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Sample records for adverse respiratory symptoms

  1. Reported respiratory symptoms and adverse home conditions after 9/11 among residents living near the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated whether self-reported damage, dust, and odors in homes near the World Trade Center (WTC) after September 11, 2001, were related to increased rates of respiratory symptoms among residents and if multiple sources of exposure were associated with greater health risk. We mailed questionnaires to homes within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and in upper Manhattan (control area). Surveys asked about respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, physician diagnoses, medication use, and conditions in the home after 9/11. Adverse home conditions were associated with new-onset (i.e., began after 9/11) and persistent (i.e., remained 1 year after 9/11) upper and lower respiratory symptoms in the affected area (Cumulative Incidence Ratios [CIRs] 1.20-1.71). Residents reporting longer duration of dust/odors or multiple sources of exposure had greater risk for symptoms compared to those reporting shorter duration and fewer sources. These data suggest that WTC-related contamination in the home after 9/11 was associated with new and persistent respiratory symptoms among residents living near the site. While we cannot eliminate potential biases related to self-reported data, we took strategies to minimize their impact, and the observed effects are biologically plausible. PMID:17530533

  2. Peri-operative adverse respiratory events in children.

    PubMed

    von Ungern-Sternberg, B S; Ramgolam, A; Hall, G L; Sly, P D; Habre, W

    2015-04-01

    Three quarters of all critical incidents and a third of all peri-operative cardiac arrests in paediatric anaesthesia are caused by adverse respiratory events. We screened for risk factors from children's and their families' histories, and assessed the usefulness of common markers of allergic sensitisation of the airway as surrogates for airway inflammation and increased risk for adverse respiratory events. One hundred children aged up to 16 years with two or more risk factors undergoing elective surgery were included in the study. Eosinophil counts, IgE level, specific IgE for D. pteronyssinus, cat epithelia and Gx2 (grass pollen) were measured for each child and adverse respiratory events (bronchospasm, laryngospasm, oxygen desaturation < 95%, severe persistent coughing, airway obstruction and postoperative stridor) were recorded. Twenty-one patients had an adverse respiratory event but allergic markers were poor predictors. Binary logistic regression showed a lack of predictive value of the eosinophil range and adverse respiratory events (p = 0.249). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the presence of adverse respiratory events vs level of specific IgE antibody (to Gx2 (AUC 0.614), cat epithelia (0.564) and D. pteronyssinus (0.520)) demonstrated poor predictive values. However, the presence of risk factors was strongly associated with adverse respiratory events (p < 0.001) and a ROC-curve analysis indicated a fair capacity to predict adverse respiratory events (AUC 0.788). There was a significant difference (p = 0.001) between the presence of adverse respiratory events in patients with more than four (p = 0.006), compared with less than four (p = 0.001), risk factors. We conclude that while risk factors taken from the child's (or family) history proved good predictors of adverse respiratory events, immunological markers of allergic sensitisation demonstrated low predictive values. Pre-operative identification of children at high risk for an adverse

  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Most children ...

  4. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  5. Work related respiratory symptoms in radiographers.

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, J; Inskip, H; Wield, G; Coggon, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of work related symptoms among radiographers compared with a control group of physiotherapists. METHOD--A postal questionnaire was used to collect information from radiographers and physiotherapists who registered in the United Kingdom during 1985-9. RESULTS--Satisfactory questionnaires were returned by 2354 (65%) of the radiographers and 3048 (69%) of the physiotherapists. There was a clear excess of work related symptoms among the radiographers. In particular, they were more likely to complain of symptoms that were worse at work, mouth soreness, sore, itchy, or runny eyes, persistent blocked nose, persistent itchy nose or sneezing, sore throat, headache, and of lower respiratory tract symptoms, which were also worse on workdays. These symptoms were associated particularly with the use of automatic processing machines. 235 radiographers gave a history of wheeze or chest tightness that had been worse at work or on days when at work. CONCLUSIONS--Work related symptoms suggesting irritation of the eyes and upper airways were more common in radiographers than controls, and may be related to exposure to x ray film processing chemicals. Men and women who reported work related wheeze or chest tightness will be followed up in more detail to assess the prevalence of occupational asthma in the cohort. PMID:8704868

  6. Occupational Respiratory and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Egyptian Female Hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Hassan, O M; Bayomy, H

    2015-08-01

    Hairdressing is associated with exposure to a variety of harmful agents which have been linked to respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders in hairdressers. This study aimed to identify respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders in hairdressers compared to office workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 80 female hairdressers and 50 matched controls. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on personal and occupational data, hairdressing activities, the presence of respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the past 12 months. Reported symptoms were compared between hairdressers and controls. The associations between self-reported symptoms and hairdressing activities were investigated. Hairdressers were more likely to report symptoms than controls particularly for those who were older, with higher body mass index and longer duration of work as hairdresser. There were significant associations between frequent hair treatments (bleaching, dye and wave) and hand dermatitis (P < 0.001), running nose (P < 0.05), eye irritation (P < 0.01) and phlegm (P < 0.05). Elbow pain and shoulder and back pain were the most prevalent musculoskeletal pains in the past 12 months (13.8 and 12.5% respectively), back and knee pains were the most frequent chronic pain (7.5%), hand and wrist pain led 12.5% of hairdressers to visit a doctor and shoulder pain and back pain indicated a period of sickness absence in 13.8% of hairdressers. Musculoskeletal disorders were associated with manual handling, prolonged standing, strenuous shoulder movements and awkward body posture. Hairdressing is associated with increased risk to respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders due to adverse work conditions. PMID:25663369

  7. Adverse effect of air pollution on respiratory health of primary school children in Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P C; Lai, Y M; Wang, J D; Yang, C Y; Hwang, J S; Kuo, H W; Huang, S L; Chan, C C

    1998-01-01

    This study is a part of the Study On Air Pollution and Health In Taiwan (SOAP&HIT), an ongoing research project involving cooperation of several universities in Taiwan. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms and diseases of school children, in addition to considering indoor air pollution. Six communities were selected: one community located in a rural area (Taihsi), two in urban areas (Keelung and Sanchung), and the other three in petrochemical industrial areas (Toufen, Jenwu, and Linyuan). We sampled 5,072 primary school students in six communities from the main study population of SOAP&HIT. Respiratory health was assessed by evaluation of the children's respiratory symptoms and diseases using a parent-completed questionnaire. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis to compute odds ratios of adverse effect. The school children in the urban communities had significantly more respiratory symptoms (day or night cough, chronic cough, shortness of breath, and nasal symptoms) and diseases (sinusitis, wheezing or asthma, allergic rhinitis, and bronchitis) when compared with those living in the rural community. However, only nasal symptoms of children living in the petrochemical communities were more prevalent than in those living in the rural community. Although the association with ambient air pollution is suggestive, the cross-sectional study cannot confirm a causal relationship; thus further studies are needed. PMID:9618349

  8. Chronic Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Agricultural Workers - Influence of Exposure Duration and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Job exposure in agricultural workers often leads to respiratory impairment. AIM: To assess the influence of exposure duration and smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity in agricultural workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study covered 75 agricultural workers, compared with an equal number of office workers matched by age, exposure duration and smoking status. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job and smoking history. Lung functional testing was performed by spirometry. RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher in agricultural workers, with significant difference for cough (P = 0.034), and dyspnea (P = 0.028). Chronic respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers were significantly associated with duration of exposure (P < 0.05) and daily smoking (P < 0.01), as well as with daily smoking in controls (P < 0.01). The average values of spirometric parameters in exposed workers were significantly different for MEF50 (P = 0.002), MEF75 (P = 0.000), and MEF25-75 (P = 0.049). Obstructive changes in small airways in exposed workers were strongly related to exposure duration (P < 0.05) and smoking (P < 0.01). Agricultural workers with job exposure more than 15 years had more expressed adverse respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. CONCLUSION: The results confirmed the influence of agricultural exposure and daily smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, primarily targeting the small airways.

  9. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function were found, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  10. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in potash workers

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B.L.; Dosman, J.A.; Cotton, D.J.; Weisstock, S.R.; Lappi, V.G.; Froh, F.

    1984-03-01

    Over 94% of the workers in each of four Saskatchewan potash mines participated in a respiratory health surveillance program that included a questionnaire and pulmonary function tests. Compared with a nonexposed control group, potash workers had higher prevalences of cough, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis but better pulmonary function. Prevalences of symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities were similar among workers at the four mines tested and at the various job locations. Potash dust, diesel fumes, and other air contaminants may have an irritant effect that leads to the increased prevalences of cough and chronic bronchitis. Although we found no adverse effects of the potash mine environment on pulmonary function, these findings reflect a healthy worker effect or some selection process that makes the potash workers appear healthier in a cross-sectional study.

  11. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  12. Road traffic and adverse effects on respiratory health in children.

    PubMed Central

    Wjst, M; Reitmeir, P; Dold, S; Wulff, A; Nicolai, T; von Loeffelholz-Colberg, E F; von Mutius, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine whether road traffic in a big city has a direct effect on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--Of all 7445 fourth grade children (aged 9-11 years) in Munich, 6537 were examined. Of the children with German nationality and the same residence during the past five years and known exposure data, 4678 questionnaires and 4320 pulmonary function tests could be analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Variables of pulmonary function by forced expiration and respiratory symptoms reported in a questionnaire; census data on car traffic collected in the school district. RESULTS--Density of car traffic ranged from 7000 to 125,000 cars per 24 hours. Multiple regression analysis of peak expiratory flow showed a significant decrease of 0.71% (95% confidence interval 1.08% to 0.33%) per increase of 25,000 cars daily passing through the school district on the main road. Maximum expiratory flow when 25% vital capacity had been expired was decreased by 0.68% (1.11% to 0.25%). In contrast, response to cold air challenge was not increased. The adjusted odds ratio for the cumulative prevalence of recurrent wheezing with the same exposure was 1.08 (1.01 to 1.16). Cumulative prevalence of recurrent dyspnoea was increased, with an odds ratio of 1.10 (1.00 to 1.20). Lifetime prevalence of asthma (odds ratio 1.04; 0.89 to 1.21) and recurrent bronchitis (1.05; 0.98 to 1.12) were not significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of road traffic diminish forced expiratory flow and increase respiratory symptoms in children. Images FIG 1 PMID:7691304

  13. Respiratory symptoms in Indian women using domestic cooking fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, D.; Jindal, S.K. )

    1991-08-01

    The effect of domestic cooking fuels producing various respiratory symptoms was studied in 3,701 women. Of these, 3,608 were nonsmoking women who used four different types of cooking fuels: biomass, LPG, kerosene, and mixed fuels. The overall respiratory symptoms were observed in 13 percent of patients. Mixed fuel users experienced more respiratory symptoms (16.7 percent), followed by biomass (12.6 percent), stove (11.4 percent), and LPG (9.9 percent). Chronic bronchitis in chulla users was significantly higher than that in kerosene and LPG users (p less than 0.05). Dyspnea and postnasal drip were significantly higher in the women using mixed fuels. Smoking women who are also exposed to cooking fuels experienced respiratory symptoms more often than nonsmokers (33.3 percent vs 13 percent).

  14. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Never-Smoking Male Workers Exposed To Hardwood Dust

    PubMed Central

    Bislimovska, Dragana; Petrovska, Sunchica; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from many studies suggest that workplace exposure to organic dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects in exposed workers. AIM: In order to assess the respiratory effects of the workplace exposure to hardwood dust we performed a cross-sectional study of never-smoking male workers employed in parquet manufacture and never-smoking male office workers as a control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study including 37 never-smoking male workers employed in parquet manufacture and an equal number of never-smoking male office workers studied as a control. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a questionnaire for respiratory symptoms in the last 12 months and baseline spirometry performed according to the actual recommendations. RESULTS: We found a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms in parquet manufacturers than in office workers with significant difference for cough and phlegm. Majority of the respiratory symptoms in the parquet manufacturers were work-related. The mean values of all spirometric parameters with exception of forced ventilatory capacity (FVC) were significantly lower in the parquet manufacturers as compared to their mean values in the office workers. We found close relationship between both the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the reduction of spirometric parameters in the parquet manufacturers and the duration of the workplace exposure to wood dust. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that workplace exposure to hardwood dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects indicating the need of adequate preventive measures in order to protect the respiratory health of exposed workers. PMID:27275278

  15. Cardiac Function in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seul Bee; Choi, Han Seul; Son, Sejung

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Respiratory symptoms are often observed in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) during the acute phase. The association of respiratory viruses in children with KD was investigated using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Subjects and Methods 138 KD patients were included from January 2010 to June 2013. We compared 3 groups (group 1: n=94, KD without respiratory symptoms; group 2: n=44, KD with respiratory symptoms; and group 3: n=50, febrile patients with respiratory symptoms). Laboratory data were obtained from each patient including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Echocardiographic measurements were compared between group 1 and group 2. RT-PCR was performed using nasopharyngeal secretion to screen for the presence of 14 viruses in groups 2 and 3. Results The incidence of KD with respiratory symptoms was 31.8%. The duration of fever was significantly longer, and coronary artery diameter was larger in group 2 than in group 1. Tei index was significantly higher and coronary artery diameter larger in group 2 than group 1. Coronary artery diameter, C-reactive protein levels, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase levels, and NT-pro BNP levels were significantly higher and albumin levels lower in group 2 compared with group 3. Conclusion NT-pro BNP was a valuable diagnostic tool in differentiating KD from other febrile viral respiratory infections. Some viruses were more frequently observed in KD patients than in febrile controls. Tei index using tissue Doppler imaging was increased in KD patients with respiratory symptoms. PMID:26240586

