emphasize the importance of appropriate design and monitoring of ventilation and water systems in preventing illness in indoor waterparks.

  3. The Scars of Childhood Adversity: Minor Stress Sensitivity and Depressive Symptoms in Remitted Recurrently Depressed Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients. Method Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138). Results We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02–0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03–0.55). No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Conclusion No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment. Trial Registration Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503 PMID:25393812

  4. Airway responsiveness, respiratory symptoms, and exposures to soluble oil mist in mechanical workers.

    PubMed Central

    Massin, N; Bohadana, A B; Wild, P; Goutet, P; Kirstetter, H; Toamain, J P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between measured levels of exposure to soluble oil mists in a plant manufacturing ball bearings, and both respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in the workforce. METHODS: 114 male workers exposed to oil mist and 55 unexposed male controls from nearby factories were studied. Soluble oil mist concentrations were measured with area samplers. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire and measurement of airway responsiveness to methacholine with an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled positive to methacholine airway challenge (MAC+) if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by > or = 20%. The linear dose-response slope was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at the last dose divided by the total dose given. RESULTS: Geometric mean concentrations of oil mists ranged from 0.65 mg/m3 (GSD 1.29) to 2.20 mg/m3 (GSD 1.55) based on 92 measurements obtained from 1979-93. The prevalence of chronic cough or phlegm, bouts of bronchitis, and dyspnoea was greater among exposed workers than among controls (odds ratio (OR) 4.64, P = 0.002 for chronic cough and phlegm). After adjustment for smoking and age, dyspnoea was significantly related to an index of cumulative exposure to oil mist (OR 1.44, P = 0.006/10 y.mg/m3). The proportion of MAC+ subjects was similar in the two groups. However, after adjustment for baseline FEV1 and age, the dose-response slope was significantly steeper among exposed workers than among controls (P = 0.01), a finding indicating airway hyperresponsiveness in the exposed workers. Furthermore, the dose-response slope was significantly related to baseline FEV1, age, and, after adjustment for FEV1, the index of cumulative exposure to oil (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Subjects with exposure to soluble oil mist in the metal industry are at risk of developing both respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:9038798

  5. Associations between inflammatory and immune response genes and adverse respiratory outcomes following exposure to outdoor air pollution: a HuGE systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vawda, Seema; Mansour, Rafif; Takeda, Andrea; Funnell, Paula; Kerry, Sally; Mudway, Ian; Jamaludin, Jeenath; Shaheen, Seif; Griffiths, Chris; Walton, Robert

    2014-02-15

    Variants of inflammatory and immune response genes have been associated with adverse respiratory outcomes following exposure to air pollution. However, the genes involved and their associations are not well characterized, and there has been no systematic review. Thus, we conducted a review following the guidelines of the Human Genome Epidemiology Network. Six observational studies and 2 intervention studies with 14,903 participants were included (2001-2010). Six studies showed at least 1 significant gene-pollutant interaction. Meta-analysis was not possible due to variations in genes, pollutants, exposure estimates, and reported outcomes. The most commonly studied genes were tumor necrosis factor α (TNFA) (n = 6) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) (n = 3). TNFA -308G>A modified the action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on lung function, asthma risk, and symptoms; however, the direction of association varied between studies. The TLR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1927911, rs10759931, and rs6478317 modified the association of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide with asthma. The transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1) polymorphism -509C>T also modified the association of pollutants with asthma. This review indicates that genes controlling innate immune recognition of foreign material (TLR4) and the subsequent inflammatory response (TGFB1, TLR4) modify the associations of exposure to air pollution with respiratory function. The associations observed have biological plausibility; however, larger studies with improved reporting are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Air pollution and respiratory symptoms among children with asthma: Vulnerability by corticosteroid use and residence area☆

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Toby C.; Robins, Thomas G.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Lin, Xihong; Keeler, Gerald J.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Parker, Edith A.; Israel, Barbara A.; Max, Paul T.; Reyes, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Information on how ambient air pollution affects susceptible populations is needed to ensure protective air quality standards. Objectives To estimate the effect of community-level ambient particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) on respiratory symptoms among primarily African-American and Latino, lower-income asthmatic children living in Detroit, Michigan and to evaluate factors associated with heterogeneity in observed health effects. Methods A cohort of 298 children with asthma was studied prospectively from 1999 to 2002. For 14 days each season over 11 seasons, children completed a respiratory symptom diary. Simultaneously, ambient pollutant concentrations were measured at two community-level monitoring sites. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were fit for each respiratory symptom in single pollutant models, looking for interactions by area or by corticosteroid use, a marker of more severe asthma. Exposures of interest were: daily concentrations of PM<10 μm, <2.5 μm, and between 10 and 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM10–2.5, respectively), the daily 8-hour maximum concentration of O3 (8HrPeak), and the daily 1-hour maximum concentration of O3 (1HrPeak). Results Outdoor PM2.5, PM10, 8HrPeak, and 1HrPeak O3 concentrations were associated with increased odds of respiratory symptoms, particularly among children using corticosteroid medication and among children living in the southwest community of Detroit. Similar patterns of associations were not seen with PM10–2.5. Conclusions PM2.5 and O3 at levels near or below annual standard levels are associated with negative health impact in this population of asthmatic children. Variation in effects within the city of Detroit and among the subgroup using steroids emphasizes the importance of spatially refined exposure assessment and the need for further studies to elucidate mechanisms and effective risk reduction interventions. PMID:23273373

  7. A randomized controlled trial on the benefits and respiratory adverse effects of morphine for refractory dyspnea in patients with COPD: Protocol of the MORDYC study.

    PubMed

    Verberkt, C A; van den Beuken-van Everdingen, M H J; Franssen, F M E; Dirksen, C D; Schols, J M G A; Wouters, E F M; Janssen, D J A

    2016-03-01

    Dyspnea is one of the most reported symptoms of patients with advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is often undertreated. Morphine has proven to be an effective treatment for dyspnea and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines, but questions concerning benefits and respiratory adverse effects remain. This study primarily evaluates the impact of oral sustained release morphine (morphine SR) on health-related quality of life and respiratory adverse effects in patients with COPD. Secondary objectives include the impact on exercise capacity, the relationship between description and severity of dyspnea and the presence of a clinically relevant response to morphine, and cost-effectiveness. A single-center, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study will be performed in 124 patients with COPD who recently completed a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program. Participants will receive 20-30 mg/24h morphine SR or placebo for four weeks. After the intervention, participants will be followed for twelve weeks. Outcomes include: the COPD Assessment Test, six minute walking test, Multidimensional Dyspnea Scale and a cost diary. Furthermore, lung function and arterial blood gasses will be measured. These measures will be assessed during a baseline and outcome assessment, two home visits, two phone calls, and three follow-up assessments. The intervention and control group will be compared using uni- and multivariate regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Finally, an economic evaluation will be performed from a societal and healthcare perspective. The current manuscript describes the rationale and methods of this study and provides an outline of the possible strengths, weaknesses and clinical consequences.

  8. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  9. Effect of reducing indoor air pollution on women's respiratory symptoms and lung function: the RESPIRE Randomized Trial, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Díaz, Esperanza; Pope, Dan; Lie, Rolv T; Díaz, Anaite; McCracken, John; Bakke, Per; Arana, Byron; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to household wood smoke from cooking is a risk factor for chronic obstructive lung disease among women in developing countries. The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) is a randomized intervention trial evaluating the respiratory health effects of reducing indoor air pollution from open cooking fires. A total of 504 rural Mayan women in highland Guatemala aged 15-50 years, all using traditional indoor open fires, were randomized to either receive a chimney woodstove (plancha) or continue using the open fire. Assessments of chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function and individual measurements of carbon monoxide exposure were performed at baseline and every 6 months up to 18 months. Use of a plancha significantly reduced carbon monoxide exposure by 61.6%. For all respiratory symptoms, reductions in risk were observed in the plancha group during follow-up; the reduction was statistically significant for wheeze (relative risk = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.70). The number of respiratory symptoms reported by the women at each follow-up point was also significantly reduced by the plancha (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.97). However, no significant effects on lung function were found after 12-18 months. Reducing indoor air pollution from household biomass burning may relieve symptoms consistent with chronic respiratory tract irritation.

  10. Influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function indices in sawmill workers in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugheoke, A J; Ebomoyi, M I; Iyawe, V I

    2006-01-01

    The study was done to assess the influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in sawmill workers in Benin City. 150 sawmill workers who were all males and aged between 18 and 50 years, and had been in continuous employment in sawmill factories for a minimum of one year were studied. They were selected by a two-stage random sampling process from sawmills in Benin City. These were compared to 150 age and sex matched controls in order to determine the effect of sawdust exposure on the respiratory system. Questionnaire was used to elicit morbidity patterns and anthropometric measurements were also made. Respiratory rates, Peak Expiratory Flow Rates and Blood Pressures were measured in both groups. Respiratory symptoms were more common among sawmill workers compared to the controls. Smoking by some of these workers further aggravated their respiratory symptoms. Although blood pressure was similar in both groups, Respiratory rates were higher and Peak Flow Rates were lower in the sawmill workers compared to the controls (20.83 +/- 2.02 cycles/minute and 516.72 +/- 38.48 L/minute for the sawmill workers; 15.45 +/- 1.23 cycles/minute and 575.37 +/- 27.34 L/minute for the controls, respectively). Less than 5% of the sawmill workers wore protective devices/clothing, and health and safety standards were neither practiced nor enforced. The findings suggest that respiratory symptoms especially sputum production and chest pain are common in sawmill workers. Respiratory function is compromised in these workers.

  11. Adverse childhood events and current depressive symptoms among women in Hawaii: 2010 BRFSS, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Hayes, Donald K; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-12-01

    Research on the association between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and depression among women in Hawaii is scarce. ACEs have been linked to unfavorable health behaviors such as smoking and binge drinking which are more prevalent in the state compared to the US overall. The concomitant presence of ACEs with smoking or binge drinking may explain the excess depression prevalence in Hawaii compared to the national average. Using data of women residing in the state (2010 Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey), we examined the association between ACEs count or type (household dysfunction and physical, verbal and sexual abuse) and current depressive symptoms (CDS), in addition to modification by current smoking status (smoked >100 cigarettes in a lifetime and currently smoke) and binge drinking (consumed ≥4 alcoholic beverage within the past month and in ≥1 occasion(s)). Evaluation of ACEs before age 18 consisted of 11 indicators. Eight indicators of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were used to assess CDS. All analyses utilized logistic regression taking into account sampling design. The odds ratio of having CDS between those with versus without ACEs increased per increasing number of ACEs (1 ACE: OR = 2.11, CI = 1.16-3.81; 2 ACEs: OR = 2.90, CI = 1.51-5.58; 3 or 4 ACEs: OR = 3.94, CI = 2.13-7.32; 5+ ACEs: OR = 4.04, CI = 2.26-7.22). Household dysfunction (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.37-3.23), physical abuse (OR = 1.67, CI = 1.08-2.59), verbal abuse (OR = 3.21, CI = 2.03-5.09) and sexual abuse (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.04-2.71) were all positively associated with CDS. Verbal abuse had the strongest magnitude of association. Neither current smoking status nor binge drinking modified the relationship between ACEs count (or type) and CDS. In conclusion, the presence of ACEs among women in Hawaii was indicative of CDS in adulthood, notably verbal abuse. Further, a dose response existed between the number of ACEs and the odds for CDS. The concomitant exposure

  12. Glucose Metabolism Disorder Is Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Individuals with Respiratory Symptoms from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Simone; Cafezeiro, Aparecida S.; Daltro, Carla; Netto, Eduardo M.; Kornfeld, Hardy; Andrade, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with increased risk for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in endemic settings but it is unknown whether PTB risk is also increased by pre-DM. Here, we prospectively examined the association between glucose metabolism disorder (GMD) and PTB in patients with respiratory symptoms at a tuberculosis primary care reference center in Brazil. Methods Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and levels of fasting plasma glucose and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured in a cohort of 892 individuals presenting with respiratory symptoms of more than two weeks duration. Patients were also tested for PTB with sputum cultures. Prevalence of pre-DM and DM (based on HbA1c) was estimated and tested for association with incident PTB. Other TB risk factors including smoking history were analyzed. Results The majority of the study population (63.1%) exhibited GMD based on HbA1c ≥5.7%. Patients with GMD had higher prevalence of PTB compared to normoglycemic patients. Individuals with DM exhibited increased frequency of TB-related symptoms and detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears. Among patients with previous DM diagnosis, sustained hyperglycemia (HbA1c ≥7.0%) was associated with increased TB prevalence. Smoking history alone was not significantly associated with TB in our study population but the combination of smoking and HbA1c ≥7.0% was associated with 6 times higher odds for PTB. Conclusions Sustained hyperglycemia and pre-DM are independently associated with active PTB. This evidence raises the question whether improving glycemic control in diabetic TB patients would reduce the risk of TB transmission and simultaneously reduce the clinical burden of disease. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying these associations, especially those suggesting that pre-DM may be a factor driving susceptibility to TB is warranted. PMID:27078026

  13. Cumulative adversity and depressive symptoms among older adults in Israel: the differential roles of self-oriented versus other-oriented events of potential trauma

    PubMed Central

    Shmotkin, Dov; Litwin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Background The study examined the association between cumulative adversity and current depressive symptoms in a national sample of Israelis aged 50+. Referring to cumulative adversity as exposure to potentially traumatic events along life, the study distinguished between events primarily inflicted upon the self (self-oriented adversity) versus upon another person (other-oriented adversity). Method Data were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). During 2005–2006, 1710 Jews and Arabs completed an inventory of potentially traumatic events and two measures of depressive symptoms: the European Depression scale (Euro-D) and the Adapted Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression scale (ACES-D). The Euro-D is more detailed in querying cognitions and motivations while the ACES-D is more detailed in querying feelings and social alienation. Results In line with the hypothesis, self-oriented adversity had a positive association with depressive symptoms whereas other-oriented adversity had either no association or an inverse association with depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceived health were controlled in the multivariate regressions. Conclusions The differential association of self- versus other-oriented adversity with depressive symptoms may be explained in terms of social commitments that are inherent in other-oriented adversity and incompatible with depressive symptoms. The study points to the variations in the symptom compositions represented by the Euro-D and ACES-D, with the latter better capturing the difference between self- and other-oriented adversities. PMID:19288036

  14. Bordetella pertussis in infants hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms remains a concern

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preliminary results suggest that pertussis infection might be considered in infants during a seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreak. Methods In order to analyze clinical features and laboratory findings in infants with pertussis hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms during a seasonal RSV outbreak, we conducted a retrospective single-center study on 19 infants with pertussis (6 boys; median age 72 days) and 19 matched controls (RSV-bronchiolitis), hospitalized from October 2008 to April 2010. B. pertussis and RSV were detected from nasopharyngeal washes with Real Time-PCR. Results Infants with pertussis were less often breastfeed than infants with RSV bronchiolitis (63.2% vs 89.5%; p <0.06). Clinically, significantly fewer infants with pertussis than controls had more episodes of whooping cough (63.2% vs 0.0%; p < 0.001) and also less frequently fever at admission (15.8% vs 68.4%; p <0.01), apnea (52.6% vs 10.5%; p <0.006), and cyanosis (52.6% vs 10.5%; p < 0.006). Infants with pertussis had more often no abnormal chest sounds on auscultation than infants with RSV bronchiolitis (0% vs 42,1%; p < 0.005). The absolute blood lymphocyte and eosinophil counts were higher in infants with B. pertussis than in controls with bronchiolitis (23886 ± 16945 vs 10725 ± 4126 cells/mm3, p < 0.0001 and 13.653 ± 10.430 vs 4.730 ± 2.400 cells/mm3, p < 0.001). The molecular analysis of 2 B. pertussis isolates for ptxA1, ptxP3, and prn2 genes showed the presence of gene variants. Conclusions When infants are hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms, physicians should suspect a pertussis infection, seek for specific clinical symptoms, investigate lymphocyte and eosinophil counts and thus diagnose infection early enough to allow treatment. PMID:24209790

  15. Respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates among furniture-decoration students.

    PubMed

    Arbak, Peri; Bilgin, Cahit; Balbay, Oner; Yeşildal, Nuray; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Ulger, Füsun

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of furniture production, mainly including fir tree (aberia mulleriana), on respiratory health of young workers and to compare the results with those obtained from previous studies. Sixty-four furniture-decoration students (57 males and 7 females) and 62 controls (54 male, 8 female) from different departments in the same school were included into the study. All participants were assessed with a questionnaire (concerning history of occupational exposure, work-related respiratory and other symptoms, smoking history, previous asthma history), full physical examination, spirometric evaluation and chest radiograph. Participants then performed serial monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) at work and away from work within a month. Mean age of students was 20.9 +/- 3.7 years, 20.5 +/- 2.6 years in controls. There was no difference between study and control groups with regard to age, gender, smoking status and previous asthma history. Reported cough (23.4 % vs. 8.1 %) and shortness of breath (18.8 % vs. 6.5 %) were significantly higher in furniture-decoration students than in controls (p = 0.016 and p = 0.034, respectively). Furniture-decoration students had higher conjunctivitis (34.4 % vs. 9.7 %, p = 0.001) and rhinitis (34.4 % vs. 19.4 %, p = 0.044) history when compared with controls. Both students and controls were normal in terms of respiratory examination. PEF recordings were performed for approximately one month. Diurnal variability greater than 20 % was seen in 12/64 (18.7 %) of students at work, whereas it was detected in 4/62 (6.4 %) of controls (p = 0.034). When comparing for the presence of diurnal variability greater than 20 % in weekends, no difference was found between groups (p = 0.457). In conclusion, early detection of work-related respiratory changes by serial monitoring of peak expiratory flows should save the workers from hazardous respiratory effects of the furniture production, especially in

  16. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Respiratory symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dockery, D.W. |; Cunningham, J.; Damokosh, A.I.

    1996-05-01

    We examined the respiratory health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among 13,369 white children 8 to 12 years old from 24 communities in the United States and Canada between 1988 and 1991. Each child`s parent or guardian completed a questionnaire. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for a 1-year period. We used a two-stage logistic regression model to analyze the data, adjusting for the period confounding effects of sex, history of allergies, parental asthma, parental education, and current smoking in the home. Children living in the community with the highest levels of particle strong acidity were significantly more likely [odds ratio (OR) = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.48] to report at least one episode of bronchitis in the past year compared to children living in the least-polluted community. Fine particulate sulfate was also associated with higher reporting of bronchitis (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.12-2.42). No other respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in association with any of the air pollutants of interest. No sensitive subgroups were identified. Reported bronchitis, but neither asthma, wheeze, cough, nor phlegm, were associated with levels of particle strong acidity for these children living in a nonurban environment. 26 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different Levels of Air Pollution in a Turkish City

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O.; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. PMID:21695031

  18. Associations of Adenovirus Genotypes in Korean Acute Gastroenteritis Patients with Respiratory Symptoms and Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Lee, Su Kyung; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Hyun, Jungwon; Song, Wonkeun

    2017-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause a wide range of diseases, including respiratory infections and gastroenteritis, and have more than 65 genotypes. To investigate the current genotypes of circulating HAdV strains, we performed molecular genotyping of HAdVs in the stool from patients with acute gastroenteritis and tried to determine their associations with clinical symptoms. From June 2014 to May 2016, 3,901 fecal samples were tested for an AdV antigen, and 254 samples (6.5%) yielded positive results. Genotyping using PCR and sequencing of the capsid hexon gene was performed for 236 AdV antigen-positive fecal specimens. HAdV-41, of species F, was the most prevalent genotype (60.6%), followed by HAdV-2 of species C (13.8%). Other genotypes, including HAdV-3, HAdV-1, HAdV-5, HAdV-6, HAdV-31, HAdV-40, HAdV-12, and HAdV-55, were also detected. Overall, 119 patients (50.4%) showed concomitant respiratory symptoms, and 32 patients (13.6%) were diagnosed with intussusception. HAdV-1 and HAdV-31 were significantly associated with intussusception (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate the recent changes in trends of circulating AdV genotypes associated with gastroenteritis in Korea, which should be of value for improving the diagnosis and developing new detection, treatment, and prevention strategies for broad application in clinical laboratories. PMID:28255553

  19. Improved exposure characterization with robotic (PIPER) sampling and association with children's respiratory symptoms, asthma and eczema.

    PubMed

    Ramagopal, Maya; Wang, Zuocheng; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Stambler, Adam A; Emoekpere, Osiloke H; Mainelis, Gediminas; Shalat, Stuart L

    2014-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents are recognized risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms and illness in children. Most measurements of exposure have relied upon stationary indoor monitors (SIMs), overlooking the role of resuspended PM. To improve exposure characterization to resuspended aerosol PM, a recently developed methodology has been employed. The goal of this study was to characterize the resuspendable fraction of house dust and early childhood exposures to PM and its constituents in the child's home and compare conventional SIM and the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER), an innovative mobile sampler. The study seeks to demonstrate that PIPER provides a more relevant estimate of exposure from inhalable particulate matter through improved correlation with respiratory symptoms in young children. Seventy-five households with children between 3 and 59 months of age were recruited from clinics in central New Jersey. Demographic information, and responses to a health questionnaire based upon that used by the International Study of Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC), and household data were collected. Household exposures to inhalable PM (PM100) and endotoxin were determined with simultaneous SIM and mobile (PIPER) sampling. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. History of wheeze ("recent" (<1 year) and "ever"), cough, asthma and eczema was evaluated. Multivariate analysis models included PM100 and endotoxin levels by tertiles of exposure. Risk of asthma for the highest tertile of PM100, as measured by PIPER (odds ratio=4.2; 95% confidence interval 0.7-24.0), was compared with measurements by SIM (odds ratio=0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.2-2.6). Measurements of PM and its constituents with PIPER are more strongly associated with asthma, eczema and wheeze compared with measurements using SIMs. Application of this methodology may provide useful insights into early childhood exposures

  20. Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms and air pollution: Methodological issues and results

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. ); Wypij, D.; Dockery D.; Ware, J.; Spengler, J.; Ferris, B. Jr. ); Zeger, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms are a powerful technique for detecting acute effects of air pollution exposure. While conceptually simple, these diary studies can be difficult to analyze. The daily symptom rates are highly correlated, even after adjustment for covariates, and this lack of independence must be considered in the analysis. Possible approaches include the use of incidence instead of prevalence rates and autoregressive models. Heterogeneity among subjects also induces dependencies in the data. These can be addressed by stratification and by two-stage models such as those developed by Korn and Whittemore. These approaches have been applied to two data sets: a cohort of school children participating in the Harvard Six Cities Study and a cohort of student nurses in Los Angeles. Both data sets provide evidence of autocorrelation and heterogeneity. Controlling for autocorrelation corrects the precision estimates, and because diary data are usually positively autocorrelated, this leads to larger variance estimates. Controlling for heterogeneity among subjects appears to increase the effect sizes for air pollution exposure. Preliminary results indicate associations between sulfur dioxide and cough incidence in children and between nitrogen dioxide and phlegm incidence in student nurses.

  1. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Viegi, G. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson ); Paoletti, P.; Carrozzi, L.; Vellutini, M.; Diviggiano, E.; Pistelli, G.; Giutini, G. ); Di Pede, C. Occupational Medicine Service, Toscana ); Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. The conclusion, these preliminary analyses indicate an urban factor related to the rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in Italy in the 1980s.

  2. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen E; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S; Bremner, Stephen A; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B; Kelly, Frank J; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions.

  3. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Helen E.; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S.; Bremner, Stephen A.; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B.; Kelly, Frank J.; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children’s respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8–9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00–1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04–1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08–1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions. PMID:26295579

  4. Relationship between specific serum IgE to Ascaris lumbricoides and onset of respiratory symptoms in Bangladesh immigrants.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, G; Pacor, M L; Mansueto, P; Esposito-Pellitteri, M; Scichilone, N; Ditta, V; Lo Bianco, C; Leto-Barone, M S; Di Fede, G; Corrocher, R; Mansueto, S; Rini, G B

    2006-01-01

    The role of helminths in asthma and/or rhinitis and in allergic sensitization is still unclear. We assessed the relationship between Ascaris-specific IgE, respiratory symptoms and allergic sensitization in Bangladesh immigrants. 246 individuals were examined from 1996 to 2001. Serum total IgE, Ascaris IgE, specific IgE to inhalant allergens, skin prick tests (SPT) and parasitological evaluation of the stool were performed. Total serum IgE were significantly higher in Ascaris-IgE positive (> 0.35 kU/L) individuals (806.5 [409.0-1436.0] kU/L vs. 207.0 [127.0-332.5] kU/L; P < 0.0001) and in subjects with respiratory symptoms (413.0 [239.0-1096.0] kU/L vs. 259.5 [147.0-387.0] kU/L), (P < 0.0001), but not in SPT positive subjects (413.0 [179.0-894.0] kU/L vs. 404.6 [305.0-1201.0] kU/L (P = 0.5). Ascaris-specific IgE were detected in 48 subjects with respiratory symptoms (40.0%) and in 46 subjects without respiratory symptoms (36.5%) (P = 0.5). The SPT positivity was similar between Ascaris-IgE seropositive (38.2%) and Ascaris-IgE seronegative (38.1%) subjects (P = 0.9). Total IgE and length of stay in Italy correlated with SPT positivity (OR 5.6 [CI 95% 1.5-19.8], P = 0.007, and OR 1.5 [CI 95% 1.3-1.7], P< 0.0001), and with respiratory symptoms (OR 13.7 [CI 95% 3.0-62.4];, P = 0.0007, and OR 2.4 [CI 95% 1.9-3.0], P < 0.0001). Ascaris-IgE were negatively associated with SPT positivity (OR 0.3 [CI 95% 0.1-0.8], P = 0.02) and with respiratory symptoms (OR 0.1 [CI 95% 0.04-0.7], P = 0.01). Our findings favour the role of environmental factors in the development of respiratory symptoms in immigrants, irrespective of Ascaris-IgE.

  5. Adverse Respiratory Events Associated With Hypnotics Use in Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    Insomnia is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the effects of hypnotics on the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD.The case-control study was investigated using data retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with newly diagnosed adverse respiratory events (pneumonia, COPD with acute exacerbation, acute respiratory failure, and cardiopulmonary arrest) were included in the case group. Patients with COPD and no history of adverse respiratory events were randomly selected for the control group, which was frequency-matched with the case group according to index date, age (per 10 years), and sex. Patients who had used hypnotics within 1 month meant active users. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of were calculated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models.Most of the study participants were male (71.6%), and the mean ages of the participants in the case and control groups were 69.2 (±12.4) and 67.5 (±12.3) years, respectively. After potential confounding factors were adjusting for, the adjusted ORs of adverse respiratory events were 12.0 for active users of benzodiazepines (95% CI, 8.11-17.6) and 10.5 for active users of nonbenzodiazepines (95% CI, 7.68-14.2) compared with the adjusted ORs of those who never used hypnotics.The results of this epidemiological study suggested that hypnotics increased the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD.

  6. A Cohort Study on Self-Reported Respiratory Symptoms of Toner-Handling Workers: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis from 2003 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Terunuma, Niina; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Hata, Koichi; Kochi, Takeshi; Yanagi, Nobuaki; Murase, Tadashi; Ogami, Akira; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between toner-handling work and its health effects on self-reported respiratory symptoms. The subjects were 1,504 male workers in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company. Personal exposure measurement, pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray examination, measurement of biomarkers, and a questionnaire about self-reported respiratory symptoms were performed annually. This study discusses the questionnaire results. We found that the toner-handling group showed significantly higher prevalence of breathlessness than the never-toner-handling group. The significant reduction of pulmonary function and fibrosis change in the chest X-ray examination associated with breathlessness were not observed. However the morbidity of asthma was higher compared to the Japanese population in both of the toner-handling group and the never-toner handling group, the effect of toner exposure was not clarified. Nevertheless, while the toner exposure levels in the current well-controlled working environment may be sufficiently low to prevent adverse health effects, further studies are needed to assess the more long-term latent health effects of toner exposure. PMID:24719889

  7. A cohort study on self-reported respiratory symptoms of toner-handling workers: cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis from 2003 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Hiroko; Terunuma, Niina; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Hata, Koichi; Masuda, Masashi; Kochi, Takeshi; Yanagi, Nobuaki; Murase, Tadashi; Ogami, Akira; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between toner-handling work and its health effects on self-reported respiratory symptoms. The subjects were 1,504 male workers in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company. Personal exposure measurement, pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray examination, measurement of biomarkers, and a questionnaire about self-reported respiratory symptoms were performed annually. This study discusses the questionnaire results. We found that the toner-handling group showed significantly higher prevalence of breathlessness than the never-toner-handling group. The significant reduction of pulmonary function and fibrosis change in the chest X-ray examination associated with breathlessness were not observed. However the morbidity of asthma was higher compared to the Japanese population in both of the toner-handling group and the never-toner handling group, the effect of toner exposure was not clarified. Nevertheless, while the toner exposure levels in the current well-controlled working environment may be sufficiently low to prevent adverse health effects, further studies are needed to assess the more long-term latent health effects of toner exposure.

  8. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function and symptoms in Mexico City schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect

    Castillejos, M.; Gold, D.R.; Dockery, D.; Tosteson, T.; Baum, T.; Speizer, F.E. )

    1992-02-01

    The effects of ambient ozone (O3) on respiratory function and acute respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 143 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren followed longitudinally at 1- to 2-wk intervals over a period of 6 months at three schools in Pedregal, Mexico City. The maximum O3 level exceeded the World Health Organization guideline of 80 ppb and the U.S. standard of 120 ppb in every week. For an increase from lowest to highest in the mean O3 level during the 48 hr before spirometry (53 ppb), logistic regression estimated relative odds of 1.7 for a child reporting cough/phlegm on the day of spirometry. For the full population, the mean O3 level during the hour before spirometry, not adjusted for temperature and humidity, predicted a significant decrement in FVC but not in FEV1 or FEF25-75. In contrast, the mean O3 level during the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted significant decrements in FEV1 and FEF25-75 but not in FVC. Ozone was consistently associated with a greater decrement in lung function for the 15 children with chronic phlegm as compared with the children without chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or wheeze. Ozone in the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted decrements in FEV1 for children of mothers who were current or former smokers, but not for children of mothers who were never smokers. Many of these effects were reduced in multiple regression analyses including temperature and humidity, as temperature and O3 were highly correlated.

  9. Impact of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. Longitudinal repeated-measures study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salamanca, Mexico occupied fourth place nationally in contaminating emissions. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air pollution on the frequency of pulmonary function alterations and respiratory symptoms in school-age children in a longitudinal repeated-measures study. Methods We recruited a cohort of 464 children from 6 to 14 years of age, from two schools differing in distance from the major stationary air pollution sources. Spirometry, respiratory symptoms and air pollutants (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, PM10,) were obtained for each season. Mixed models for continuous variables and multilevel logistic regression for respiratory symptoms were fitted taking into account seasonal variations in health effects according to air pollution levels. Results Abnormalities in lung function and frequency of respiratory symptoms were higher in the school closer to major stationary air pollution sources than in the distant school. However, in winter differences on health disappeared. The principal alteration in lung function was the obstructive type, which frequency was greater in those students with greater exposure (10.4% vs. 5.3%; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), followed by the mixed pattern also more frequent in the same students (4.1% vs. 0.9%; OR = 4.69, 95% CI, 1.0-21.1). PM10 levels were the most consistent factor with a negative relationship with FVC, FEV1 and PEF but with a positive relationship with FEV1/FVC coefficient according to its change per 3-month period. Conclusions Students from the school closer to major stationary air pollution sources had in general more respiratory symptoms than those from the distant school. However, in winter air pollution was generalized in this city and differences in health disappeared. PM10 levels were the most consistent factor related to pulmonary function according, to its change per 3-month period. PMID:21106102

  10. Respiratory viral infections and effects of meteorological parameters and air pollution in adults with respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise R; Viana, Vinícius P; Müller, Alice M; Livi, Fernando P; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso R

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are the most common causes of respiratory infections. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults is underestimated. Meteorological variations and air pollution are likely to play a role in these infections. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the number of emergency visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and to evaluate the association between ILI/SARI, RVI prevalence, and meteorological factors/air pollution, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, from November 2008 to October 2010. Methods Eleven thousand nine hundred and fifty-three hospitalizations (adults and children) for respiratory symptoms were correlated with meteorological parameters and air pollutants. In a subset of adults, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected and analyzed through IFI test. The data were analyzed using time-series analysis. Results Influenza-like illness and SARI were diagnosed in 3698 (30·9%) and 2063 (17·7%) patients, respectively. Thirty-seven (9·0%) samples were positive by IFI and 93 of 410 (22·7%) were IFI and/or PCR positive. In a multivariate logistic regression model, IFI positivity was statistically associated with absolute humidity, use of air conditioning, and presence of mold in home. Sunshine duration was significantly associated with the frequency of ILI cases. For SARI cases, the variables mean temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, and mean concentration of pollutants were singnificant. Conclusions At least 22% of infections in adult patients admitted to ER with respiratory complaints were caused by RVI. The correlations among meteorological variables, air pollution, ILI/SARI cases, and respiratory viruses demonstrated the relevance of climate factors as significant underlying contributors to the prevalence of RVI. PMID:24034701

  11. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  12. Biomarkers of exposure, antibodies, and respiratory symptoms in workers heating polyurethane glue.

    PubMed Central

    Skarping, G; Dalene, M; Svensson, B G; Littorin, M; Akesson, B; Welinder, H; Skerfving, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pathogenic basis of respiratory disorders associated with isocyanates are still obscure. One reason for this is the lack of good estimates of human exposure. In this study exposure was estimated by measurement of isocyanate metabolites in biological samples. METHODS: In a factory using isocyanate based polyurethane (PUR) glue, isocyanate concentrations in air were measured by liquid chromatography. Samples from 174 employees were analysed for metabolites of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in plasma (P-MDX) and urine (U-MDX). After hydrolysis, 4,4'-methylenedianiline was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The employees were screened for work related respiratory symptoms and tested for specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG antibodies directed against isocyanate conjugated to human serum albumin. RESULTS: The time weighted isocyanate concentrations in air were low (MDI < 0.2-7; hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) < 0.1-0.7; 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) < 0.1 microgram/m3). All subjects had detectable P-MDX and U-MDX. There were significant associations between the estimates of exposure to thermal degradation products of an MDI based glue and P-MDX (range < or = 0.10-5.5 micrograms/l); and U-MDX (< or = 0.04-5.0 micrograms/g creatinine); in cases of heavy exposure. P-MDX and U-MDX were associated with each other (r = 0.64; P = 0.0001), work related symptoms (P-MDX: P = 0.03; Mann-Whitney U test), and serum concentrations of MDI specific IgG antibodies (r = 0.26; P = 0.0007). Unexpectedly, high P-MDX and U-MDX concentrations were also encountered in workers cutting textile (P-MDX 2.4-4.5 micrograms/l; U-MDX 0.81-3.8 micrograms/g creatinine); the reason is still unknown. Equally unexpected, there were significant negative associations between P-MDX and liver function tests. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly show the value of biomarkers for isocyanate exposure; in particular, P-MDX is useful. Further, these results show

  13. Development of a symptom score for clinical studies to identify children with a documented viral upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James A; Weber, Wendy J; Martin, Emily T; McCarty, Rachelle L; Englund, Janet A

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a symptom scoring system for use in clinical studies that differentiates children with cold symptoms who have an identifiable viral etiology for their upper respiratory tract infection (URI) from those in whom no virus is detected. Nasal swabs for PCR testing for identification of respiratory viruses were obtained on children aged 2-11 y at baseline and when parents thought their child was developing a cold. Parental-recorded severity of specific symptoms in children with and without a documented viral URI were compared. Nasal swabs were obtained on 108 children whose parents reported their child was developing a cold. A viral etiology was identified in 62 of 108 (57.4%) samples. Symptom measures that best differentiated children with a viral etiology from those without were significant runny nose and significant cough on days 1-4 of the illness. A URI symptom score was developed based on these symptoms, with a sensitivity of 81.4%, specificity of 61.9%, and accuracy of 73.3%. Parental impression is only a moderately accurate predictor of viral URI in children. Our URI symptom score provided a more accurate method for identifying children with viral URIs for clinical studies.

  14. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  15. Short term outcome and risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, J; Ng, C; Chan, Y; Mok, T; Lee, S; Chu, S; Law, W; Lee, M; Li, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was diagnosed in Hong Kong in over 1700 patients between March and early June 2003. Methods: 115 patients diagnosed with SARS were admitted to Queen Elizabeth Hospital, a large regional hospital in Hong Kong, from March 2003, of whom 100 were either discharged or were dead at 31 May. The patients were prospectively studied after admission to assess their short term outcomes and the risk factors associated with adverse outcomes, defined as death or the need for mechanical ventilation Results: At the time of writing 18 patients had died, with a crude mortality rate of 15.7% and a 21 day mortality of 10% (standard error 3%). Thirty nine patients (34%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, 30 of whom (26%) required mechanical ventilation. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 60 (hazards ratio (HR) 3.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 10.2; p=0.02), presence of diabetes mellitus or heart disease (HR 9.1, 95% CI 2.8 to 29.1; p<0.001), and the presence of other comorbid conditions (HR 5.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 19.7; p=0.01) were independently associated with mortality. However, only the presence of diabetes mellitus and/or cardiac disease (HR 7.3, 95% CI 3.1 to 17.4; p<0.001) was associated with adverse outcomes as a whole. Conclusion: SARS is a new disease entity that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Specific clinical and laboratory parameters predicting unfavourable outcomes have been identified. PMID:12885985

  16. Relation between respiratory symptoms, type of farming, and lung function disorders in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, M; Pedersen, B

    1990-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and function were examined in a random sample of 181 farmers (124 pig farmers and 57 dairy farmers) with a mean age of 43 years. Wheezing and shortness of breath during work in the animal house were significantly associated with pig farming (odds ratio 11.4), current smoking (odds ratio 2.2), bronchial hyperreactivity (odds ratio 3.8), and low FEV1 (odds ratio 3.4). Pig farmers had a slightly lower FEV1 than dairy farmers (101% versus 104% predicted, NS). Symptomatic farmers had significantly lower FEV1 than symptomless farmers (93% versus 106% predicted). A multiple linear regression analysis of the cross sectional values of FEV1 showed that there was a decline in FEV1 associated with pig farming (-12 ml/year of pig farming) and smoking (-23 ml/pack year) in addition to the age related decline of 32 ml/year. A multiple linear regression analysis of PC20 histamine showed that bronchial reactivity increased with age, number of pack years, and number of years in pig farming. Work in closed pig rearing units is a pulmonary health hazard and causes decline in lung function. PMID:2281423

  17. Relationship between exhaled NO, respiratory symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and blood eosinophilia in school children

    PubMed Central

    Steerenberg, P; Janssen, N; de Meer, G; Fischer, P; Nierkens, S; van Loveren, H; Opperhuizen, A; Brunekreef, B; van Amsterdam, J G C

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Levels of eNO in a sample of 450 children aged 7–12 years out of a total sample of 2504 school children living in different urban areas near motorways were determined. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between eNO, impairment of lung function (PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and blood eosinophilia in children with and without atopy as assessed by skin prick testing. Results: Regression analysis showed that wheezing and nasal discharge and conjunctivitis that had occurred during the previous 12 months were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.48 and 1.41, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. Similarly, BHR and the number of blood eosinophils per ml were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.55 and 2.29, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. The lung function indices PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF were not associated with eNO levels. Conclusions: In addition to conventional lung function tests and symptom questionnaires, eNO is a suitable measure of airway inflammation and its application may reinforce the power of epidemiological surveys on respiratory health. PMID:12612304

  18. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  19. Genetic variation of human respiratory syncytial virus among children with fever and respiratory symptoms in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Mu, Yonglin; Dong, Wei; Yao, Fujia; Wang, Lili; Yan, Huajie; Lan, Ke; Zhang, Chiyu

    2014-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) of genus Pneumovirus is one of the most common pathogens causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children. No information on the genotype distribution of HRSV is available in East China (e.g. Shanghai). From August 2009 to December 2012, 2407 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatient children with fever and respiratory symptoms in Shanghai. HRSV infection was determined using a multiplex RT-PCR assay. The second hypervariable region (HVR2) of G protein gene of HRSV was amplified and sequenced from HRSV positive samples. Genotypes were characterized by phylogenetic analyses. Of 2407 nasopharyngeal samples, 184 (7.6%) were tested as HRSV positive. From 160 positive subjects with sufficient nasopharyngeal samples, 69 HVR2 sequences were obtained by RT-PCR and sequencing. Three HRSV epidemic seasons were observed from August 2009 to December 2012, and an extreme outbreak of HRSV occurred in the 2009-2010 epidemic season. A genotype shift of predominant HRSV strains from B group in the 2009-2010 epidemic season to group A in the subsequent epidemic seasons was observed. Ten HRSV genotypes, including four group A genotypes NA1, NA3, NA4, and ON1, and six group B genotypes BA9, BA10, SAB4, CB1, BAc, and BA?, were detected in Shanghai. Seven genotypes (NA1, BA9-10, SAB4, CB1, BAc and BA?) were found in the 2009-2010 epidemic season. The co-circulation of multiple genotypes was associated with the extreme outbreak of HRSV among children with fever and respiratory symptoms in the 2009-2010 epidemic season.

  20. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-09-30

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration.

  1. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration. PMID:27706066

  2. [Epidemiological study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain (IBERPOC): prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation].

    PubMed

    Sobradillo, V; Miravitlles, M; Jiménez, C A; Gabriel, R; Viejo, J L; Masa, J F; Fernández-Fau, L; Villasante, C

    1999-04-01

    The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation (CAFL) was determined in a multicentric epidemiological study carried out in seven different areas of Spain. Based on a target population of 236,412 persons, a random census sample of 4,035 individuals between 40 and 69 years of age was chosen. Subjects answered several questionnaires and performed spirometric tests followed by a bronchodilation test if bronchial obstruction was detected. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 48% of the population (95% CI: 46.4-49.5%) with greater frequency of symptoms among men than women (55.2% versus 41%, p < 0.001). The following levels of prevalence of chronic symptoms were found: cough, 13.5% (95% CI: 12.5-14.6%); expectoration, 10.7% (95% CI: 9.7-11.6%); dyspnea after one flight of stairs, 10.4% (95% CI: 9.5-11.4%); and wheezing, 40.2% (95% CI: 38.7-41.7%). The prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB) was 4.8% (95% CI: 4.1-5.4%) and was more frequent among men than among women (8.3% and 1.4%, respectively; p < 0.001). Asthma had been diagnosed previously in 4.9% (95% CI: 4.2-5.5%), more often in women than in men (5.8% and 3.8%, respectively; p < 0.003). CAFL was found in 10.6% (95% CI: 9.6-11.5%), 15.8% in men and 5.5% in women (p < 0.001). All respiratory symptoms except asthma were more frequent among smokers than among ex-smokers, and in turn were more common among ex-smokers than non-smokers. The frequency of symptoms increased in accordance with accumulated smoking. The prevalence of CB and CAFL was vastly different from one region to another. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated independently with the appearance of CB were smoking, age over 60 years, male sex and having worked in industry. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms, including CB and CAFL, are common in the Spanish population. Smoking and amount of smoking are directly related to the frequency of such symptoms. Substantial differences were found in the prevalence of CB

  3. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  4. "Epithelial Cell TRPV1-Mediated Airway Sensitivity as a Mechanism for Respiratory Symptoms Associated with Gulf War Illness?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    TITLE: “Epithelial Cell TRPV1 -Mediated Airway Sensitivity as a Mechanism for Respiratory Symptoms Associated with Gulf War Illness” PRINCIPAL...66,),&$7,212) E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 01-06-2010 Annual Report 1 JUN 2009 - 31 MAY 2010 Epithelial Cell TRPV1 -Mediated Airway...express functional TRPV1 . More recently we found that these cells also express another important irritant receptor, namely TRPA1. Activation of

  5. Nxwisen, ntzarrin or ntzo’lin? Mapping children’s respiratory symptoms among indigenous populations in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ms. Lisa; Diaz, Janet; Jenny, Alisa; Anaite, Diaz; Nigel, Bruce; John, Balmes

    2007-01-01

    Estimating the prevalence of asthma is an epidemiologic challenge, particularly in rural areas of lesser-developed countries characterized by low literacy and poor access to health care. To avoid under- or over-reporting of symptoms, questionnaires must use terminology familiar to participants and that accurately describes the triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness characteristic of asthma. In preparation for a large longitudinal cohort study entitled Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) that will examine the effects of variable early lifetime woodsmoke exposure on the respiratory health of Mam-speaking children residing in communities in the western highlands of Guatemala, we conducted individual interviews (n=18) and five focus groups (n=46) with indigenous women from 17 of these communities to elicit and define local Mam and Spanish terms for common respiratory symptoms used to describe their own and their children’s respiratory symptoms. Focus group participants were also shown an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video of wheezing children and adults. We developed a conceptual framework that can be used as an efficient model for future studies investigating health and/or disease terminology in isolated communities, an integral step in the development of standardized questionnaires. Among this Mam-speaking population, wheeze was best described as: nxwisen or ntzarrin, “breathing sounds that are heard in the neck but come from the chest.” The variation in understanding of terms between women with and without children with a history of wheeze (such that for those without wheezing children some terms were virtually unrecognized), has important implications for large-scale populations surveys within countries and comparative surveys such as ISAAC. It is important to use linguistically and culturally appropriate terminology to describe wheeze in prevalence studies of

  6. Association of MBL With Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms in Bakery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon Kyung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Baker's asthma is the most prevalent occupational asthma, and IgE-mediated response is known as a major pathogenesis. However, recent studies have suggested the involvement of innate immune response because wheat flour contains bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides. To further understand a role of innate immune response in the development of work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS) in bakery workers, we investigated mannose-binding lectin (MBL), one of the initiating components of the complement cascade in a single cohort of bakery workers. A total of 373 bakery workers completed a questionnaire regarding WRS. The bakery workers were divided into 2 groups according to previous history of allergic rhinitis (AR)/bronchial asthma (BA): those with history of AR/BA (group I) and those without (group II). We measured serum MBL levels by using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and genotyped 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene (226G>A in exon 1, -554G>C, -431A>C, and -225G>C in the promoter) by using TaqMan assays. Fifty-nine subjects (15.5%) were previously diagnosed with AR/BA, and 64 subjects (16.8%) complained of WRS. No significant differences were found in serum MBL levels between groups I and II. However, in group II subjects, but not in group I subjects, the serum MBL levels were significantly higher in bakery workers with WRS than in those without. In addition, the serum MBL levels were significantly different according to genetic polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene and its haplotypes. In conclusion, serum MBL, affected by genetic polymorphisms, may be associated with WRS in bakery workers with no previous history of AR/BA. PMID:27826966

  7. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allan H; Yunus, Mohammad; Khan, Al Fazal; Ercumen, Ayse; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Meera Hira; Liaw, Jane; Balmes, John; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Raqib, Rubhana; Kalman, David; Alam, Dewan S; Streatfield, Peter K; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure via drinking water increases the risk of chronic respiratory disease in adults. However, information on pulmonary health effects in children after early life exposure is limited. Methods This population-based cohort study set in rural Matlab, Bangladesh, assessed lung function and respiratory symptoms of 650 children aged 7–17 years. Children with in utero and early life arsenic exposure were compared with children exposed to less than 10 µg/l in utero and throughout childhood. Because most children drank the same water as their mother had drunk during pregnancy, we could not assess only in utero or only childhood exposure. Results Children exposed in utero to more than 500 µg/l of arsenic were more than eight times more likely to report wheezing when not having a cold [odds ratio (OR) = 8.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–42.6, P < 0.01] and more than three times more likely to report shortness of breath when walking on level ground (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.09–13.7, P = 0.02) and when walking fast or climbing (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.22–8.32, P < 0.01]. However, there was little evidence of reduced lung function in either exposure category. Conclusions Children with high in utero and early life arsenic exposure had marked increases in several chronic respiratory symptoms, which could be due to in utero exposure or to early life exposure, or to both. Our findings suggest that arsenic in water has early pulmonary effects and that respiratory symptoms are a better marker of early life arsenic toxicity than changes in lung function measured by spirometry. PMID:24062297

  8. Air pollution, PM2.5 composition, source factors, and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Parra, Laura; Yohannessen, Karla; Brea, Cecilia; Vidal, Daniella; Ubilla, Carlos A; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of respiratory symptoms and medication use and exposure to various air pollutants, PM2.5 components, and source factors in a panel of asthmatic and nonasthmatic children in Santiago, Chile. To this end, 174 children (90 asthmatics and 84 nonasthmatics) were followed throughout the winter months of 2010 and 2011. During the study period, children filled out daily diaries to record respiratory symptoms and medication use. Air pollution data were obtained from government central site measurements and a PM2.5 characterization campaign. PM2.5 source factors were obtained using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Associations of symptoms and exposure to pollutants and source-factor daily scores were modeled separately for asthmatic and nonasthmatic children using mixed logistic regression models with random intercepts, controlling for weather, day of the week, year, and viral outbreaks. Overall, high concentrations of air pollutants and PM2.5 components were observed. Six source factors were identified by PMF (motor vehicles, marine aerosol, copper smelter, secondary sulfates, wood burning, and soil dust). Overall, single pollutant models showed significant and strong associations between 7-day exposures for several criteria pollutants (PM2.5, NO2, O3), PM2.5 components (OC, K, S, Se, V), and source factors (secondary sulfate) and coughing, wheezing and three other respiratory symptoms in both in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. No associations were found for use of rescue inhalers in asthmatics. Two-pollutant models showed that several associations remained significant after including PM2.5, and other criteria pollutants, in the models, particularly components and source factors associated with industrial sources. In conclusion, exposure to air pollutants, especially PM2.5, NO2, and O3, were found to exacerbate respiratory symptoms in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Some of the results suggest

  9. Investigation of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Associated with Metal Working Fluids at an Aircraft Engine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Francisco; Chen, Lilia; Hudson, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Methods 407 workers were categorized as MWF exposed or MWF unexposed and completed questionnaires. Estimated prevalence ratios (PR) of dermatitis, asthma, and work-related asthma (WRA) symptoms were calculated. Airborne concentrations of MWF and endotoxin were measured, and work practices observed. Results MWF exposed workers had a significantly higher prevalence of dermatitis on wrists/forearms (PR 2.59; 95% CI 1.22, 5.46), asthma symptoms (PR 1.49; 95% CI 1.05, 2.13) and WRA symptoms (PR 2.10; 95% CI 1.22, 3.30) than unexposed workers. Airborne concentrations of MWF were below the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) for MWF aerosols (thoracic particulate mass). Conclusions Despite MWF exposures below the NIOSH REL, exposed workers had a higher prevalence of asthma, WRA, and dermatitis symptoms than unexposed workers. Recommendations to reduce exposure included configuring mist collectors to automatically turn on when the machine is in use, and enforcing enclosure use. PMID:24122918

  10. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Reactivity Predicts Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in At-risk and Control Children

    PubMed Central

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Santucci, Aimee K.; Kovacs, Maria; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), emotion regulation (ER), and prospective depressive symptoms in children at risk for depression and controls. Of the 65 children (35 boys; 5 – 13 years) in the sample, 39 had a parent with childhood-onset mood disorder and 26 had a parent with no history of major psychiatric disorder. RSA during pre- and post-film baselines and RSA reactivity to sad film clip were measured. Later, children’s ER responses (focusing on sad/distressing affect) were assessed using a parent-reported questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were measured via clinical ratings. Results indicated that, compared to the initial baseline, a greater decrease in RSA (i.e. more vagal withdrawal) in response to the sad film clip predicted more adaptive ER responses and lower levels of clinician-rated depressive symptoms. However, tests for ER as a mediator of the association between RSA reactivity and depressive symptoms were precluded because maladaptive, but not adaptive, ER was associated with depressive symptoms. Overall, results suggest that cardiac vagal withdrawal (a greater decrease in RSA) in response to an emotional stimulus reflects more adaptive parasympathetic activity, which could facilitate children’s ability to effectively manage their sadness and distress and predict lower risk of depressive symptoms over time. PMID:19596044

  11. Improving access to effective care for people with chronic respiratory symptoms in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic respiratory symptoms are amongst the most common complaints among low and middle-income country (LMICs) populations and they are expected to remain common over the 10 to 20 year horizon. The underlying diseases (predominantly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and tuberculosis) cause, and threaten to increasingly cause, substantial morbidity and mortality. Effective treatment is available for these conditions but LMICs health systems are not well set up to provide accessible clinical diagnostic pathways that lead to sustainable and affordable management plans especially for the chronic non communicable respiratory diseases. There is a need for clinical and academic capacity building together with well-conducted health systems research to underpin health service strengthening, policy and decision-making. There is an opportunity to integrate solutions for improving access to effective care for people with chronic respiratory symptoms with approaches to tackle other major population health issues that depend on well-functioning health services such as chronic communicable (e.g. HIV) and non-communicable (e.g. cardiovascular and metabolic) diseases.

  12. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases in schoolchildren living in a polluted and in a low polluted area in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, A.I.; Hellmann, S.

    1988-02-01

    Second and fifth grade schoolchildren living in two communities with different levels of air pollution were studied. The parents of these children filled out ATS-NHLI health questionnaires. The prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases was found to be significantly higher among children growing up in the polluted community (Ashdod) as compared with the low-pollution area (Hadera). Logistic models fitted for the respiratory conditions which differed significantly between both areas of residence also included background variables that could be responsible for these differences. Relative risk values, which were calculated from the logistic models, were in the range of 1.47 for cough without cold to 2.66 for asthma for children from Ashdod, as compared with 1.00 for children from Hadera.

  13. Symptoms of respiratory illness in young children and the use of wood-burning stoves for indoor heating

    SciTech Connect

    Honicky, R.E.; Osborne, J.S.; Akpom, C.A.

    1985-03-01

    The occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness among preschool children living in homes heated by wood-burning stoves was examined by conducting an historical prospective study (n . 62) with an internal control group (matched for age, sex, and town of residence). Exposures of subjects were not significantly different (P greater than .05) with respect to parental smoking, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and use of humidifiers. The control group made significantly greater use of gas stoves for cooking whereas the study group made greater use of electric stoves for cooking and of air filters (P less than .05). Only one home used a kerosene space heater. During the winter of 1982, moderate and severe symptoms in all categories were significantly greater for the study group compared with the control group (P less than .001). These differences could not be accounted for by medical histories (eg, allergies, asthma), demographic or socioeconomic characteristics, or by exposure to sources of indoor air pollution other than wood-burning stoves. Present findings suggest that indoor heating with wood-burning stoves may be a significant etiologic factor in the occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness in young children.

  14. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data.Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure.The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.62).Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases.

  15. The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p < 0.01 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms compared with control group). In addition, 49.3% of chemical war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory symptoms was also significantly higher than control subjects (p < 0.05 for sputum and p < 0.001 for other symptoms). All the PFT values were also significantly lower in chemical war victims than that in control subjects (p < 0.001 for all cases). In addition, all the PFT values improved significantly after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). These results showed that chemical war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol.

  16. Pulmonary Function Predicting Confirmed Recovery From Lower-Respiratory Symptoms in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters, 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jackie; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We examined the relationship between pulmonary function (FEV1) and confirmed recovery from three lower-respiratory symptoms (LRSs) (cough, dyspnea, and wheeze) up to 9 years after symptom onset. Methods: The study included white and black male World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters who reported at least one LRS on a medical monitoring examination during the first year after September 11, 2001. Confirmed recovery was defined as reporting no LRSs on two consecutive and all subsequent examinations. FEV1 was assessed at the first post-September 11, 2001, examination and at each examination where symptom information was ascertained. We used stratified Cox regression models to analyze FEV1, WTC exposure, and other variables in relation to confirmed symptom recovery. Results: A total of 4,368 firefighters met inclusion criteria and were symptomatic at year 1, of whom 1,592 (36.4%) experienced confirmed recovery. In univariable models, first post-September 11, 2001, concurrent, and difference between first post-September 11, 2001, and concurrent FEV1 values were all significantly associated with confirmed recovery. In adjusted analyses, both first post-September 11, 2001, FEV1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 per 355-mL difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10) and FEV1 % predicted (HR, 1.08 per 10% predicted difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) predicted confirmed recovery. WTC exposure had an inverse association with confirmed recovery in the model with FEV1, with the earliest arrival group less likely to recover than the latest arrival group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.92). Conclusions: Higher FEV1 and improvement in FEV1 after September 11, 2001, predicted confirmed LRS recovery, supporting a physiologic basis for recovery and highlighting consideration of spirometry as part of any postexposure respiratory health assessment. PMID:22576633

  17. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  18. Diagnosis and Anti-Reflux Therapy for GERD with Respiratory Symptoms: A Study Using Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Jimin; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Diangang; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Respiratory symptoms are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance–pH (MII-pH) monitoring in GERD is clear, little is known regarding the characteristics of patients with respiratory symptoms based on MII-pH monitoring and anti-reflux therapy. We evaluated a cohort of GERD patients to identify the MII-pH parameters of GERD-related respiratory symptoms and to assess the anti-reflux therapy outcomes. Methods We undertook a prospective study of patients who were referred for GERD evaluation from January 2011 to January 2012. One hundred ninety-five patients underwent MII-pH monitoring and esophageal manometry, and one hundred sixty-five patients underwent invasive anti-reflux therapy that included laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and the Stretta procedure. The patient characteristics and MII-pH parameters were analyzed, and the symptom scores were assessed at baseline and at 1- and 3-year follow-up evaluations. Results Of the 195 patients, 96 (49.2%) exhibited respiratory symptoms and significantly more reflux episodes (70.7±29.3) than patients without respiratory symptoms (64.7±24.4, p = 0.044) based on the MII-pH monitoring results. Moreover, the group of patients with respiratory symptoms exhibited more proximal reflux episodes (35.2±21.3) than the non-respiratory symptomatic group (28.3±17.9, p = 0.013). One hundred twenty-five patients following the Stretta procedure (n = 60, 31 with respiratory symptoms) or LTF (n = 65, 35 with respiratory symptoms) completed the designated 3-year follow-up period and were included in the final analysis. The symptom scores after anti-reflux therapy all decreased relative to the corresponding baseline values (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences in the control of respiration between the Stretta procedure and LTF (p>0.05). However, LTF significantly reduced the recurrence (re-operation) rate compared with the

  19. An examination of the effects of mountaintop removal coal mining on respiratory symptoms and COPD using propensity scores.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael; Luo, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on public health consequences of mountaintop removal (MTR) coal mining has been limited by the observational nature of the data. The current study used propensity scores, a method designed to overcome this limitation, to draw more confident causal inferences about mining effects on respiratory health using non-experimental data. These data come from a health survey of 682 adults residing in two rural areas of Virginia, USA characterized by the presence or absence of MTR mining. Persons with a history of occupational exposure as coal miners were excluded. Nine covariates including age, sex, current and former smoking, overweight, obesity, high school education, college education, and exposure to coal as a home-heating source were selected to estimate propensity scores. Propensity scores were tested for balance and then used as weights to create quasi-experimental exposed and unexposed groups. Results indicated that persons in the mountaintop mining group had significantly (p < 0.0001) elevated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results suggest that impaired respiratory health results from exposure to MTR environments and not from other risks.

  20. Lower respiratory symptoms among residents living near the World Trade Center, two and four years after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Morse, Dale; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether residents living near the World Trade Center (WTC) continued to experience respiratory problems several years after September 11, 2001 (9/11). Residents living within one mile of the WTC surveyed after 9/11 responded two and four years later to follow-up surveys that asked about lower respiratory symptoms (LRS), medical history, psychological stress, and indoor environmental characteristics. There were declines in the proportion of residents reporting LRS, new lower respiratory diagnoses, unplanned medical visits, and asthma medication use. However, the proportion of residents reporting any LRS in the affected area at follow-up remained higher than the original proportion in the control area; residents with multiple sources of potential 9/11-related exposures were at greatest risk for LRS at follow-up. Psychological stress, dust/odors, and moisture were significantly associated with LRS at follow-up. These data demonstrate that LRS continue to burden residents living in the areas affected by the WTC disaster.