  16. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen . E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  17. Prevalence of Occupational Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Servet; Tutar, Umit; Cinarka, Halit; Gumus, Aziz; Koksal, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory function test. A total of 347 participants including 286 workers from production department and 61 subjects who worked in nonproduction departments were enrolled in this study. It is found that phlegm (n: 71, 20.46%) and cough (n: 52, 14.98%) were the most frequent symptoms. The other symptoms were breathlessness (n: 28, 8.06%), chest tightness (n: 14, 4.03%), and wheezing (n: 7, 2.01%) . The prevalence of occupational asthma was found to be more frequent among the subjects who worked in the production department (n: 48, 16.78% ) than the other persons who worked in the nonproduction department (n: 3, 4.91%) by chi-square test (P: 0.001). To prevent hazardous respiratory effects of the foundry production, an early diagnosis of occupational asthma is very important. Cessation of cigarette smoking and using of protective masks during the working time should be encouraged. PMID:24175093

  18. Respiratory symptoms and acute painful episodes in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Eufemia; Sockrider, Marianna M; Dinu, Marlen; Acosta, Monica; Mueller, Brigitta U

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determined whether respiratory symptoms were associated with prevalence of chest pain and number of acute painful episodes in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Participants (N = 93; 44 females, 49 males; mean age 9.8 +/- 4.3 years) reported coughing in the morning (21.5%), at night (31.2%), and during exercise (30.1%). Wheezing occurred both when they had a cold or infection (29.0%) and when they did not have (23.7%) a cold or infection. Sleep was disturbed by wheezing in 20.4%. Among the 76 patients who were school-age (>5 years), 19.7% of patients missed more than 4 days of school because of respiratory symptoms. The majority of patients reported having acute painful episodes (82.8%), and most (66.7%) reported having chest pain during acute painful episodes in the previous 12 months. Participants with acute pain episodes greater than 3 during the previous 12 months had significantly higher reports of breathing difficulties (P = .01) and chest pain (P = .002). The high number of respiratory symptoms (cough and wheeze) among patients with sickle cell disease may trigger acute painful episodes. Early screening and recognition, ongoing monitoring, and proactive management of respiratory symptoms may minimize the number of acute painful episodes. PMID:20038672

  19. Long-term respiratory symptoms following oesophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Gatzinsky, Vladimir; Jönsson, Linus; Ekerljung, Linda; Friberg, Lars-Göran; Wennergren, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Background Oesophageal atresia (OA) is a congenital malformation that can lead to persistent respiratory symptoms in adulthood. Aim To describe the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in adulthood in a population-based study of patients with repaired OA and to compare this with the prevalence in the general population. Methods Of 80 patients operated for OA in Gothenburg in 1968–1983, 79 were located. The patients received a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Controls were 4979 gender- and age-matched subjects who answered the same questions. Results The questionnaire was answered by 73 of 79 (92%) patients. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported by 30% in the OA group vs 10% in the control group (OR 4.1; 95% CI 2.4–6.8), and recurrent wheeze in 29% vs 5.5% (OR 6.9; 4.1–11.6). Also wheeze during the last year, asthma medication, a long-standing cough, cough with sputum production and chronic bronchitis were significantly more common among the patients with OA. In contrast, there was no significant difference regarding risk factors for asthma. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms did not appear to decrease with age. Conclusion A high prevalence of respiratory symptoms remains among adult patients with repaired OA. Many of the patients had an asthma diagnosis. However, asthma heredity or allergic rhinitis was not overrepresented. PMID:21418293

  20. Indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and dampness: respiratory symptoms in Sardinian children--DRIAS study.

    PubMed

    Pirastu, Roberta; Bellu, Caterina; Greco, Pietro; Pelosi, Umberto; Pistelli, Riccardo; Accetta, Gabriele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2009-01-01

    Indoor exposures at home, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and mould/dampness adversely affect respiratory health of children. Disturbi Respiratori nell'Infanzia e Ambiente in Sardegna (DRIAS) (Respiratory Symptoms in children and the Environment in Sardegna, Italy) aims at relating the prevalence of respiratory and allergic symptoms to indoor exposures in Sardinian children. DRIAS, a cross-sectional investigation of respiratory symptoms/diseases, used a modified version of ISAAC questionnaire, included 4122 children attending 29 primary schools in the school year 2004-2005. If both parents smoke the prevalence for current wheeze and current asthma is almost doubled in comparison with never smokers, for persistent cough and phlegm a role is suggested when only mother smokes. Among mothers smoking in pregnancy, the prevalence of current wheeze and current asthma is increased. Exposure to ETS and family atopy have a joint effect resulting in an almost tripling of prevalence for current wheeze and more than four times for current asthma. Exposure to "dampness" (mould or dampness) both during the first year of life and currently is associated with increased prevalence of current wheeze, persistent cough or phlegm and current rhino-conjunctivitis; if exposure is only during the first year of life a doubling or more of prevalence is observed for current wheeze, current asthma, and persistent cough or phlegm. DRIAS results add evidence to the causal role of childhood exposure to ETS in the development of respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, and wheezing) and asthma. The joint effect of ETS and family atopy is corroborated. The results strengthen the evidence for a causal association between "dampness" and respiratory health, pointing to its possible independent role in causing asthma, a long-lasting exposure entails a doubled prevalence for both asthmatic and bronchitis symptoms. PMID:18952207

  1. Respiratory symptoms in Indian children exposed to different cooking fuels.

    PubMed

    Behera, D; Sood, P; Singhi, S

    1998-02-01

    Smoke emission from fuels is an important source of indoor air pollution. Children spend considerable time indoors. It is therefore important to determine whether air contaminants from indoor air sources affect incidence of respiratory illness, cause symptoms and changes in pulmonary function status in them. Two hundred children in the age group of 7-15 were selected randomly. They were stratified according to the fuel used in their homes and respiratory symptoms were inquired from them according to a questionnaire recommended by the American Thoracic Society. The most symptomatic children were those whose households used kerosene (52%) and mixed fuels (46%) although different symptoms were present in varying extent in all 4 groups of children. Cough, cold, congestion or phlegm for one week or more occurred more frequently with mixed fuel use followed by kerosene. The present study thus showed that mixed fuel and kerosene fuel had worst effects on respiratory system in children whose households used these fuels. PMID:11273107

  2. Challenging anxiety: a focus on the specificity of respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Van Duinen, M A; Niccolai, V; Griez, E J L

    2010-01-01

    Physiological symptoms are characteristic features of anxiety states. Presumably, specific psychophysiological profiles differentiate between anxiety disorders, which would offer potential for diagnostic purposes. Abundant evidence points to a causal relationship between panic disorder and instability of respiratory regulation. However, the specificity of most measures that indicate aberrant functioning of the respiratory system in PD can be questioned. Possibly, the traditional measures of respiratory functioning are too restricted. The underlying respiratory vulnerability in PD seems to constitute a subtle, unstable trait, which calls for more sensitive and sophisticated measures of respiratory variability and chaos. To increase the probability of finding parameters with diagnostic specificity, the application of disorder specific challenge paradigms is recommended. PMID:21309112

  3. Respiratory symptoms in wool textile workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, R.G.; Smith, T.; Jones, C.O.; Gurr, D.; Soutar, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This epidemiological study was intended to investigate exposures to inspirable wool dust in selected wool textile mills, the patterns of respiratory symptoms reported by workers in the industry, and the relationships of symptoms to exposure to dust. Fifteen mills in West Yorkshire representing all stages of the woollen and worsted process, and production of carpet yarns, were included in the study, their size ranging from four to nearly four hundred employees.

  4. Respiratory Symptoms of Vendors in an Open-Air Hawker Center in Brunei Darussalam

    PubMed Central

    Nazurah bt Abdul Wahid, Nurul Nor; Balalla, N. B. P; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We studied respiratory problems among vendors exposed to cooking fumes in an open-air hawker center. Exposure to cooking fumes from either the use of fossil fuels or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been shown to be associated with adverse respiratory health effects. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 67 food vendors exposed to cooking fumes as well as 18 merchandise sellers at an open-air hawker center in Brunei Darussalam. Past medical and smoking history and exposure to cooking fumes were obtained. The validated American Thoracic Society Questionnaire with a translated Malay version was used to ask for respiratory symptoms. Results: Compared to merchandise sellers (n = 18), cooking vendors (n = 67) had a higher self-reported respiratory symptoms (50.7% for those cooking and 33.3% for merchandise sellers). Cough (28.3%) was the main respiratory symptom experienced in cooking vendors and breathlessness (22.2%) among merchandise sellers. Half (50.0%) of cooking vendors who worked for more than 10 years had cough and 27.3% had phlegm. Those cooking with charcoal were two times more likely to have cough than those cooking with LPG. Cooking vendors with a job duration of more than 10 years were thrice more likely to have cough. Conclusion: Cooking vendors in the open-air hawker center exposed to cooking fumes had more respiratory symptoms compared to non-exposed merchandise sellers. The type of fuel used for cooking and duration of work was associated with increased prevalence of cough. PMID:25325051

  5. Alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms are common in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Cardet, Juan Carlos; White, Andrew A.; Barrett, Nora A.; Feldweg, Anna M.; Wickner, Paige G.; Savage, Jessica; Bhattacharyya, Neil; Laidlaw, Tanya M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A large percentage of patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) report the development of alcohol-induced respiratory reactions, but the true prevalence of respiratory reactions caused by alcoholic beverages in these patients was not known. Objective We sought to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of alcohol-induced respiratory reactions in patients with AERD. Methods A questionnaire designed to assess alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms was administered to patients at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Scripps Clinic. At least 50 patients were recruited into each of four clinical groups: 1) patients with aspirin challenge-confirmed AERD, 2) aspirin-tolerant asthmatics (ATA), 3) aspirin-tolerant patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and 4) healthy controls. Two-tailed Fisher’s exact test with Bonferroni corrections were used to compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms between AERD and other groups, with P≤0.017 considered significant. Results The prevalence of alcohol-induced upper (rhinorrhea/nasal congestion) respiratory reactions in patients with AERD was 75%, compared to 33% in ATA, 30% in CRS, and 14% in healthy controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The prevalence of alcohol-induced lower (wheezing/dyspnea) respiratory reactions in AERD was 51%, compared to 20% in ATA, and 0% in both CRS and healthy controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). These reactions were generally not specific to one type of alcohol and often occurred after ingestion of only a few sips of alcohol. Conclusion Alcohol ingestion causes respiratory reactions in the majority of patients with AERD and clinicians should be aware that these alcohol-induced reactions are significantly more common in AERD than in aspirin-tolerant controls. PMID:24607050

  6. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in animal feed workers.

    PubMed

    Jorna, T H; Borm, P J; Valks, J; Houba, R; Wouters, E F

    1994-10-01

    In a study among 194 male workers exposed to endotoxin-containing organic dust in animal feed mills, lung function was measured by flow volume curves and impedance measurements and respiratory symptoms were recorded by means of a validated questionnaire. The aims were to detect and localize airway obstruction caused by fodder dust and endotoxin, and to relate respiratory symptoms to both types of lung function measurements. Flow volume and impedance parameters were significantly related to present exposure. All impedance parameters, of the spirometric measures only FEF25, were significantly related to cumulative dust or endotoxin exposure. The changes in impedance parameters were for overall increasing resistance at 8 Hz and decreasing reactance at 8 Hz, reflecting an increase in peripheral airflow obstruction, with increasing exposure. The changes in all lung function parameters were more strongly related to (cumulative) endotoxin exposure than to inspirable dust exposure. All impedance parameters and FEV1 showed a good correlation with complaints of chronic bronchitis and breathlessness. Impedance measurement of the respiratory system proved to be a useful tool for objectively assessing (early) airflow obstruction in workers exposed to inspirable dust and endotoxin and in localizing airflow obstruction. PMID:7924472

  7. Pantoea agglomerans in Immunodeficient Patients with Different Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Flores Popoca, Erika Odilia; Miranda García, Maximino; Romero Figueroa, Socorro; Mendoza Medellín, Aurelio; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio; Silva Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine in 32 patients from 4 different Mexican hospitals the frequency of opportunistic bacteria in the 2010 to 2011 time period. The patients were divided in 4 groups. Group 1 included 21 HIV positive patients with acute respiratory syndrome. Four HIV positive patients with tuberculosis symptoms were included in Group 2; two patients with tuberculosis symptoms and one asymptomatic person formed Group 3. Reference Group 4 included 4 patients from whom 4 strains of Mycobacterium spp. had been reported. The strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification, API 20E and 50CH, biochemical test, and antibiotic sensitivity. The strains found were 10 Pantoea agglomerans, 6 Mycobacterium spp., 6 Pseudomonas spp. and 10 strains of normal floral species: Thermoactinomycetes bacterium (1), Enterococcus faecium (2), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (2), Streptococcus oralis (2), Streptococcus anginosus (1), and Enterobacter hormaechei (1). PMID:22619600

  8. Pantoea agglomerans in immunodeficient patients with different respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Flores Popoca, Erika Odilia; Miranda García, Maximino; Romero Figueroa, Socorro; Mendoza Medellín, Aurelio; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio; Silva Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine in 32 patients from 4 different Mexican hospitals the frequency of opportunistic bacteria in the 2010 to 2011 time period. The patients were divided in 4 groups. Group 1 included 21 HIV positive patients with acute respiratory syndrome. Four HIV positive patients with tuberculosis symptoms were included in Group 2; two patients with tuberculosis symptoms and one asymptomatic person formed Group 3. Reference Group 4 included 4 patients from whom 4 strains of Mycobacterium spp. had been reported. The strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification, API 20E and 50CH, biochemical test, and antibiotic sensitivity. The strains found were 10 Pantoea agglomerans, 6 Mycobacterium spp., 6 Pseudomonas spp. and 10 strains of normal floral species: Thermoactinomycetes bacterium (1), Enterococcus faecium (2), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (2), Streptococcus oralis (2), Streptococcus anginosus (1), and Enterobacter hormaechei (1). PMID:22619600