  1. Effects of air pollution on changes in lung function induced by exercise in children with chronic respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Timonen, K; Pekkanen, J; Tiittanen, P; Salonen, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how daily variations in ambient air pollution, especially in particles, during the cold of winter affect repeated measurements of baseline lung function and exercise induced bronchial responsiveness among primary school children with chronic respiratory symptoms. Methods: During alternate school weeks (mamimum five) from February to April 1994, 33 children took part in exercise challenge tests (n=141 tests). The exercise challenges were conducted outdoors in a school yard in the centre of Kuopio, Finland. Spirometric lung functions were measured indoors before the exercise, and 3 and 10 minutes after. Daily mean concentrations of PM10, black smoke (BS), NO2, CO, SO2, and particle size and numbers were monitored at a nearby fixed monitoring site. Results: Daily variations in ambient air pollution were not associated with enhanced bronchial responsiveness. However, increased concentrations of BS, PM10, particle numbers, NO2, and CO were consistently associated with an impairment of baseline lung functions. The reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively, for each 10 µg/m3 increase in BS (lag 2). Conclusion: Particles derived from combustion affect baseline lung function rather than bronchial responsiveness among children with chronic respiratory symptoms. PMID:11850557

  2. Vapor, Dust and Smoke Exposure in relation to adult-onset asthma and chronic respiratory symptoms: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    LeVan, Tricia D.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lee, Hin-Peng; Koh, David; Yu, Mimi C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Occupational factors contribute to a significant fraction of respiratory disease and symptoms. We evaluated the role of occupational exposures on asthma, chronic bronchitis, and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort, the Singapore Chinese Health Study. History of occupations, occupational exposures, and respiratory conditions were collected by interviews with 52,325 Singaporeans born 1918–1953. Exposure to dusts, from cotton, wood, metal, mineral and/or asbestos, was associated with non-chronic cough and/or phlegm (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.30), chronic bronchitis (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.57) and adult-onset asthma (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.30). Cotton dust was the major component contributing to respiratory symptoms. Vapor exposure, from chemical solvents, dyes, cooling oils, paints, wood preservatives and/or pesticides, was associated with non-chronic cough or phlegm (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27), chronic dry cough (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19, 2.01) and adult-onset asthma (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.56). Chemical solvents, cooling oils and pesticides were the major sources contributing to respiratory symptoms. These data support the role of occupational exposures in the etiology of respiratory illness in a population-based cohort in Singapore with a low prevalence of atopic illness. PMID:16707657

  3. Respiratory symptoms, lung functions, and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in two types of fish processing workers: Russian trawler fishermen and Norwegian salmon industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaeva, Olga; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Straume, Bjørn; Bang, Berit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory outcomes and work-related factors were studied in two seafood worker populations representing different occupational environments. Methods: Levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometric values, prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and self-evaluated exposures were compared between 139 Norwegian salmon workers and 127 Russian trawler workers. Results: Increased odds ratios (ORs) of shortness of breath with wheezing and prolonged cough as general respiratory symptoms were found in salmon workers, while increased ORs of work-related dry cough and running nose were found in trawler fishermen. Both worker groups ranked “cold work environment,” “use of disinfectants,” and “contaminated indoor air” as the first, second, and third most important causes of work-related respiratory symptoms, respectively. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in asthmatic trawler workers compared to asthmatic salmon workers. Conclusions: Respiratory symptoms commonly associated with obstructive airway diseases were more prevalent in salmon workers, while symptoms commonly associated with asthma and short-term effects of cold air exposure were more prevalent in trawler workers. PMID:25351376

  4. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  5. Gender differences in the impact of adolescent smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms. the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway, 1995-1997.

    PubMed

    Holmen, T L; Barrett-Connor, E; Clausen, J; Langhammer, A; Holmen, J; Bjermer, L

    2002-10-01

    Girls take up smoking at least as frequently as boys. Few studies have focused on gender differences in the impact of adolescent smoking. We evaluated the sex-specific effect of adolescent smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function. All students in junior high and high schools in Nord-Trøndelag County Norway, 1995-97, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Information on smoking habits and respiratory symptoms was obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Spirometry was performed in accordance with ATS standards. Eight-thousand-three-hundred and five students (83%) completed both questionnaire and spirometry. Among 6811 students aged 13-18 years (50.3% girls) with no history of asthma, 2993 (43.9%) reported never smoking, 665 (98%) reported occasional smoking, and 667 (9.9%) reported daily smoking (mean initiation age: 13.9 years). More boys than girls were heavy smokers. In all smoking categories, smokers reported a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than nonsmokers; symptoms increased with smoke burden. Girls reported more symptoms compared to boys with comparable smoke burden. A dose-response relation between smoking and reduced lung function was found only in girls. Girls were more vulnerable than boys to the impact of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function.

  6. Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilário da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

  7. Child sex and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity as moderators of the relation between internalizing symptoms and aggression.

    PubMed

    Aults, Christopher D; Cooper, Patrick J; Pauletti, Rachel E; Jones, Nancy Aaron; Perry, David G

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have examined sex differences in physiological responding, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to changing stimulus conditions involving situation specific or gender related cues, in children and adolescents. The present study examined whether RSA reactivity moderates the relation between aggression and internalizing symptoms and whether there are sex differences in this effect. Participants were 82 adolescents (M age = 12.1 years; 44 girls) from the general middle-school population. Peer nominations assessed aggression and internalizing symptoms, and RSA reactivity (defined as change in RSA from baseline to task) was recorded while participants anticipated and responded to an 85 dB signaled white-noise burst. For girls, internalizing symptoms were associated with aggression only if girls showed low RSA reactivity from baseline to task; there was no effect for boys. This association was absent when girls showed high RSA reactivity. Thus, child sex appears to influence not only levels of physiological responding but also relations of physiological responding to comorbidity of adjustment problems.

  8. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  9. A health survey of granite workers in Finland: radiographic findings, respiratory function, hearing, electric sensory thresholds of the fingers and subjective symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ahlman, K; Backman, A L; Partanen, T

    1975-06-01

    Results from a health survey of 777 granite workers, exposed to quartz dust, noise and/or machine vibration, and 122 unexposed "controls" are reported. The survey included chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, a hearing examination, the determination of the electric sensory thresholds of the fingers, and questionnaires on the subjective symptoms of the respiratory system and upper limbs. The exposed workers' radiographic findings (except for a 2.6 % rate of silicosis), respiratory functions, and sensory thresholds did not differ significantly from those of the controls. Granite drillers had a high prevalence of hearing defects. Respiratory symptoms were common among drillers and sandblasters, and subjective symptoms of the upper limbs due to vibration occurred among the granite dressing workers who used pneumatic hammers. Both primary and secondary measures of prevention are strongly recommended for the granite industry, primarlily for quartz dust exposure and its health effects.

  10. Respiratory symptoms associated with low level sulphur dioxide exposure in silicon carbide production workers.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W; Greaves, I A; Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Robins, J M; Thériault, G

    1989-01-01

    Relations between pulmonary symptoms and exposure to respirable dust and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were evaluated for 145 silicon carbide (SiC) production workers with an average of 13.9 (range 3-41) years of experience in this industry. Eight hour time weighted average exposures to SO2 were 1.5 ppm or less with momentary peaks up to 4 ppm. Cumulative SO2 exposure averaged 1.94 (range 0.02-19.5) ppm-years. Low level respirable dust exposures also occurred (0.63 +/- 0.26 mg/m3). After adjusting for age and current smoking status in multiple logistic regression models, highly significant, positive, dose dependent relations were found between cumulative and average exposure to SO2, and symptoms of usual and chronic phlegm, usual and chronic wheeze, and mild exertional dyspnoea. Mild and moderate dyspnoea were also associated with most recent exposure to SO2. Cough was not associated with SO2. No pulmonary symptoms were associated with exposure to respirable dust nor were any symptoms attributable to an interaction between dust and SO2. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but not dyspnoea. A greater than additive (synergistic) effect between smoking and exposure to SO2 was present for most symptoms. These findings suggest that long term, variable exposure to SO2 at 1.5 ppm or less was associated with significantly raised rates of phlegm, wheezing, and mild dyspnoea in SiC production workers, and that current threshold limits for SO2 may not adequately protect workers in this industry. PMID:2789966

  11. Adverse effects of inhaled sand dust particles on the respiratory organs of sheep and goats exposed to severe sand storms in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshimi; Shimada, Akinori; Nemoto, Mai; Morita, Takehito; Adilbish, Altanchimeg; Bayasgalan, Mungun-Ochir

    2014-01-01

    Sand storms in Mongolia have increased in frequency and scale, resulting in increased exposure of the inhabitants of Asian countries, including Japan and Korea, to Asian sand dust (ASD), which results in adverse effects on the respiratory system. However, there is no information on the health risks of severe sand storms in domestic animals in Mongolia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sand dust particles on the respiratory organs, including the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, of sheep and goats exposed to severe sand storms in Mongolia. Seven adult sheep and 4 adult goats that had been exposed to sand storms and 3 sheep with no history of exposure were included in this study. Lung tissues and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. The mineralogical contents of the lungs and lymph nodes were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fibrosis and granulomatous lesions comprising macrophages containing fine sand dust particles were observed exclusively in the lungs of sheep and goats exposed to sand storms. The activity of macrophages was also demonstrated by the presence of IL-6, TNF, and lysozyme. In addition, silicon, which is the major element of ASD (kosa aerosol), was detected exclusively in the lung tissues of the exposed animals. Our findings suggest that exposure to sand dust particles may affect the respiratory systems of domestic animals during their relatively short life span.

  12. A Comparative Study of Clinical Presentation and Risk Factors for Adverse Outcome in Patients Hospitalised with Acute Respiratory Disease Due to MERS Coronavirus or Other Causes

    PubMed Central

    Garbati, Musa A.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Fang, Vicky J.; Skakni, Leila; Joseph, Mercy; Wani, Tariq A.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Peiris, Malik; Hakawi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory syndrome (MERS) first emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and remains a global health concern. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS and in those with acute respiratory disease who were MERS-CoV negative, presenting to the King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh between October 2012 and May 2014. The demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS-CoV infection was compared with those testing negative MERS-CoV PCR. Health care workers (HCW) with MERS were compared with MERS patients who were not health care workers. One hundred and fifty nine patients were eligible for inclusion. Forty eight tested positive for MERS CoV, 44 (92%) being hospital acquired infections and 23 were HCW. There were 111 MERS-CoV negative patients with acute respiratory illnesses included in this study as “negative controls”. Patient with confirmed MERS-CoV infection were not clinically distinguishable from those with negative MERS-CoV RT-PCR results although diarrhoea was commoner in MERS patients. A high level of suspicion in initiating laboratory tests for MERS-CoV is therefore indicated. Variables associated with adverse outcome were older age and diabetes as a co-morbid illness. Interestingly, co-morbid illnesses other than diabetes were not significantly associated with poor outcome. Health care workers with MERS had a markedly better clinical outcome compared to non HCW MERS patients. PMID:27812197

  13. Training load, immune system, upper respiratory symptoms and performance in well-trained cyclists throughout a competitive season.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, H G; Gobatto, C A; Manchado-Gobatto, F B

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 ± 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance.

  14. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  15. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert

    2016-07-01

    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified.

  16. 40 CFR 159.184 - Toxic or adverse effect incident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., respiratory, oral). (B) List signs/symptoms/adverse effects. (C) If laboratory tests were performed, list name... effect). (D) Route of exposure (e.g., skin, eye, respiratory, oral). (E) Time between exposure and onset... of systems supplied. (C) If finished water samples, water supply systems sampled. (D) If...

  17. Association between Occupational Exposure and Lung Function, Respiratory Symptoms, and High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging in COPDGene

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Kinney, Gregory L.; McKenzie, Alex; Stinson, Douglas; Lutz, Sharon M.; Lynch, David A.; Criner, Gerard J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Although occupational exposure to dust and fumes is considered a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, this determination has been limited by reliance on spirometry alone to assess disease severity in predominantly male populations. Objectives: To determine the effect of occupational exposure on lung function, respiratory symptoms, and findings of emphysema and airway wall thickness measured using quantitative computed tomography in men and women. Methods: COPDGene is a multicenter study of current and former smokers that underwent standardized volumetric chest computed tomography scans to assess airways, % emphysema, and % gas trapping. Spirometry and a respiratory questionnaire including occupational history were also analyzed in 9,614 subjects (4,496 women). Logistic regression and analysis of covariance was used to assess associations with exposure. Measurements and Main Results: Occupational exposure to both dust and fumes was reported by 47.9% of men and 20.1% of women. Adjusting for age, race, body mass index, education, and current and lifetime smoking, the odds ratios for persons with dust and fume exposures for chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages 2 and higher chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly elevated and similar for men (1.83, 1.84, 2.0, 1.61, respectively) and women (1.65, 1.82, 1.98, 1.90, respectively). The % predicted FEV1 was similarly lower in those with exposure in men (70.7 ± 0.8 vs. 76.0 ± 0.9; P < 0.001) and women (70.5 ± 0.8 vs. 77.2 ± 0.8; P < 0.001). Percent emphysema and gas trapping was greater in those exposed to dust and fumes in men and women. In men, but not in women, persons with exposure had a greater mean square root wall area of 10-mm internal perimeter airways. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to dust and fumes in men and women is similarly associated with airflow obstruction, respiratory

  18. Effects of pet exposure in the first year of life on respiratory and allergic symptoms in 7-yr-old children. The SIDRIA-2 study.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Enrico; Simoni, Marzia; La Grutta, Stefania; Viegi, Giovanni; Bisanti, Luigi; Chellini, Elisabetta; Dell'Orco, Valerio; Migliore, Enrica; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Pistelli, Riccardo; Rusconi, Franca; Sestini, Piersante; Forastiere, Francesco; Galassi, Claudia

    2010-03-01

    The effects of pet exposure on the development of respiratory symptoms have recently been the matter of vivid discussion. Our objective was to determine the effects of exposure to cat or dog in the first year of life on subsequent respiratory/allergic symptoms in children in a large Italian multicentre study. As part of the SIDRIA-2 Study (Studi Italiani sui Disturbi Respiratori dell'Infanzia e l'Ambiente 2002), the parents of 20016 children (median age 7 yr) provided information on indoor exposures at different times in life and respiratory/allergic symptoms through questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were performed taking into account cat or dog exposure at different times in life and adjusting for the presence of the other pet, mould exposure, gender, age, parental education, maternal smoking during the first year of life, current passive smoking, family history of asthma/rhinitis/eczema and other potential confounders. Neither significant effects of dog exposure in the first year of life nor in other periods were found on respiratory/allergic symptoms after adjusting for the other covariates. Cat exposure in the first year of life was significantly and independently associated with current wheezing [OR (95% CI) 1.88 (1.33-2.68), p < 0.001] and current asthma [1.74 (1.10-2.78), p < 0.05] and border-line associated with current rhinoconjunctivitis [1.43 (0.97-2.11), p = 0.07]. No other effects of cat exposure were found on respiratory/allergic symptoms. Cat, but not dog, exposure in the first year of life is an independent risk factor for current wheezing, current asthma and current rhinoconjunctivitis at the age of 7.

  19. Broad implications for respiratory sinus arrhythmia development: associations with childhood symptoms of psychopathology in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, Michelle A; Lorenzi, Jill; Scarpa, Angela; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    Replicating the group-based developmental trajectory methodology from our prior study (Patriquin, Lorenzi, Scarpa, & Bell. 2014. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 317-326), the current study examines the development of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) across a new, larger cohort of typically developing children at 5, 10, 24, 36, and 48 months of age and examines the trajectory relationship with symptoms of childhood psychopathology. Group-based developmental trajectory modeling replicated our prior findings of a two-group model fit: a "High RSA" and "Low RSA" group. The "Low RSA" group, which demonstrated lower baseline RSA across all time points, had significantly more childhood problems at 48 months, namely increased withdrawal, aggressive behavior, pervasive developmental problems, and oppositional defiant problems. All participants for whom there were developmental or autism spectrum concerns (n = 6; based on maternal report at 48 months) were allocated to the Low RSA trajectory group. These results suggest that consistent developmental trajectories of RSA may point to protective factors (i.e., high RSA) against developing symptoms of childhood psychopathology.

  20. Broad implications for respiratory sinus arrhythmia development: Associations with childhood symptoms of psychopathology in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Michelle A.; Lorenzi, Jill; Scarpa, Angela; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    Replicating the group-based developmental trajectory methodology from our prior study (Patriquin, Lorenzi, Scarpa, & Bell, 2014), the current study examines the development of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) across a new, larger cohort of typically developing children at 5, 10, 24, 36, and 48 months of age and examines the trajectory relationship with symptoms of childhood psychopathology. Group-based developmental trajectory modeling replicated our prior findings of a two-group model fit: a “High RSA” and “Low RSA” group. The “Low RSA” group, which demonstrated lower baseline RSA across all time points, had significantly more childhood problems at 48 months, namely increased withdrawal, aggressive behavior, pervasive developmental problems, and oppositional defiant problems. All participants for whom there were developmental or autism spectrum concerns (n = 6; based on maternal report at 48 months) were allocated to the Low RSA trajectory group. These results suggest that consistent developmental trajectories of RSA may point to protective factors (i.e., high RSA) against developing symptoms of childhood psychopathology. PMID:25503815

  1. Anginal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Disease, and Adverse Outcomes in Black and White Women: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B. Delia; Rutledge, Thomas; Bittner, Vera; Whittaker, Kerry S.; Krantz, David S.; Cornell, Carol E.; Eteiba, Wafia; Handberg, Eileen; Vido, Diane; Bairey Merz, C. Noel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Black women are less likely to be evaluated and treated for anginal symptoms, despite a higher premature cardiac mortality rate compared to white women. Our objective was to compare angina symptoms in black versus white women regarding (1) angina symptoms characterization; (2) relationship with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); and (3) relationship with subsequent mortality. Methods A cohort of 466 women (69 black and 397 white) undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemia and without prior history of CAD completed symptom checklists. Four symptom clusters (CHEST, UPPER, STOMACH, and TYPICAL TRIGGERS) were derived by factor analysis. All angiograms were analyzed by core lab. Mortality data over 10 years were obtained from National Death Index. Results (1) Black women had lower mean CHEST cluster scores (0.60±0.30 vs. 0.73±30, p=0.002), but higher STOMACH scores (0.41±0.25 vs. 0.30±0.25, p=0.011) than white women. (2) Prevalence and severity of CAD did not differ in black and white women and was not predicted by symptom cluster scores. (3) All-cause mortality rates were 24.9% in blacks versus 14.5% in whites, p=0.007; and cardiovascular mortality 22.5% vs.8.8%, p=0.001. Symptom clusters were not predictive of adverse events in white women. However, black women with a low TYPICAL score had significantly higher mortality compared to those with a high TYPICAL score (43% vs. 10%, p=0.006). Conclusions Among women undergoing coronary angiography, black women report fewer chest-related and more stomach-related symptoms, regardless of presence or severity of CAD, and these racial symptom presentation differences are linked with the more adverse prognosis observed in the black women. Atypical symptom presentation may be a barrier to appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment and contribute to poorer outcomes for black women. PMID:23992103

  2. Survey of symptoms, respiratory function, and immunology and their relation to glutaraldehyde and other occupational exposures among endoscopy nursing staff

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, A; Pickering, C; Oldham, L; Francis, H; Fletcher, A; Merrett, T; Niven, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To find the nature and incidence of symptoms experienced by a large sample of hospital endoscopy nurses. To find whether nurses in endoscopy units develop asthma under current working conditions in endoscopy units. To obtain analytically reliable data on exposure concentrations of glutaraldehyde (GA) vapour in endoscopy units, and to relate them to individual hygiene and work practices. To characterise any exposure-response relations between airborne GA and the occurrence of work related symptoms (WRSs). Due to the growing concern about the perceived increase in WRSs among workers regularly exposed to biocides, all of whom work within a complex multiexposure environment, a cross sectional study was designed.
METHODS—Current endoscopy nurses (n=348) from 59 endoscopy units within the United Kingdom and ex-employees (who had left their job for health reasons (n=18) were surveyed. Symptom questionnaires, end of session spirometry, peak flow diaries, skin prick tests (SPTs) to latex and common aeroallergens, and measurements of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE specific to GA and latex were performed. Exposure measurements included personal airborne biocide sampling for peak (during biocide changeover) and background (endoscopy room, excluding biocide changeover) concentrations.
RESULTS—All 18 ex-employees and 91.4% of the current nurses were primarily exposed to GA, the rest were exposed to a succinaldehyde-formaldehyde (SF) composite. Work related contact dermatitis was reported by 44% of current workers exposed to GA, 56.7% of those exposed to SF composite, and 44.4% of ex-employees. The prevalence of WRSs of the eyes, nose, and lower respiratory tract in current workers exposed to GA was 13.5%, 19.8%, and 8.5% respectively and 50%, 61.1%, and 66.6% in the ex-employees. The mean percentage predicted forced expired volume in 1 second (ppFEV1) for ex-employees (93.82, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 88.53 to 99.11) was significantly lower

  3. Respirable coal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms in South-African coal miners: A comparison of current and ex-miners

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Seixas, N.; Lalloo, U.G.; Becklake, M.

    2006-06-15

    Dose-response associations between respirable dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and between symptoms and spirometry outcomes among currently employed and formerly employed South-African coal miners were investigated. Work histories, interviews, and spirometry and cumulative exposure were assessed among 684 current and 212 ex-miners. Results: Lower prevalences of symptoms were found among employed compared with ex-miners. Associations with increasing exposure for symptoms of phlegm and past history of tuberculosis were observed, whereas other symptom prevalences were higher in the higher exposure categories. Symptomatic ex-miners exhibited lower lung-function compared to the nonsymptomatic. Compared with published data, symptoms rates were low in current miners but high in ex-miners. Although explanations could include the low prevalence of smoking and/or reporting/selection bias, a 'Survivor' and/or a 'hire' effect is more likely, resulting in an underestimation of the dust-related effect.

  4. The effect of the use of NP305 masks in improving respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to sulfuric acid mists in plating and pickling units

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, Athena; Dolatshahi, Narges Gholamzadeh Taj; Ghasemkhan, Alireza Haj; Asghari, Mehdi; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Asadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plating and pickling processes are the most effective ways for increasing the strength of metal structures, and workers in these units are exposed to various contaminants, including acid mists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protective masks in decreasing the respiratory symptoms and the aerobic capacity of workers that are exposed sulfuric acid mist. Methods: This interventional study was based on National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard 7903 in which silica gel tubes are used for sampling the air in plating and pickling units for eight hours. After the samples were acquired and prepared, they were analyzed by ion chromatography and were compared with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) exposure limits. Respiratory symptoms were evaluated among two sets of test subjects, i.e., those who used NP305 masks in the workplace and those who did not use the mask. Results: The results showed that the concentration of sulfuric acid mist in the plating units was greater than the exposure limits, and concentrations at this level can cause an increase in symptoms related to irritation of the airway and a slight decrease in respiratory capacity. In this study, smoking had no significant effect on the severity of pulmonary dysfunction. Conclusion: The results indicated that the use of an NP305 mask is effective for decreasing symptoms resulting from exposure to sulfuric acid mist and improving respiratory capacity. PMID:26120392

  5. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-10-16

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km(-1). By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, -0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function.

  6. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  7. Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France): relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Benamghar, L; Pham, Q T; Teculescu, D; Rebstock, E; Mur, J M

    1993-01-01

    An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. A detailed analysis, however, was not possible due to the lack of data for survivors. In this study the cohort included 1178 workers selected at random from all the 5300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests, and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980, and 1985. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 389, p < 0.001) and of stomach cancer (SMR = 273, p < 0.05). There was no excess of lung cancer in non-smokers and moderate smokers (< 20 pack-years) or the miners who worked only at the surface or underground for less than 20 years. A significant excess (SMR = 349, p < 0.001) was found in moderate smokers when they worked underground for between 20 and 29 years. Heavy smokers (over 30 pack-years) or subjects who worked underground for more than 30 years experienced a high risk: SMR = 478 (p < 0.001) for moderate smokers who worked underground for over 30 years; 588 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for between 20 and 29 years; and 877 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for over 30 years. This showed an interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. The excess mortality from lung cancer was because there were some subjects who died young (from 45 years old). Comparison with the results of a previous study showed that additional hazards produced by diesel engines and explosives increased the mortality from lung cancer. The SMR was higher than 400 (p < 0.001) from 45 years old instead of from 56 years. A relation was found between a decrease in vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and of FEV1/VC and mortality from all causes and from lung cancer in heavy smokers or men who had worked

  8. Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Zeger, S. )

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of approximately 100 student nurses in Los Angeles was recruited for a diary study of the acute effects of air pollution. Smoking histories and presence of asthma and other allergies were determined by questionnaire. Diaries were completed daily and collected weekly for as long as 3 yr. Air pollution was measured at a monitoring location within 2.5 miles of the school. Incidence and duration of a symptom were modeled separately. Pack-years of cigarettes were predictive of the number of episodes of coughing (p less than 0.0001) and of bringing up phlegm (p less than 0.0001). Current smoking, rather than cumulative smoking, was a better predictor of the duration of a phlegm episode (p less than 0.0001). Controlling for personal smoking, a smoking roommate increased the risk of an episode of phlegm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, p less than 0.001), but not of cough. Excluding asthmatics (who may be medicated), increased the odds ratio for passive smoking to 1.76 (p less than 0.0001). In logistic regression models controlling for temperature and serial correlation between days, an increase of 1 SD in carbon monoxide exposure (6.5 ppm) was associated with increased risk of headache (OR = 1.09, p less than 0.001), photochemical oxidants (7.4 pphm) were associated with increased risk of chest discomfort (OR = 1.17, p less than 0.001) and eye irritation (OR = 1.20 p less than 0.001), and nitrogen dioxide (9.1 pphm) was associated with increased risk of phlegm (OR = 1.08 p less than 0.01), sore throats (OR = 1.26, p less than 0.001), and eye irritation (OR = 1.16, p less than 0.001).

  9. Immune responses, upper respiratory illness symptoms, and load changes in young athletes during the preparatory period of the training periodization

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Borin, João Paulo; Rodrigues, Ariel; Bonganha, Valéria; Prestes, Jonato; Montagner, Paulo César; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological responses and the association between variation in exercise load and self-reported occurrence of upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms in young basketball athletes. Materials and methods The sample was composed of twelve young male athletes aged 12.7 ± 0.6 years, with a height of 170 ± 10 cm, body mass of 57.6 ± 12.6 kg, and fat-free mass of 18.7 ± 5.9%. Daily training and occurrences of URI symptoms were recorded. Blood samples were collected at baseline (M1) and after 8 weeks (M2) of the preparatory period of periodization training to measure total and differential leukocyte counts, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results There was a significant decrease in monocytes at M2 compared to M1 (P = 0.004). There were no significant alterations in total leukocytes (P = 0.07), neutrophils (P = 0.07), or lymphocytes (P = 0.09). No significant changes in plasma concentrations of TNF-α (P = 0.30) or IL-6 (P = 0.90) were found. The weekly load from week 6 was higher when compared with weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 (P < 0.05), and week 8 was the lowest when compared with week 5 (P < 0.05). Self-reported URI incidences were highest at weeks 1 and 2. Conclusion Variations in weekly training load during the preparatory period were not correlated with changes in self-reported occurrence of URI incidences, suggesting that young athletes may have an attenuated response to exercise-induced perturbations to the immune system. PMID:24198586

  10. Co-occurring Lower Respiratory Symptoms and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 5 to 6 Years After the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Hemanth P.; Ekenga, Christine C.; Cone, James E.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Farfel, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the epidemiology of co-occurring lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 5 to 6 years after exposure to the 9/11 disaster. Methods. We analyzed residents, office workers, and passersby (n = 16 363) in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined patterns of reported respiratory symptoms, treatment sought for symptoms, diagnosed respiratory conditions, mental health comorbidities, quality of life, and unmet health care needs in relation to comorbidity. Results. Among individuals with either LRS or PTSD, 24.6% had both conditions. The odds of comorbidity was significantly higher among those with more severe 9/11 exposures. Independent of 9/11 exposures, participants with LRS had 4 times the odds of those without it of meeting criteria for PTSD, and those with PTSD had 4 times the odds of those without it of meeting criteria for LRS. Participants with comorbidity had worse quality of life and more unmet mental health care needs than did all other outcome groups. Conclusions. Respiratory and mental illness are closely linked in individuals exposed to 9/11 and should be considered jointly in public health outreach and treatment programs. PMID:22897552

  11. The use of multiple respiratory inhalers requiring different inhalation techniques has an adverse effect on COPD outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Chrystyn, Henry; Costello, Richard W; Dolovich, Myrna B; Fletcher, Monica J; Lavorini, Federico; Rodríguez-Roisin, Roberto; Ryan, Dermot; Wan Yau Ming, Simon; Price, David B

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with COPD may be prescribed multiple inhalers as part of their treatment regimen, which require different inhalation techniques. Previous literature has shown that the effectiveness of inhaled treatment can be adversely affected by incorrect inhaler technique. Prescribing a range of device types could worsen this problem, leading to poorer outcomes in COPD patients, but the impact is not yet known. Aims To compare clinical outcomes of COPD patients who use devices requiring similar inhalation technique with those who use devices with mixed techniques. Methods A matched cohort design was used, with 2 years of data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database. Matching variables were established from a baseline year of follow-up data, and two cohorts were formed: a “similar-devices cohort” and a “mixed-devices cohort”. COPD-related events were recorded during an outcome year of follow-up. The primary outcome measure was an incidence rate ratio (IRR) comparing the rate of exacerbations between study cohorts. A secondary outcome compared average daily use of short-acting beta agonist (SABA). Results The final study sample contained 8,225 patients in each cohort (mean age 67 [SD, 10], 57% males, 37% current smokers). Patients in the similar-devices cohort had a lower rate of exacerbations compared with those in the mixed-devices cohort (adjusted IRR 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80–0.84) and were less likely to be in a higher-dose SABA group (adjusted proportional odds ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.51–0.57). Conclusion COPD patients who were prescribed one or more additional inhaler devices requiring similar inhalation techniques to their previous device(s) showed better outcomes than those who were prescribed devices requiring different techniques. PMID:28053517

  12. Exposure to Household Air Pollution from Wood Combustion and Association with Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Nonsmoking Women: Results from the RESPIRE Trial, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Lie, Rolv T.; Bakke, Per; Balmes, John R.; Smith, Kirk R.; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Background With 40% of the world’s population relying on solid fuel, household air pollution (HAP) represents a major preventable risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Meta-analyses have confirmed this relationship; however, constituent studies are observational, with virtually none measuring exposure directly. Objectives We estimated associations between HAP exposure and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young, nonsmoking women in rural Guatemala, using measured carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in exhaled breath and personal air to assess exposure. Methods The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) Guatemala study was a trial comparing respiratory outcomes among 504 women using improved chimney stoves versus traditional cookstoves. The present analysis included 456 women with data from postintervention surveys including interviews at 6, 12, and 18 months (respiratory symptoms) and spirometry and CO (ppm) in exhaled breath measurements. Personal CO was measured using passive diffusion tubes at variable times during the study. Associations between CO concentrations and respiratory health were estimated using random intercept regression models. Results: Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or chest tightness) during the previous 6 months were positively associated with breath CO measured at the same time of symptom reporting and with average personal CO concentrations during the follow-up period. CO in exhaled breath at the same time as spirometry was associated with lower lung function [average reduction in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) for a 10% increase in CO was 3.33 mL (95% CI: –0.86, –5.81)]. Lung function measures were not significantly associated with average postintervention personal CO concentrations. Conclusions: Our results provide further support for the effects of HAP exposures on airway inflammation. Further longitudinal research modeling continuous

  13. Occurrence of respiratory symptoms in persons with restrictive ventilatory impairment compared with persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The PLATINO study.

    PubMed

    Nonato, Nívia L; Nascimento, Oliver A; Padilla, Rogelio P; de Oca, Maria M; Tálamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmen; López, Maria V; Celli, Bartolomé; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually complain of symptoms such as cough, sputum, wheezing, and dyspnea. Little is known about clinical symptoms in individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and type of respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD to those reported by individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment in the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar study. Between 2002 and 2004, individuals ≥40 years of age from five cities in Latin America performed pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry and had their respiratory symptoms recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Among the 5315 individuals evaluated, 260 (5.1%) had a restrictive spirometric diagnosis (forced vital capacity (FVC) < lower limit of normal (LLN) with forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) ≥ LLN; American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) 2005) and 610 (11.9%) were diagnosed with an obstructive pattern (FEV1/FVC < LLN; ATS/ERS 2005). Patients with mild restriction wheezed more ((30.8%) vs. (17.8%); p < 0.028). No difference was seen in dyspnea, cough, and sputum between the two groups after adjusting for severity stage. The health status scores for the short form 12 questionnaire were similar in restricted and obstructed patients for both physical (48.4 ± 9.4 vs. 48.3 ± 9.8) and mental (50.8 ± 10.6 vs. 50.0 ± 11.5) domains. Overall, respiratory symptoms are not frequently reported by patients with restricted and obstructed patterns as defined by spirometry. Wheezing was more frequent in patients with restricted pattern compared with those with obstructive ventilatory defect. However, the prevalence of cough, sputum production, and dyspnea are not different between the two groups when adjusted by the same severity stage.

  14. Evaluation of the Expression Profile of Extrapyramidal Symptoms Due to Antipsychotics by Data Mining of Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database.

    PubMed

    Kose, Eiji; Uno, Kana; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

     Typical antipsychotics are easily expressed as adverse events such as extrapyramidal symptom (EPS). On the other hand, incidence of adverse events due to atypical antipsychotics is low. Therefore, currently, atypical antipsychotics are widely used to treat schizophrenia. However, it has been reported that there is no difference in the frequency of EPS in atypical and typical antipsychotics. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of EPS in atypical and typical antipsychotics treatment using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. We analyzed reports of EPS in the JADER database and calculated the reporting odds ratio (ROR) of antipsychotics potentially associated with EPS. We applied the Weibull shape parameter to time-to-event data in the JADER database. Consequently, there was little information to distinguish between the ROR of atypical and typical antipsychotics. A significant difference related to the time of onset of EPS in both antipsychotics was not recognized. However, when comparing each drug, Paliperidone, Perospirone, Blonanserin, and Aripiprazole were relatively developed as EPS in the early stage. On the other hand, Risperidone, Clozapine, Olanzapine, and Quetiapine were developed as EPS not only at an early stage but also after long-term use. In addition, this finding was suggested from the result of the cumulative incidence of EPS in each drug and of the time-to-onset analysis using Weibull distribution. These findings may contribute to future clinical practice because we revealed the expression profile of EPS in treatment with atypical and typical antipsychotics.

  15. Association of respiratory symptoms and asthma with occupational exposures: findings from a population-based cross-sectional survey in Telemark, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsen, R; Fell, A K M; Svendsen, M V; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Henneberger, P K; Kongerud, J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and physician-diagnosed asthma and assess the impact of current occupational exposure. Design Cross-sectional analyses of the prevalence of self-reported respiratory health and association with current occupational exposure in a random sample of the general population in Telemark County, Norway. Settings In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark, Norway. The overall response rate was 33%, comprising 16 099 responders. Outcome measures The prevalence for respiratory symptoms and asthma, and OR of respiratory symptoms and asthma for occupational groups and exposures were calculated. Occupational exposures were assessed using self-reported exposure and an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). Results The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 11.5%. For the occupational groups, the category with agriculture/fishery workers and craft/related trade workers was associated with wheezing and asthma attack in the past 12 months, showing OR 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) and 1.9 (1.2 to 2.8), respectively. The group including technicians and associated professionals was also associated with wheezing OR 1.2 (1.0 to 1.3) and asthma attack OR 1.4 (1.1 to 1.9). The JEM data show that exposure to flour was associated with wheezing OR 3.2 (1.4 to 7.3) and woken with dyspnoea OR 3.5 (1.3 to 9.5), whereas exposures to diisocyanates, welding/soldering fumes and exposure to vehicle/motor exhaust were associated with dyspnoea OR 2.9 (1.5 to 5.7), 3.2 (1.6 to 6.4) and 1.4 (1.0 to 1.8), respectively. Conclusions The observed prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 11.5%. The ‘manual’ occupations were associated with respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to flour, diisocyanates, welding/soldering fumes and vehicle/motor exhaust was associated with respiratory symptoms in the past 12 months and use of

  16. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries).

  17. Presentation of respiratory symptoms prior to diagnosis in general practice: a case–control study examining free text and morbidity codes

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Richard A; Chen, Ying; Croft, Peter; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2015-01-01

    Objective General practitioners can record patients’ presenting symptoms by using a code or free text. We compared breathlessness and wheeze symptom codes and free text recorded prior to diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Design A case–control study. Setting 11 general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, contributing to the Consultations in Primary Care Archive consultation database. Participants Cases with an incident diagnosis of IHD, COPD or asthma in 2010 were matched to controls (four per case) with no such diagnosis. All prior consultations with codes for breathlessness or wheeze symptoms between 2004 and 2010 were identified. Free text of cases and controls were also searched for mention of these symptoms. Results 592 cases were identified, 194 (33%) with IHD, 182 (31%) with COPD and 216 (37%) with asthma. 148 (25%) cases and 125 (5%) controls had a prior coded consultation for breathlessness. Prevalence of a prior coded symptom of breathlessness or wheeze was 30% in cases, 6% in controls. Median time from first coded symptom to diagnosis among cases was 57 weeks. After adding symptoms recorded in text, prevalence rose to 62% in cases and 25% in controls. Median time from first recorded symptom increased to 144 weeks. The associations between diagnosis of cases and prior symptom codes was strong IHD relative risk ratio (RRR) 3.21 (2.15 to 4.79); COPD RRR 9.56 (6.74 to 13.60); asthma RRR 10.30 (7.17 to 14.90). Conclusions There is an association between IHD, COPD and asthma diagnosis and earlier consultation for respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are often noted in free text by GPs long before they are coded. Free text searching may aid investigation of early presentation of long-term conditions using GP databases, and may be an important direction for future research. PMID:26070795

  18. [Gonadal disorder as a result of adverse reaction to antineoplastic drugs--diagnosis, symptoms, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, A

    The past three decades have shown the increasing success of chemotherapy as the treatment of malignancies. This therapeutic success has focused attention on the associated gonadal toxicity. Cytotoxic agents may induce infertility and endocrine disfunction. Data for analysis were provided by studies on gonadal function after chemotherapy for: Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer; renal disease, bone-marrow transplantation. The likelihood of developing chemotherapy-induced damage depended on the chemotherapeutic regimen and prescribed dose, illness, sex and degree of gonadal activity at the time of treatment. Despite of the high frequency of chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage its prevention has received a little attention. LH-RHA and oral contraceptive therapy and testosterone have been tested to a limited extent of gonadal toxicity. Usually in male endocrine disfunction of testis does not need to be treated because it is moderate and does not cause any clinical symptoms. In female hormonal substitution seems to be necessary to decrease unpleasant feelings connected with menopause induced by chemotherapy. Further investigations should considered use of new cytotoxic agents without gonadal toxicity or use of new drugs which can better protect gonadal function.

  19. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    PubMed

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time.

  20. The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. Methods: All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Results: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. Conclusion: EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations. PMID:24626074

  1. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-09-01

    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  2. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGLL) polymorphism rs604300 interacts with childhood adversity to predict cannabis dependence symptoms and amygdala habituation: Evidence from an endocannabinoid system-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Caitlin E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Zhang, Bo; Conley, Emily D.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Heath, Andrew C.; Li, Daofeng; Lynskey, Michael T.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wang, Ting; Bierut, Laura J.; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for heritable variation in cannabis involvement and the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, no consistent patterns have emerged from candidate endocannabinoid (eCB) genetic association studies of cannabis involvement. Given interactions between eCB and stress systems and associations between childhood stress and cannabis involvement, it may be important to consider childhood adversity in the context of eCB-related genetic variation. We employed a system-level gene-based analysis of data from the Comorbidity and Trauma Study (N = 1,558) to examine whether genetic variation in 6 eCB genes (anabolism: DAGLA, DAGLB, NAPEPLD, catabolism: MGLL, FAAH, binding: CNR1; SNPs N = 65) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) predicts cannabis dependence symptoms. Significant interactions with CSA emerged for MGLL at the gene-level (p = .009), and for rs604300 within MGLL (ΔR2 = .007, p < .001), the latter of which survived SNP-level Bonferroni correction and was significant in an additional sample with similar directional effects (N = 859; ΔR2 = .005, p = .026). Furthermore, in a third sample (N = 312), there was evidence that rs604300 genotype interacts with early life adversity to predict threat-related basolateral amygdala habituation, a neural phenotype linked to the eCB system and addiction (ΔR2 = .013, p = .047). Rs604300 may be related to epigenetic modulation of MGLL expression. These results are consistent with rodent models implicating 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endogenous cannabinoid metabolized by the enzyme encoded by MGLL, in the etiology of stress adaptation related to cannabis dependence, but require further replication. PMID:26595473

  3. Correlation of rhinovirus load in the respiratory tract and clinical symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Gerna, G; Piralla, A; Rovida, F; Rognoni, V; Marchi, A; Locatelli, F; Meloni, F

    2009-08-01

    While human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are well accepted as a major cause of common cold syndromes (rhinitis), their role in the etiology of lower respiratory tract infections is still controversial, and their detection in asymptomatic patients is relatively common. The HRV pathogenic role in four groups of hospitalized patients (pediatric immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, and adult immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients) was investigated by quantifying HRV load in nasopharyngeal aspirates or bronchoalveolar lavage samples by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Real-time RT-PCR was performed in duplicate on all respiratory samples resulting positive by qualitative RT-PCR. In addition, molecular typing allowed detection of all known HRV species (A, B, and C). In immunocompetent pediatric patients HRVs were mostly associated with lower respiratory tract infections (in the absence of other viral agents) and wheezing, when viral load was > or =10(6) RNA copies/ml. In young immunocompromised patients (stem cell transplantation recipients), an inverse correlation between HRV persistence over time and time at which the infection occurred after transplantation was observed, whereas in adult immunocompromised patients (lung transplant recipients) HRVs could be detected at a medium-low level (<10(5) RNA copies/ml) in bronchoalveolar lavage samples taken routinely from asymptomatic patients. In conclusion, when detected at high viral load, HRVs may cause severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections, whereas when detected at a medium-low viral load, an event more frequent in immunocompromised subjects, they may represent only bystander viruses.

  4. Respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children with asthma in relation to volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and ambient air.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Hu, Ye; Pellizzari, Edo D

    2003-09-01

    Indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been associated with asthma, but there is little epidemiologic work on ambient exposures, and no data on relationships between respiratory health and exhaled breath VOCs, which is a biomarker of VOC exposure. We recruited 26 Hispanic children with mild asthma in a Los Angeles community with high VOC levels near major freeways and trucking routes. Two dropped out, three had invalid peak expiratory flow (PEF) or breath VOC data, leaving 21. Children filled out symptom diaries and performed PEF maneuvers daily, November 1999-January 2000. We aimed to collect breath VOC samples on asthma episode and baseline symptom-free days, but six subjects only gave samples on symptom-free days. We analyzed 106 breath samples by GC-MS. Eight VOCs were quantifiable in >75% of breath samples (benzene, methylene chloride, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene). Generalized estimating equation and mixed linear regression models for VOC exposure-response relationships controlled for temperature and respiratory infections. We found marginally positive associations between bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms and same day breath concentrations of benzene [odds ratio (OR) 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80, 5.11] but not other breath VOCs. Ambient petroleum-related VOCs measured on the same person-days as breath VOCs showed notably stronger associations with symptoms, including toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and benzene (OR 5.93, 95% CI 1.64, 21.4). On breath sample days, symptoms were also associated with 1-h ambient NO(2), OR 8.13 (1.52, 43.4), and SO(2), OR 2.36 (1.16, 4.81). Consistent inverse relationships were found between evening PEF and the same ambient VOCs, NO(2), and SO(2). There were no associations with O(3). Given the high traffic density of the region, stronger associations for ambient than for breath VOCs suggest that ambient VOC measurements were better markers for daily

  5. Heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-03-01

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM2.5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p < 0.05), however, no significant difference was found for chromium and manganese in PM2.5 and in blood. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and wheeze of children was higher in Guiyu compared to Haojiang (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for the prevalence of asthma in children between Guiyu and Haojiang. Living in Guiyu was positively associated with blood lead (B = 0.196, p < 0.001), blood cadmium (B = 0.148, p < 0.05) and cough (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.30-4.32; p < 0.01). Blood lead>5 μg/dL was significantly associated with asthma (OR, 9.50; 95% CI, 1.16-77.49). Higher blood chromium and blood manganese were associated with more cough and wheeze, respectively. Our data suggest that living in e-waste exposed area may lead to increased levels of heavy metals, and accelerated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma.

  6. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function among health-care workers exposed to cleaning and disinfectant chemicals, a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    El-Helaly, Mohamed; Balkhy, Hanan H; Waseem, Khan; Khawaja, Sahdia

    2016-12-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to cleaning chemicals among health-care workers (HCWs) is associated with respiratory disorders and ventilatory function changes. This study aimed to further explore this association using a longitudinal approach. A prospective 2-year follow-up study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia from June 2012 to June 2014 among 56 nurses who were responsible for disinfection and sterilization of medical instruments and equipment. The workplaces of the participants were assessed for engineering, environmental, and safety control measures. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all participants to assess their exposure to cleaning chemicals and their medical history. Spirometric parameters were measured for all nurses in 2012 (baseline) and again in 2014 (follow-up). The prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms did not increase significantly over this time. Among all the spirometric parameters, only forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio decreased significantly, and only 10.7% of participants who were exposed to cleaning chemicals for more than 10 years had FEV1 and FVC less than their longitudinal normal limits at the end of the study. Smoking and gender were associated with statistically significant decreases in some of the spirometric parameters. Our 2-year follow-up study did not demonstrate significant association between exposure to cleaning chemicals among HCWs and changes in the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms, but indicated early effects on ventilatory function among them. The study highlights the importance of periodic spirometry, proper work practices, and effective control measures to protect HCWs against potentially harmful workplace chemicals for disinfection and sterilization.

  7. Respiratory symptoms in children living near busy roads and their relationship to vehicular traffic: results of an Italian multicenter study (SIDRIA 2)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that exposure to vehicular traffic increases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and may exacerbate pre-existing asthma in children. Self-reported exposure to road traffic has been questioned as a reliable measurement of exposure to air pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were specific effects of cars and trucks traffic on current asthma symptoms (i.e. wheezing) and cough or phlegm, and to examine the validity of self-reported traffic exposure. Methods The survey was conducted in 2002 in 12 centers in Northern, Center and Southern Italy, different in size, climate, latitude and level of urbanization. Standardized questionnaires filled in by parents were used to collect information on health outcomes and exposure to traffic among 33,632 6–7 and 13–14 years old children and adolescents. Three questions on traffic exposure were asked: the traffic in the zone of residence, the frequency of truck and of car traffic in the street of residence. The presence of a possible response bias for the self-reported traffic was evaluated using external validation (comparison with measurements of traffic flow in the city of Turin) and internal validations (matching by census block, in the cities of Turin, Milan and Rome). Results Overall traffic density was weakly associated with asthma symptoms but there was a stronger association with cough or phlegm (high traffic density OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49). Car and truck traffic were independently associated with cough or phlegm. The results of the external validation did not support the existence of a reporting bias for the observed associations, for all the self-reported traffic indicators examined. The internal validations showed that the observed association between traffic density in the zone of residence and respiratory symptoms did not appear to be explained by an over reporting of traffic by parents of symptomatic subjects

  8. Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S.; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective of this blinded, prospective longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). A group of children with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder without a PANDAS history served as the (non-PANDAS) comparison group. Method Consecutive clinical ratings of tic and OC symptom severity were obtained for 31 PANDAS subjects and 53 non-PANDAS subjects. Clinical symptoms and laboratory values (throat cultures and streptococcal antibody titers) were evaluated at regular intervals during a 25 month period. Additional testing occurred at the time of any tic or OC symptom exacerbation. New GABHS infections were established by throat swab cultures and/or recent significant rise in streptococcal antibodies. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status, clinical (exacerbation or not) condition, and clinical evaluators were blinded to the laboratory results. Results No group differences were observed in either the number of clinical exacerbations or the number of newly diagnosed GABHS infections. On only six occasions out of a total of 51 (12%) a newly diagnosed GABHS infection was followed, within two months, by an exacerbation of tic and/or OC symptoms. In every instance, this association occurred in the non-PANDAS group. Conclusions This study provides no evidence for a temporal association between GABHS infections and tic/OC symptom exacerbations in children who meet the published PANDAS diagnostic criteria. PMID:21241948

  9. Exposure biomarkers and risk from gluing and heating of polyurethane: a cross sectional study of respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Littorin, M.; Rylander, L.; Skarping, G.; Dalene, M.; Welinder, H.; Stromberg, U.; Skerfving, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To define the relation between exposure to polyurethane (PUR) glue, biomarkers of exposure and effect, and work related symptoms that occur at least once a week.
METHODS—In a cross sectional study, 152 workers and 14 clerks in a factory with exposure to sprayed and heated PUR glue containing 4,4'-diphenylmethane (MDI) or 1,6-hexamethylene (HDI) di-isocyanate were examined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolites of MDI in plasma (P-MDX) and urine (U-MDX), 2,4- and 2,6-toluene di-isocyanate (TDI; P-TDX, U-TDX) and HDI in plasma and urine, specific serum IgG (S-IgG-MDI, S-IgG-HDI, and S-IgG-TDI, respectively) and IgE (S-IgE-MDI). Work related symptoms of the eyes and airways (nose or lower airways, or both), and lung function were also evaluated.
RESULTS—P-MDX was detected in 65% of the workers, U-TDX in 47%, HDX in none. Three per cent were positive for S-IgE-MDI, 33% for S-IgG-MDI, 32% for S-IgG-TDI, and 12% for S-IgG-HDI. A few clerks had metabolites, and some had antibodies. Most metabolites and immunoglobulins were slightly correlated—for example, P-MDX v S-IgG-MDI: rs=0.21. Workers who heated glue had increased P-MDX (odds ratio (OR)=12 for a value above the median) and S-IgG-MDI (OR=3.7), sprayers P-2,4-TDX (OR=6.2) and P-2,6-TDX (OR=16). Twenty six per cent of the workers had work related symptoms of the airways, 21% from the nose, 11% from the lower airways. Spraying of glue increased the risk of work related symptoms and slightly decreased lung function. U-MDX was associated with work related symptoms from the airways (OR=3.7) and P-2,6-TDX with work related symptoms from the lower airways (OR=6.6). S-IgG-MDI was related to work related symptoms from the airways (OR=2.6).
CONCLUSIONS—There were relations between exposures to sprayed and heated PUR glue based on MDI and HDI, concentrations of metabolites of MDI and TDI in plasma and urine, specific IgG serum antibodies against MDI, TDI, and HDI, and work

  10. Respiratory Problems Associated with Surfing in Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Chris; Silver, Mary W; Lahiff, Maureen; Colford, John

    2016-11-08

    A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation, a regression technique, were used to identify longitudinal and correlated results. The surfers were predominately Caucasian, male, and physically active. They surfed approximately 4 h a week. Their average age was 34 years. The data indicated that the surfers were generally "healthy," with a low prevalence of diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Their most common health problems were allergies and asthma. During the study, 10% of the surfers reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 29% reported upper respiratory symptoms. This study suggests surfers were significantly more likely to report upper respiratory symptoms when they had a history of allergies, housemates with upper respiratory symptoms, and/or a history of previous adverse health symptoms while surfing during a "red tide" (an event often associated with the presence of phytoplankton toxins). Additionally, female surfers reported upper respiratory symptoms more than males.

  11. Individual Differences in Self-Regulatory Failure and Menstrual Dysfunction Predict Upper Respiratory Infection Symptoms and Antibody Response to Flu Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Strauman, Timothy J.; Coe, Christopher L.; McCrudden, Megan C.; Vieth, Angela Z.; Kwapil, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Prior research indicates that cognitive priming manipulations that activate personal goals acutely increase or decrease natural killer cell cytotoxicity depending on whether individuals see themselves as making or failing to make progress toward their goals. Those findings in a laboratory setting revealed a psychobiological pathway whereby experiences of failure can influence health, but did not assess the impact of chronic perceived success/failure in goal pursuit on actual health outcomes. Three new studies investigated whether individual differences in perceived failure to attain personal goals influenced the self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory infections (URIs) as well as antibody response to flu immunization. Based on pilot data in young women, it also was hypothesized that the occurrence of menstrual dysfunction might interact with goal pursuit failure to more specifically predict cold and flu symptoms and optimal responses to vaccination. Perceived failure to attain goals did predict the reporting of URI symptoms as well as antibody levels post-immunization, both alone and in combination with menstrual dysfunction. PMID:18294813

  12. Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

  13. Prevalence of Bordetella holmesii and Bordetella bronchiseptica in respiratory tract samples from Belgian patients with pertussis-like symptoms by sensitive culture method and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, D; De Bel, A; De Smet, D; Heylen, O; Vekens, E; Vandoorslaer, K; Soetens, O; Piérard, D

    2013-01-01

    Insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001 are targets for molecular detection of respectively Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. There is a raising concern about specificity of these targets due to sequence similarity with Bordetella holmesii and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The likelihood of false (para)pertussis diagnoses should be correlated with the prevalence of these organisms in the respiratory tract (RT). From October 2010 until September 2011, 2,207 RT samples were submitted to the Belgian reference laboratory for pertussis diagnosis. End-point IS481/IS 1001 PCR and culture were performed for B. pertussis and B. parapertussis. We developed a sensitive culture method followed by screening with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation- time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to look for B. holmesii and B. bronchiseptica in our samples,. Only one B. bronchiseptica and no B. holmesii were detected in RT samples from Belgian patients with pertussis-like symptoms.

  14. Childhood adversity, perceived discrimination, and coping strategies in relation to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Robyn Jane; Bombay, Amy; McInnis, Opal Arilla; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples are at greater risk of experiencing early life adversity relative to non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and as adults frequently experience high levels of discrimination that act as a further stressor. Although these factors appear to contribute to high rates of depressive disorders and suicidality in Aboriginal peoples, the psychosocial factors that contribute to the relationship between childhood adversity and the development of depressive symptoms have hardly been assessed in this group. The present investigation explored potential mediators to help explain the relation between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms among a sample of First Nations adults from across Canada. These mediated relationships were further examined in the context of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members. In Study 1, (N = 225), the relationship between childhood trauma and depression scores was mediated by perceived discrimination, and this was particularly notable in the presence of unsupportive relations with outgroup members. In Study 2, (N = 134) the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion-focused coping that was specific to coping with experiences of ethnic discrimination, and this mediated effect was moderated by both outgroup and ingroup unsupportive social interactions. Thus, it seems that experiences of discrimination and unsupport might contribute to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults who had experienced early life adverse events.

  15. Gender differences in the perception of asthma and respiratory symptoms in a population sample of asthma patients in four Brazilian cities*

    PubMed Central

    Zillmer, Laura Russo; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Jardim, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma, by gender, in a population sample of asthma patients in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 400 subjects (> 12 years of age) included in a national probability telephone sample of asthma patients in the Brazilian state capitals of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. Each of those 400 subjects completed a 53-item questionnaire that addressed five asthma domains: symptoms; impact of asthma on quality of life; perception of asthma control; exacerbations; and treatment/medication. RESULTS: Of the 400 patients interviewed, 272 (68%) were female. In relation to respiratory symptoms, the proportion of women reporting extremely bothersome symptoms (cough with sputum, tightness in the chest, cough/shortness of breath/tightness in the chest during exercise, nocturnal shortness of breath, and nocturnal cough) was greater than was that of men. Daytime symptoms, such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and tightness in the chest, were more common among women than among men. Women also more often reported that their asthma interfered with normal physical exertion, social activities, sleep, and life in general. Regarding the impact of asthma on quality of life, the proportion of subjects who reported that asthma caused them to feel that they had no control over their lives and affected the way that they felt about themselves was also greater among women than among men. CONCLUSIONS: Among women, asthma tends to be more symptomatic, as well as having a more pronounced effect on activities of daily living and on quality of life. PMID:25610499

  16. Contributions of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein to a diagnosis of pneumonia in acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hopstaken, R M; Muris, J W; Knottnerus, J A; Kester, A D; Rinkens, P E; Dinant, G J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tests enabling general practitioners (GPs) to differentiate rapidly between pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are needed to prevent increase of bacterial resistance by unjustified antibiotic prescribing. AIMS: To assess the diagnostic value of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) for pneumonia; to derive a prediction rule for the presence of pneumonia; and to identify a low-risk group of patients who do not require antibiotic treatment. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Fifteen GP surgeries in the southern part of The Netherlands. METHOD: Twenty-five GPs recorded clinical information and diagnosis in 246 adult patients presenting with LRTI. Venous blood samples for CRP and ESR were taken and chest radiographs (reference standard) were made. Odds ratios, describing the relationships between discrete diagnostic variables and reference standard (pneumonia or no pneumonia) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of ESR, CRP, and final models for pneumonia was performed. Prediction rules for pneumonia were derived from multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Dry cough, diarrhoea, and a recorded temperature of > or = 38 degrees C were independent and statistically significant predictors of pneumonia, whereas abnormal pulmonary auscultation and clinical diagnosis of pneumonia by the GPs were not. ESR and CRP had higher diagnostic odds ratios than any of the symptoms and signs. Adding CRP to the final 'symptoms and signs' model significantly increased the probability of correct diagnosis. Applying a prediction rule for low-risk patients, including a CRP of < 20, 80 of the 193 antibiotic prescriptions could have been prevented with a maximum risk of 2.5% of missing a pneumonia case. CONCLUSION: Most symptoms and signs traditionally associated with pneumonia are not predictive of pneumonia in general practice. The prediction rule for low

  17. The relation of respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function to moderate occupational exposure in a general population. Results from the French PAARC study of 16,000 adults.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowski, M; Kauffmann, F

    1988-06-01

    Data from the French PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) study were used to assess the effect of a priori moderate occupational exposure to dust, gases or chemical fumes on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function. In this community-based population, without households 'headed' by manual workers, 34% of the 8692 men and 23% of the 7772 women, 25-59 years of age, ever occupationally active, reported some exposure. The studied relationships were adjusted for age, height, smoking habits, socio-occupational class, education and air pollution by logistic or linear regression methods. For men and women, some 50% increase (p less than 0.01) in chronic cough, chronic bronchitis, dyspnoea grade 2 and wheezing prevalence was observed in the exposed group compared to the never exposed, with the strongest association for wheezing. FEV1 and FEF25-75% were not associated with occupational exposure. Among men, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75%/FVC were significantly lower (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.05) among the exposed compared to never exposed, but FVC was significantly greater (p less than 0.05). Among women, occupational exposure was significantly related to a lower FEV1/FVC in the subgroup with a history of asthma or wheezing. Results suggest that occupational exposures of relatively low intensity, encountered in the non-industrial work places may constitute a non-negligible risk for respiratory health.

  18. Gastrointestinal and respiratory tract symptoms following brief environmental exposure to aerosols during a pfiesteria-related fish kill.

    PubMed

    Haselow, D T; Brown, E; Tracy, J K; Magnien, R; Grattan, L M; Morris, J G; Oldach, D W

    2001-08-24

    An outbreak of illness with flulike symptoms among state workers responding to a Pfiesteria bloom that resulted in fish death and distress on the Chicamacomico River on Maryland's Eastern Shore was investigated. Using case-control methodology, seven workers present at the Chicamacomico were compared to seven occupationally matched controls not present. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their exposures to water and their symptom histories and were assessed with a standard neuropsychological test battery. Three months later, the same questionnaires and neuropsychological tests were repeated. Three of the seven exposed workers cited minimal direct contact with water and four cited none. During the event, four developed burning eyes or nares and six developed a headache or sore throat. Six developed crampy abdominal pain, nausea, or diarrhea within 4 h of their exposure. In contrast, the only aforementioned symptom reported by controls was headache in two individuals. Acute and follow-up neuropsychological tests showed no consistent pattern of deficiency among the exposed. In conclusion, a flulike clinical illness was observed following exposure to a Pfiesteria-related fish kill, possibly as a result of inhalation of toxic aerosols.