  9. Respiratory and allergic symptoms in wool textile workers.

    PubMed Central

    Love, R G; Smith, T A; Gurr, D; Soutar, C A; Scarisbrick, D A; Seaton, A

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiological study of 2153 workers in 15 West Yorkshire wool textile mills was conducted to determine relations between respiratory symptoms and exposure to inspirable wool mill dust. A questionnaire designed to elicit all the common respiratory symptoms was developed and tested, and administered to all workers willing to participate (85%). It was translated and administered in Urdu for the 385 workers from Pakistan whose English was not fluent. Symptoms investigated included cough and phlegm, wheezing and chest tightness, breathlessness and its variability, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, chills, nosebleeds, and chest illnesses. Additional questions were asked, where appropriate, about the times of day, days of the week, seasons, and places that the symptoms were worse or better than normal. An environmental survey was carried out at each mill, which included 629 measurements of inspirable dust, enabling estimates to be made of the airborne concentrations of inspirable dust usually experienced by each member of the workforce under current conditions. Overall symptom prevalences were: persistent cough and phlegm, 9%; wheeze, 31%; breathlessness on walking with others on level ground, 10%; persistent rhinitis, 18%; persistent conjunctivitis, 10%; persistent chills, 2%; ten or more nosebleeds a year, 2%; and three or more chest illnesses in past three years, 5%. After allowing for the effects of age, sex, smoking habit, and ethnic group, cough and phlegm, wheeze, breathlessness, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and nosebleeds were found to be more frequent in those exposed to higher than to lower concentrations of dust. In some experiencing high concentrations (blenders and carpet yarn backwinders) cough and phlegm, wheeze, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis were related to the years worked in such jobs. Relative risks of each symptom in relation to inspirable dust concentrations were calculated by means of a logistic regression analysis. At concentrations of 10 mg/m3, the

  10. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population. PMID:26925182

  11. Adverse Respiratory Events Associated With Hypnotics Use in Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Insomnia is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the effects of hypnotics on the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD. The case-control study was investigated using data retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with newly diagnosed adverse respiratory events (pneumonia, COPD with acute exacerbation, acute respiratory failure, and cardiopulmonary arrest) were included in the case group. Patients with COPD and no history of adverse respiratory events were randomly selected for the control group, which was frequency-matched with the case group according to index date, age (per 10 years), and sex. Patients who had used hypnotics within 1 month meant active users. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of were calculated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Most of the study participants were male (71.6%), and the mean ages of the participants in the case and control groups were 69.2 (±12.4) and 67.5 (±12.3) years, respectively. After potential confounding factors were adjusting for, the adjusted ORs of adverse respiratory events were 12.0 for active users of benzodiazepines (95% CI, 8.11–17.6) and 10.5 for active users of nonbenzodiazepines (95% CI, 7.68–14.2) compared with the adjusted ORs of those who never used hypnotics. The results of this epidemiological study suggested that hypnotics increased the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD. PMID:26166105

  12. Childhood Adversity, Timing of Puberty and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Chung-Ying; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity contributes to depressive symptoms in adolescence, but far less research has focused on an Asian context. This study aims to identify the long-term impact of childhood adversity on adolescents' depressive symptoms and whether this association is moderated by gender and early pubertal timing in Taiwan. Data in this study are from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a longitudinal study that surveyed and followed 4261 junior high school students in year 2001 (at age 13) and three more waves (at ages 15, 17, and 18). Conditional latent growth model results show that having adversity is positively associated with the intercept, but negatively associated with the linear trend of changes of depressive symptoms in adolescence (p < .01). Early pubertal timing is only positively associated with baseline levels for boys (p < .01). Both adversity and early pubertal timing contributes to depressive symptoms when adolescents start junior high school. PMID:26206735

  13. [Case report: respiratory symptoms in a competitive swimmer].

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar

    2013-02-01

    A young competitive swimmer consulted a physician because of respiratory symptoms. He was found to have a normal spirometry. Bronchial asthma was diagnosed based on bronchial challenge test and appropriate treatment started. An overview is given on the rules of the National Sports Association on the treatment of asthma, which asthma medications are banned and how to apply for an exemption. Diagnostic studies for asthma are reviewed. In addition to spirometry before and after bronchodilatation, bronchial challenge tests and exercise tests are used. An overview of pathophysiology of swimmer's asthma is given and how it is connected to chloride that is used as a disinfectant. The incidence of asthma among competitive swimmers is reviewed. PMID:23486680

  14. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among patients with systemic arterial hypertension without respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; Pereira, Sheila Alves; Silva Júnior, José Laerte Rodrigues; de Rezende, Aline Pacheco; Castro da Costa, Adeliane; de Sousa Corrêa, Krislainy; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often delayed until later stages of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD among adults on treatment for systemic arterial hypertension independently of the presence of respiratory symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study included adults aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and systemic arterial hypertension diagnosed at three Primary Health Care facilities in Goiania, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using a standardized respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. COPD prevalence was measured considering the value of forced vital capacity and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second <0.70. Results Of a total of 570 subjects, 316 (55%) met inclusion criteria and were invited to participate. Two hundred and thirty-three (73.7%) patients with arterial hypertension reported at least one respiratory symptom, while 83 (26.3%) reported no respiratory symptoms; 41 (17.6%) patients with arterial hypertension and at least one respiratory symptom, and 10 (12%) patients with arterial hypertension but no respiratory symptoms were diagnosed with COPD (P=0.24). The prevalence of COPD in people with no previous COPD diagnosis was greater among those with no respiratory symptoms (100%) than among those with respiratory symptoms (56.1%) (P=0.01). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, individuals aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and arterial hypertension may benefit from spirometric evaluation. PMID:26257517

  15. Respiratory symptoms, ventilatory impairment, and bronchial reactivity in oil mist-exposed automobile workers.

    PubMed

    Ameille, J; Wild, P; Choudat, D; Ohl, G; Vaucouleur, J F; Chanut, J C; Brochard, P

    1995-02-01

    of exposure to mineral oils on bronchial reactivity was demonstrated. It is concluded that despite low levels of pollution by oil mists, the present study has shown tenuous adverse chronic effects of straight cutting oils on respiratory symptoms and lung function. However, no adverse effect of soluble mineral oils was demonstrated. These results suggest that threshold limit values for mineral oils should be reassessed. PMID:7755014

  16. Chronic and Acute Exposures to the World Trade Center Disaster and Lower Respiratory Symptoms: Area Residents and Workers

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Stephen M.; Pillai, Parul S.; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I.; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D.; Farfel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed associations between new-onset (post–September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center–area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Methods. World Trade Center–area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Results. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Conclusions. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects. PMID:22515865

  17. Indoor air quality in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Ramos, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to characterize the indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, PM2.5, PM10, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi were assessed in 73 classrooms from 20 public primary schools located in Porto, Portugal. Children who attended the selected classrooms (n = 1134) were evaluated by a standardised health questionnaire completed by the legal guardians; spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide tests. The results indicated that no classrooms presented individual VOC pollutant concentrations higher than the WHO IAQ guidelines or by INDEX recommendations; while PM2.5, PM10 and bacteria levels exceeded the WHO air quality guidelines or national limit values. High levels of total VOC, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher odds of wheezing in children. Thus, indoor air pollutants, some even at low exposure levels, were related with the development of respiratory symptoms. The results pointed out that it is crucial to take into account the unique characteristics of the public primary schools, to develop appropriate control strategies in order to reduce the exposure to indoor air pollutants and, therefore, to minimize the adverse health effects.

  18. Respiratory impairment and symptoms as predictors of early retirement with disability in US underground coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Trent, R.B.

    1984-08-01

    A five-year prospective study of 1,394 United States underground coal miners was undertaken to study the effects of respiratory impairment on the rate of early retirement with disability (ERD). Using a logistic regression analysis, ERD was found to be related to reported persistent phlegm after adjustment was made for other respiratory symptoms, respiratory function measurements, cigarette smoking, and some demographic characteristics. No prediction of ERD occurred for spirometrically determined measures of respiratory function. The data thus give limited support to the hypothesis that early retirement with disability in underground coal miners can be predicted prospectively by measures of respiratory symptoms.

  19. Occupation and three-year incidence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline: the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. Inhalation exposures encountered in these jobs may place workers at risk of new-onset respiratory disease. Methods We analyzed data from 8,967 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a longitudinal cohort study. Participants included in this analysis were free of chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other chronic lung conditions at the baseline examination, when they were aged 45-64 years. Using data collected in the baseline and first follow-up examination, we evaluated associations between occupation and the three-year incidence of cough, phlegm, wheezing, and airway obstruction and changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) measured by spirometry. All associations were adjusted for age, cigarettes per day, race, smoking status, and study center. Results During the approximately three-year follow-up, the percentage of participants developing chronic cough was 3%; chronic phlegm, 3%; wheezing, 3%; and airway obstruction, defined as FEV1 < lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV1/FVC < LLN, 2%. The average annual declines in FEV1 and FVC were 56 mL and 66 mL, respectively, among men and 40 mL and 52 mL, respectively, among women. Relative to a referent category of managerial and administrative support occupations, elevated risks of new-onset chronic cough and chronic phlegm were observed for mechanics and repairers (chronic cough: RR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.21; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.57) and cleaning and building service workers (chronic cough: RR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.37; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.08). Despite the elevated risk of new-onset symptoms, employment in cleaning and building services was associated with attenuated lung function decline, particularly among men, who averaged annual declines in FEV1 and FVC of 14 mL and 23 m

  20. The Efficacy of the Upright Position on Gastro-Esophageal Reflux and Reflux-Related Respiratory Symptoms in Infants With Chronic Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo Jin; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Min, Taek Ki; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Jun Sung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), particularly non-acid reflux, is common in infants and is a known cause of chronic respiratory symptoms in infancy. Recent guidelines recommended empirical acid suppression therapy and the head-up position in patients with suspected GER. However, the efficacy of the upright position in relieving GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants is unclear. We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of the upright position on GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms. Methods Thirty-two infants (21 male; median age, 5 months; range, 0 to 19 months) with unexplained chronic respiratory symptoms underwent multi-channel intraluminal esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. We retrospectively compared the frequencies of GER and reflux-related symptoms according to body position. Results A mean of 3.30 episodes of reflux per hour was detected. Overall, refluxes were more frequent during the postprandial period than the emptying period (3.77 vs. 2.79 episodes/hour, respectively; P=0.01). Although there was no significant difference in the total refluxes per hour between the upright and recumbent positions (6.12 vs. 3.77 episodes, P=0.10), reflux-related respiratory symptoms per reflux were significantly fewer in infants kept in an upright position than in a recumbent position during the postprandial period (3.07% vs. 14.75%, P=0.016). Non-acid reflux was the predominant type of reflux in infants, regardless of body position or meal time. Conclusions The upright position may reduce reflux-related respiratory symptoms, rather than reflux frequency. Thus, it may be a useful non-pharmacological treatment for infantile GER disease resistant to acid suppressants. PMID:22211166

  1. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    PubMed

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  2. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  3. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Malo, J; Infante-Rivard, C; Gautrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of welding related respiratory symptoms coexisting with welding related systemic symptoms in welders is unknown. Aims: To determine in a sample of welders the prevalence of coexisting welding related systemic symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA), and the strength and significance of any association between these two groups of symptoms. Methods: A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, a systemic symptoms questionnaire, and a questionnaire on occupational history were administered by telephone to 351 of a sample of 441 welders (79.6%) from two cities in Québec, Canada. Results: The co-occurrence of possible MFF (defined as having at least two symptoms of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, and shortness of breath, occurring at the beginning of the working week, 3–10 hours after exposure to welding fumes) together with welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA (defined as having at least two welding related symptoms of cough, wheezing, and chest tightness) was 5.8%. These two groups of symptoms were significantly associated (χ2 = 18.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a strong association between welding related MFF and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. PMID:12937186

  4. Trajectories of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Internalizing Symptoms, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Child Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Emily K.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Background: We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms as predicted by interactions among maternal internalizing symptoms, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and child sex. Method: An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of children (n = 251) participated during three study waves. Children's mean ages were 8.23 years…

  5. Acute Effects of Asian Dust Events on Respiratory Symptoms and Peak Expiratory Flow in Children with Mild Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Do Kyun

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible adverse effects of Asian dust events on respiratory health in asthmatic children. Fifty-two children with mild asthma were studied for eight consecutive weeks in the spring of 2004 (March 8 to May 2). During the study period, five Asian dust days were identified; we included a lag period of two days following each of the events. Subjects recorded their respiratory symptom diaries and peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily during the study period; and they underwent methacholine bronchial challenge tests. The subjects reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms during the Asian dust days than during the control days. They showed significantly more reduced morning and evening PEF values, and more increased PEF variability (10.1%±3.5% vs. 5.5%±2.2%) during the Asian dust days than during the control days. Methacholine PC20 was not significantly different between before and after the study period (geometric mean: 2.82 mg/mL vs. 3.16 mg/mL). These results suggest that the short-term Asian dust events might be associated with increased acute respiratory symptoms and changes in PEF outcomes. However, there might be little long-term influence on airway hyperresponsiveness in children with mild asthma. PMID:18303201

  6. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  7. Determinants of respiratory symptoms in insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P; Shapiro, S; Dales, R E; Becklake, M R