  19. Absence of back to school peaks in human rhinovirus detections and respiratory symptoms in a cohort of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Tovey, Euan R; Willenborg, Christiana M; Toelle, Brett G; Ampon, Rose; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Strachan, Roxanne; Belessis, Yvonne; Jaffe, Adam; Reddel, Helen K; Crisafulli, Daniel; Marks, Guy B; Rawlinson, William D

    2016-04-01

    Much of what is known about the seasonality of human rhinovirus (hRV) infections has been learned from the study of acute asthma exacerbations presenting to emergency care, including those among children at the start of the school term. Much less is known about the patterns of hRVs in the community. In this study, viruses and day-to-day symptoms of asthma and colds were monitored twice weekly in 67 children with asthma aged 5-12 years, over a 15 month period in Sydney, Australia. Overall hRV was detected in 314/1232 (25.5%) of nasal wash samples and 142/1231 (11.5%) of exhaled breath samples; of these, 231 and 24 respectively were genotyped. HRVs were detected with similar prevalence rate throughout the year, including no peak in hRV prevalence following return to school. No peaks were seen in asthma and cold symptoms using twice-weekly diary records. However, over the same period in the community, there were peaks in asthma emergency visits both at a large local hospital and in state-wide hospitalizations, following both return to school (February) and in late autumn (May) in children of the same age. This study suggests that hRV infections are common throughout the year among children, and differences in virus prevalence alone may not account for peaks in asthma symptoms.

  20. Prevalence, codetection and seasonal distribution of upper airway viruses and bacteria in children with acute respiratory illnesses with cough as a symptom.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, K F; Grimwood, K; Sloots, T P; Whiley, D M; Acworth, J P; Phillips, N; Goyal, V; Chang, A B

    2016-06-01

    Most studies exploring the role of upper airway viruses and bacteria in paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARI) focus on specific clinical diagnoses and/or do not account for virus-bacteria interactions. We aimed to describe the frequency and predictors of virus and bacteria codetection in children with ARI and cough, irrespective of clinical diagnosis. Bilateral nasal swabs, demographic, clinical and risk factor data were collected at enrollment in children aged <15 years presenting to an emergency department with an ARI and where cough was a symptom. Swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 17 respiratory viruses and seven respiratory bacteria. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between child characteristics and codetection of the organisms of interest. Between December 2011 and August 2014, swabs were collected from 817 (93.3%) of 876 enrolled children, median age 27.7 months (interquartile range 13.9-60.3 months). Overall, 740 (90.6%) of 817 specimens were positive for any organism. Both viruses and bacteria were detected in 423 specimens (51.8%). Factors associated with codetection were age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for age <12 months = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 7.9; age 12 to <24 months = 6.0, 95% CI 3.7, 9.8; age 24 to <60 months = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9), male gender (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.1, 2.0), child care attendance (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.8) and winter enrollment (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3, 3.0). Haemophilus influenzae dominated the virus-bacteria pairs. Virus-H. influenzae interactions in ARI should be investigated further, especially as the contribution of nontypeable H. influenzae to acute and chronic respiratory diseases is being increasingly recognized.

  1. Biofeedback assisted control of respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a biobehavioral intervention for depressive symptoms in patients after cardiac surgery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Favretto, Giuseppe; Valfrè, Carlo; Bonfà, Carlotta; Gasparotto, Renata; Palomba, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    The current study investigated whether biofeedback training aimed at increasing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of cardiac vagal modulation, can reduce depressive symptoms in patients after cardiac surgery. This randomized controlled study enrolled 26 patients after first-time cardiac surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to an RSA-biofeedback group (N = 13) or to a treatment as usual group (N = 13). The biofeedback training consisted of five 45 min sessions designed to increase RSA. The outcome was assessed as changes in RSA and in the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D) values from pre- to post-training. Both groups were comparable for demographic and biomedical characteristics. RSA increased significantly in patients who underwent RSA-biofeedback compared to controls. Moreover, the CES-D scores were reduced significantly from pre- to post-training in the RSA-biofeedback group compared to the controls. Changes in RSA were inversely related to changes in CES-D scores from pre- to post-training. These findings extend the effectiveness of RSA-biofeedback for increasing vagal modulation as well as for reducing depressive symptoms in post-surgical patients. Overall, the current study also suggests that this biobehavioral intervention may add to the efficacy of postoperative risk reduction programs and rehabilitation protocols in cardiac surgery patients.

  2. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health

  3. Mold exposure and respiratory health in damp indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M

    2011-01-01

    Almost all modern buildings experience at least minor, and sometimes serious, water damage during their life span. Excess moisture in buildings becomes a critical factor for mold (fungal) proliferation in nutrient-rich environments. As a result, building occupants may be exposed to increased levels of microbial agents such as fungal spores, cell fragments, cell wall components, or toxins. Such exposures may result in various diseases and symptoms, both respiratory and non-respiratory. Respiratory health complaints are common in damp buildings and have been more thoroughly studied than non-respiratory complaints. Respiratory diseases and symptoms which may be produced by exposure to indoor fungi include asthma development, exacerbation of asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, cough, wheeze, dyspnea (shortness of breath), nasal and throat symptoms, and respiratory infections. In addition to these illnesses, rhinosinusitis and sarcoidosis in water-damaged building occupants are also drawing more scientific attention. In this article, we explore the evidence for adverse effects of fungal exposure on respiratory health in damp indoor environments and potential disease mechanisms related to the exposure.

  4. Microbial exposure and mold-specific serum IgG levels among children with respiratory symptoms in 2 school buildings.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Anne; Husman, Tuula; Laitinen, Sirpa; Meklin, Teija; Taskinen, Taina; Korppi, Matti; Nevalainen, Aino

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the authors determined the association between serum mold-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in primary school children (N = 181) with asthma, wheezing, or cough symptoms and exposure to indoor mold in 2 schools, with and without mold damage. Microbial exposure was determined with environmental sampling. Serum IgG antibody concentrations against 24 microbial strains were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children's microbe-specific IgG levels were often higher in the reference school. There was an association between elevated serum IgG antibody levels to Penicillium notatum and moisture damage in the school. In addition, moisture damage both in school and at home was associated with Penicillium notatum and Eurotium amstelodami IgG levels. These observations comported with microbial findings in the index school. No other positive associations between IgG antibodies and microbial findings for the school buildings were observed. IgG levels in sera of school children did not provide a specific means for assessing the microbial exposure associated with moisture and microbial problems in the school buildings. Thus, IgG analysis cannot be readily suggested as a routine method for the evaluation of these exposures.

  5. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  6. The adverse health effects of oil spills: a review of the literature and a framework for medically evaluating exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Nassetta, William J

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, an explosion on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, injured 17 workers, and spilled an estimated 185 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf. Adverse effects on the health of cleanup workers, fishermen, and others as well as on the ecosystem are being studied. This paper reviews published studies of the adverse health effects due to previous oil spills. Acute effects have included: respiratory, eye, and skin symptoms; headache; nausea; dizziness; and tiredness or fatigue. Chronic effects have included: psychological disorders, respiratory disorders, genotoxic effects, and endocrine abnormalities. We also present a systematic approach to evaluating individuals exposed to oil spills.

  7. Levels of household mold associated with respiratory symptoms in the first year of life in a cohort at risk for asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Janneane F; Ren, Ping; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Bracken, Michael B; Holford, Theodore R; Leaderer, Brian P

    2002-01-01

    We assessed prospectively the risk of increased incidence of respiratory symptoms after exposure to particular fungal genera in a susceptible population--namely, infants (n = 880) at high risk for developing asthma. Days of wheeze or persistent cough, information on maternal allergy and asthma, socioeconomic variables, and housing characteristics were collected over the course of the infant's first year of life. Exposure to mold was assessed by airborne samples collected at one time early in the infant's life. Fungi were identified to genus level, recorded as colony-forming units per cubic meter (CFU/m3), and then categorized into four levels: 0 (undetectable), 1-499 CFU/m3 (low), 500-999 CFU/m3 (medium), and greater than or equal to 1,000 CFU/m3 (high). Effects of mold on wheeze and persistent cough, adjusting for potential confounding factors, were examined with Poisson regression analyses. The two most commonly found genera were Cladosporium (in 62% of the homes) and Penicillium (41%). Cladosporium was associated with reported mold (p < 0.02) and water leaks (p < 0.003). Rate of persistent cough was associated with reported mold [Rate ratio (RR) = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.18-1.88]. The highest level of Penicillium was associated with higher rates of wheeze (RR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.34-3.46) and persistent cough (RR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.31-3.24) in models controlling for maternal history of asthma and allergy, socioeconomic status, season of mold sample, and certain housing characteristics. We conclude that infants in this high-risk group who are exposed to high levels of Penicillium are at significant risk for wheeze and persistent cough. PMID:12460818

  8. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-04

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region.

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  10. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  11. Respiratory effects of exposure of shipyard workers to epoxy paints.

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, D; Jones, J; Atterbury, M; Balmes, J

    1991-01-01

    Epoxy resin systems have been associated with occupational asthma in several case reports, but medical publications contain little on the potential adverse respiratory effects of these chemicals in exposed worker populations. To further evaluate the association of workplace exposure to epoxy paints and respiratory dysfunction, the cross workshift changes in pulmonary function and symptoms of 32 shipyard painters exposed to epoxy paints were compared with 28 shipyard painters not exposed to epoxy paints. The prevalence of lower respiratory tract symptoms was significantly higher among painters exposed to epoxy paints compared with controls. Among exposed painters the mean cross workshift change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-3.4%) was greater than the decrement in the non-exposed group (-1.4%). A significant linear relation was seen between % decrement in FEV1 and hours of exposure to epoxy paints. This study suggests that epoxy resin coatings as used by shipyard painters are associated with increased lower respiratory tract symptoms and acute decrements in FEV1. Adequate respiratory protection and medical surveillance programmes should be established in workplaces where exposure to epoxy resin systems occurs. PMID:1954156

  12. Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tam, Elizabeth K.; Miike, Rei; Labrenz, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Elias, Tamar; Davis, James A.; Chen, Yi-Leng; Tantisira, Kelan; Dockery, Douglas; Avol, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Environmental data suggested 4 different vog exposure zones with SO2, PM2.5, and particulate acid concentrations (mean ± s.d.) as follows: 1) Low (0.3 ± 0.2 ppb, 2.5 ± 1.2 μg/m3, 0.6 ± 1.1 nmol H +/m3), 2) Intermittent (1.6 ± 1.8 ppb, 2.8 ± 1.5 μg/m3, 4.0 ± 6.6 nmol H +/m3), 3) Frequent (10.1 ± 5.2 ppb, 4.8 ± 1.9 μg/m3, 4.3 ± 6.7 nmol H +/m3), and 4) Acid (1.2 ± 0.4 ppb, 7.2 ± 2.3 μg/m3, 25.3 ± 17.9 nmol H +/m3). Participants (1957) in the 4 zones differed in race, prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, presence of mold in the home, and physician-diagnosed asthma. Multivariable analysis showed an association between Acid vog exposure and cough and strongly suggested an association with FEV1/FVC < 0.8, but not with diagnosis of asthma, or chronic persistent wheeze or bronchitis in the last 12 months. Conclusions: Hawai'i Island's volcanic air pollution can be very acidic, but contains few co-contaminants originating from anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Chronic exposure to acid vog is associated with increased cough and possibly with reduced FEV1/FVC, but not with asthma or bronchitis. Further study is needed to better understand how volcanic air pollution interacts with host and environmental factors to affect respiratory symptoms, lung function, and lung growth, and to determine acute effects of episodes of increased emissions.

  13. B-cell depletion inhibits arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, but does not adversely affect humoral responses in a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model.

    PubMed

    Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri; Hancock, Gerald E; Kunz, Arthur; Hegen, Martin; Zhou, Xiaochuan X; Sheppard, Barbara J; Lamothe, Jennifer; Li, Evelyn; Ma, Hak-Ling; Hamann, Philip R; Damle, Nitin K; Collins, Mary

    2005-10-01

    We report the development of a mouse B cell-depleting immunoconjugate (anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody [mAb] conjugated to calicheamicin) and its in vivo use to characterize the kinetics of CD22+ B-cell depletion and reconstitution in murine primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. The effect of B-cell depletion was further studied in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model. Our results show that (1) the immunoconjugate has B-cell-specific in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity; (2) B-cell reconstitution starts in the bone marrow and spleen around day 30 after depletion and is completed in all tissues tested by day 50; (3) B-cell depletion inhibits the development of clinical and histologic arthritis in the CIA model; (4) depletion of type II collagen antibody levels is not necessary for clinical and histologic prevention of CIA; and (5) B-cell depletion does not adversely affect memory antibody responses after challenge nor clearance of infectious virus from lungs in the RSV vaccination model. These results demonstrate for the first time that only B-cell reduction but not type II collagen antibody levels correlate with the prevention of arthritis and represent key insights into the role of CD22-targeted B-cell depletion in mouse autoimmunity and vaccination models.

  14. Prevalence of patients with respiratory symptoms through active case finding and diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners and related predictors in a jail in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Amadeu A.; Ribeiro, Sandra A.; de Siqueira, Ana M.; Galesi, Vera M. N.; dos Santos, Laedi A. R.; Golub, Jonathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prisons offer a fertile setting for the transmission of tuberculosis due to the presence of many classic risk factors for both infection and disease: overcrowding, poor ventilation, and little sunlight. Prisoners are often malnourished and have poor hygiene and are more likely to have a background of alcohol and drug abuse. Objectives To determine the prevalence of prisoners with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) through active case finding in a prisoner population of the county jail of Carapicuíba, and to study possible related variables. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, and respiratory symptomatic individuals (RSI) were detected through active case finding. Socio-demographic data were collected from inmates’ judicial history using a specific questionnaire. The RSI provided sputum specimens for detection of acid fast bacilli and culture for mycobacterium identification. Results Among the 397 prisoners studied, 154 reported respiratory symptoms for more than three weeks, and were considered RSI; the variables associated with RSI were: having already been tried and incarcerated for more than six months and seven were diagnosed as PTB (1,763 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Conclusions The prevalence of RSI and PTB cases were respectively 39 and 35 times greater than the general population. PMID:21180853

  15. Positive impact of the Portuguese smoking law on respiratory health of restaurant workers.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Joana; Mendes, Ana; Almeida, Sofia; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The impact of smoke-free law on the respiratory and sensory symptoms among restaurant workers was evaluated. Fifty-two workers in 10 Portuguese restaurants were interviewed before and 2 years after implementation of the smoke-free law. A significant reduction in self-reported workplace environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was observed after the enforcement of the law, as well as a marked reduction in adverse respiratory and sensory symptoms such as dry, itching, irritated, or watery eyes, nasal problems, and sore or dry throat or cough, between pre- and post-ban. This study demonstrates that the smoking ban was effective in diminishing the exposure symptoms among workers and consequently in improving their respiratory health. These observations may have implications for policymakers and legislators in other countries currently considering the nature and extent of their smoke-free workplace legislation.

  16. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  17. Impact of cabin ozone concentrations on passenger reported symptoms in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G; Weschler, Charles J; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry.

  18. Impact of Cabin Ozone Concentrations on Passenger Reported Symptoms in Commercial Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G.; Weschler, Charles J.; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  19. Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... vessels, and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  20. ACUTE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PEAK FLOW MEASUREMENTS OF SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC CHILDREN IN NIZHNI TAGIL, RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A panel study with 85 elementary school children of 9 to 11 years old was carried out during March 16 - May 16, 1998 in Nizhni Tagil, Russia. All of the children were recruited from a single school and their respiratory health status was characterized through questionnaires and...

  1. Occupational exposure to poultry dust and effects on the respiratory system in workers.

    PubMed

    Viegas, S; Faísca, V M; Dias, H; Clérigo, A; Carolino, E; Viegas, C

    2013-01-01

    Farmers are occupationally exposed to many respiratory hazards at work and display higher rates of asthma and respiratory symptoms than other workers. Dust is one of the components present in poultry production that increases risk of adverse respiratory disease occurrence. Dust originates from poultry residues, molds, and feathers and is biologically active as it contains microorganisms. Exposure to dust is known to produce a variety of clinical responses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic airways obstructive disease (COPD), allergic alveolitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). A study was developed to determine particle contamination in seven poultry farms and correlate this with prevalence rate of respiratory defects and record by means of a questionnaire the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases by European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Poultry farm dust contamination was found to contain higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM5 and PM10. Prevalence rate of obstructive pulmonary disorders was higher in individuals with longer exposure regardless of smoking status. In addition, a high prevalence for asthmatic (42.5%) and nasal (51.1%) symptoms was noted in poultry workers. Data thus show that poultry farm workers are more prone to suffer from respiratory ailments and this may be attributed to higher concentrations of PM found in the dust. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to dust will ameliorate occupational working conditions and enhance the health of workers.

  2. [Respiratory allergies].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca Mirela; Demoly, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Respiratory allergies represent a global and public health problem, due to their prevalence (still increasing), morbidity, impact on the quality of life and costs for the society. They mainly concern rhinitis (or rhinoconjunctivitis) and asthma. The diagnosis of allergy is dependent on a history of symptoms on exposure to an allergen together with the detection of allergen-specific IgE. Accurate diagnosis of allergies opens up therapeutic options that are otherwise not appropriate, such as allergen immunotherapy and allergen avoidance, that are prescribed following a stepwise approach. It has been a century since the first trial in specific immunotherapy was performed and this still remains the only disease modifying treatment for allergic individuals. In terms of route of administration, sublingual immunotherapy represents a good alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy, considering its proven efficacy and better safety profile.

  3. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory Images Respiratory system References Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  4. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  5. Respiratory assessment in centronuclear myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Barbara K; Goddard, Melissa; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    The centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) are a group of inherited neuromuscular disorders classified as congenital myopathies. While several causative genes have been identified, some patients do not harbor any of the currently known mutations. These diverse disorders have common histological features, which include a high proportion of centrally-nucleated muscle fibers, and clinical attributes of muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency. Respiratory problems in CNMs may manifest initially during sleep, but daytime symptoms, ineffective airway clearance, and hypoventilation predominate as more severe respiratory muscle dysfunction evolves. Respiratory muscle capacity can be evaluated using a variety of clinical tests selected with consideration for the age and baseline motor function of the patient. Similar clinical tests of respiratory function can also be incorporated into preclinical CNM canine models to offer insight for clinical trials. Since respiratory problems account for significant morbidity in patients, routine assessments of respiratory muscle function are discussed. PMID:24668768

  6. Biological sensitivity to context: the interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional behavior and school readiness.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Adler, Nancy E; Boyce, W Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional and cognitive development in three hundred and thirty-eight 5- to 6-year-old children. Neurobiological stress reactivity was measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia and salivary cortisol responses to social, cognitive, sensory, and emotional challenges. Adaptation was assessed using child, parent, and teacher reports of externalizing symptoms, prosocial behaviors, school engagement, and academic competence. Results revealed significant interactions between reactivity and adversity. High stress reactivity was associated with more maladaptive outcomes in the context of high adversity but with better adaption in the context of low adversity. The findings corroborate a reconceptualization of stress reactivity as biological sensitivity to context by showing that high reactivity can both hinder and promote adaptive functioning.

  7. Acute respiratory failure secondary to mesalamine-induced interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Albin; Karakurum, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect of mesalamine therapy is a rare but potentially serious complication. Patients typically have a mild disease course with no documented cases of respiratory failure in published literature. Given its variable latent period and non-specific signs and symptoms, it may be difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with symptoms of fever, shortness of breath and a non-productive cough, 2 weeks after initiation of therapy with mesalamine. His hospital course was complicated by acute respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Radiographic studies revealed bilateral lower lobe infiltrates and bronchosopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering a diagnosis of mesalamine-induced lung injury in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms while on mesalamine therapy and to review relevant literature. PMID:23964037

  8. Environmentally mediated disorders of the respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Samet, J.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Although much of the evidence in environmental lung disease remains equivocal, some environmental exposures are known to be clinically relevant. Ambient air pollution remains of concern as a source of morbidity, particularly for susceptible populations such as persons with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac disease and the elderly. The adverse effects of several components of indoor air pollution have been established. Environmental tobacco smoke contributes to lower-respiratory illness in infants; office workers exposed to thermophilic actinomycetes contaminating ventilation systems have developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and in the home, components of house dust and fungus spores may provoke asthma via immediate hypersensitivity. The evidence is less compelling for a link between other exposures and disorders of the respiratory tract. For example, formaldehyde may be responsible for provoking vague respiratory symptoms and even nasal cancers; however, the associations are unproved. Likewise, the relation between low-level exposure to asbestos and the development of lung cancer, although a concern, is not conclusively established. The clinician should be aware of practical measures for patients who inquire about air cleaning. Often, relatively simple solutions are effective. A knowledge of sources and exposures as well as an understanding of the principles of inhalation lung injury should prove useful in directing patient care. 33 references.

  9. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas. PMID:27625447

  10. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  11. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  12. Respiratory alkalosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... shortness of breath. Alternative Names Alkalosis - respiratory Images Respiratory system References Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  13. [Desired effects and adverse effects of cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Drewe, J

    2003-06-01

    Although the use of cannabis shows no pronounced acute toxicity, acute psychological and psychomotor disturbances are observed occasionally after intake of single doses. Cannabis use can result in relevant impairment of driving ability. The risk is enhanced by concomitant use of alcohol. This augments the effect of cannabis significantly. After chronic use, significantly more psychotic symptoms become manifest, and there is a risk for developing psychological and physical dependence. Young age and pre-existing psychological disturbances increase the risk of these adverse effects. Chronic marijuana smoking is associated with increased toxicity and the risk of cancer of the respiratory tract. There is evidence of disturbance of the immune system and teratogenic effects of chronic cannabis use.

  14. Childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations.

    PubMed

    Fiddler, Maggie; Jackson, Judy; Kapur, Navneet; Wells, Adrian; Creed, Francis

    2004-01-01

    We assessed possible psychological mediators of the relationship between childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations among new outpatients at neurology, cardiology, and gastroenterology clinics. We assessed whether these differed in patients with and without organic disease that explained their symptoms. At first clinic visit we recorded Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS--anxiety and depression subscale scores), Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ--four subscales: consequences, cure, identity, timeline), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (total score), and Symptom Amplification Scale (total score). Subjects were divided into two groups according to whether they had experienced any type of childhood adversity using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Schedule. Outcome was the (log) number of medical consultations for 12 months before and 6 months after the index clinic visits. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine mediators; this was performed separately for patients with symptoms explained and not explained by organic disease. One-hundred and twenty-nine patients (61% response) were interviewed. Fifty-two (40.3%) had experienced childhood adversity; they made a median of 16 doctor visits compared with 10 for those without adversity (adjusted P=.026). IPQ identity score (number of symptoms attributed to the illness) and HAD depression scores were significantly associated with both childhood adversity and number of medical consultations and these variables acted as mediators between childhood adversity and frequency of consultation in the multiple regression analyses. This association was limited to patients with medically unexplained symptoms and was mediated by IPQ Identity Score (number of symptoms attributed to the patient's illness) and HAD depression score. Sexual abuse and overt neglect were the adversities most closely associated with frequent consultations. In patients with medically unexplained symptoms the association

  15. Factors predicting antibiotic prescription and referral to hospital for children with respiratory symptoms: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled study at out-of-hours services in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Rebnord, Ingrid Keilegavlen; Sandvik, Hogne; Mjelle, Anders Batman; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Acute respiratory infections and fever among children are highly prevalent in primary care. It is challenging to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections. Norway has a relatively low prescription rate of antibiotics, but it is still regarded as too high as the antimicrobial resistance is increasing. The aim of the study was to identify predictors for prescribing antibiotics or referral to hospital among children. Design Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled study. Setting 4 out-of-hours services and 1 paediatric emergency clinic in Norwegian primary care. Participants 401 children aged 0–6 years with respiratory symptoms and/or fever visiting the out-of-hours services. Outcomes 2 main outcome variables were registered: antibiotic prescription and referral to hospital. Results The total prescription rate of antibiotics was 23%, phenoxymethylpenicillin was used in 67% of the cases. Findings on ear examination (OR 4.62; 95% CI 2.35 to 9.10), parents' assessment that the child has a bacterial infection (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.17 to 5.13) and a C reactive protein (CRP) value >20 mg/L (OR 3.57; 95% CI 1.43 to 8.83) were significantly associated with prescription of antibiotics. Vomiting in the past 24 hours was negatively associated with prescription (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.53). The main predictors significantly associated with referral to hospital were respiratory rate (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12), oxygen saturation <95% (OR 3.39; 95% CI 1.02 to 11.23), signs on auscultation (OR 5.57; 95% CI 1.96 to 15.84) and the parents' assessment before the consultation that the child needs hospitalisation (OR 414; 95% CI 26 to 6624). Conclusions CRP values >20 mg/L, findings on ear examination, use of paracetamol and no vomiting in the past 24 hours were significantly associated with antibiotic prescription. Affected respiration was a predictor for referral to hospital. The parents' assessment was also significantly associated with the

  16. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  17. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    establish a causal relationship in either direction, because of these methodological limitations. In Australia, the marked increase in cannabis use has not been accompanied by an increased incidence of schizophrenia. On the basis of the available data, we cannot reach firm conclusions on whether or not cannabis use causes psychosis. It seems prudent to inform apparently vulnerable individuals that cannabis may cause acute psychotic decompensation, especially at high doses. Users can feel dependent on cannabis, but this dependence is usually psychological. Withdrawal symptoms tend to occur within 48 hours following cessation of regular cannabis use, and include increased irritability, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep difficulties and aggression. Symptoms subside within 2 to 12 weeks. Driving under the influence of cannabis doubles the risk of causing a fatal road accident. Alcohol consumption plays an even greater role. A few studies and a number of isolated reports suggest that cannabis has a role in the occurrence of cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. Numerous case-control studies have investigated the role of cannabis in the incidence of some types of cancer. Its role has not been ruled out, but it is not possible to determine whether the risk is distinct from that of the tobacco with which it is often smoked. Studies that have examined the influence of cannabis use on the clinical course of hepatitis C are inconclusive. Alcohol remains the main toxic agent that hepatitis C patients should avoid. In practice, the adverse effects of low-level, recreational cannabis use are generally minor, although they can apparently be serious in vulnerable individuals. The adverse effects of cannabis appear overall to be less serious than those of alcohol, in terms of neuropsychological and somatic effects, accidents and violence.

  18. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  19. Respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Foster, G T; Vaziri, N D; Sassoon, C S

    2001-04-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system in the body. This article reviews the various facets of this interesting problem. Respiratory alkalosis produces multiple metabolic abnormalities, from changes in potassium, phosphate, and calcium, to the development of a mild lactic acidosis. Renal handling of the above ions is also affected. The etiologies may be related to pulmonary or extrapulmonary disorders. Hyperventilation syndrome is a common etiology of respiratory alkalosis in the emergency department setting and is a diagnosis by exclusion. There are many cardiac effects of respiratory alkalosis, such as tachycardia, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, and ischemic and nonischemic chest pain. In the lungs, vasodilation occurs, and in the gastrointestinal system there are changes in perfusion, motility, and electrolyte handling. Therapeutically, respiratory alkalosis is used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Correction of a respiratory alkalosis is best performed by correcting the underlying etiology.

  20. Acute adverse event signalling scheme using the Saskatchewan Administrative health care utilization datafiles: results for two benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Rawson, N S; Rawson, M J

    1999-01-01

    Linked administrative health care utilization databases offer potential benefits for postmarketing surveillance. The value of the Saskatchewan datafiles in an acute adverse event signalling scheme has been evaluated using two benzodiazepines. The first 20,000 patients dispensed lorazepam and the first 8525 patients dispensed alprazolam were followed through the datafiles over the year after their initial prescription of the relevant drug, and all medical services occurring during treatment were recorded. The most frequent adverse drug reactions to benzodiazepines are drowsiness, depression, impaired intellectual function and memory, lethargy, impaired coordination, dizziness, nausea and/or vomiting, skin rash, and respiratory disturbance. Data from our study showed that sleep disorders, depressive disorders, dizziness and/or vertigo, respiratory symptoms, esophagus and stomach disorders, and inflammatory skin conditions occurred significantly more often in the first 30 days after the initial prescription than in the succeeding six months in both drug groups, indicating that they are important adverse events. There are several limitations to the methodology; however, the results of the analysis indicate that the use of administrative health care utilization datafiles in a systematic assessment to signal potential acute adverse drug reactions is a feasible proposition, but further studies are required to assess whether events are real adverse reactions.

  1. Incidence of clinical symptoms during long-duration orbital spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Crucian, Brian; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Johnston, Smith; Pierson, Duane L; Ott, C Mark; Sams, Clarence

    2016-01-01

    Background The environment of spaceflight may elevate an astronaut’s clinical risk for specific diseases. The purpose of this study was to derive, as accurately as currently possible, an assessment of in-flight clinical “incidence” data, based on observed clinical symptoms in astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS). Methods Electronic medical records were examined from 46 long-duration ISS crew members, each serving approximately a 6-month mission on board the ISS, constituting 20.57 total flight years. Incidence for immunological-related adverse health events or relevant clinical symptoms was tabulated in a non-identifiable fashion. Event categories included infectious diseases, allergies, and rashes/hypersensitivities. A subsequent re-evaluation of more notable events, either of prolonged duration or unresponsive to treatment, was performed. Results For the disease/symptom categories used in this evaluation, the ISS incidence rate was 3.40 events per flight year. Skin rashes were the most reported event (1.12/flight year) followed by upper respiratory symptoms (0.97/flight year) and various other (non-respiratory) infectious processes. During flight, 46% of crew members reported an event deemed “notable”. Among the notable events, 40% were classified as rashes/hypersensitivities. Characterization of on-orbit rashes manifested as redness with irritation, and could present on a variety of body locations. Conclusion Based on reported symptoms, astronauts experience adverse medical events of varying severity during long-duration spaceflights. The data suggests caution, from both a vehicle design and biomedical countermeasures perspective, as space agencies plan for prolonged deep space exploration missions. PMID:27843335

  2. Six-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress and severe psychological distress symptoms and associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and sense of injustice: a latent transition analysis of a community cohort in conflict-affected Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Silove, DM

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the 6-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological distress symptoms, and examine for associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and with the sense of injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Setting A whole-of-household survey was conducted in 2004 and 2010 in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. Participants 1022 adults were followed up over 6 years (retention rate 84.5%). Interviews were conducted by field workers applying measures of traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, a sense of injustice, PTS symptoms and psychological distress. Results Latent transition analysis supported a 3-class longitudinal model (psychological distress, comorbid symptoms and low symptoms). We derived 4 composite trajectories comprising recovery (20.8%), a persisting morbidity trajectory (7.2%), an incident trajectory (37.2%) and a low-symptom trajectory (34.7%). Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the persistent and incident trajectories reported greater stress arising from poverty and family conflict, higher TE exposure for 2 historical periods, and a sense of injustice for 2 historical periods. The persistent trajectory was unique in reporting greater TE exposure in the Indonesian occupation, whereas the incident trajectory reported greater TE exposure during the later internal conflict that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the incident trajectory reported a greater sense of injustice relating to the periods of the Indonesian occupation and independence. The persistent trajectory was characterised by a sense of injustice relating to the internal conflict and contemporary times. The recovery trajectory was characterised by the absence of these risk factors, the only difference from the low-symptom trajectory being that the former reported a sense of injustice for the period surrounding independence. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the timing

  3. Respiratory health of a population living downwind from natural gas refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Dales, R.E.; Spitzer, W.O.; Suissa, S.; Schechter, M.T.; Tousignant, P.; Steinmetz, N.

    1989-03-01

    Since 1958 there has been a perception of excess illness in a rural Canadian population living downwind from two natural gas refineries, the emissions of which contain mostly sulfur dioxide but also hydrogen sulfide. To determine if there was an excess of adverse health outcomes in the population exposed (defined by place of residence), a health survey was undertaken in 1985 in this area and in one unexposed to emissions but demographically similar. Participation was 92% from both the exposed population (n = 2,157) and a representative sample (n = 839) of the main reference population. More respiratory symptoms were reported in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group among those 5 to 13 yrs of age (28% versus 18%) and among never-smokers greater than or equal to 14 yrs of age (35% versus 24%). FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC were similar in both areas. Dichotomizing the level of exposure (high, low) within the exposed area revealed a trend in the high exposure area toward increased respiratory symptoms in the younger age group (39% versus 24%), but decreased symptoms in the older age group (33% versus 36% among never-smokers). FEV1 was similar between the two areas. The excess of respiratory symptoms in the exposed area unassociated with impaired spirometric values would be compatible with increased awareness of health or a small biologic environmental effect.

  4. Diphtheria Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... into and attach to the lining of the respiratory system, which includes parts of the body that help ... neck The poison destroys healthy tissues in the respiratory system. Within two to three days, the dead tissue ...

  5. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Infection and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra A; Rey-Jurado, Emma; Gómez, Roberto S; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-08-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is by far the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) worldwide in infants and children younger than 2 years. The overwhelming number of hospitalizations due to hRSV-induced ALRTI each year is due, at least in part, to the lack of licensed vaccines against this virus. Thus, hRSV infection is considered a major public health problem and economic burden in most countries. The lung pathology developed in hRSV-infected individuals is characterized by an exacerbated proinflammatory and unbalanced Th2-type immune response. In addition to the adverse effects in airway tissues, hRSV infection can also cause neurologic manifestations in the host, such as seizures and encephalopathy. Although the origins of these extrapulmonary symptoms remain unclear, studies with patients suffering from neurological alterations suggest an involvement of the inflammatory response against hRSV. Furthermore, hRSV has evolved numerous mechanisms to modulate and evade the immune response in the host. Several studies have focused on elucidating the interactions between hRSV virulence factors and the host immune system, to rationally design new vaccines and therapies against this virus. Here, we discuss about the infection, pathology, and immune response triggered by hRSV in the host.

  6. Vagal regulation and internalizing psychopathology among adolescents exposed to childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Alves, Sonia; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2014-07-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is strongly associated with youth psychopathology. Identifying factors that reduce vulnerability following CA is critical for developing preventive interventions. Vagal tone and vagal reactivity following psychosocial stressors might influence psychopathology among youths exposed to CA. We acquired heart period and impedance cardiography data to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and preejection period (PEP) from 157 adolescents aged 13-17 years at rest and during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms and multiple forms of CA were assessed. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity interacted with CA in predicting internalizing but not externalizing psychopathology; CA was unassociated with internalizing problems in adolescents with high resting RSA and RSA reactivity. No interactions were observed with PEP. High resting RSA predicted greater vagal rebound and accelerated heart rate recovery following the TSST, highlighting one potential mechanism underlying low internalizing symptoms following CA among youths with high vagal tone.

  7. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions.

  8. Pulmonary agenesis and respiratory failure in childhood.

    PubMed

    Dinamarco, Paula Vanessa Valverde; Ponce, Cesar Cilento

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary agenesis (PA) is a rare congenital anomaly, which may be unilateral or bilateral. Unilateral PA may be associated with nonspecific respiratory symptoms. We report the case of 5-month-old infant who presented a normal development until the age of 4 months when a respiratory infection caused an acute respiratory distress syndrome with a fatal outcome. The autopsy findings depicted the right lung agenesis without any other concomitant malformation. Although respiratory symptoms represent frequent complaints in pediatrics, the aim of this study is not only to draw attention to the unilateral pulmonary agenesis as a possible underlying malformation in children who present recurrent and severe respiratory symptoms, but also to report a case diagnosed at autopsy.

  9. Respiratory Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... programs typically include courses in human anatomy and physiology, chemistry, physics, microbiology, pharmacology, and math. Other courses ... and math skills. Respiratory therapists must understand anatomy, physiology, and other sciences and be able to calculate ...

  10. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health of children in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-05-08

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a key contributor to the global burden of disease mainly in developing countries. The use of solid fuel for cooking and heating is the main source of IAP in developing countries, accounting for an estimated 3.5 million deaths and 4.5% of Disability-Adjusted Life Years in 2010. Other sources of IAP include indoor smoking, infiltration of pollutants from outdoor sources and substances emitted from an array of human utilities and biological materials. Children are among the most vulnerable groups for adverse effects of IAP. The respiratory system is a primary target of air pollutants resulting in a wide range of acute and chronic effects. The spectrum of respiratory adverse effects ranges from mild subclinical changes and mild symptoms to life threatening conditions and even death. However, IAP is a modifiable risk factor having potential mitigating interventions. Possible interventions range from simple behavior change to structural changes and from shifting of unclean cooking fuel to clean cooking fuel. Shifting from use of solid fuel to clean fuel invariably reduces household air pollution in developing countries, but such a change is challenging. This review aims to summarize the available information on IAP exposure during childhood and its effects on respiratory health in developing countries. It specifically discusses the common sources of IAP, susceptibility of children to air pollution, mechanisms of action, common respiratory conditions, preventive and mitigating strategies.

  11. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health of children in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a key contributor to the global burden of disease mainly in developing countries. The use of solid fuel for cooking and heating is the main source of IAP in developing countries, accounting for an estimated 3.5 million deaths and 4.5% of Disability-Adjusted Life Years in 2010. Other sources of IAP include indoor smoking, infiltration of pollutants from outdoor sources and substances emitted from an array of human utilities and biological materials. Children are among the most vulnerable groups for adverse effects of IAP. The respiratory system is a primary target of air pollutants resulting in a wide range of acute and chronic effects. The spectrum of respiratory adverse effects ranges from mild subclinical changes and mild symptoms to life threatening conditions and even death. However, IAP is a modifiable risk factor having potential mitigating interventions. Possible interventions range from simple behavior change to structural changes and from shifting of unclean cooking fuel to clean cooking fuel. Shifting from use of solid fuel to clean fuel invariably reduces household air pollution in developing countries, but such a change is challenging. This review aims to summarize the available information on IAP exposure during childhood and its effects on respiratory health in developing countries. It specifically discusses the common sources of IAP, susceptibility of children to air pollution, mechanisms of action, common respiratory conditions, preventive and mitigating strategies. PMID:25254169

  12. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  13. [Respiratory distress].

    PubMed

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  14. Do benzodiazepines contribute to respiratory problems?

    PubMed

    Vozoris, Nicholas T

    2014-12-01

    Non-selective benzodiazepines are a class of sedative and anxiolytic medication that are commonly prescribed. Physiology studies and animal studies suggest that non-selective benzodiazepines may adversely impact respiration through a variety of mechanisms. Several recent, well-designed, population-based observational studies confirm that benzodiazepine-related negative respiratory outcomes are a concern. In this article, the mechanisms and clinical evidence for non-selective benzodiazepine-related adverse respiratory outcomes, as well as the methodological issues relating to the evaluation of adverse drug effects are reviewed.

  15. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    PubMed

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  16. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  17. [Respiratory function in glass blowers].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Butković, D; Mustajbegović, J

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and diseases and changes in lung function in a group of 80 glass blowers have been investigated. In addition a group of 80 not exposed workers was used as a control group for respiratory symptoms and diseases. In glass blowers, there was significant increase in prevalence of chronic bronchitis, nasal catarrh, and sinusitis than in the controls. Glass blowers exposed for more and less than 10 years had similar prevalences of respiratory symptoms. A large number of glass blowers complained of acute across-shift symptoms. Significant increase in FVC, FEF50 and FEF25 was documented at the end of the work shift. Comparison with predicted normal values showed that glass blowers had FVC and FEF25 significantly lower than predicted. RV and RV/TLC were significantly increased compared with the predicted normal values. DLCO was within the normal values in most glass blowers. It is concluded that work in the glass blower industry is likely to lead the development of chronic respiratory disorders.

  18. Symptom control.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Ingham, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Symptom control has become increasingly recognized as an important goal in patient care. In this article, advances in symptom assessment, and various definitions of symptom improvement are reviewed. Theoretical concepts underlying symptom control and clinically significant change are presented, as well as the role of symptom control as an endpoint in clinical trials. Symptom control is then surveyed in two broad categories for selected symptoms. The first area is therapy related symptoms, secondary to chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal therapy, and surgery. Symptoms reviewed include chemotherapy related mucositis, emesis, fatigue; hot flashes; and radiation related dermatitis, xerostomia, and mucositis. The second area is palliative oncologic approaches to disease-related symptoms. Results in palliative chemotherapy, palliative radiation therapy, cancer pain, and lack of appetite are summarized. Areas requiring further research are noted. Findings are presented in both a clinical and research context to help guide the reader with interpreting symptom control studies.

  19. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 μm) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ≤ 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of

  20. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  1. Nature-based stress management course for individuals at risk of adverse health effects from work-related stress-effects on stress related symptoms, workability and sick leave.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Matuszczyk, Josefa Vega; Grahn, Patrik

    2014-06-01

    Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management context. This study aimed to explore effects on burnout, work ability, stress-related health symptoms, and sick leave for 33 women participating in a 12-weeks nature based stress management course and to investigate how the nature/garden activities were experienced. A mixed method approach was used. Measures were taken at course start and three follow-ups. Results showed decreased burnout-scores and long-term sick leaves, and increased work ability; furthermore less stress-related symptoms were reported. Tools and strategies to better handle stress were achieved and were widely at use at all follow-ups. The garden and nature content played an important role for stress relief and for tools and strategies to develop. The results from this study points to beneficial effects of using garden activities and natural environments in a stress management intervention.

  2. Nature-Based Stress Management Course for Individuals at Risk of Adverse Health Effects from Work-Related Stress—Effects on Stress Related Symptoms, Workability and Sick Leave

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa; Grahn, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management context. This study aimed to explore effects on burnout, work ability, stress-related health symptoms, and sick leave for 33 women participating in a 12-weeks nature based stress management course and to investigate how the nature/garden activities were experienced. A mixed method approach was used. Measures were taken at course start and three follow-ups. Results showed decreased burnout-scores and long-term sick leaves, and increased work ability; furthermore less stress-related symptoms were reported. Tools and strategies to better handle stress were achieved and were widely at use at all follow-ups. The garden and nature content played an important role for stress relief and for tools and strategies to develop. The results from this study points to beneficial effects of using garden activities and natural environments in a stress management intervention. PMID:25003175

  3. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Naren N; Pine, Harold S; Underbrink, Michael P

    2012-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign disease with no known cure. RRP is caused by infection of the upper aerodigestive tract with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Passage through the birth canal is thought to be the initial transmission event, but infection may occur in utero. HPV vaccines have helped to provide protection from cervical cancer; however, their role in the prevention of RRP is undetermined. Clinical presentation of initial symptoms of RRP may be subtle. RRP course varies, and current management focuses on surgical debulking of papillomatous lesions with or without concurrent adjuvant therapy.

  4. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition with multiple causes and a high mortality rate. Approximately 150,000 cases are reported in the United States annually, making ARDS a public health concern. Management of the condition is complex because of its severity, and medical imaging is essential for both the diagnosis and management of ARDS. This article introduces common signs, symptoms, risk factors, and causes of ARDS. Diagnostic criteria, histopathology, treatment strategies, and prognostic information also are discussed. The article explains the value of medical imaging studies of ARDS, especially radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography.

  5. Physiology of respiratory disturbances in muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Lo Mauro, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited myopathies characterised by progressive skeletal muscle wasting, including of the respiratory muscles. Respiratory failure, i.e. when the respiratory system fails in its gas exchange functions, is a common feature in muscular dystrophy, being the main cause of death, and it is a consequence of lung failure, pump failure or a combination of the two. The former is due to recurrent aspiration, the latter to progressive weakness of respiratory muscles and an increase in the load against which they must contract. In fact, both the resistive and elastic components of the work of breathing increase due to airway obstruction and chest wall and lung stiffening, respectively. The respiratory disturbances in muscular dystrophy are restrictive pulmonary function, hypoventilation, altered thoracoabdominal pattern, hypercapnia, dyspnoea, impaired regulation of breathing, inefficient cough and sleep disordered breathing. They can be present at different rates according to the type of muscular dystrophy and its progression, leading to different onset of each symptom, prognosis and degree of respiratory involvement. Key points A common feature of muscular dystrophy is respiratory failure, i.e. the inability of the respiratory system to provide proper oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. In the lung, respiratory failure is caused by recurrent aspiration, and leads to hypoxaemia and hypercarbia. Ventilatory failure in muscular dystrophy is caused by increased respiratory load and respiratory muscles weakness. Respiratory load increases in muscular dystrophy because scoliosis makes chest wall compliance decrease, atelectasis and fibrosis make lung compliance decrease, and airway obstruction makes airway resistance increase. The consequences of respiratory pump failure are restrictive pulmonary function, hypoventilation, altered thoracoabdominal pattern, hypercapnia, dyspnoea, impaired regulation of breathing, inefficient cough and

  6. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis? The signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis (CF) ... respiratory, digestive, or reproductive systems of the body. Cystic Fibrosis Figure A shows the organs that cystic fibrosis ...

  7. Respiratory Health Effects Associated with Restoration Work in Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Roy J.; Lefante, John J.; Freyder, Laurie M.; Jones, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study examines prevalence of respiratory conditions in New Orleans-area restoration workers after Hurricane Katrina. Methods. Between 2007 and 2010, spirometry and respiratory health and occupational questionnaire were administered to 791 New Orleans-area adults who mostly worked in the building construction and maintenance trades or custodial services. The associations between restoration work hours and lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms were examined by multiple linear regression, χ2, or multiple logistic regression. Results. 74% of participants performed post-Katrina restoration work (median time: 620 hours). Symptoms reported include episodes of transient fever/cough (29%), sinus symptoms (48%), pneumonia (3.7%), and new onset asthma (4.5%). Prevalence rate ratios for post-Katrina sinus symptoms (PRR = 1.3; CI: 1.1, 1.7) and fever and cough (PRR = 1.7; CI: 1.3, 2.4) were significantly elevated overall for those who did restoration work and prevalence increased with restoration work hours. Prevalence rate ratios with restoration work were also elevated for new onset asthma (PRR = 2.2; CI: 0.8, 6.2) and pneumonia (PRR = 1.3; CI: 0.5, 3.2) but were not statistically significant. Overall, lung function was slightly depressed but was not significantly different between those with and without restoration work exposure. Conclusions. Post-Katrina restoration work is associated with moderate adverse effects on respiratory health, including sinusitis and toxic pneumonitis. PMID:23365586

  8. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  9. Respiratory effects of borax dust.

    PubMed

    Garabrant, D H; Bernstein, L; Peters, J M; Smith, T J; Wright, W E

    1985-12-01

    The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. Ninety three per cent of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg/m3 to 14.6 mg/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, dry cough, nose bleeds, sore throat, productive cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness were related to exposures of 4.0 mg/m3 or more, and were infrequent at exposures of 1.1 mg/m3. Symptoms of persistent respiratory irritation meeting the definition of chronic simple bronchitis were related to exposure among non-smokers. Decrements in the FEV1 as a percentage of predicted were seen among smokers who had heavy cumulative borax exposures (greater than or equal to 80 mg/m3 years) but were not seen among less exposed smokers or among non-smokers. Radiographic abnormalities were uncommon and were not related to dust exposure. Borax dust appears to act as a simple respiratory irritant and perhaps causes small changes in the FEV1 among smokers who are heavily exposed.

  10. Respiratory effects of mesquite broiling

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, R.E. Jr.; Lee, J.S.; Agahian, B.; Gibbons, H.L.; Reading, J.C.

    1986-11-01

    Mesquite wood charcoal has been widely promoted for the unique taste it imparts to broiled food. We recently examined a 21-year-old mesquite broiler cook with evidence suggestive of respiratory allergy or irritation following exposure to mesquite broiler smoke in a Salt Lake City restaurant. We subsequently surveyed 13 mesquite and 17 gas-flame (charcoal) broiler cooks to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to broiler smoke. The survey demonstrated statistically significant (P less than or equal to .05) respiratory irritation in the mesquite broiler group compared with the gas-flame broiler group in one of four symptom categories. Two other symptom categories strongly suggested the presence of (P less than .10) respiratory irritation in the mesquite broiler group. Personal air sampling was conducted or two mesquite broiler cooks and two gas-flame broiler cooks and compared. Unidentified saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (C8 through C12) with high molecular weights from 108 to 182 were present in air samples from the mesquite broiler cooks and not in the air samples from the gas-flame broiler cooks.

  11. Second-hand smoke exposure in cars and respiratory health effects in children.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Z; Manning, P J; Holohan, J; Keogan, S; Goodman, P G; Clancy, L

    2009-09-01

    We examined potential associations of ever asthma, and symptoms of wheeze (past 12 months), hay fever, eczema and bronchitis (cough with phlegm) among school children exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in cars, using a modified Irish International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol. 2,809 children of 13-14 yrs old and who selected randomly from post-primary schools throughout Ireland completed the 2007 ISAAC self-administered questionnaire. Adjusted OR (adjusted for sex, active smoking status of children interviewed and their SHS exposure at home) were estimated for the associations studied, using multivariable logistic regression techniques. Overall, 14.8% (13.9% in young males, 15.4% in young females) of Irish children aged 13-14 yrs old were exposed to SHS in cars. Although there was a tendency towards increased likelihood of both respiratory and allergic symptoms with SHS exposure in cars, wheeze and hay fever symptoms were significantly higher (adjusted OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.08-1.70) and 1.30 (1.01-1.67), respectively), while bronchitis symptoms and asthma were not significant (1.33 (0.92-1.95) and 1.07 (0.81-1.42), respectively). Approximately one in seven Irish schoolchildren are exposed to SHS in cars and could have adverse respiratory health effects. Further studies are imperative to explore such associations across different population settings.

  12. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... and cause severe illness and even death. Cutaneous anthrax symptoms can include: A group of small blisters ... on the face, neck, arms, or hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort ...

  13. Serum Adiponectin is Associated with Adverse Outcomes of Asthma in Men but Not in Women

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay; Dominic, Elizabeth; Qualls, Clifford; Steffes, Michael W.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Smith, Lewis J.; Lewis, Cora E.; Jacobs, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Murine studies suggest a beneficial effect of systemic adiponectin on asthma. Our objective was to determine the association between serum adiponectin concentrations and asthma control/severity outcomes in men and women separately. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of data from years 10, 15, and 20 examinations of the prospective coronary artery risk development in young adults study in the United States were performed. Asthma was defined by self-reported provider diagnosis at or prior to year 15 examination. Outcomes included presence of active disease, number of respiratory symptoms, and number of asthma medications; as well as longitudinal decline in absolute FEV1. Year 15 serum adiponectin concentration was the predictor variable. Results: In a multivariable analysis of 411 eligible subjects, after adjusting for body mass index and covariates, higher serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with more frequent active disease (including more frequent use of any asthma medication), and greater number of respiratory symptoms and asthma medications among men but not among women with asthma (p for interactions between sex and adiponectin for all analyses < 0.05). Conclusions: Higher serum adiponectin concentrations may be independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes of asthma in men but not in women. If biological effect is confirmed in future studies, modification of systemic adiponectin concentrations may open up newer ways to treat asthma in men. PMID:22007173

  14. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  15. Respiratory system involvement in Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Kuo, Christin; Ananth, Amitha Lakshmi; Myers, Angela; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Stevenson, David A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hudgins, Louanne

    2016-07-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the HRAS proto-oncogene. Respiratory system complications have been reported in individuals with CS, but a comprehensive description of the full spectrum and incidence of respiratory symptoms in these patients is not available. Here, we report the clinical course of four CS patients with respiratory complications as a major cause of morbidity. Review of the literature identified 56 CS patients with descriptions of their neonatal course and 17 patients in childhood/adulthood. We found that in the neonatal period, respiratory complications are seen in approximately 78% of patients with transient respiratory distress reported in 45% of neonates. Other more specific respiratory diagnoses were reported in 62% of patients, the majority of which comprised disorders of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Symptoms of upper airway obstruction were reported in CS neonates but were more commonly diagnosed in childhood/adulthood (71%). Analysis of HRAS mutations and their respiratory phenotype revealed that the common p.Gly12Ser mutation is more often associated with transient respiratory distress and other respiratory diagnoses. Respiratory failure and dependence on mechanical ventilation occurs almost exclusively with rare mutations. In cases of prenatally diagnosed CS, the high incidence of respiratory complications in the neonatal period should prompt anticipatory guidance and development of a postnatal management plan. This may be important in cases involving rarer mutations. Furthermore, the high frequency of airway obstruction in CS patients suggests that otorhinolaryngological evaluation and sleep studies should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory health of children in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Chiu, J F; Cheng, M F; Lin, M C

    1997-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether indoor environmental factors affected respiratory symptoms in 4164 primary school children in Kaohsiung rural areas of Taiwan. Information on respiratory health symptoms and characteristics of the housing was obtained using a written questionnaire, completed by the parents of children. Multiple logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between respiratory health symptoms (cough, wheezing, bronchitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and housing factors. Home dampness was significantly associated with all respiratory health symptoms. Incense burning and mosquito repellant burning showed effects on the reporting of coughing symptoms. No apparent associations were found with the other indoor factors included in this study or respiratory health symptoms. We conclude that dampness in the home has a pronounced effects on respiratory health symptoms and is a new public health issue in subtropical areas.

  17. Adverse reactions triggered by dental local anesthetics: a clinical survey.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, E.; Goharian, S.; Katz, Y.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine patients completed a questionnaire focusing on adverse reactions to dental local anesthetics as manifested by 16 signs and symptoms. Twenty-six percent of the participants reported having at least 1 adverse reaction. It was found that most of the adverse reactions occurred within the first 2 hours following the injection of local anesthetics. Pallor, palpitations, diaphoresis, and dizziness were the most common adverse reactions reported in the study. The results pointed to a significant relationship between anxiety, gender, injection technique, and procedure with a higher incidence of adverse reactions. PMID:11432179

  18. Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263

  19. Acute symptoms of drug hypersensitivity (urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock).

    PubMed

    Limsuwan, Ticha; Demoly, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are the adverse effects of drugs which, when taken at doses generally tolerated by normal subjects, clinically resemble allergy. Immediate-reaction of drug HSRs are those that occur less than 1 hour after the last drug intake, usually in the form of urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock. Acute urticarial and angioedema reactions are common clinical problems frequently encountered by internists and general practitioners. They are not specific to drug allergic reaction, and can be caused by various pathogenic mechanisms. Despite the benign course of urticaria and angioedema, a mucocutaneous swelling of the upper respiratory tract could be life-threatening by itself or a feature of anaphylaxis. This article reviews acute symptoms of drug HSR-related urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, and anaphylactic shock, and how clinicians should approach these problems.

  20. An open-label, in-use study assessing the warming sensation accompanying IFF Flavour 316282 and the acceptability and local tolerability of a syrup containing paracetamol and pseudoephedrine for the short-term treatment of symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup used for short-term treatment by patients suffering from nasal congestion and mild to moderate body pain, headache, fever or sore throat associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. Methods: A single cohort, single treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30 mL dose of syrup containing IFF Flavour 316282, paracetamol and pseudoephedrine and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessments of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture and acceptability of the product was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 56 subjects were included; 53 (94.6%) experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 114 s (95% confidence interval: 87–120 s). All subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good or fair for treating their symptoms; 100% and 94.6% of subjects respectively described texture and taste as excellent, good or fair. There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup for treatment of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe and palatable. PMID:26770771

  1. Management of Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Most menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, with bothersome symptoms often lasting longer than one decade. Hormone therapy (HT) represents the most effective treatment for these symptoms, with oral and transdermal estrogen formulations having comparable efficacy. Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative and other recent randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of combination estrogen-progestin and estrogen-alone therapy. Absolute risks observed with HT tended to be small, especially in younger women. Neither regimen affected all-cause mortality rates. Given the lower rates of adverse events on HT among women close to menopause onset and at lower baseline risk of cardiovascular disease, risk stratification and personalized risk assessment appears to represent a sound strategy for optimizing the benefit: risk profile and safety of hormone therapy. Systemic HT should not be arbitrarily stopped at age 65; instead treatment duration should be individualized based on patients’ risk profiles and personal preferences. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause represents a common condition that adversely impacts the quality of life of many menopausal women. Without treatment, symptoms worsen over time. Low-dose vaginal estrogen represents highly effective treatment for this condition. Because custom-compounded hormones have not been tested for efficacy or safety, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HT is preferred. A low dose formulation of paroxetine mesylate currently represents the only nonhormonal medication FDA-approved to treat vasomotor symptoms. Gynecologists and other clinicians who remain abreast of data addressing the benefit: risk profile of hormonal and nonhormonal treatments can help menopausal women make sound choices regarding management of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26348174

  2. Respiratory effects of secondhand smoke exposure among young adults residing in a "clean" indoor air state.

    PubMed

    Lee, David J; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John D; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures and its association with respiratory symptoms in a sample of young adults residing in a state with a partial clean indoor air law. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Florida households and a single state University was conducted in 2005. Enrolled participants between 18 and 24 years of age completed a 15-20 min interview assessing past and current SHS exposure and current respiratory symptoms (n = 1858). Approximately 60% of the sample were female; nearly 70% were non-Hispanic white, 10% were non-Hispanic Black, and 11% were Hispanic. Over two-thirds reported completing at least some college; 23% reported smoking in the past month. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported visiting a bar or nightclub which exposed them to SHS in the previous month; nearly half (46%) reported SHS exposure while riding in automobiles; 15% reported occupational SHS exposure; and nearly 9% reported living with at least one smoker. In multivariable models, personal smoking behavior, parental smoking history, and exposure to SHS in automobiles and in bars or nightclubs were significantly associated with increased reports of respiratory symptoms. Despite residing in a "clean" indoor air state, the majority of surveyed young adults continue to report exposure to SHS, especially in automobiles and in bars, and these exposures adversely impact respiratory health. All municipalities should pursue clean indoor air legislation which does not exempt bars and restaurants. Educational campaigns directed at reducing SHS exposure in motor vehicles also are needed.

  3. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  4. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment.

  5. Emerging Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Rom, William N.; Reibman, Joan; Rogers, Linda; Weiden, Michael D.; Oppenheimer, Beno; Berger, Kenneth; Goldring, Roberta; Harrison, Denise; Prezant, David

    2010-01-01

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) on 9/11/2001 produced a massive dust cloud with acute exposure, and the rubble pile burning over 3 months exposed more than 300,000 residents, rescue workers, and clean-up workers. Firefighters in the New York City Fire Department had significant respiratory symptoms characterized by cough, dyspnea, gastroesophageal reflux, and nasal stuffiness with a significant 1-year decline in FVC and FEV1. Bronchial hyperreactivity measured by methacholine challenge correlated with bronchial wall thickening on CT scans. Compared with the NHANES III data for FVC and FEV1, 32% of 2,000 WTC dust-exposed residents and clean-up workers were below the lower 5th percentile. The most common abnormality was a low FVC pattern, a finding similar to that also described for individuals in rescue and recovery activities. Among those complaining of respiratory symptoms and normal spirometry, almost half had abnormalities detected with impedance oscillometry consistent with distal airways' disease. Follow-up with the WTC Health Registry and the WTC Environmental Health Center will help discern whether treatment with anti-inflammatory medications or bronchodilators in those with respiratory symptoms may prevent the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:20427588

  6. GlyT2-Dependent Preservation of MECP2-Expression in Inhibitory Neurons Improves Early Respiratory Symptoms but Does Not Rescue Survival in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hülsmann, Swen; Mesuret, Guillaume; Dannenberg, Julia; Arnoldt, Mauricio; Niebert, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene have been shown to manifest in a neurodevelopmental disorder that is called Rett syndrome. A typical problem that occurs during development is a disturbance of breathing. To address the role of inhibitory neurons, we generated a mouse line that restores MECP2 in inhibitory neurons in the brainstem by crossbreeding a mouse line that expresses the Cre-recombinase (Cre) in inhibitory neurons under the control of the glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2, slc6a5) promotor (GlyT2-Cre) with a mouse line that has a floxed-stop mutation of the Mecp2 gene (Mecp2stop/y). Unrestrained whole-body-plethysmography at postnatal day P60 revealed a low respiratory rate and prolonged respiratory pauses in Mecp2stop/y mice. In contrast, GlyT2-Cre positive Mecp2stop/y mice (Cre+; Mecp2stop/y) showed greatly improved respiration and were indistinguishable from wild type littermates. These data support the concept that alterations in inhibitory neurons are important for the development of the respiratory phenotype in Rett syndrome. PMID:27672368

  7. Signs and symptoms in common colds.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, D. A.; Cohen, S.; Schlarb, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    The patterns of disease caused by five common viruses which infect the respiratory tract are described. The viruses were strains of rhinovirus types 2, 9, and 14, a strain of coronavirus type 229E and of respiratory syncytial virus. Volunteers were given nasal drops containing a low infectious dose of one of the viruses, quarantined from 2 days before to 5 days after inoculation, and examined daily by a clinician using a standard checklist of respiratory signs and symptoms. Only subjects who developed clinical illness accompanied by viral shedding and/or specific antibody production were analysed [n = 116]. The results confirm indication from earlier studies that the main difference between colds induced by different viruses is in duration of the incubation period. Patterns of symptom development were not substantially different with different viruses. Analyses of signs and symptoms in different categories, e.g. nasal symptoms v. coughing, justify treatment with different drugs either successively or simultaneously. PMID:8394240

  8. Signs and symptoms in common colds.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, D A; Cohen, S; Schlarb, J E

    1993-08-01

    The patterns of disease caused by five common viruses which infect the respiratory tract are described. The viruses were strains of rhinovirus types 2, 9, and 14, a strain of coronavirus type 229E and of respiratory syncytial virus. Volunteers were given nasal drops containing a low infectious dose of one of the viruses, quarantined from 2 days before to 5 days after inoculation, and examined daily by a clinician using a standard checklist of respiratory signs and symptoms. Only subjects who developed clinical illness accompanied by viral shedding and/or specific antibody production were analysed [n = 116]. The results confirm indication from earlier studies that the main difference between colds induced by different viruses is in duration of the incubation period. Patterns of symptom development were not substantially different with different viruses. Analyses of signs and symptoms in different categories, e.g. nasal symptoms v. coughing, justify treatment with different drugs either successively or simultaneously.