    1987-01-01

    The determinants of respiratory symptoms were studied in an active workforce of insulation workers exposed to asbestos and synthetic mineral fibres. Responses to a mailed respiratory symptom questionnaire from 537 insulation workers without diagnosed asbestosis were analysed using logistic regression. Wheezing complaints and breathlessness were related primarily to current cigarette smoking and to symptoms suggesting an asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade. There was also evidence that these complaints were related to occupational exposure (estimated by number of hours worked in the trade) in subjects with prior airways hyperreactivity. An asthmatic predisposition antedating work in the trade was the major determinant of acute respiratory symptoms in the workplace. The effects of workplace exposures on respiratory symptoms may have been underestimated due to selective withdrawal from the active workforce and due to inaccuracies in the measure of exposure used. PMID:3814550

  8. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data. Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52–0.62). Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases. PMID:27196497

  9. Sex differences in upper respiratory symptoms prevalence and oral-respiratory mucosal immunity in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Bishop, Nicolette C; Handzlik, Michal K; Muhamad, Ayu S; Gleeson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in oral-respiratory mucosal immunity and the incidence, severity and duration of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) episodes in endurance athletes during a 16-week winter training period. Blood was collected from 210 subjects (147 men and 63 women) at the start and end of the study for determination of differential leukocyte counts. Timed collections of unstimulated saliva were obtained at the start and at 4-week intervals during the study period. Saliva samples were analysed for salivary antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). Weekly training and daily illness logs were kept using validated questionnaires. Training loads averaged 11 h/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity and were not different for males and females. The salivary concentration of lysozyme and lactoferrin (both P < 0.04) but not salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) or amylase were higher in males than females. Saliva flow rates were significantly higher in males than females (P < 0.03) and consequently so were the salivary secretion rates of lysozyme, lactoferrin and amylase (all P < 0.01) but not SIgA (P = 0.097). Total blood leukocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte counts were not different between the sexes but females had higher numbers of circulating neutrophils (P = 0.040). The average number of URS episodes was 0.6 +/- 0.8 (mean +/- SD) in males and 0.8 +/- 1.0 in females (P = 0.103) and the number of URS days was higher in females (4.7 vs 6.8 days, P < 0.02). The duration of URS episodes was longer in females (11.6 vs 15.5 days, P < 0.03). The findings of this study concur with recent reports of illness incidence at major competitive games indicating that female athletes may be more susceptible than their male counterparts to URS and that lower oral-respiratory mucosal immunity may, in part, account for this. PMID:24974718

  10. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  11. Passive cigarette smoke, coal heating, and respiratory symptoms of nonsmoking women in China

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C.A. III Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT ); Xu, X. )

    1993-09-01

    In this study the authors evaluated data from a sample of 973 never-smoking women, ages 20-40, who worked in three similar textile mills in Anhui Province, China. They compared prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms across homes with and without coal heating and homes with different numbers of smokers. Multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age, job title, and mill of employment were also estimated. Respiratory symptoms were associated with combined exposure to passive cigarette smoke and coal heating. Effects of passive cigarette smoke and coal heating on respiratory symptoms appeared to be nearly additive, suggesting a dose-response relationship between respiratory symptoms and home indoor air pollution from these two sources. The prevalence of chest illness, cough, phlegm, and shortness of breath (but not wheeze) was significantly elevated for women living in homes with both smokers and coal heating.

  12. Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Resources Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness ID 442-602 ( ... noninfectious allergic disease that is caused by inhaling mold spores in the dust from moldy hay, straw, ...

  13. Perioperative Adverse Respiratory Events in Overweight/Obese Children: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos; Bakalis, Nick; Kefaliakos, Antonios; Konstantinou, Evangelos

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with numerous respiratory disorders, which may be aggravated when general anesthesia is administered. This systematic review aimed to investigate and synthesize the published literature on the associations between childhood obesity and perioperative adverse respiratory events (PAREs). By using key terms, observational studies published between 1990 and 2014 in English-language journals indexed by Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and EMBASE were searched for reports of relevant associations. Nine articles were considered eligible for inclusion. In all studies, significant univariate and multivariate associations were reported between obesity and increased risk for PAREs in pediatric patients, mainly for hypoxemia, upper airway obstruction, and difficult mask ventilation. Appropriate strategies for preventing PAREs in obese children need to be followed by health care professionals. Multicenter studies are also recommended for ensuring high generalizability of reported associations and elucidating underlying mechanisms that link obesity to PAREs. PMID:26847776

  14. CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS, HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS, AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory symptoms and respiratory hospitalization (for asthma, bronchitis or pneumonia) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of children (ages 7--11 years, N=667) living in a moderately industrialized city in Central Sl...

  15. Urban air pollution and emergency room admissions for respiratory symptoms: a case-crossover study in Palermo, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Air pollution from vehicular traffic has been associated with respiratory diseases. In Palermo, the largest metropolitan area in Sicily, urban air pollution is mainly addressed to traffic-related pollution because of lack of industrial settlements, and the presence of a temperate climate that contribute to the limited use of domestic heating plants. This study aimed to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution and emergency room admissions for acute respiratory symptoms. Methods From January 2004 through December 2007, air pollutant concentrations and emergency room visits were collected for a case-crossover study conducted in Palermo, Sicily. Risk estimates of short-term exposures to particulate matter and gaseous ambient pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide were calculated by using a conditional logistic regression analysis. Results Emergency departments provided data on 48,519 visits for respiratory symptoms. Adjusted case-crossover analyses revealed stronger effects in the warm season for the most part of the pollutants considered, with a positive association for PM10 (odds ratio = 1.039, 95% confidence interval: 1.020 - 1.059), SO2 (OR = 1.068, 95% CI: 1.014 - 1.126), nitrogen dioxide (NO2: OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.021 - 1.065), and CO (OR = 1.128, 95% CI: 1.074 - 1.184), especially among females (according to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, NO2, SO2, and 1 mg/m3 in CO exposure). A positive association was observed either in warm or in cold season only for PM10. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, in our setting, exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of emergency room (ER) visits for acute respiratory symptoms, particularly during the warm season. ER admittance may be considered a good proxy to evaluate the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health. PMID:21489245

  16. Childhood adversity increases vulnerability for behavioral symptoms and immune dysregulation in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Witek Janusek, Linda; Tell, Dina; Albuquerque, Kevin; Mathews, Herbert L.

    2012-01-01

    Women respond differentially to the stress-associated with breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, with some women experiencing more intense and/or sustained behavioral symptoms and immune dysregulation than others. Childhood adversity has been identified to produce long-term dysregulation of stress response systems, increasing reactivity to stressors encountered during adulthood. This study determined whether childhood adversity increased vulnerability for more intense and sustained behavioral symptoms (fatigue, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms), poorer quality of life, and greater immune dysregulation in women (N=40) with breast cancer. Evaluation was after breast surgery and through early survivorship. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine intra-individual and inter-individual differences with respect to initial status and to the pattern of change (i.e. trajectory) of outcomes. At initial assessment, women exposed to childhood emotional neglect/abuse had greater perceived stress, fatigue, depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life, as well as lower natural killer cell activity (NKCA). Although these outcomes improved over time, women with greater childhood emotional neglect/abuse exhibited worse outcomes through early survivorship. No effect was observed on the trajectory for these outcomes. In contrast, childhood physical neglect predicted sustained trajectories of greater perceived stress, worse quality of life, and elevated plasma IL-6; with no effect observed at initial assessment. Thus, childhood adversity leaves an enduring imprint, increasing vulnerability for behavioral symptoms, poor quality of life, and elevations in IL-6 in women with breast cancer. Further, childhood adversity predisposes to lower NKCA at a critical time when this immune-effector mechanism is most effective at halting nascent tumor seeding. PMID:22659062

  17. Negative emotionality and disconstraint influence PTSD symptom course via exposure to new major adverse life events.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Harkness, Kate L

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23-68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  18. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  19. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS AND ASSOCIATION WITH LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone-induced respiratory symptoms are known to be functions of concentration, minute ventilation, and duration of exposure. The purposes of this study were to identify an exposure-response model for symptoms, to determine whether response was related to age, and to assess the re...

  20. Association of Interleukin-8 and Neutrophils with Nasal Symptom Severity During Acute Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez, Kelsey M.; Hayney, Mary S.; Xie, Yaoguo; Zhang, Zhengjun; Barrett, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL-8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of the illness episode using the well-validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Global symptom severity was calculated by the area under the curve (AUC) plotting duration versus WURSS total. Of the specimens tested, 56% were positively identified for one or more of nine different respiratory viruses. During acute respiratory infection illness, both IL-8 and neutrophils positively correlate with AUC (rs = 0.082, P = 0.022; rs = 0.080, P = 0.030). IL-8 and neutrophils correlate with nasal symptom severity: runny nose (r = 0.13, P = <0.00001; r = 0.18, P = <0.003), plugged nose (r = 0.045, P = 0.003; r = 0.14, P = 0.058), and sneezing (r = −0.02, P = <0.0001; r = −0.0055, P = 0.31). Neutrophils correlate with some quality of life measures such as sleeping well (r = 0.15, P = 0.026). Thus, the study demonstrates that IL-8 and neutrophils are correlated with severity of nasal symptoms during acute respiratory infection. Further research is necessary to determine if the concentration of these or other biomarkers can predict the overall duration and severity of acute respiratory infection illness. PMID:25132248

  1. [Respiratory tract symptoms and illnesses in rescue and clearance workers after the World Trade Center catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Aro, Leena; Sauni, Riitta; Lusa, Sirpa; Lindholm, Harri; Uitti, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    The World Trade Center catastrophe and subsequent rescue and clearance operations caused unusual respiratory tract symptoms in fire fighters and rescue workers. Persistent cough was a common symptom, being extraordinarily often associated with the gastroesophageal reflux symptom. Irritant dusts caused reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Tracheal hyperreactivity increased with the exposure, and the risk of asthma is estimated to have increased up to 12 times higher as compared with the normal population. Investigation and treatment of exposed persons have yielded generalizable information about the reactions of the respiratory system in situations of heavy exposure. PMID:19839191

  2. Older Adults’ Use of Care Strategies in Response to General and Upper Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Quandt, Sara A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the use of complementary and medical treatments, both individually and in combination, to address common general and upper respiratory symptoms. Data for the analysis were collected from a series of 18 daily diary questionnaires administered to community-living older African American and white adults living in rural counties in North Carolina. Participants reported symptoms experienced on each diary day and the treatment strategies they used each day in response to the particular symptom(s). Older adults used diverse categories of strategies to treat symptoms; treatment strategies were used inconsistently across symptoms. Use of only complementary strategies, only medical conventional strategies, or both complementary and medical strategies to treat any one symptom rarely corresponded to the use of the same strategy to address other symptoms. Future research would benefit from analyzing how older adults use health care strategies across symptom categories. PMID:24652871

  3. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel. PMID:23258777

  4. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents: FKBP5 genotype--early life adversity interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Comasco, Erika; Gustafsson, Per A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Agnafors, Sara; Aho, Nikolas; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial and their symptoms overlap. Constitutional and environmental factors influence each other, and this contributes to risk and resilience in mental ill-health. We investigated functional genetic variation of stress responsiveness, assessed as FKBP5 genotype, in relation to early life adversity and mental health in two samples of adolescents. One population-based sample of 909 12-year-old adolescents was assessed using the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. One sample of 398 17-year-old adolescents, enriched for poly-victimized individuals (USSS), was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The FKBP5 rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR. Most prominently among poly-victimized older male adolescents, the least common alleles of the polymorphisms, in interaction with adverse life events, were associated with psychiatric symptoms, after controlling for ethno-socio-economic factors. The interaction effect between rs3800373 and adverse life events on the TSCC sub-scales-anxiety, depression, anger, and dissociation-and with the rs1360780 on dissociation in the USSS cohort remained significant after Bonferroni correction. This pattern of association is in line with the findings of clinical and neuroimaging studies, and implies interactive effects of FKBP5 polymorphisms and early life environment on several psychiatric symptoms. These correlates add up to provide constructs that are relevant to several psychiatric symptoms, and to identify early predictors of mental ill-health. PMID:26424511

  5. Do waste incinerators induce adverse respiratory effects? An air quality and epidemiological study of six communities.

    PubMed

    Shy, C M; Degnan, D; Fox, D L; Mukerjee, S; Hazucha, M J; Boehlecke, B A; Rothenbacher, D; Briggs, P M; Devlin, R B; Wallace, D D

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to simultaneously measure air quality and respiratory function and symptoms in populations living in the neighborhood of waste incinerators and to estimate the contribution of incinerator emissions to the particulate air mass in these neighborhoods. We studied the residents of three communities having, respectively, a biomedical and a municipal incinerator, and a liquid hazardous waste-burning industrial furnace. We compared results with three matched-comparison communities. We did not detect differences in concentrations of particulate matter among any of the three pairs of study communities. Average fine particulate (PM2.5) concentrations measured for 35 days varied across study communities from 16 to 32 micrograms/m3. Within the same community, daily concentrations of fine particulates varied by as much as eightfold, from 10 to 80 micrograms/m3, and were nearly identical within each pair of communities. Direct measurements of air quality and estimates based on a chemical mass balance receptor model showed that incinerator emissions did not have a major or even a modest impact on routinely monitored air pollutants. A onetime baseline descriptive survey (n = 6963) did not reveal consistent community differences in the prevalence of chronic or acute respiratory symptoms between incinerator and comparison communities, nor did we see a difference in baseline lung function tests or in the average peak expiratory flow rate measured over a period of 35 days. Based on this analysis of the first year of our study, we conclude that we have no evidence to reject the null hypothesis of no acute or chronic respiratory effects associated with residence in any of the three incinerator communities. PMID:7588484

  6. Do Waste Incinerators Induce Adverse Respiratory Effects? An Air Quality and Epidemiological Study of Six Communities

    PubMed Central

    Shy, Carl M.; Degnan, Darrah; Fox, Donald L.; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Hazucha, Milan J.; Boehlecke, Brian A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Briggs, Patsy M.; Devlin, Robert B.; Wallace, Dennis D.; Stevens, Robert K.; Bromberg, Philip A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to simultaneously measure air quality and respiratory function and symptoms in populations living in the neighborhood of waste incinerators and to estimate the contribution of incinerator emissions to the particulate air mass in these neighborhoods. We studied the residents of three communities having, respectively, a biomedical and a municipal incinerator, and a liquid hazardous waste-burning industrial furnace. We compared results with three matched-comparison communities. We did not detect differences in concentrations of particulate matter among any of the three pairs of study communities. Average fine particulate (PM2.5) concentrations measured for 35 days varied across study communities from 16 to 32 μg/m3. Within the same community, daily concentrations of fine particulates varied by as much as eightfold, from 10 to 80 μg/m3, and were nearly identical within each pair of communities. Direct measurements of air quality and estimates based on a chemical mass balance receptor model showed that incinerator emissions did not have a major or even a modest impact on routinely monitored air pollutants. A one-time baseline descriptive survey (n = 6963) did not reveal consistent community differences in the prevalence of chronic or acute respiratory symptoms between incinerator and comparison communities, nor did we see a difference in baseline lung function tests or in the average peak expiratory flow rate measured over a period of 35 days. Based on this analysis of the first year of our study, we conclude that we have no evidence to reject the null hypothesis of no acute or chronic respiratory effects associated with residence in any of the three incinerator communities. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:7588484

  7. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  8. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N.

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  9. Adverse Symptom Event Reporting by Patients vs Clinicians: Relationships With Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Heller, Glenn; Barz, Allison; Sit, Laura; Fruscione, Michael; Appawu, Mark; Iasonos, Alexia; Atkinson, Thomas; Goldfarb, Shari; Culkin, Ann; Kris, Mark G.; Schrag, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Background In cancer treatment trials, the standard source of adverse symptom data is clinician reporting by use of items from the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Patient self-reporting has been proposed as an additional data source, but the implications of such a shift are not understood. Methods Patients with lung cancer receiving chemotherapy and their clinicians independently reported six CTCAE symptoms and Karnofsky Performance Status longitudinally at sequential office visits. To compare how patient's vs clinician's reports relate to sentinel clinical events, a time-dependent Cox regression model was used to measure associations between reaching particular CTCAE grade severity thresholds with the risk of death and emergency room visits. To measure concordance of CTCAE reports with indices of daily health status, Kendall tau rank correlation coefficients were calculated for each symptom with EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaire and global question scores. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 163 patients were enrolled for an average of 12 months (range = 1–28 months), with a mean of 11 visits and 67 (41%) deaths. CTCAE reports were submitted by clinicians at 95% of visits and by patients at 80% of visits. Patients generally reported symptoms earlier and more frequently than clinicians. Statistically significant associations with death and emergency room admissions were seen for clinician reports of fatigue (P < .001), nausea (P = .01), constipation (P = .038), and Karnofsky Performance Status (P < .001) but not for patient reports of these items. Higher concordance with EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaire and global question scores was observed for patient-reported symptoms than for clinician-reported symptoms. Conclusions Longitudinally collected clinician CTCAE assessments better predict unfavorable clinical events, whereas patient reports better reflect daily health status. These perspectives are

  10. A longitudinal study of respiratory symptoms in aluminum potroom workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kongerud, J.; Samuelsen, S.O. )

    1991-07-01

    The influence of occupational work exposure and host factors on the incidence of dyspnea and wheezing as reported in questionnaires was examined in 1,301 new employees in aluminum electrolytic potrooms. The incidence appeared to decrease after 2 yr of exposure, and the estimated probability of development of symptoms was nearly 20% after 4 yr. A total of 105 subjects developed dyspnea and wheezing. Of 78 symptomatic subjects who were interviewed, 76% experienced improvement or absence of symptoms when off work. In 523 subjects who were assigned to specific levels of exposure at the end of follow-up, a dose-response gradient was found between the development of symptoms and fluoride exposure. Increased risk with increasing amounts of tobacco was also observed, but childhood allergy and a family history of asthma were not significantly related to the outcome variable. The authors conclude that both total fluoride exposure and smoking are related to asthmatic symptoms in potroom workers, and the suggestion of a dose-response gradient was found for both variables. However, a causal relationship between fluorides and symptoms should be investigated further by specific bronchial provocation testing and by research for specific antibodies and other immunologic markers.

  11. Is There a Threshold Concentration of Cat Allergen Exposure on Respiratory Symptoms in Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Villani, Simona; Olivieri, Mario; Modig, Lars; Jarvis, Deborah; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 μg/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8μg/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the asthma related respiratory symptoms or the development of sensitization has not yet been confirmed. We studied the associations between domestic cat allergen concentrations and allergic symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, with the aim of confirming this suggested threshold. Methods Cat allergen concentrations were measured in the mattress dust of 3003 participants from 22 study centres. Levels of specific immunoglobulin E to cat allergens were measured in serum samples using an immunoassay. Information on allergic symptoms, medication use, home environment and smoking was obtained from a face-to-face interview. Results Domestic cat allergen concentrations were not associated with allergic/ asthmatic symptoms in the entire study population, nor in the subset sensitized to cat allergen. We also found no association among individuals exposed to concentrations higher than 8 μg/g. However, exposure to medium cat allergen concentrations (0.24-0.63 μg/g) was positively associated with reported asthmatic respiratory symptoms in subjects who have experienced allergic symptoms when near animals. Conclusions The proposed 8 μg/g threshold of cat allergen concentrations for the exacerbation of allergic/ respiratory symptoms was not confirmed in a general European adult population. Potential biases attributable to avoidance behaviours and an imprecise exposure assessment cannot be excluded. PMID:26035304

  12. Isolation of Acinetobacter lwoffii from a lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) with severe respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Robino, P; Bert, E; Tramuta, C; Cerruti Sola, S; Nebbia, P

    2005-05-01

    Although Acinetobacter lwoffii is generally considered an ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterium, this germ has been isolated from the pulmonary and abdominal air sac swabs obtained from a Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis), which died of a severe respiratory disease. Bacteriological tests (phenotypic and genotypic) led to the identification of A. lwoffii in pure culture. All the other parrots in the breeding centre were treated orally with oxytetracycline for 14 days and 3 months later no bird showed any signs of respiratory symptoms. PMID:15999637

  13. Analgesic and Decongestant Efficacy of the Combination of Aspirin with Pseudoephedrine in Patients With Symptoms of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Ronald; Voelker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination therapy of 1,000 mg aspirin (ASA) and 60 mg pseudoephedrine (PSE) on the symptoms of pain (combined score for headache and sore throat) and nasal congestion in 833 patients with acute upper respiratory tract viral infection (URTI), over 4 hours after a single dose in the clinic and over 3 days with multiple doses at home. The study demonstrated that over 4 hours in the clinic the combination ASA plus PSE was superior to PSE or placebo for relief of pain symptoms measured subjectively with pain scores, and was superior to ASA or placebo for relief of nasal congestion as measured objectively with rhinomanometry and subjectively with congestion scores. After 3 days of treatment, ASA plus PSE was superior to PSE but not to placebo or ASA for global pain assessments, and ASA plus PSE was superior to ASA and placebo but not to PSE for congestion assessments. No unexpected adverse events occurred and no serious adverse events were attributed to study medicines. This study demonstrates that a combination therapy of ASA plus PSE provides safe and effective relief of both common cold pain related symptoms and nasal congestion. PMID:26097788

  14. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults living along streets with high traffic density.

    PubMed Central

    Oosterlee, A; Drijver, M; Lebret, E; Brunekreef, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the population living along streets with high traffic density has a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A sample of 673 adults and 106 children (0-15 years), living along busy traffic streets in the city of Haarlem was compared with a control sample of 812 adults and 185 children living along quiet streets. Exposed and control streets were selected on the basis of model calculations of NO2 concentrations. A postal questionnaire containing questions about respiratory symptoms and several potential confounders was used to collect information from the study subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, children living along busy streets were found to have a higher prevalence of most respiratory symptoms than children living along quiet streets. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for wheeze and for respiratory medication used. Risk ratios were higher for girls than for boys, with significant adjusted odds ratios between 2.9 and 15.8 for girls. In adults, only mild dyspnoea was more often reported by subjects living along streets with high traffic density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that living along busy streets increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory symptoms in children. PMID:8664961

  15. Foreign body retrieval in children with respiratory symptoms and no history of aspiration.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, A L; Mroueh, S M; Bitar, F F; Farhat, F T

    2000-10-01

    To asses the role of bronchoscopy and its yield in children with respiratory symptoms and no typical history of radiological evidence of foreign body aspiration (FBA), we reviewed the records of all patients who underwent bronchoscopy at our institution between 1985 and 1995 and had no history of choking, witnessed FBA or clear radiological evidence of FBA (N = 54, age range 4 months to 16 years). These were subdivided into two subgroups, those with positive bronchoscopy, and those with negative bronchoscopy. Respiratory symptoms and their duration, signs and radiological findings did not differ in both subgroups. PMID:11330222

  16. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  17. Adverse childhood experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and emotional intelligence in partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Swopes, Rachael M; Simonet, Daniel V; Jaffe, Anna E; Tett, Robert P; Davis, Joanne L

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and low emotional intelligence (EI). Relationships among adverse childhood experiences (ACE), PTSD symptoms, and partner aggression (i.e., generalized tendency to aggress toward one's partner) were assessed in 108 male IPV offenders. It was hypothesized that ACE is positively correlated with partner aggression, PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression relationship, and the ACE-PTSD-aggression mediation varies by selected EI facets. Results indicate that ACE has an indirect effect on partner aggression via PTSD and PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression link when emotional self-regulation is low and when intuition (vs. reason) is high. Trauma-exposed IPV offenders may benefit from comprehensive treatments focusing on PTSD symptoms, emotional control, and reasoning skills to reduce aggression. PMID:23862313

  18. Influence of Asian Desert Dust on Lower Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Patients with Asthma over 4 Years.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Igishi, Tadashi; Yamasaki, Akira; Burioka, Naoto; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Sako, Takanori; Touge, Hirokazu; Nakamoto, Masaki; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Chikumi, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yamasaki, Chie; Minato, Sayaka; Ueda, Yutaka; Horasaki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2012-06-01

    The Asian Dust Storm (ADS) aggravates symptoms and pulmonary dysfunction in adult asthma patients. Our objective was to investigate the association of air pollutants and metals in desert dust with worsening of asthma symptoms during the ADS. A telephone survey was performed to investigate the upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, ocular symptoms and skin symptoms of asthma patients during the ADS in March between 2007 and 2010. Four surveys were conducted in 46 patients. Two patients noted worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms in all four surveys, as well as 2 patients in three surveys, 7 patients in two surveys, and 9 patients in one survey. There was no worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms in 26 patients. In each patient, the influence of the ADS on lower respiratory tract symptoms varied between surveys. In 2010, the level of suspended particulate matter was highest in all four years, but the smallest number of patients noted worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms. Among pollutants, only the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide during the ADS was significantly associated with the worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms. The influence of the ADS on lower respiratory tract symptoms of adult asthma patients is variable. PMID:24031138

  19. Impulse oscillometry and respiratory symptoms in World Trade Center responders, 6 years post-9/11.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Matthew P; Cummings, Karen R

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) testing revealed signs of respiratory disease in New York State (NYS) World Trade Center (WTC) responders in comparison with unexposed NYS employees. It also compared self-reported respiratory symptoms between the two groups, 6 years post-9/11. For this evaluation participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding respiratory symptoms. IOS testing included measures of resistance and reactance to assess for peripheral versus central airway effects. Two hundred forty-eight subjects (99 exposed and 149 unexposed) were included in the final analysis. Since September 11, 2001, NYS responders were more likely to report new or worsening cough in the absence of a respiratory infection, cough consistent with chronic bronchitis, current respiratory symptoms, or lower respiratory symptoms in the last 12 months. Significant associations were found between IOS indices and gender, smoking history, and obesity. When comparing exposed and unexposed participants, there were no significant differences in the geometric means of the IOS indices. Responders who used a respirator with canister demonstrated significantly lower respiratory resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5 and R20). While this study has provided no evidence of an association between WTC exposure and peripheral airways disease in this cohort of responders, results do suggest that use of a respirator with canister may be protective for central airways in responders exposed to dust and smoke. This emphasizes the importance of stressing proper respirator use in planning responses to future disasters. Our control data also provide useful reference values for future IOS research. PMID:20012641

  20. Air pollution and respiratory symptoms: results from three panel studies in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Vichit-Vadakan, N; Ostro, B D; Chestnut, L G; Mills, D M; Aekplakorn, W; Wangwongwatana, S; Panich, N

    2001-01-01

    Several studies in North American cities have reported associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms. Replicating these studies in cities with very different population and weather characteristics is a useful way of addressing uncertainties and strengthening inferences of causality. To this end we examined the responses of three different panels to particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand, a tropical city characterized by a very warm and humid climate. Panels of schoolchildren, nurses, and adults were asked to report daily upper and lower respiratory symptoms for 3 months. Concentrations of daily PM(10) (PM with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm) and PM(2.5) (airborne particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microm) were collected at two sites. Generally, associations were found between these pollution metrics and the daily occurrence of both upper and lower respiratory symptoms in each of the panels. For example, an interquartile increase of 45 microg/m(3) in PM(10) was associated with about a 50% increase in lower respiratory symptoms in the panel of highly exposed adults, about 30% in the children, and about 15% in the nurses. These estimates were not appreciably altered by changes in the specification of weather variables, stratification by temperature, or inclusion of individual characteristics in the models; however, time trends in the data cause some uncertainty about the magnitude of the effect of PM on respiratory symptoms. These pollutants were also associated with the first day of a symptom episode in both adult panels but not in children. The estimated odds ratios are generally consistent with and slightly higher than the findings of previous studies conducted in the United States. PMID:11427387