  9. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  10. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  11. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  12. Respiratory and gastrointestinal complications of caustic ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Turner, A; Robinson, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine circumstances surrounding the ingestion of caustic substances, the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms at presentation, and the degree of investigation and active treatment during hospitalisation. Long term respiratory and gastrointestinal sequelae were also studied. Design: Retrospective case note study covering a 10 year period. Setting: Tertiary children's hospital. Patients: Children and adolescents presenting following caustic ingestions to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Main outcome measures: Requirement for interventional oesophagoscopy/bronchoscopy, respiratory support or admission to intensive care, and long term gastrointestinal or respiratory sequelae noted. Results: Thirty two cases of caustic ingestion were identified in 31 patients (median age 2.6 years; 78% boys). The average time in hospital was 2 days. Two patients (6%) required intensive care nursing, and both required intubation with mechanical ventilation (average 33 hours). Thirty patients (97%) underwent diagnostic oesophagoscopy, and two underwent laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy for visualisation of the upper airway. No patient had long term respiratory consequences. Two patients (6%) sustained significant oesophageal injuries requiring interventional oesophagoscopy. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion is overrepresented in boys. Most ingestions involve household cleaning products. Symptoms on admission do not usually require intensive care admission. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominate at presentation, however, these are usually mild. Respiratory symptoms are uncommon and respiratory involvement requiring intervention is rare, although the presence of respiratory symptoms should be viewed as potentially serious. Long term sequelae of caustic ingestion are rare and in this series only affected the gastrointestinal tract. The indications for diagnostic endoscopy need further evaluation. PMID:15843706

  13. Respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.E.; Levin, J.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Outdoor air pollution adversely affects human health and the quality of the environment. However, epidemiologic studies of these effects are difficult to control because of confounding variables such as age and cigarette smoking and the difficulty in estimating doses of pollutants. Drs Griffith and Levin discuss the relationship between major types of pollutants and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory disease.35 references.

  14. Asthma Outcomes: Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Elward, Kurtis S.; Kattan, Meyer; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Mitchell, Herman; Sutherland, E. Rand; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory symptoms are commonly used to assess the impact of patient-centered interventions. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to propose which measurements of asthma symptoms should be used as a standardized measure in future clinical research studies. Methods Asthma symptom instruments were classified as daily diaries (prospectively recording symptoms between research visits) or retrospective questionnaires (completed at research visits). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and a search for articles that cited key studies describing development of instruments. We classified outcome instruments as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Four instruments (3 daily diaries, 1 for adults and 2 for children; and 1 retrospective questionnaire for adults) were identified. Minimal clinically important differences have not been established for these instruments, and validation studies were only conducted in a limited number of patient populations. Validity of existing instruments may not be generalizable across racial-ethnic or other subgroups. Conclusions An evaluation of symptoms should be a core asthma outcome measure in clinical research. However, available instruments have limitations that preclude selection of a core instrument. The working group participants propose validation studies in diverse populations, comparisons of diaries versus retrospective questionnaires, and evaluations of symptom assessment alone versus composite scores of asthma control. PMID:22386505

  15. Admissions and Readmissions Related to Adverse Events, 2007-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    1.0 Pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium 1,071 2.3 107 0.5 4,172 7.5 5 0.4 816 1.9 5,525 4.3 Respiratory system 3,609 7.8 638 2.8 3,110 5.6 200 14.3...This study assessed adverse events as they relate to readmissions in the Military Health System (MHS). Among 142,579 admissions with an adverse event...The following study retrospectively assessed admissions and readmissions for adverse events in the Military Health System (MHS) by quantifying

  16. Axis II comorbidity and developmental adversity in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H; Jabalpurwala, S; Champagne, J

    1996-09-01

    Using data from 61 bulimic patients, we evaluated associations among axis II disturbances, psychopathological traits, eating symptoms, and adverse developmental experiences (e.g., childhood sexual and physical abuse). Findings showed likelihood of childhood abuse to increase markedly in function of comorbid personality pathology. In addition, comorbid borderline personality disorder was found to be a better predictor of object-relations disturbances, primitive defenses, and hostility than developmental adversity was. Although marked trait disturbances were strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (more than with severity of childhood adversity), the converse seemed true of severity of bulimic symptoms (i.e., comorbid personality disorder had no predictive effects, whereas developmental variables had inconsistent effects). Bulimic and general psychopathological symptoms, thus, seemed to have intriguingly independent determinants. We interpret these findings as showing that the observed association between developmental adversity and bulimic syndromes may, in large part, be attributable to comorbid personality pathology.

  17. The Effectiveness and Safety of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Pediatric Upper Respiratory Tract Infections With Fever

    PubMed Central

    van Haselen, Robert; Thinesse-Mallwitz, Manuela; Maidannyk, Vitaliy; Buskin, Stephen L.; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Burkart, Julia; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical effectiveness of a homeopathic add-on therapy in a pediatric subpopulation with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in a randomized, controlled, multinational clinical trial. Patients received either on-demand symptomatic standard treatment (ST-group) or the same ST plus a homeopathic medication (Influcid; IFC-group) for 7 days. Outcome assessment was based on symptom and fever resolution and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey–21 (WURSS-21). A total of 261 pediatric (<12 years) patients (130 IFC-group; 131 ST-group) were recruited in Germany and the Ukraine. The IFC-group used less symptomatic medication, symptoms resolved significantly earlier (P = .0001), had higher proportions of fever-free children from day 3 onwards, and the WURSS-assessed global disease severity was significantly less (P < .0001) during the entire URTI episode. One adverse event (vomiting) was possibly related to IFC. IFC as add-on treatment in pediatric URTI reduced global disease severity, shortened symptom resolution, and was safe in use. PMID:27493984

  18. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment Photos ...

  19. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  20. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  1. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  2. Decline of Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Improved Respiratory Health in Swiss Children

    PubMed Central

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H.; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    The causality of observed associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air pollution exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air pollution levels in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-μg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55–0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68–0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60–0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70–0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air pollution exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air pollution levels. Current air pollution levels in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children’s health can be improved further. PMID:16263523

  3. Decline of ambient air pollution levels and improved respiratory health in Swiss children.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2005-11-01

    The causality of observed associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air pollution exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air pollution levels in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 microg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-microg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air pollution exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air pollution levels. Current air pollution levels in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children's health can be improved further.

  4. A systematic review of early life factors which adversely affect subsequent lung function.

    PubMed

    Kouzouna, A; Gilchrist, F J; Ball, V; Kyriacou, T; Henderson, J; Pandyan, A D; Lenney, W

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for many years that multiple early life factors can adversely affect lung function and future respiratory health. This is the first systematic review to attempt to analyse all these factors simultaneously. We adhered to strict a priori criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies. The initial search yielded 29,351 citations of which 208 articles were reviewed in full and 25 were included in the review. This included 6 birth cohorts and 19 longitudinal population studies. The 25 studies reported the effect of 74 childhood factors (on their own or in combinations with other factors) on subsequent lung function reported as percent predicted forced expiration in one second (FEV1). The childhood factors that were associated with a significant reduction in future FEV1 could be grouped as: early infection, bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) / airway lability, a diagnosis of asthma, wheeze, family history of atopy or asthma, respiratory symptoms and prematurity / low birth weight. A complete mathematical model will only be possible if the raw data from all previous studies is made available. This highlights the need for increased cooperation between researchers and the need for international consensus about the outcome measures for future longitudinal studies.

  5. Lower respiratory illness in infants and low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, P A; Greenberg, R A; Keyes, L L; LaVange, L M; Chapman, R S; Denny, F W; Bauman, K E; Boat, B W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Infants from families of low socioeconomic status are said to suffer higher rates of lower respiratory illness, but this assertion has not been carefully examined. METHODS. We studied the frequency and determinants of lower respiratory illness in infants of different socioeconomic status (n = 393) by analyzing data from a community-based cohort study of respiratory illness during the first year of life in central North Carolina. RESULTS. The incidence of lower respiratory illness was 1.41 in the low socioeconomic group, 1.26 in the middle group, and 0.67 in the high group. The prevalence of persistent respiratory symptoms was 39% in infants in the low socioeconomic group, 24% in infants in the middle group, and 14% in infants in the high group. The odds of persistent respiratory symptoms in infants of low and middle socioeconomic status were reduced after controlling for environmental risk factors for lower respiratory illness. Enrollment in day care was associated with an increased risk of persistent symptoms among infants of high but not low socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS. Infants of low socioeconomic status are at increased risk of persistent respiratory symptoms. This risk can be partly attributed to environmental exposures, most of which could be changed. PMID:1636832

  6. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  7. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2017-04-05

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article defined the different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and explored when they can occur. It emphasised the importance of being knowledgeable about medications, considering patient safety when patients are taking medications, being alert to the possibility of ADRs, and recognising and responding to suspected ADRs.

  8. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Upper Respiratory Infections: Assessment of Upper Respiratory Illness during Basic Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-23

    practice of ruling out allergy as a source of URI symptoms before diagnosing an illness as a cold (Lowenstein & Parrino , 1987). The musculoskeletal item...of illness when making a diagnosis of upper respiratory infection (Lowenstein & Parrino , 1987). These gains from incorporating adjustments for allergy...Viruses Causing Common Respiratory Infections in Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lowenstein, S.R. & Parrino , T.A. (1987). Management of the

  9. [Management of adverse effects with antituberculosis chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Wada, Masako

    2011-02-01

    Tuberculosis has now become a curable disease with chemotherapy. So it is natural that the present issues in tuberculosis management are focused on how to complete standard chemotherapy. In this context, management of adverse effects constitutes an essential part of antituberculosis chemotherapy, as well as directly observed therapy. In this symposium, discussions were held about three major subjects on this issue. First, hepatotoxicity develops frequently and has sometimes fatal outcome, which makes it the most problematic adverse effect. "Management of hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis chemotherapy" was published by the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis (JST) in 2006. Dr. Shinsho Yoshiba evaluated this recommendation and pointed out that the criteria for discontinuation of drug based on AST, ALT and bilirubin levels is too sensitive and the concept of predicting fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is lacking. He stressed the importance of monitoring serum prothrombin time for predicting FHF. Next, allergic drug reaction such as fever or skin rash often causes distress, although rarely fatal. As isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RFP) are key drugs for the cure, readministration of these drugs is often attempted by desensitization therapy. "Recommendation about desensitization therapy of antituberculosis drugs" was also published by JST in 1997. Dr. Yoshihiro Kobashi reported high success rates of 79 percent for INH and 75 percent for RFP according to this recommendation. He also reported correlated factor with the success, such as the longer period from the discontinuation to the desensitization therapy and lower doses of drugs at starting desensitization. Finally, we sometimes experience transient worsening of radiographical findings and general symptoms during antituberculosis chemotherapy. This is presumed to be due to allergic reaction to dead bacilli without requiring discontinuation of the drug. Differential diagnosis includes drug-induced pneumonia requring

  10. Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Response in a Panel of Asthmatic Children along the U.S.–Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Li, Wen-Whai; Holguin, Fernando; Johnson, Brent A.; Luevano, Silvia Flores; Garcia, Jose Humberto

    2011-01-01

    Background: Concerns regarding the health impact of urban air pollution on asthmatic children are pronounced along the U.S.–Mexico border because of rapid population growth near busy border highways and roads. Objectives: We conducted the first binational study of the impacts of air pollution on asthmatic children in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, and compared different exposure metrics to assess acute respiratory response. Methods: We recruited 58 asthmatic children from two schools in Ciudad Juarez and two schools in El Paso. A marker of airway inflammation [exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)], respiratory symptom surveys, and pollutant measurements (indoor and outdoor 48-hr size-fractionated particulate matter, 48-hr black carbon, and 96-hr nitrogen dioxide) were collected at each school for 16 weeks. We examined associations between the pollutants and respiratory response using generalized linear mixed models. Results: We observed small but consistent associations between eNO and numerous pollutant metrics, with estimated increases in eNO ranging from 1% to 3% per interquartile range increase in pollutant concentrations. Effect estimates from models using school-based concentrations were generally stronger than corresponding estimates based on concentrations from ambient air monitors. Both traffic-related and non–traffic-related particles were typically more robust predictors of eNO than was nitrogen dioxide, for which associations were highly sensitive to model specification. Associations differed significantly across the four school-based cohorts, consistent with heterogeneity in pollutant concentrations and cohort characteristics. Models examining respiratory symptoms were consistent with the null. Conclusions: The results indicate adverse effects of air pollution on the subclinical respiratory health of asthmatic children in this region and provide preliminary support for the use of air pollution monitors close to schools to track exposure and

  11. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  12. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

  13. Investigating clandestine drug laboratories: adverse medical effects in law enforcement personnel.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J L; Barnhart, S; Checkoway, H

    1996-10-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted among an international group of 46 law enforcement chemists and 13 Washington State clandestine drug laboratory investigation team members with more than 2,800 combined investigations. Each participant completed a questionnaire concerning previous drug laboratory investigations and adverse health effects during response activities. Methamphetamine laboratories accounted for 81-97% of all responses. Total illness incident rates varied between 0.75-3.4% of responses. Most exposures were through inhalation, and many occurred in the years prior to use of personal protective equipment. Symptoms were primarily those of headache and respiratory, mucous membrane, and skin irritation. Most illness episodes occurred during the processing phase of laboratory responses, and none occurred during the entry phase. A majority of illness episodes occurred in laboratories with leak/spills, fire/explosion, or uncontrolled reactions. Responding to an active laboratory was associated with a 7 to 15-fold risk of becoming ill as compared with setup, in-transit, or former (equipment removed) laboratory responses. No other laboratories characteristics were consistently associated with a significantly elevated relative risk of adverse health effects.

  14. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Nur Azwani Mohd Nor; Jalaludin, Juliana; Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents.

  15. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents. PMID:25984527

  16. Adverse reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Michael R; Hershey, Joyce N; Engler, Renata J M

    2003-06-01

    (The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.) Immunization healthcare is becoming increasingly complex as the number and types of vaccines have continued to expand. Like all prescription drugs, vaccines may be associated with adverse events. The majority of these reactions are self-limited and not associated with prolonged disability. The media, Internet and public advocacy groups have focused on potentially serious vaccine-associated adverse events with questions raised about causal linkages to increasing frequencies of diseases such as autism and asthma. Despite a lack of evidence of a causal relationship to a variety of vaccine safety concerns, including extensive reviews by the Institute of Medicine, questions regarding vaccine safety continue to threaten the success of immunization programs. Risk communication arid individual risk assessment is further challenged by the public health success of vaccine programs creating the perception that certain vaccines are no longer necessary or justified because of the rare reaction risk. There is a need for improved understanding of true vaccine contraindications and precautions as well as host factors and disease threat in order to develop a patient specific balanced risk communication intervention. When they occur, vaccine related adverse events must be treated, documented and reported through the VAERS system. The increasing complexity of vaccination health care has led the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to identify Vaccine Safety Assessment and Evaluation as a potential new specialty.

  17. Respiratory tract infections in the military environment.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Konior, Monika; Lass, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Military personnel fighting in contemporary battlefields as well as those participating in combat training are at risk of contracting respiratory infections. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that soldiers deployed to the harsh environment have higher rates of newly reported respiratory symptoms than non-deployers. Acute respiratory diseases are the principle reason for outpatient treatment and hospitalization among military personnel, with an incidence exceeding that of the adult civilian population by up to three-fold. Adenoviruses, influenza A and B viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, coronaviruses and rhinoviruses have been identified as the main causes of acute respiratory infections among the military population. Although infective pathogens have been extensively studied, a significant proportion of illnesses (over 40%) have been due to unknown causative agents. Other health hazards, which can lead to respiratory illnesses among troops, are extreme air temperatures, desert dust, emissions from burn pits, industrial pollutants, and airborne contaminants originating from degraded soil. Limited diagnostic capabilities, especially inside the area of operations, make it difficult to accurately estimate the exact number of respiratory diseases in the military environment. The aim of the study was to discuss the occurrence of respiratory tract infections in army personnel, existing risk factors and preventive measures.

  18. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA in Respiratory Specimens from Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Stephen B.; Whiley, David M.; Nissen, Michael D.; Sloots, Theo P.

    2009-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA was detected in 7 (1.3%) of 526 respiratory tract samples from patients in Australia with upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms. Partial T antigen and major capsid protein sequences of MCPyV identified in respiratory secretions showed high homology (99%–100%) to those found in Merkel cell carcinoma. PMID:19239774

  19. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  20. [Progresses on adverse health effects of automobile exhaust].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong; Liu, Yingchun

    2003-09-01

    The progresses on the latest studies at home and abroad on adverse health effects of automobile exhaust were reviewed in this paper. Particulates and poisonous gases from automobile exhaust were considered to be harmful to respiratory system, immune system and reproductive system. It showed that increased prevalence of respiratory disease (e.g. chronic bronchitis and asthma), and decreased lung function, immunity were associated with automobile exhaust. The carcinogenic potential from the exposure to automobile exhausts needs to be further explored because the carcinogenesis is multifactorial.

  1. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Galeiras Vázquez, Rita; Rascado Sedes, Pedro; Montoto Marqués, Antonio; Ferreiro Velasco, M. Elena

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC) is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB). Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients' inspiratory function following a SCI. PMID:24089664

  2. [Statin-induced adverse effects -- facts and genes].

    PubMed

    Harangi, Mariann; Zsíros, Noémi; Juhász, Lilla; Paragh, György

    2013-01-20

    Statin therapy is considered to be safe and rarely associated with serious adverse events. However, a significant proportion of patients on statin therapy show some degree of intolerance which can lead to decreased adherence to statin therapy. The authors summarize the symptoms, signs and frequencies of the most common statin-induced adverse effects and their most important risk factors including some single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene mutations. Also, they review the available approaches to detect and manage the statin-intolerant patients.

  3. Premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  4. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  5. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  6. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  7. Respiratory system involvement in antineutrophil cytoplasmic-associated systemic vasculitides: clinical, pathological, radiological and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Pesci, Alberto; Manganelli, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and Churg- Strauss syndrome (CSS) are small-vessel vasculitides that, because of their frequent association with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), are usually referred to as ANCA-associated systemic vasculitides (AASV). The diagnosis of AASV is made on the basis of clinical findings, biopsy of an involved organ and the presence of ANCA in the serum. Lung disease is a very common and important clinical feature of AASV. In WG, almost all patients have either upper airway or lower respiratory tract disease. Solitary or multiple nodules, frequently cavitated, and masses are the most common findings on chest radiography. Asthma is a cardinal symptom of CSS, often preceded by allergic rhinitis. Pulmonary transient and patchy alveolar infiltrates are the most common radiographic findings. In MPA, diffuse alveolar haemorrhage as a result of alveolar capillaritis is the most frequent manifestation of respiratory involvement, and is clinically expressed as haemoptysis, respiratory distress and anaemia. However, diffuse alveolar haemorrhage may also be subclinical and should be suspected when a chest radiograph demonstrates new unexplained bilateral alveolar infiltrates in the context of falling haemoglobin levels. Normal and high-resolution CT have a higher sensitivity than chest radiography for demonstrating airway, parenchymal and pleural lesions. However, many of these radiological findings are nonspecific and, therefore, their interpretation must take into account all clinical, laboratory and pathological data. Therapy of AASV is commonly divided into two phases: an initial 'remission induction' phase, in which more intensive immunosuppressant therapy is used to control disease activity, and a 'maintenance' phase, which uses less intensive therapy, for maintaining disease remission while lowering the risk of adverse effects of immunosuppressant drugs. In patients with AASV refractory to standard

  8. Distinguishing hazards and harms, adverse drug effects and adverse drug reactions : implications for drug development, clinical trials, pharmacovigilance, biomarkers, and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2013-03-01

    The terms 'adverse drug effects' and 'adverse drug reactions' are commonly used interchangeably, but they have different implications. Adverse drug reactions arise when a compound (e.g. a drug or metabolite, a contaminant or adulterant) is distributed in the same place as a body tissue (e.g. a receptor, enzyme, or ion channel), and the encounter results in an adverse effect (a physiological or pathological change), which results in a clinically appreciable adverse reaction. Both the adverse effect and the adverse reaction have manifestations by which they can be recognized: adverse effects are usually detected by laboratory tests (e.g. biochemical, haematological, immunological, radiological, pathological) or by clinical investigations (e.g. endoscopy, cardiac catheterization), and adverse reactions by their clinical manifestations (symptoms and/or signs). This distinction suggests five scenarios: (i) adverse reactions can result directly from adverse effects; (ii) adverse effects may not lead to appreciable adverse reactions; (iii) adverse reactions can occur without preceding adverse effects; (iv) adverse effects and reactions may be dissociated; and (v) adverse effects and reactions can together constitute syndromes. Defining an adverse drug reaction as "an appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction, resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product" suggests a definition of an adverse drug effect: "a potentially harmful effect resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product, which constitutes a hazard and may or may not be associated with a clinically appreciable adverse reaction and/or an abnormal laboratory test or clinical investigation, as a marker of an adverse reaction."

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus A A A What's in this article? About ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  10. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  11. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  12. Interoceptive dimensions across cardiac and respiratory axes.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Sarah N; Manassei, Miranda F; Hamilton-Fletcher, Giles; In den Bosch, Yvo; Critchley, Hugo D; Engels, Miriam

    2016-11-19

    Interoception refers to the sensing of signals concerning the internal state of the body. Individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity are proposed to account for differences in affective processing, including the expression of anxiety. The majority of investigations of interoceptive accuracy focus on cardiac signals, typically using heartbeat detection tests and self-report measures. Consequently, little is known about how different organ-specific axes of interoception relate to each other or to symptoms of anxiety. Here, we compare interoception for cardiac and respiratory signals. We demonstrate a dissociation between cardiac and respiratory measures of interoceptive accuracy (i.e. task performance), yet a positive relationship between cardiac and respiratory measures of interoceptive awareness (i.e. metacognitive insight into own interoceptive ability). Neither interoceptive accuracy nor metacognitive awareness for cardiac and respiratory measures was related to touch acuity, an exteroceptive sense. Specific measures of interoception were found to be predictive of anxiety symptoms. Poor respiratory accuracy was associated with heightened anxiety score, while good metacognitive awareness for cardiac interoception was associated with reduced anxiety. These findings highlight that detection accuracies across different sensory modalities are dissociable and future work can better delineate their relationship to affective and cognitive constructs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health'.

  13. Respiratory problems among cotton textile workers

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Fariba; Pili, Jaber Parsa; Abbasi, Akram; Soltani, Mina; Izadi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long term occupational exposure to cotton dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and loss of pulmonary function. Aim: This study was conducted to explore respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and chest radiography of workers, and to evaluate the findings of high resolution computed tomographyand its correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT). Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 cotton workers as exposed group and 100 unexposed subjects. Smokers were excluded from the study. All workers were interviewed and examined by the pulmonologist. PFT and chest radiography were conducted for all subjects. HRCT was performed for those with abnormal PFT or chest radiography. Results: A total of 51% and 31% of the cotton textile workers had one or more respiratory symptoms and respiratory signs respectively. 28% of subjects in the exposed group and 5% of subjects in unexposed group had obstructive pattern. Bronchia wall thickening and air trapping were the most frequent chest radiography and HRCT abnormalities respectively. There was a significant correlation between HRCT and the results of PFT. Conclusion: We conclude that long term exposure to cotton dust is associated with obstructive disease that increase with duration of exposure (history of working years), also use of HRCT as a sensitive tool in the assessment of pathologic changes and it's correlation with PFT, confirms the expected pathophysiology of airway obstruction in cotton workers. PMID:27051104

  14. Toxins and adverse drug reactions affecting the equine nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dominic R

    2011-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the more common toxins and adverse drug reactions, along with more rare toxins and reactions (Table 1), that result in neurologic dysfunction in horses. A wide variety of symptoms, treatments, and outcomes are seen with toxic neurologic disease in horses. An in-depth history and thorough physical examination are needed to determine if a toxin or adverse drug reaction is responsible for the clinical signs. Once a toxin or adverse drug reaction is identified, the specific antidote, if available, and supportive care should be administered promptly.

  15. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  16. Surveillance of suspected adverse reactions to natural health products: the case of propolis.

    PubMed

    Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Vitalone, Annabella; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Santuccio, Carmela

    2008-01-01

    Natural health products are promoted to the public as equally or more effective and less toxic than conventional drugs. However, some 'natural' medicines are known to have adverse effects. From April 2002 to August 2007, 18 suspected adverse reactions associated with propolis-containing products were reported to the national surveillance system of natural health products, coordinated by the Italian National Health Institute. Sixteen reports concerned allergic reactions (with dermatological or respiratory symptoms), while two concerned the digestive tract. Some of the reactions were serious: six patients were admitted to hospital or visited an emergency department and in two of these a life-threatening event was reported. In seven patients (four of whom were children), an allergic predisposition was indicated. Propolis, a resinous substance collected by honeybees from the buds of living plants, has been used for several purposes (dermatitis, laryngitis, oral ulcers) because of its wide range of suggested activities (antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and chemopreventive actions). However, propolis is also a potent sensitizer and should not be used in patients with an allergic predisposition, in particular an allergy to pollen. In Italy, products containing bee derivatives (bee pollen, royal jelly or propolis) are available to the public as food supplements. No label warning of possible adverse reactions is found on the packaging, although it is well known that atopic and asthmatic individuals may be at an increased risk of allergic reactions after using these products. The public and healthcare practitioners should be aware of the risk of allergic reactions to products derived from bees and a warning should be added to the packaging of these products.

  17. [Music and respiratory pathology].

    PubMed

    Herer, B

    2001-04-01

    Musical performance, especially in singers and wind instrument players, depends on an effective pulmonary function. Performing artists may be seriously impaired by respiratory diseases that, comparatively, may produce only modest inconvenience for non-musicians. The report of two cases of respiratory diseases occurring in musicians herein provides an introduction to a review of the interactions between music and the human respiratory system. The following points are considered: epidemiological data; pulmonary function in musicians; favorable effects of music on the respiratory system; description of the main respiratory problems that may affect musicians.

  18. Conceptual Model for Assessing Criteria Air Pollutants in a Multipollutant Context: A Modified Adverse Outcome Pathway Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Air pollution consists of a complex mixture of particulate and gaseous components. Individual criteria and other hazardous air pollutants have been linked to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health outcomes. However, assessing risk of air pollutant mixtures is d...

  19. Do Family Mealtime Interactions Mediate the Association between Asthma Symptoms and Separation Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Winter, Marcia A.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Anbar, Ran D.; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Respiratory problems have been shown to be associated with the development of panic anxiety. Family members play an essential role for children to emotionally manage their symptoms. This study aimed to examine the relation between severity of respiratory symptoms in children with asthma and separation anxiety. Relying on direct…

  20. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  1. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD.

    PubMed

    Budweiser, Stephan; Jörres, Rudolf A; Pfeifer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients withchronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positivepressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failurebecame a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients' adherence to therapy.

  2. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Budweiser, Stephan; Jörres, Rudolf A; Pfeifer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy. PMID:19281077

  3. Understanding panic disorder in chronic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Claire; Howard, Claire; Wray, Jo

    As well as being physically debilitating, respiratory diseases present significant challenges to the psychological well-being of individuals and their families and are recognized to have an impact on health-care services, resources and time. Panic attacks and disorder are particularly prevalent in people with respiratory conditions and appear to be associated with reduced lung function. However, recent evidence suggests that the aetiology of panic in this area may be related more to underlying psychological processes, which can influence cognitions that are related to the experience of respiratory disease and its symptoms. The aim of this article is to give a brief overview of the literature to identify key psychological factors associated with panic and respiratory diseases. The article concludes that panic has a complex aetiology, which requires the presence of specific respiratory-related cognitions. The self-regulatory model can foster understanding of the combination of beliefs/cognitions that can increase the prevalence of negative mood for patients with respiratory diseases.

  4. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight loss may reverse many adverse physiological consequences of severe obesity on the respiratory system. PMID:19700043

  5. Brazilian medicinal plants to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial illness: systematic review and meta-analyses—study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Luciane C; Silva, Maria Carolina O; Motta, Cristiane Bergamashi; Macho Quirós, Antonio; Biavatti, Maique Weber; de Oliveira, Jardel Corrêa; Guyatt, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory illness, often associated with cough and sputum, is frequent. In Brazil, herbal medicines are often recommended as a first-line treatment for respiratory illness. There exists uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of these treatments. No systematic review has evaluated Brazilian medicinal plants (BMP) to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial illness (URTI). Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review and, if appropriate, a series of meta-analyses evaluating the safety and effectiveness of BMP for URTI. Eligible randomised controlled trials and observational studies will enrol adult or paediatric patients presenting with URTI treated by BMP approved by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency compared with placebo, no treatment or an alternative therapy. Our search will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Illness Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Web of Science; AMED; LILACS; CAB abstracts; clinical trial.gov; the WHO Trial Register and the Brazilian thesis database (CAPES) without any language restrictions. Outcomes of interest are time to resolution of clinical symptoms and/or signs (cough, sputum production or activity limitations), severity of symptoms prior to resolution and major/minor adverse events. Teams of reviewers will, independently and in duplicate, screen titles and abstracts and the complete full text to determine eligibility. For eligible studies, reviewers will perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. When appropriate, we will conduct meta-analyses. We will also assess the quality of body of evidence (confidence in estimates of effect) for each of the outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will be published in

  6. Telithromycin: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Telithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has been marketed since the early 2000s. It has not been shown to be more effective against any bacteria than other macrolide antibiotics. Its antibacterial activity is in no way remarkable. In early 2014, we reviewed its adverse effect profile using data from periodic safety update reports, drug regulatory agencies, and detailed published case reports. In addition to the adverse effect profile telithromycin shares with the other macrolides, it provokes several specific adverse effects: visual disturbances due to impaired accommodation; taste and smell disorders; severe liver damage; worsening of myasthenia gravis; rhabdomyolysis; and loss of consciousness. Prolongation of the QT interval with standard oral doses is a worrisome adverse effect. In practice, it is better not to use telithromycin as it exposes patients to disproportionate, serious adverse effects. When treatment with a macrolide antibiotic appears necessary, it is prudent to choose a different macrolide, such as spiramycin or azithromycin, which have fewer adverse effects.