  1. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections Using Community-Submitted Symptoms and Specimens for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Jennifer; Rowe, Aaron; Brownstein, John S.; Chunara, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory systems for surveillance of acute respiratory infection give real-time information about infections circulating in the community, yet to-date are limited to self-reported syndromic information only and lacking methods of linking symptom reports to infection types. We developed the GoViral platform to evaluate whether a cohort of lay volunteers could, and would find it useful to, contribute self-reported symptoms online and to compare specimen types for self-collected diagnostic information of sufficient quality for respiratory infection surveillance. Volunteers were recruited, given a kit (collection materials and customized instructions), instructed to report their symptoms weekly, and when sick with cold or flu-like symptoms, requested to collect specimens (saliva and nasal swab). We compared specimen types for respiratory virus detection sensitivity (via polymerase-chain-reaction) and ease of collection. Participants were surveyed to determine receptivity to participating when sick, to receiving information on the type of pathogen causing their infection and types circulating near them. Between December 1 2013 and March 1 2014, 295 participants enrolled in the study and received a kit. Of those who reported symptoms, half (71) collected and sent specimens for analysis. Participants submitted kits on average 2.30 days (95 CI: 1.65 to 2.96) after symptoms began. We found good concordance between nasal and saliva specimens for multiple pathogens, with few discrepancies. Individuals report that saliva collection is easiest and report that receiving information about what pathogen they, and those near them, have is valued and can shape public health behaviors. Community-submitted specimens can be used for the detection of acute respiratory infection with individuals showing receptivity for participating and interest in a real-time picture of respiratory pathogens near them. PMID:26075141

  2. Interactions between the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele status and adverse childhood experiences on depressive symptoms in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Nam, Yoon-Young; Sim, Yoojin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of childhood adversity on depression is modulated by genetic vulnerability. The apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE-ε4) allele is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because late-life depressive symptoms could be a part of the preclinical course of AD, the APOE-ε4 allele may contribute to depression in old age. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an APOE-ε4 carrier status was associated with depressive symptoms in older adults and to detect the gene–environment interaction between APOE-ε4 status and childhood adversity in relation to depressive symptoms in old age. Method The participants consisted of 137 older adults (age range 50–70) without any psychiatric history or clinically significant cognitive impairment. APOE genotypes and measures of childhood adversity and depressive symptoms were obtained. Results There was a significant positive association between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) scores and depressive symptoms (B=0.60; 95% CI=0.26, 0.93 for a 1 score increase in ACE scores; p=0.001). Although APOE-ε4 status per se was not associated with depressive symptoms, there was a significant interaction of the ACE scores with the APOE genotype in relation to depressive symptoms (B=0.78; 95% CI=0.02, 1.55; p=0.044). There was a significantly higher effect of childhood adversity on depressive symptoms in APOE-ε4 carriers than non-carriers (t=2.13, p=0.035). Conclusions Our results suggest that the APOE-ε4 may modulate the association between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms in older adults. However, more research in a larger sample is needed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the APOE-ε4, childhood adversity, and depression. PMID:25630472

  3. Increased respiratory symptoms in COPD patients living in the vicinity of livestock farms.

    PubMed

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; van Dijk, Christel E; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the effect of livestock farm emissions on the respiratory health of local residents, but results are inconsistent. This study aims to explore associations between the presence of livestock farms and respiratory health in an area of high-density livestock farming in the Netherlands. We focused especially on associations between farm exposures and respiratory symptoms within subgroups of potentially susceptible patients with a pre-existing lung disease.In total, 14 875 adults (response rate 53.4%) completed a questionnaire concerning respiratory health, smoking habits and personal characteristics. Different indicators of livestock farm exposures relative to the home address were computed using a geographic information system.Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma was lower among residents living within 100 m of a farm (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.91 and OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.93, respectively). However, >11 farms in 1000 m compared to fewer than four farms in 1000 m (fourth quartile versus first quartile) was associated with wheezing among COPD patients (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.89). Using general practitioners' electronic medical records, we demonstrated that selection bias did not affect the observed associations.Our data suggest a protective effect of livestock farm emissions on the respiratory health of residents. Nonetheless, COPD patients living near livestock farms reported more respiratory symptoms, suggesting an increased risk of exacerbations. PMID:26250492

  4. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  5. RELATIONSHIP OF NONSPECIFIC BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS IN A RANDOM POPULATION SAMPLE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship of airways responsiveness to respiratory symptom prevalence has been studied in a cross sectional analysis of a random subpopulation from a large scale population study on chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) being conducted in the Netherlands. In 1905 subject...

  6. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and spirometric values in aluminium potroom workers.

    PubMed

    Kezunović, Ljiljana Cvejanov

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms in potroom workers and to compare these results with changes in spirometric parameters. A modified questionnaire on respiratory symptoms from the British Medical Research Council was used to take the medical history data about respiratory symptoms. Spirometric parameters were determined on the same day (as a part of regular checkups) using the Jaeger spirometer. The study included 215 potroom workers from the aluminium factory in Podgorica, Montenegro. All subjects were men, but they differed in age and duration of work. The group used for comparison consisted of 81 unemployed male applicants for jobs in the factory who had never been exposed to this kind of air pollution before. Potroom workers mostly complained of breathlessness associated with the workplace (56.7 %) or weather changes (rain, cold wind, and humidity) (41.9%) and of dyspnoea when climbing stairs (51.2 %), but only 22.3 % reported using medication to treat these episodes. Most workers reported to have been smoking at the time of the study (62.4 %). Spirometric data showed only insignificant variations compared to the expected values (CECA standards). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterised by FEV1/VC % <88 % was found in only 17 (7.9 %) potroom workers, while asthma was identified in 9 (4.2 %). Although the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms reported by the examined potroom workers was quite high at the group level, they were not associated with ventilatory impairments. PMID:18573745

  7. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION DECREMENTS IN HUMANS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short duration exposure to ozone (<8 hr) is known to result in lung function decrements and respiratory symptoms in humans. The magnitudes of these responses are functions of ozone concentration (C), activity level measured by minute ventilation (Ve), duration of exposure (T), a...

  8. Brief Report: Social Skills, Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms, and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Emily; Bernier, Raphael; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical models describe respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation and social competence. Recent findings also link RSA to individual differences in social functioning within autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, associations between RSA and symptoms of internalizing/externalizing…

  9. Early-life Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Pediatric Respiratory Symptoms in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Balmes, John R.; Bradman, Asa; Lipsett, Michael; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pesticide use is widespread, the possible effect of early-life exposure to organophosphate (OP) on pediatric respiratory health is not well described. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between early-life exposure to OPs and respiratory outcomes. Methods: Participants included 359 mothers and children from the CHAMACOS birth cohort. Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, specifically diethyl (DE) and dimethyl (DM) phosphate metabolites, were measured in urine from mothers twice during pregnancy (mean = 13 and 26 weeks gestation) and from children five times during childhood (0.5–5 years). Childhood DAP concentrations were estimated by the area under curve (AUC). Mothers reported their child’s respiratory symptoms at 5 and 7 years of age. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine associations of prenatal and childhood DAP concentrations with repeated measures of respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing at 5 and 7 years of age, adjusting for child’s sex and age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, secondhand tobacco smoke, season of birth, PM2.5, breastfeeding, mold and cockroaches in home, and distance from highway. Results: Higher prenatal DAP concentrations, particularly DE, were nonsignificantly associated with respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10-fold increase = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.12]. This association was strongest with total DAP and DE from the second half of pregnancy (aOR per 10-fold increase = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.95; and 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.39, respectively). Childhood DAP, DE, and DM concentrations were associated with respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age (total DAPs: aOR per 10-fold increase = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.86; and aOR = 5.40; 95% CI: 2.10, 13.91, respectively). Conclusions: Early-life exposure to OP pesticides was associated with

  10. Lung function and respiratory symptoms among female hairdressers in Palestine: a 5-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nemer, Maysaa; Kristensen, Petter; Nijem, Khaldoun; Bjertness, Espen; Skare, Øivind; Skogstad, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hairdressers are exposed to chemicals at the workplace which are known to cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. This study aimed to examine changes in self-reported respiratory symptoms over 5 years, as well as to examine the lung function decline and determine whether it is within the expected range, to assess the dropout rate and reasons for leaving the profession, and to examine the associations between occupational factors and lung function changes at follow-up. Design Prospective study. Setting Female hairdressing salons in Hebron city, Palestine. Participants 170 female hairdressers who participated in a baseline survey in 2008 were followed up in 2013. A total of 161 participants participated in 2013. Outcome measures Change in reported respiratory symptoms and change in lung function over follow-up. Dropout from the profession and reasons for it. Differences between current and former hairdressers in respiratory symptoms and lung function at follow-up. Ambient air ammonia levels in 13 salons. Results Current hairdressers reported more respiratory symptoms in 2013 compared with baseline. Former hairdressers reported fewer symptoms at follow-up. At follow-up, current hairdressers showed a significant decrease in forced vital capacity of 35 mL/year (95% CI 26 to 44 mL/year) and of 31 mL/year (95% CI 25 to 36 mL/year) for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). 28 (16%) of the hairdressers quit the job during the 5-year follow-up, 8 (28%) because of health problems. Hairdressers who had been working for 4 years or more at baseline showed a stronger decline in FEV1 compared with those who worked less than 4 years (difference 13, 95% CI 1 to 25). Conclusions Current hairdressers developed more respiratory symptoms and larger lung function decline than former hairdressers during follow-up. Few hairdressers left their profession because of respiratory health problems. Working for more years is associated with lung function decline among

  11. Are respiratory viruses involved in preseasonal symptoms or severity in Japanese cedar pollinosis?

    PubMed Central

    Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takanashi, Ikuo; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Respiratory virus infections are involved in asthma exacerbations. However, there are no reports of the relationship between respiratory virus infections and Japanese cedar pollinosis. Objective: We studied the relationship between respiratory viral infection and the appearance of preseasonal symptoms and the severity of seasonal symptoms in Japanese cedar pollinosis. Methods: In 36 patients with asthma and with no symptoms (PreAsyP) and 54 patients with asthma and with symptoms (PreSyP) before the cedar pollen shedding commenced (preseason), and 37 patients with mild-to-moderate severity (InMild/Mod) and 45 patients with severe to extreme severity (InSev/Ext) after cedar shedding commenced (in season), the occurrence of respiratory viruses and nasal smear cytology were examined. Results: In total, seven infections with respiratory viruses were detected among the subjects. Human rhinovirus (HRV) C infection was detected in one subject in each of the PreAsyP and PreSyP groups, and one HRVA infection occurred in the InMild/Mod group. In the InSev/Ext group, one HRVA, one HRVC, one respiratory syncytial virus, and one human metapneumovirus were detected. There was no significant difference in the rate of detection of viral infections between the PreAsyP and the PreSyP groups (p = 0.077), and between the InMild/Mod group and the InSev/Ext group (p = 0.24, Wilcoxon rank sum test). When cells types in nasal smears were identified and their abundance examined, the rate of neutrophilia in the subjects in the PreSyP group was 54%, which was statistically higher (p < 0.01) than the subjects in the PreAsyP group (25%). Interestingly, in the subjects in the InSev/Ext group, the proportion of eosinophils (40%) was larger (p < 0.05) than in the subjects in the InMild/Mod group (19%). Conclusion: These results provided no evidence that respiratory virus infections contributed to preseasonal symptoms and severity in season of Japanese cedar pollinosis. Nasal

  12. The expert network and electronic portal for children with respiratory and allergic symptoms: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Data on baseline characteristics of children with asthma to predict individual treatment responses are lacking. We aimed to set up a data-collection system which can easily fill this gap in clinical practice. A web-based application was developed, named 'Portal for children with respiratory and allergic symptoms', hereafter called Electronic Portal (EP). It contains health- and disease-related questionnaires on respiratory- and allergic diseases. All patients, 1–18 years of age, with respiratory- and/or allergic complaints are invited to enter the EP before their first visit. By using the EP large amounts of data, gathered during routine patient care can be used for research purposes. This may help to further investigate the different treatment related asthma phenotypes and will be helpful to monitor risk factors for other atopic diseases and respiratory infections. PMID:23324209

  13. Effects of Extended-Release Guanfacine on ADHD Symptoms and Sedation-Related Adverse Events in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Guanfacine extended release (GXR) is a selective alpha[subscript 2A]-adrenoceptor agonist that is shown to be an effective nonstimulant treatment for the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This report documents the time course and predictors of symptom efficacy and sedation-related adverse events (AEs) that emerge…

  14. Pets, allergy and respiratory symptoms in children living in a desert country.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; Naser, K A

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of pets and other domestic animals effect on allergic respiratory symptoms among United Arab Emirates primary school children. A cross-sectional survey of 2200 school children living in both urban and rural areas was conducted using self-administered questionnaires between November 1993 and June 1994. The age range of the children studied was 6-12 years, with a mean of 9.23 and standard deviation of 2.14 years; 51% were girls and 49% were boys. Pet ownership was defined by the presence of birds, cats, camels, dogs, goats, poultry and rabbits in the home. One thousand and thirty-six (1036/2090 = 49.6%) of the 2090 families studied had at least one animal at home. However, respiratory symptoms, pet allergy, chronic cough, chronic wheeze, breathlessness or chest tightness, doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis and eczema was reported by 633 families (30.3%) from 2090 studied families. The highest prevalence of reported respiratory allergy and symptoms was found in children who had pets in the past and currently. The lowest prevalence of reported respiratory allergy and symptoms was found in children who never had pets in their lives. Past pets ownership was generally associated with a higher prevalence of pets allergy and respiratory symptoms. No less than 218 (10.4%) reported removing pets in the past because of an allergy or other health problems in the child or in other family members. The risk of having pet allergy in children with animals was found to be twice than that of children without (RR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97; p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7626193

  15. Relation between respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function and peak flow variability in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Boezen, H. M.; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D. S.; Rijcken, B.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A study was carried out to determine whether subjects with respiratory symptoms are more likely to have impaired lung function or increased airway lability, and to quantify these relationships in a population of adults. METHODS--Data were collected from 511 participants (aged 20-70 years) from the Dutch part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). The symptoms analysed were: wheeze, dyspnoea > or = grade 3, nocturnal dyspnoea, cough and phlegm, and history of allergy. Lung function was measured by peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). PEF variability was used as an index for bronchial lability. RESULTS--Both FEV1 and PEF were decreased with increasing numbers of symptoms. Subjects with one symptom had an increased risk of having an FEV1 value of < 70% (OR = 4.2) and this risk increased with an increasing number of symptoms. Subjects with three or more symptoms had an increased risk of having a PEF value of < 70%, a diurnal variation in PEF of > 10% (both OR = 4.4), and an increased risk of high between day variation (OR = 6.6). CONCLUSIONS--Subject-reported symptoms are related to impaired lung function and to increased variability of peak flow. PMID:7701448

  16. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function values among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata

    2016-07-01

    Brick manufacturing process releases large amounts of silica dust into the work environment due to the use of silica-containing materials. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impairment of lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the different groups of brick field workers in comparison with control subjects. A total of 250 brick field workers and 130 unexposed control subjects were randomly selected in which demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms, and lung function values were recorded. The result showed significantly lower p value (<.001) in lung function and respiratory symptoms among brick field workers when compared with control group. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was dyspnea (46.8%), phlegm (39.2%), and chest tightness (27.6%). Dust exposure in working environment affected the lung function values and increased the respiratory symptoms among the brick field workers. PMID:26176596

  17. Adverse respiratory reactions to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ronald A

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an adult-onset condition that manifests as asthma, rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps, and sensitivity to aspirin and other cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). There is no cross-sensitivity to highly selective COX-2 inhibitors. AERD is chronic and does not improve with avoidance of COX-1 inhibitors. The diagnosis of AERD is made through provocative challenge testing. Following a positive aspirin challenge, patients can be desensitized to aspirin and NSAIDs. The desensitized state can be maintained indefinitely with continued daily administration. After desensitization, there is an approximately 48-hour refractory period to adverse effects from aspirin. The pathogenesis of AERD remains unknown, but these patients have been shown to have multiple abnormalities in arachidonic acid metabolism and in cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptors. AERD patients can take up to 650 mg of acetaminophen for analgesic or antipyretic relief. Patients can also use weak COX-1 inhibitors, such as sodium salicylate or choline magnesium trisalicylate. Treatment of AERD patients with antileukotriene medications has been helpful but not preferential when compared with non-AERD patients. An alternative treatment for many AERD patients is aspirin desensitization. This is particularly effective in reducing upper-airway mucosal congestion, nasal polyp formation, and systemic steroids. PMID:14680616

  18. Factors relating to the development of respiratory symptoms in coffee process workers.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K E; Trigg, C J; Baxter, P J; Topping, M; Lacey, J; Crook, B; Whitehead, P; Bennett, J B; Davies, R J

    1991-01-01

    After several cases of occupational asthma had been reported in a coffee processing factory in England, 197 coffee workers representing 80% of the production workforce were studied to determine the factors affecting the development of work related respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, and dyspnoea. Two computer administered questionnaires concerning the presence of respiratory symptoms and the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms were used. Workers underwent skin prick testing to green coffee bean extract (GCB) and 11 common inhalant allergen extracts and bronchial provocation testing with methacholine. The presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to GCB and castor bean extract (CAB) were determined by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST). The prevalence of work related respiratory symptoms was 12.7%, bronchial hyperresponsiveness 30%, atopy 54%, positive GCB skin prick test 14.7%, positive GCB RAST 14%, and positive CAB RAST 14.7%. None of the workers was sensitised to fungi present in the factory and the numbers of certain species of fungi, despite being greater than may be found out of doors or in an uncontaminated indoor environment, were fewer than are generally associated with the presence of work related respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers. Storage mites were not isolated. Green coffee bean extract and CAB RAST were significantly correlated using the McNemar test but there was limited allergenic cross reactivity in RAST inhibition studies of the two extracts. The only factors that were significantly and independently associated with work related symptoms were CAB RAST and duration of employment. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not independently associated with work related respiratory symptoms. The significant independent associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness included GCB RAST, duration of employment, and resting forced expiratory volume in one second. Exposure to CAB, a highly potent antigen, may be overriding

  19. Factors relating to the development of respiratory symptoms in coffee process workers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K E; Trigg, C J; Baxter, P J; Topping, M; Lacey, J; Crook, B; Whitehead, P; Bennett, J B; Davies, R J

    1991-05-01

    After several cases of occupational asthma had been reported in a coffee processing factory in England, 197 coffee workers representing 80% of the production workforce were studied to determine the factors affecting the development of work related respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, and dyspnoea. Two computer administered questionnaires concerning the presence of respiratory symptoms and the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms were used. Workers underwent skin prick testing to green coffee bean extract (GCB) and 11 common inhalant allergen extracts and bronchial provocation testing with methacholine. The presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to GCB and castor bean extract (CAB) were determined by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST). The prevalence of work related respiratory symptoms was 12.7%, bronchial hyperresponsiveness 30%, atopy 54%, positive GCB skin prick test 14.7%, positive GCB RAST 14%, and positive CAB RAST 14.7%. None of the workers was sensitised to fungi present in the factory and the numbers of certain species of fungi, despite being greater than may be found out of doors or in an uncontaminated indoor environment, were fewer than are generally associated with the presence of work related respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers. Storage mites were not isolated. Green coffee bean extract and CAB RAST were significantly correlated using the McNemar test but there was limited allergenic cross reactivity in RAST inhibition studies of the two extracts. The only factors that were significantly and independently associated with work related symptoms were CAB RAST and duration of employment. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not independently associated with work related respiratory symptoms. The significant independent associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness included GCB RAST, duration of employment, and resting forced expiratory volume in one second. Exposure to CAB, a highly potent antigen, may be overriding

  20. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. )

    1993-09-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  1. Respiratory symptoms in primary schoolchildren living near a freeway in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Yu, Sheng-Tsung; Chang, Chih-Ching

    2002-05-24

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in an effort to investigate the effects of automobile exhaust on respiratory symptoms of school children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. One school (Yang-Ming primary school) was located in the vicinity of 150 m from the highway and designated as a heavy-traffic area. The control school (Zhuang-Jing primary school) was situated in the same district but the distance of the school address to the freeway was 1500 m and designated as a low-traffic area. All of the primary school children in those schools were used in the study. In total, 3221 children were from the heavy-traffic school and 2969 from the low-traffic area. The respiratory health was assessed by an evaluation of the child's respiratory symptoms and illnesses using a parent-completed questionnaire. Data on traffic flow on the freeway were obtained from the Department of Transportation. Road traffic flows in front of the study schools were also measured with a portable counter. This study showed that a freeway surrounding a child's school may not be associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms. This may be due to insufficiently large contrasts in traffic pollution levels between these areas. PMID:12028826

  2. Do gastrointestinal and respiratory signs and symptoms correlate with the severity of gastroesophageal reflux?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a disorder that is common by seen in childhood and may lead to severe complications. In this study, we ascertained the incidence of GER among the children who had typical and atypical complaints of GER and whether there was a difference between two groups comparing the findings of 24-hour pH-meter. Methods 39 out of 70 patients with typical and atypical GER symptoms were diagnosed as GER by 24-hour pH-meter monitoring. The patients were divided into three groups, those having gastrointestinal complaints, those having respiratory complaints and those having both gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms. Results Evaluated the GER prevalence in these groups, it was found to be 60% in the gastrointestinal group, 48.6% in the respiratory group and 75% in the mixed group. When pH-meter measurements of GER positive patients were compared within the clinical groups, the fraction of time that pH was lower than 4 was found to be significantly higher in the mixed group (p = 0.004). Conclusions The coexistence of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms in the patients with GER may be related to the severe reflux. PMID:22436080

  3. Chronic bronchitis, work related respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function in welders in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, L. M.; Fishwick, D.; Slater, T.; Pearce, N.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A cross sectional study of respiratory symptoms and lung function in welders was performed at eight New Zealand welding sites: 62 current welders and 75 non-welders participated. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to record demographic data, smoking habit, and current respiratory symptoms. Current and previous welding exposures were recorded to calculate a total lifetime welding fume exposure index. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured before the start of the shift. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ethnicity, smoking habits, or years of work experience between welders and non-welders. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis were more common in current welders (11.3%) than in non-welders (5.0%). Of those workers with a cumulative exposure index to welding fume > or = 10 years, 16.7% reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis compared with 4.7% of those with a cumulative exposure index < 4 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90 to 17.6). Workers with chronic bronchitis had significantly lower measures of baseline PEF (p = 0.008) and FEV/FVC ratio (p = 0.001) than workers without chronic bronchitis. Multivariate analysis showed that current smoking (OR 9.3, 1.0 to 86.9) and total exposure index to welding fumes > 10 years (OR 9.5, 1.3 to 71.9) were independent risk factors for chronic bronchitis. The report of any work related respiratory symptom was more prevalent in welders (30.7%) than non-welders (15.0%) and workers with these symptoms had significantly lower FEV, (p = 0.004) and FVC (p = 0.04) values. Multivariate analysis identified a high proportion of time spent welding in confined spaces as the main risk factor for reporting these symptoms (OR 2.8, 1.0 to 8.3). CONCLUSION: This study has documented a high prevalence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and other work related respiratory symptoms in current welders. Also, workers

  4. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Hawkins, R; Crook, G D; Graneek, B J; Tee, R D; Farrer, N; Johnson, D A

    1989-01-01

    A survey of dust exposure, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and response to skin prick tests was conducted in a modern British bakery. Of the 318 bakery employees, 279 (88%) took part. Jobs were ranked from 0 to 10 by perceived dustiness and this ranking correlated well with total dust concentration measured in 79 personal dust samples. Nine samples had concentrations greater than 10 mg/m3, the exposure limit for nuisance dust. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire on symptoms and their relation to work. FEV1 and FVC were measured by a dry wedge spirometer and bronchial reactivity to methacholine was estimated. Skin prick tests were performed with three common allergens and with 11 allergens likely to be found in bakery dust, including mites and moulds. Of the participants in the main exposure group, 35% reported chest symptoms which in 13% were work related. The corresponding figures for nasal symptoms were 38% and 19%. Symptoms, lung function, bronchial reactivity, and response to skin prick tests were related to current or past exposure to dust using logistic or linear regression analysis as appropriate. Exposure rank was significantly associated with most of the response variables studied. The study shows that respiratory symptoms and sensitisation are common, even in a modern bakery. PMID:2789967

  5. The association of respiratory symptoms and indoor housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Chatterjee, Arjun B; Talton, Jennifer; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A; Summers, Phillip; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Farm labor housing has been described as among the worst in the nation, oftentimes with poor and unsanitary indoor living conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between indoor environmental risk factors and respiratory health among migrant farmworker occupants (N = 352) living in employer-provided housing. A cross-sectional sample of adult Latino male farm laborers were administered a questionnaire to identify the prevalence of major respiratory symptoms. Self-reported and independent observations were made to evaluate environmental respiratory risk factors and indoor housing conditions, including but not limited to, the presence of cockroaches, rodents, pesticides, and visible signs of mold. Spirometry was performed to evaluate lung function using FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FVC (forced vital capacity), and FEV1 /FVC ratio. Bivariate analysis was applied to evaluate associations between respiratory symptoms and selected indoor environmental risk factors. Findings for respiratory health included prevalence of wheeze (11.4%), coughing up phlegm (17.3%), tightness of chest (16.8%), and runny or stuffy nose (34.4%). Respiratory risks identified inside the dwellings included the use of pesticides or bug sprays for cockroaches (31.5%), rat or mouse poison (19.5%), visible signs of water damage in the bathroom (22.5%), and mold in the sleeping room (11.1%). Spirometry values were normal for most occupants, although statistically significant associations were found between mold and coughing up phlegm when not having a cold (P = .0262); presence of mold and asthma (P = .0084); pesticides used in the home and tightness of chest (P = .0001); and use of tobacco and coughing up phlegm (P = .0131). Although causal inference can be difficult to establish from a cross-sectional study, findings from this study represents suggestive evidence that indoor environmental risk factors may be contributory factors for respiratory health

  6. Acid fog: effects on respiratory function and symptoms in healthy and asthmatic volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.

    1989-02-01

    Acidic air pollutants generally are dissolved in water droplets. Mean droplet diameter may range from more than 10 microns in dense fog to less than 1 micron at low relative humidity. Droplet size influences the deposition of inhaled acid within the respiratory tract and thus may influence toxicity. To help assess health risks from acid pollution, we performed controlled exposures of normal and asthmatic volunteers to sulfuric acid aerosols at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 500, 1000, and 2000 micrograms/m/sup 3/. Exposures lasted 1 hr with intermittent heavy exercise. Response was assessed by lung function tests and symptom questionnaires. Under foggy conditions (mean droplet size 10 microns, temperature 50 degrees F), no marked effects on lung function were found. However, both normal and asthmatic subjects showed statistically significant dose-related increases in respiratory symptoms. In a separate study, normal subjects exposed at 70 degrees F with mean droplet size 0.9 microns showed no marked effect on function or symptoms. Asthmatics showed dose-related decrements in forced expiratory performance and increases in symptoms, most obvious at 1000 and 2000 micrograms/m/sup 3/. The different results of the two studies probably reflect an influence of droplet size, but further investigation is needed to confirm this. The aggregate results suggest that only mild, if any, short-term respiratory irritant effects are likely at acid concentrations attained in ambient pollution.