  7. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype.

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis--the story so far.

    PubMed

    Simoes, E A F; Groothuis, J R

    2002-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious pathogen that infects nearly all children by the age of 2 years. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide among certain high-risk paediatric populations. Therapy is sub-optimal for RSV, thus treatment focuses on ameliorating symptoms. Since discovery of the virus in the 1950s, efforts have been ongoing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. These efforts have met with serious obstacles. Passive immunoprophylaxis presents a viable alternative to active immunization. In 1998, the genetically engineered humanized monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) was granted FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for prophylaxis of high-risk children in the United States; EMEA (European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) approval followed in 1999 for Europe. It is now approved in over 45 countries worldwide. Palivizumab was shown to significantly reduce RSV-related hospitalizations in North America and Europe with few adverse effects. Clinical trial and outcomes data documenting experience with palivizumab to date continue to extend the initial safety and efficacy observations.

  9. Early complications. Respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Zwischenberger, J B; Alpard, S K; Bidani, A

    1999-08-01

    Pulmonary complications following thoracic surgery are common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Respiratory failure after pneumonectomy occurs in approximately 5% to 15% of cases and significantly increases patient mortality. Strategies for ventilator support are based on the nature of the underlying complication and the pathophysiology of respiratory failure. This article describes the cause and pathophysiology of respiratory failure and pulmonary embolus postpneumonectomy. Diagnosis, management, and innovative therapies are also reviewed.

  10. Vapor Rub, Petrolatum, and No Treatment for Children With Nocturnal Cough and Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ian M.; Beiler, Jessica S.; King, Tonya S.; Clapp, Edelveis R.; Vallati, Julie; Berlin, Cheston M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if a single application of a vapor rub (VR) or petrolatum is superior to no treatment for nocturnal cough, congestion, and sleep difficulty caused by upper respiratory tract infection. METHODS Surveys were administered to parents on 2 consecutive days—on the day of presentation when no medication had been given the previous evening, and the next day when VR ointment, petrolatum ointment, or no treatment had been applied to their child’s chest and neck before bedtime according to a partially double-blinded randomization scheme. RESULTS There were 138 children aged 2 to 11 years who completed the trial. Within each study group, symptoms were improved on the second night. Between treatment groups, significant differences in improvement were detected for outcomes related to cough, congestion, and sleep difficulty; VR consistently scored the best, and no treatment scored the worst. Pairwise comparisons demonstrated the superiority of VR over no treatment for all outcomes except rhinorrhea and over petrolatum for cough severity, child and parent sleep difficulty, and combined symptom score. Petrolatum was not significantly better than no treatment for any outcome. Irritant adverse effects were more common among VR-treated participants. CONCLUSIONS In a comparison of VR, petrolatum, and no treatment, parents rated VR most favorably for symptomatic relief of their child’s nocturnal cough, congestion, and sleep difficulty caused by upper respiratory tract infection. Despite mild irritant adverse effects, VR provided symptomatic relief for children and allowed them and their parents to have a more restful night than those in the other study groups. PMID:21059712

  11. Respiratory and Allergic Health Effects of Dampness, Mold, and Dampness-Related Agents: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, Mark J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Cheung, Kerry; Tong, My; Douwes, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have shown consistent associations between evident indoor dampness or mold and respiratory or allergic health effects, but causal links remain unclear. Findings on measured microbiologic factors have received little review. We conducted an updated, comprehensive review on these topics. Data sources We reviewed eligible peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies or quantitative meta-analyses, up to late 2009, on dampness, mold, or other microbiologic agents and respiratory or allergic effects. Data extraction We evaluated evidence for causation or association between qualitative/subjective assessments of dampness or mold (considered together) and specific health outcomes. We separately considered evidence for associations between specific quantitative measurements of microbiologic factors and each health outcome. Data synthesis Evidence from epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses showed indoor dampness or mold to be associated consistently with increased asthma development and exacerbation, current and ever diagnosis of asthma, dyspnea, wheeze, cough, respiratory infections, bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, eczema, and upper respiratory tract symptoms. Associations were found in allergic and nonallergic individuals. Evidence strongly suggested causation of asthma exacerbation in children. Suggestive evidence was available for only a few specific measured microbiologic factors and was in part equivocal, suggesting both adverse and protective associations with health. Conclusions Evident dampness or mold had consistent positive associations with multiple allergic and respiratory effects. Measured microbiologic agents in dust had limited suggestive associations, including both positive and negative associations for some agents. Thus, prevention and remediation of indoor dampness and mold are likely to reduce health risks, but current evidence does not support measuring specific indoor microbiologic factors to guide health-protective actions. PMID

  12. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    PubMed

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality.

  13. The human respiratory gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

  14. Managing behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Stephen; O’Connor, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most patients with dementia have some behavioural and psychological symptoms. While aggression and agitation are easily recognised, symptoms such as apathy may be overlooked. Behavioural and psychological symptoms should be managed without drugs whenever possible. Although there is little evidence to support their use, antipsychotic drugs are often prescribed to people with dementia. Before prescribing it is important to exclude other causes of altered behaviour, such as pain or infection. Some symptoms may be artefacts of memory loss rather than psychosis. Patients with dementia who are prescribed antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of falls, hospitalisation and death. They should be regularly monitored for adverse effects. If the patient’s symptoms resolve with drug treatment, reduce the dose after two or three months. Stop the drug if the symptoms do not return. PMID:27756974

  15. Air pollution and reversible chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Del Donno, M; Verduri, A; Olivieri, D

    2002-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the world's most serious environmental problems. It has been common knowledge for many years now that the lung is one of the main target organs of environmental agents. Over the last ten years, in particular, lung diseases have increased dramatically and the literature on the subject reports high death rates from lung cancer and an increased incidence of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These respiratory diseases are also caused by exposure to environmental agents, especially air pollution. Outdoor pollution is related to many compounds and, in assessing the air-borne pollutants and their association with respiratory damage, the role of particulate matter (PM) is of major importance. In addition to outdoor pollution, indoor pollution also exists and consists of environmental substances usually found outside which enter the internal environment, and/or of locally produced substances. Air pollution exposure involves the contact of pollutants with the respiratory tract, such exposure being measured according to two parameters: intensity and duration. Generally speaking, the pathogenic effects of environmental pollution on the organism fall into two categories: acute, or short-term effects, and long-term effects, depending on the time required from exposure to the manifestation of its effect. Short-term effects consist of irritant symptoms affecting the airways with different degrees of severity, while long-term effects, related to chronic exposure, are associated with chronic respiratory diseases, and unremitting symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, etc. Moreover, air irritants can give rise to inflammatory damage of the mucous membrane of the airways, thereby making it more susceptible to various types of allergens. In conclusion, air pollution is an important etiological factor for many chronic respiratory disorders, such as bronchial asthma and COPD. Prevention programs and early treatments are essential in

  16. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  17. A pilot study of qigong practice and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peggy A; Innes, Kim E; Alton, John; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Owens, Justine E

    2011-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are a common complaint in competitive swimmers and can adversely affect performance. No intervention has yet been shown to reduce URI incidence in intensively trained athletes. The University of Virginia varsity swim team received three weeks of training in qigong for the purpose of reducing stress and improving health. Our primary objective was to assess the relationship between qigong practice and symptoms of URI during a time when swimmers would be at high URI risk. Secondary objectives were to assess degree of compliance with a qigong practice regimen, to evaluate differences between qigong practitioners and non-practitioners, and to determine the response-rate and reliability of a newly developed internet-based, self-report survey. The design was observational, cross-sectional, and prospective. Weekly data on cold and flu symptoms, concurrent health problems and medication use, and qigong practice were gathered for seven weeks. Retrospective information on health and qigong training response was also collected. Participants were 27 of the 55 members of the University of Virginia Swim Team in the Virginia Athletic Department. Main outcomes were measures of aggregated cold/flu symptoms and Qigong practice. Survey completion was 100%, with no missing data, and reliability of the instrument was acceptable. Cold and flu symptoms showed a significant non-linear association with frequency of qigong practice (R(2) = 0.33, p < 0.01), with a strong, inverse relationship between practice frequency and symptom scores in swimmers who practised qigong at least once per week (R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.01). Qigong practitioners did not differ from non-practitioners in demographic or lifestyle characteristics, medical history, supplement or medication use, or belief in qigong. These preliminary findings suggest that qigong practice may be protective against URIs among elite swimmers who practice at least once per week.

  18. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    PubMed

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability.

  19. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  20. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).

  1. FDI report on adverse reactions to resin-based materials.

    PubMed

    Fan, P L; Meyer, D M

    2007-02-01

    Resin-based restorative materials are considered safe for the vast majority of dental patients. Although constituent chemicals such as monomers, accelerators and initiators can potentially leach out of cured resin-based materials after placement, adverse reactions to these chemicals are rare and reaction symptoms commonly subside after removal of the materials. Dentists should be aware of the rare possibility that patients could have adverse reactions to constituents of resin-based materials and be vigilant in observing any adverse reactions after restoration placement. Dentists should also be cognisant of patient complaints about adverse reactions that may result from components of resin-based materials. To minimise monomer leaching and any potential risk of dermatological reactions, resin-based materials should be adequately cured. Dental health care workers should avoid direct skin contact with uncured resin-based materials. Latex and vinyl gloves do not provide adequate barrier protection to the monomers in resin-based materials.

  2. [The use of human immunoglobulins--adverse reactions].

    PubMed

    Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Błaut-Szlósarczyk, Anita; Zwonarz, Katarzyna

    2010-09-01

    The primary immunodeficiency, mainly humoral immunity, secondary immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases are the indications for immunoglobulins substitution. The prolonged substitution in primary immunodeficiency includes regular intravenous infusion of immunoglobulins in 0.4-0.6 g/kg of body weight every 21-28 days. The purpose of such substitution is decrease of frequency and diminishes the clinical course of infections. The high-dose use of immunoglobulins (1-2 g/kg body weight) is preferred in autoimmune diseases based on suppressive and anti-inflammatory activity of immunoglobulins. The subcutaneous administration of immunoglobulins is an alternative to intravenous way, but the singular dose (0.1 g/kg body weight) is too low for suppressive and anti-inflammatory activity of immunoglobulins, so this substitution is indicated in primary immunodeficiency only. The adverse events of immunoglobulins differentiate because of time of occurrence and clinical character. The rapid symptoms occurred just after beginning of infusion and often present the clinical features of anaphylactoid reaction. During the infusion the occurring adverse symptoms are mild and the life-threatening situations are very rare. The next periods of typical adverse reaction are 24-48 hrs after infusion, 72 hrs and later. The mechanisms leading to adverse reaction to immunoglobulins are based on presence of IgG dimmers, stimulating high production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immunocompetent cells. High level of cytokines is associated with high fever, chills, flu-like symptoms, feeling malaise and sick. The reaction of anti-IgA antibodies present in patient serum with IgA in immunoglobulins preparation is responsible for moderate and severe adverse clinical symptoms. The late adverse events present the symptoms of aseptic meningo-encephalitis. In case of adverse events the stopping of infusion, additions saline/ glucose infusion, anti-histaminic drugs of I and II generation and steroids

  3. [Influence of occupational respiratory diseases on life quality parameters].

    PubMed

    Roslaia, N A; Khasanova, G N

    2010-01-01

    The article covers results of life quality studies in patients with occupational respiratory diseases and in workers at risk of diseases due to dust. Findings are that occuupational respiratory diseases negatively influence physical and psycho-social status of the patients. The influence degree is connected to smoking intensity, the disease duration and bronchial obstruction grade. Life quality study is an important indicator of the symptoms control, additional parameter to clinical and functional state monitoring.

  4. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies show that young children can be exposed to pesticides during normal oral exploration of their environment and their level of dermal contact with floors and other surfaces. Children living in agricultural areas may be exposed to higher pesticide levels than other children because of pesticides tracked into their homes by household members, by pesticide drift, by breast milk from their farmworker mother, or by playing in nearby fields. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the extent of children's pesticide exposure, and no studies have examined whether there are adverse health effects of chronic exposure. There is substantial toxicologic evidence that repeated low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may affect neurodevelopment and growth in developing animals. For example, animal studies have reported neurobehavorial effects such as impairment on maze performance, locomotion, and balance in neonates exposed (italic)in utero(/italic) and during early postnatal life. Possible mechanisms for these effects include inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, downregulation of muscarinic receptors, decreased brain DNA synthesis, and reduced brain weight in offspring. Research findings also suggest that it is biologically plausible that OP exposure may be related to respiratory disease in children through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The University of California Berkeley Center for Children's Environmental Health Research is working to build a community-university partnership to study the environmental health of rural children. This Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas, or CHAMACOS in Monterey County, California, will assess (italic)in utero(/italic) and postnatal OP pesticide exposure and the relationship of exposure to neurodevelopment, growth, and symptoms of respiratory illness in children. The ultimate goal of the center is to translate research findings into a reduction of children

  5. Biomarkers for Gastroesophageal Reflux in Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gíslason, Þórarinn; Olin, Anna-Carin; Janson, Christer; Ólafsson, Ísleifur

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is commonly associated with respiratory symptoms, either through a vagal bronchoconstrictive reflex or through microaspiration of gastric contents. No diagnostic test is available, however, to diagnose when respiratory illnesses are caused by GER and when not, but research in this field has been moving forward. Various biomarkers in different types of biosamples have been studied in this context. The aim of this review is to summarize the present knowledge in this field. GER patients with respiratory diseases seem to have a different biochemical profile from similar patients without GER. Inflammatory biomarkers differ in asthmatics based on GER status, tachykinins are elevated in patients with GER-related cough, and bile acids are elevated in lung transplant patients with GER. However, studies on these biomarkers are often limited by their small size, methods of analysis, and case selections. The two pathogenesis mechanisms are associated with different respiratory illnesses and biochemical profiles. A reliable test to identify GER-induced respiratory disorders needs to be developed. Bronchoalveolar lavage is too invasive to be of use in most patients. Exhaled breath condensate samples need further evaluation and standardization. The newly developed particles in exhaled air measurements remain to be studied further. PMID:23653634

  6. Living with Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking. Emotional Issues and Support Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel with your health care team. Talking to a professional counselor also can ... to living with respiratory failure. You can see how other people who have ...

  7. Respiratory Care Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of respiratory care therapist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of respiratory care therapist. The following…

  8. Respiratory dose of inhaled particulate matter and its health implications in susceptible populations.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the air is known to cause adverse health effects, particularly in elderly subjects with respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease. Although observed health effects are likely caused by multiple factors, the respiratory dose is one factor of particular con...

  9. Building-related symptoms among U.S. office workers and risks factors for moisture and contamination: Preliminary analyses of U.S. EPA BASE Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark J.; Cozen, Myrna

    2002-09-01

    dirty cooling coils were associated with a nonsignificant increase in lower respiratory symptoms. These preliminary findings suggest that some factors that indicate risks for moisture or contamination in office buildings may have adverse effects on respiratory or neurologic health of office workers. More refined analyses are underway that will include these risk factors in simultaneous multivariate models along with additional risk factors that may be confounders, such as ventilation rate and indoor temperature. Future analyses will also use more refined metrics for both health outcomes and environmental risks, as well as assess risk in susceptible sub-groups.

  10. Memorial symptom assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Hwang, Shirley S; Thaler, Howard T; Kasimis, Basil S; Portenoy, Russell K

    2004-04-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses often have multiple symptoms. As interest in palliative care and interventions for symptom control increase, the ability to assess multiple symptoms has become more important. A number of instruments have been developed to meet this need in cancer patients. This article reviews the development and applications of a multidimensional instrument, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has 32 symptoms and three dimensions of frequency, severity, and distress. Shorter versions - The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (32 symptoms with one dimension) and the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (14 symptoms with one dimension), and a version for children aged 7-12 years, have also been developed. A distinctive feature is the summary subscales for physical distress, psychological distress, and The Global Distress Index. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has proven useful in description of symptom epidemiology, the role of symptoms in pain, fatigue, and spirituality; as a predictor of survival, and in proxy assessments of pain. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has been used in studies of cancer and AIDS patients, and patients with advanced medical illnesses. Possible future roles of instruments such as the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale include use in clinical trials, for pharmacoeconomic analyses, definition of symptom clusters and symptom burden, the development of symptom outcome measures, symptom monitoring, and improving care for patients. Continued research is needed for the versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and other symptom instruments in different populations and applications.

  11. Symptoms in pediatric asthmatics and air pollution: differences in effects by symptom severity, anti-inflammatory medication use and particulate averaging time.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, R J; Zeiger, R S; Seltzer, J M; Street, D H

    1998-01-01

    Experimental research in humans and animals points to the importance of adverse respiratory effects from short-term particle exposures and to the importance of proinflammatory effects of air pollutants, particularly O(subscript)3. However, particle averaging time has not been subjected to direct scientific evaluation, and there is a lack of epidemiological research examining both this issue and whether modification of air pollutant effects occurs with differences in asthma severity and anti-inflammatory medication use. The present study examined the relationship of adverse asthma symptoms (bothersome or interfered with daily activities or sleep) to O(3) and particles (less than or equal to)10 micrometer (PM10) in a Southern California community in the air inversion zone (1200-2100 ft) with high O(3) and low PM (R = 0.3). A panel of 25 asthmatics 9-17 years of age were followed daily, August through October 1995 (n = 1,759 person-days excluding one subject without symptoms). Exposures included stationary outdoor hourly PM10 (highest 24-hr mean, 54 microgram/m(3), versus median of 1-hr maximums, 56 microgram/m(3) and O(3) (mean of 1-hr maximums, 90 ppb, 5 days (greater than or equal to)120 ppb). Longitudinal regression analyses utilized the generalized estimating equations (GEE) model controlling for autocorrelation, day of week, outdoor fungi, and weather. Asthma symptoms were significantly associated with both outdoor O(3) and PM(10) in single pollutant- and co-regressions, with 1-hr and 8-hr maximum PM(10) having larger effects than the 24-hr mean. Subgroup analyses showed effects of current day PM(10) maximums were strongest in 10 more frequently symptomatic (MS) children: the odds ratios (ORs) for adverse symptoms from 90th percentile increases were 2.24 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-3.46] for 1-hr PM10 (47 microgram/m(3); 1.82 (CI, 1.18-2.81) for 8-hr PM10 (36 microgram/m(3); and 1.50 (CI, 0.80-2.80) for 24-hr PM10 (25 microgram/m(3). Subgroup analyses

  12. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... underlying cause and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. A low oxygen level in ... on the skin, lips, and fingernails. A high carbon dioxide level can cause rapid breathing and confusion. Some ...

  13. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  14. Family Adversity in DSM-IV ADHD Combined and Inattentive Subtypes and Associated Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Carla A.; Nigg, Joel T.; Stawicki, Julie Ann; Rappley, Marsha D.; von Eye, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between a family adversity index and DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes and associated behavior problems. The relationship of family adversity to symptoms and subtypes of ADHD was examined. Method: Parents and 206 children aged 7-13 completed diagnostic interviews and…

  15. Acupuncture therapy for fever induced by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in military medical service: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kwon, SeungWon; Shin, KyoungHo; Jung, WooSang; Moon, SangKwan; Cho, KiHo

    2014-12-01

    We report the cases of eight military patients with fever (≥38°C) induced by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) who requested treatment with acupuncture in the military medical service room. All patients were treated immediately after diagnosis with classical acupuncture (GV14, GB20, TE8 points) and a new type of acupuncture, equilibrium acupuncture (Feibing and Ganmao points). After one treatment session (20 min), reduction of body temperature was confirmed in all patients. Accompanying symptoms such as headache, myalgia and nasal obstruction also showed a tendency to decrease. Within 3 days of treatment, six of the eight patients had recovered from the URTI. No adverse effects of acupuncture treatment were reported.

  16. Cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, S; Allegra, A; Calapai, G; Musolino, C; Gangemi, S

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) used principally in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), myelodysplastic syndromes (MS) and amyloidosis. Adverse reactions related to lenalidomide include myelosuppression (mainly neutropenia but also thrombocytopenia), gastrointestinal problems, skin eruption, atrial fibrillation and asthenia, decreased peripheral blood stem cell yield during stem cell collection, venous thromboembolism, and secondary malignances. In this review we focused our attention on the cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.

  17. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  18. Adverse events after hepatitis A B combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Woo, Emily Jane; Miller, Nancy B; Ball, Robert

    2006-03-24

    In May 2001, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Hepatitis A Inactivated and Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine (HEPAB) for immunization of adults. From May 2001 to September 2003, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) received 305 reports of adverse events after HEPAB. Many events were similar to those reported after the monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Non-serious events included constitutional symptoms and local reactions. Serious events included neurologic, hepatobiliary, and dermatologic conditions, and detailed medical and epidemiological review did not suggest a clear pattern of evidence supporting a causal relationship with the vaccine, except for injection site reactions and some allergic reactions.

  19. Other Community Respiratory Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wunderink, Richard G

    2017-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis has become the standard for viral pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. Expansion of respiratory viral panels (RVPs) outside of influenza and, possibly, respiratory syncytial virus has led to the ability to diagnose viral infections for which no approved specific antiviral treatment exists. Careful clinical evaluation of the patient with a positive RVP is, therefore, critical given the limited repertoire of treatments. Generic treatments with intravenous immunoglobulin, ribavirin, and interferons may benefit select severe viral pneumonia patients, whereas cidofovir has activity for severe adenoviral pneumonia.

  20. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen.

  1. Sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bone, Anna E; Hepgul, Nilay; Kon, Samantha; Maddocks, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field. We contrast assessments of sarcopenia, which consider muscle mass and function, with assessments of frailty, which often additionally consider social, cognitive and psychological domains. Frailty is emerging as an important syndrome in respiratory disease, being strongly associated with poor outcome. We also unpick the relationship between sarcopenia, frailty and skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic respiratory disease and reveal these as interlinked but distinct clinical phenotypes. Suggested areas for future work include the application of sarcopenia and frailty models to restrictive diseases and population-based samples, prospective prognostic assessments of sarcopenia and frailty in relation to common multidimensional indices, plus the investigation of exercise, nutritional and pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease.

  2. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  3. Analysis of relationships between symptoms and environmental factors over time

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    1984-02-01

    Weekly respiratory symptom information was obtained on a random population of 3800 whites in Tucson. The authors asked weekly about 14 symptoms representing acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), rhinitis (Rh), and other conditions. The denominator for each week was about 80 randomly chosen subjects from the study population. Interactions of the air pollutants total suspended particulate, oxidants, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides for the basin, meteorological information, and aero-allergens were examined. The temporal and spatial interactions between the weekly symptoms and the environmental factors were tested utilizing multivariate methods such as Fourier analyses, multiple regression, and the stimulus-response method, adjusting for lags and controlling for season. Multiple regressions with a smoothing function (using fourier or other methods) yield significant correlations between symptoms and the environmental factors, and separate the ARI's from the Rh's and the miscellaneous symptoms.

  4. Functional brain imaging in respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Kyle

    2015-06-01

    Discordance of clinical symptoms with markers of disease severity remains a conundrum in a variety of respiratory conditions. The breathlessness of chronic lung disease correlates poorly with spirometry, yet is a better predictor of mortality. In chronic cough, symptoms are often evident without clear physical cause. In asthma, the terms 'over perceivers' and 'under perceivers' are common parlance. In all these examples, aberrant brain mechanisms may explain the mismatch between symptoms and pathology. Functional MRI is a non-invasive method of measuring brain function. It has recently become significantly advanced enough to be useful in clinical research and to address these potential mechanisms. This article explains how FMRI works, current understanding from FMRI in breathlessness, cough and asthma and suggests possibilities for future research.

  5. Immunomodulatory drugs: Oral and systemic adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Riikka; Gomez-Font, Rafael; Meurman, Jukka H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The main objectives are to present the different adverses effects of the immunomodulatory drugs that can impair the quality of life of the immunosupressed patients and study the impact of immunomodualtion on oral diseases. Immunomodulatory drugs have changed the treatment protocols of many diseases where immune functions play a central role, such as rheumatic diseases. Their effect on oral health has not been systematically investigated, however. Study Design: We review current data on the new immunomodulatory drugs from the oral health perspective based on open literature search of the topic. Results: These target specific drugs appear to have less drug interactions than earlier immunomodulating medicines but have nevertheless potential side effects such as activating latent infections. There are some data showing that the new immunomodulatory drugs may also have a role in the treatment of certain oral diseases such as lichen planus or ameliorating symptoms in Sjögren´s syndrome, but the results have not been overly promising. Conclusions: In general, data are sparse of the effect of these new drugs vs. oral diseases and there are no properly powered randomized controlled trials published on this topic. Key words:Immunomodulatory drugs, oral diseases, adverse effects, therapeutic action. PMID:23986016

  6. Quantification of respiratory depression during pre-operative administration of midazolam using a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Castro, Luis N.; Mehta, Jaideep H.; Brayanov, Jordan B.; Mullen, Gary J.

    2017-01-01

    , uncovering that the respiratory depressive effect of benzodiazepines affect primarily TV rather than RR. Such respiratory monitoring data provide the opportunity for individualizing dosing and adjustment of clinical interventions, especially important in elderly patients. With additional respiratory data, clinicians may be able to better identify and quantify respiratory depression, reduce adverse effects, and improve overall patient safety. PMID:28235069

  7. Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background From a mechanistic or physical perspective there is no basis to suspect that electric charges on clusters of air molecules (air ions) would have beneficial or deleterious effects on respiratory function. Yet, there is a large lay and scientific literature spanning 80 years that asserts exposure to air ions affects the respiratory system and has other biological effects. Aims This review evaluates the scientific evidence in published human experimental studies regarding the effects of exposure to air ions on respiratory performance and symptoms. Methods We identified 23 studies (published 1933–1993) that met our inclusion criteria. Relevant data pertaining to study population characteristics, study design, experimental methods, statistical techniques, and study results were assessed. Where relevant, random effects meta-analysis models were utilized to quantify similar exposure and outcome groupings. Results The included studies examined the therapeutic benefits of exposure to negative air ions on respiratory outcomes, such as ventilatory function and asthmatic symptoms. Study specific sample sizes ranged between 7 and 23, and studies varied considerably by subject characteristics (e.g., infants with asthma, adults with emphysema), experimental method, outcomes measured (e.g., subjective symptoms, sensitivity, clinical pulmonary function), analytical design, and statistical reporting. Conclusions Despite numerous experimental and analytical differences across studies, the literature does not clearly support a beneficial role in exposure to negative air ions and respiratory function or asthmatic symptom alleviation. Further, collectively, the human experimental studies do not indicate a significant detrimental effect of exposure to positive air ions on respiratory measures. Exposure to negative or positive air ions does not appear to play an appreciable role in respiratory function. PMID:24016271

  8. The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Man, Wing Ho; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-03-20

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity. The ecological and environmental factors that direct the development of microbial communities in the respiratory tract and how these communities affect respiratory health are the focus of current research. Concurrently, the functions of the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in the physiology of the human host are being studied in detail. In this Review, we will discuss the epidemiological, biological and functional evidence that support the physiological role of the respiratory microbiota in the maintenance of human health.

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using indirect immunofluorescence technique. Biology & Genetics For more than 50 years, NIAID’s commitment ... Nucleotide Polymorphism Phylogenetics & Ontology Proteomics & Protein Analysis Systems Biology Data Portals Software Applications BCBB Mobyle Interface Designer ( ...

  10. Respiratory muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Katharine L; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2005-07-28

    Plasticity of respiratory muscles must be considered in the context of their unique physiological demands. The continuous rhythmic activation of respiratory muscles makes them among the most active in the body. Respiratory muscles, especially the diaphragm, are non-weight-bearing, and thus, in contrast to limb muscles, are not exposed to gravitational effects. Perturbations in normal activation and load known to induce plasticity in limb muscles may not cause similar adaptations in respiratory muscles. In this review, we explore the structural and functional properties of the diaphragm muscle and their response to alterations in load and activity. Overall, relatively modest changes in diaphragm structural and functional properties occur in response to perturbations in load or activity. However, disruptions in the normal influence of phrenic innervation by frank denervation, tetrodotoxin nerve block and spinal hemisection, induce profound changes in the diaphragm, indicating the substantial trophic influence of phrenic motoneurons on diaphragm muscle.

  11. Noninvasive respiratory monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nochomovitz, M.L.; Cherniack, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Transcutaneous Monitoring of Respiratory Gases; Computed Tomography of the Chest; Measurement and Monitoring of Exhaled Carbon Dioxide; Oximetry; and Ultrasonic Evaluation of the Chest Wall and Pleura.

  12. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, diaphragm, rib cage, pulmonary arteries, brain, and spinal cord ... STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US ...

  13. Functional bowel symptoms and diet.

    PubMed

    Gibson, P R; Barrett, J S; Muir, J G

    2013-10-01

    It is well recognised that ingestion of food is a trigger for functional bowel symptoms, particularly those associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients often use manipulation of diet as a means of controlling symptoms. Despite description of multiple dietary methods, few have scientific backing or quality evidence of efficacy. One approach is to define how specific food components influence the pathophysiology of IBS and then rationally design dietary approaches. For example, short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP)) cause luminal distension, which is a major stimulus for the development of symptoms in patients with visceral hypersensitivity. By determining food content of FODMAP, a diet in which foods low in FODMAP are favoured over those high in FODMAP can be designed. Observational, comparative and randomised controlled treatment and rechallenge studies have shown that such an approach is efficacious in the majority of patients with IBS. The low FODMAP diet is now the primary dietary therapy for such patients. Similar approaches can be applied to other food components, including proteins (such as gluten), fats and natural bioactive food chemicals. Such approaches have suggestions of efficacy, but the evidence base remains underdeveloped. An additional and important consider