  7. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in a sample of Vermont dairymen and industrial workers.

    PubMed Central

    Babbott, F L; Gump, D W; Sylwester, D L; MacPherson, B V; Holly, R C

    1980-01-01

    This study reviews the respiratory status of a sample of Vermont male dairy farmers, and a comparison group from industry, matched for age, sex and smoking. Survey instruments included a standardized questionnaire and simple pulmonary function tests. In general, past and present smokers had more respiratory symptoms than never-smokers; and farmers, in all smoking categories, reported symptoms with greater frequency than did their counterparts from industry. Forced vital capacity (FVC) tended to be lower among men with a history of smoking but, within each smoking category, dairymen and factory workers had very similar FVCs. Farmers who had never smoked or who were current cigarette users had lower FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume at one second/forced vital capacity) ratios than their controls from industry. Sixteen diarymen demonstrated precipitins to either Micropolyspora faeni (13) or Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, (3), but only one reported a constellation of symptoms compatible with farmer's lung disease. The estimated prevalence of antibodies to thermophilic actinomyces in this farm population was approximately 10 per cent. Although sample sizes were limited, dairymen from small farms tended to be older, have more respiratory symptoms, less satisfactory pulmonary function, and more serologic evidence of exposure to farmer's lung antigens than their counterparts from large farms. PMID:7356085

  8. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria-Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Texcalac, Jose-Luis; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR) of PM2.5 (24-h average) was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%); an increase of 34 ppb (IQR) of NO2 (1-h maximum) was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4%) and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR) in O3 levels (1 hr maximum) to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%). Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average). Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles. PMID:19014608

  9. Influence of parental smoking on respiratory symptoms during the first decade of life: the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study.

    PubMed

    Stein, R T; Holberg, C J; Sherrill, D; Wright, A L; Morgan, W J; Taussig, L; Martinez, F D

    1999-06-01

    Compelling evidence suggests a causal relation between exposure to parental cigarette smoking and respiratory symptoms during childhood. Still, the roles of prenatal versus postnatal parental smoking need clarification. In this study, the authors assessed the effects of passive smoking on respiratory symptoms in a cohort of over 1,000 children born during 1980-1984. The children were enrolled in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study in Tucson, Arizona, and were followed from birth to age 11 years. The population was generally middle class and consisted of two main ethnic groups, non-Hispanic Whites (75%) and Hispanics (20%), reflecting Tucson's population. Information on parental smoking and on wheeze and cough in their children was elicited from parents by using questionnaires at five different surveys. Data were analyzed both cross-sectionally and by using the generalized estimation equation approach, a longitudinal mixed-effects model. The best-fitting model indicated that maternal prenatal but not postnatal smoking was associated with current wheeze (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.4-3.8) independently of a family history of asthma, socioeconomic factors, and birth weight. This effect was time dependent and significant only below age 3 years; although independent of gender, the association was stronger for girls (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6-8.0). Cough was not associated with parental smoking during the first decade of life. This transitory effect of maternal prenatal smoking on wheezing could be due to changes that affect the early stages of lung development. PMID:10355379

  10. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  11. Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Moshammer, Hanns Michael; Kundi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in Punjab, Pakistan. Respiratory symptoms of 800 workers were documented by questionnaire. Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured. Results Prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough) was generally high and highest in the weaving section of the cotton industry (20–40% depending on symptoms). This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m3 in compact units). In contrast, endotoxin levels were highest in the spinning section (median 1521 EU/m3), where high humidity is maintained. Conclusions There are still poor working conditions in the cotton industry in Pakistan where workers are exposed to different occupational hazards. More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms). There is a dire need for improvements in occupational health and safety in this industrial sector with particular focus on power looms. PMID:25838509

  12. [Respiratory symptoms caused by the use of electrocautery in physicians being trained in surgery in a Mexican hospital].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Meza, María Cristina; González-Baltazar, Raquel; Aldrete-Rodríguez, María Guadalupe; Carmona-Navarro, David Enrique; López-Cardona, María Guadalupe

    2013-03-01

    In order to determine the frequency of respiratory symptoms among residents from surgical specialties dures exposed to the electrocautery smoke, a cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2012. 50 third-year residents from different surgical specialties coming from a third-level hospital belonging to the Institute of Security and Social Services of the State Workers in Jalisco, Mexico, were included. The subject selection was non-probabilistic. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms developed in Cuba was used for data collection. The most common symptoms were sensation of a lump in the throat (58%), and a sore throat (22%). The specialty with the highest rate of exposure was neurosurgery (24.1 min/surgical procedure). All, the physicians from this specialty had respiratory symptoms. We conclude that the cauterization smoke may be considered a risk for developing respiratory symptoms among physicians with surgical specialties. PMID:23612810

  13. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvholm, B.; Bake, B.; Lavenius, B.; Thiringer, G.; Vokmann, R.

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  14. Measuring respiratory symptoms in clinical trials of COPD: reliability and validity of a daily diary

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, N K; Sexton, C C; Jones, P W; Notte, S M; Monz, B U; Nelsen, L; Goldman, M; Murray, L T; Sethi, S

    2014-01-01

    Background Although respiratory symptoms are characteristic features of COPD, there is no standardised method for quantifying their severity in stable disease. Objective To evaluate the EXACT-Respiratory Symptom (E-RS) measure, a daily diary comprising 11 of the 14 items in the Exacerbations of Chronic Pulmonary Disease Tool (EXACT). Methods Qualitative: patient focus group and interviews to address content validity. Quantitative: secondary data analyses to test reliability and validity. Results Qualitative: n=84; mean (SD) age 65 (10) years, FEV1 1.2(0.4) L; 44% male. Subject descriptions of their respiratory symptoms were consistent with E-RS content and structure. Quantitative: n=188; mean (SD) age 66 (10) years, FEV1 1.2(0.5) L; 50% male. Factor analysis (FA) showed 3 subscales: RS-Breathlessness, RS-Cough & Sputum, and RS-Chest Symptoms; second-order FA supported a general factor and total score. Reliability (total and subscales): 0.88, 0.86, 0.73, 0.81; 2-day test-retest ICC: 0.90, 0.86, 0.87, 0.82, respectively. Validity: Total scores correlated significantly (p < 0.0001) with SGRQ Total (r=0.75), Symptoms (r=0.66), Activity (r=0.57), Impact (r=0.70) scores; subscale correlations were also significant (r=0.26, p < 0.05 (RS-Chest Symptoms with Activity) to r=0.69, p < 0.0001 (RS-Cough & Sputum with Symptoms). RS-Breathlessness correlated with rescue medication use (r=0.32, p < 0.0001), clinician-reported mMRC (r=0.33, p < 0.0001), and FEV1% predicted (r=-0.17, p < 0.05). E-RS scores differentiated groups based on chronic bronchitis diagnosis (p < 0.01–0.001), smoking status (p < 0.05–0.001), and rescue medication use (p < 0.05–0.0001). Conclusions Results suggest the RS-Total is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating respiratory symptom severity in stable COPD. Further study of sensitivity to change is warranted. PMID:24595666

  15. Chronic respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness and dietary sodium and potassium: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zoia, M C; Fanfulla, F; Bruschi, C; Basso, O; De Marco, R; Casali, L; Cerveri, I

    1995-04-01

    A possible relationship between Na+ intake and increased prevalence and mortality from asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been suggested but not clearly proven for several reasons (difficulty in assessing Na+ and K+ both by 24 h excretion and dietary recall, too small an effect of these ions on the pathology, and the role of potential confounders). We wanted to determine the relationship of Na+ and K+ intake, assessed by means of a 7 day recall, with chronic respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in a sample of the general population. Two hundred and five subjects were studied, with complete dietary and respiratory questionnaires, and baseline respiratory function tests, together with a subsample of 146 subjects who underwent histamine challenge. The 7 day recall consisted of two parts: the first assessed discretionary Na+; and the second assessed Na+ and K+ contained in food. The whole sample was split into two groups based on the levels of consumption, and the statistical analysis was performed contrasting the three lower quartiles vs the highest. Smoking habit, social economic status, age and body mass index (BMI) were not confounders for Na+ and K+ intake. The prevalence of symptomatic subjects and baseline respiratory function values were not significantly different in the two groups of quartiles for Na+ and K+. Baseline respiratory values and dose-response slope of the subsample were also not significantly different. We did not prove a relationship between these dietary factors and either bronchial responsiveness or chronic respiratory symptoms. Although we consider that our questionnaire is more reliable than other methods for Na+ and K+ assessment, several potential biases still remain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7613539

  16. Protective measures against acute respiratory symptoms in French pilgrims participating in the Hajj of 2009.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Vu Hai, Vinh; Sani, Seydou; Doutchi, Mahamadou; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Among a cohort of 274 French pilgrims participating in the 2009 Hajj, 77.4% used hand disinfectant, 89.8% used disposable handkerchiefs, and 79.6% used face masks; 97.4% were vaccinated against seasonal flu, 5.8% against H1N1, and 31.4% against pneumococcus. Influenza vaccine and face mask use did not significantly reduce respiratory symptoms. PMID:21199143

  17. Fertilizer use and self-reported respiratory and dermal symptoms among tree planters.

    PubMed

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.]. PMID:23194098

  18. Work‐related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in northeast iranian (the city of Mashhad) carpenters

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Rezaiyan, Majid Khadem; Navabi, Iman; Shafiei, Sara; Arab, Shahideh Shafiei

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of carpenters from the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran). METHODS: The frequency of respiratory symptoms was retrospectively estimated in a sample of 66 carpenters in the city of Mashhad in northeast Iran using a questionnaire including questions on work‐related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergy, type of irritant chemicals that induce respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and working periods as a carpenter. PFT values were also measured in all participants, and the age and smoking habits matched those of a sample of men from the general population as a control group. RESULTS: Thirty‐five carpenters (53%) reported work‐related respiratory symptoms. Cough (34.4%) and sputum (33.3%) were the most common symptoms, and only 15.15% of carpenters reported wheezing during work. All respiratory symptoms were higher in carpenters than in controls, which was statistically significant for cough and sputum (p<0.001 in both cases). Most allergic symptoms were also significantly greater among the carpenters than in the control group (p<0.05 for both itchy eyes and sneezing). Most respiratory and allergic symptoms in the carpenters increased during work compared to rest period which was statistically significant only for cough (p<0.05). PFT values were significantly lower in the carpenters than in control subjects (p<0.05 to p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Carpentry work was associated with a high frequency of respiratory symptoms, particularly after exposure to irritating chemicals during work. PFT values were also significantly reduced among carpenters compared to controls. PMID:21120301

  19. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study.

  20. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  1. Airway hyperresponsiveness, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, and lung function in workers exposed to irritants.

    PubMed

    Kremer, A M; Pal, T M; Boleij, J S; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic fibre plants. Respiratory symptoms were recorded with a self administered Dutch version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, with additional questions on allergy. Airway responsiveness was measured by a 30 second tidal breathing histamine challenge test. On the basis of job titles and working department, the current state of exposure of all workers was characterised as (1) no exposure, reference group; (2) white collar workers; (3) SO2 HCl, SO4(2); (4) polyester vapour; (5) oil mist and vapour; (6) polyamide and polyester vapour; (7) multiple exposure. Workers exposed to airway irritants were not simultaneously exposed to airborne dust. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at < or = 32 mg/ml histamine, was present in 23% of the subjects. The association between exposure groups and prevalence of symptoms was estimated by means of multiple logistic regression; the association with level of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF)) was estimated by means of multiple linear regression. Both methods allow simultaneous adjustment for potential confounding factors. The exposure groups were associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lower prevalence of symptoms was found for workers exposed to SO2, HCl, and SO4(2-), most likely due to pre-employment selection procedures. Current smoking, AHR, and a history of allergy were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, independent of each other, and independent of irritant exposure. The association between exposure and prevalence of

  2. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  3. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  4. Adherence to reduced-polluting biomass fuel stoves improves respiratory and sleep symptoms in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the use of improved stoves has not been critically examined. Methods Sleep-related symptom questionnaires were obtained from children <15 years of age in 56 families residing in the communities of Lliupapuquio, Andahuaylas province in Peru before and 2 years after installation of less-polluting Inkawasi cooking stoves. Results 82 children with lifetime exposures to indoor fuel pollution were included. When compared to those alternating between both types of stoves or those using traditional stoves only, those children who exclusively used Inkawasi cooking stoves showed significant improvements in sleep and respiratory related symptoms, but some minor albeit significant improvements occurred when both stoves were concomitantly used. Conclusions Improvements in respiratory and sleep-related symptoms associated with elevated indoor biomass pollution occur only following implementation and exclusive utilization of improved kitchen stoves. PMID:24433576

  5. Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle makers exposed to stannic chloride solution and other potentially hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, B.S.; Davis, F.; Johnson, B.

    1985-04-01

    Concern about upper respiratory tract irritation and other symptoms among workers at a glass bottle manufacturing plant led to an epidemiologic and an industrial hygiene survey. Questionnaire responses from 35 hot end and 53 cold end workers indicated that the incidence of wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, and cough was significantly elevated among hot end workers. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, hot end workers reported higher, but not significantly higher, rates of wheezing and chest pain. Among smokers, hot end workers reported significantly higher rates of dyspnea on exertion and cough than did cold end workers. Data suggest that reported exposure to stannic chloride solution likely caused these symptoms. The industrial hygiene survey, conducted when stannic chloride use had been reduced, cleaning had been done, and ventilation improved, focused on measuring air contaminants that might possibly cause symptoms. Levels of hydrogen chloride, which apparently was formed by the combination of stannic chloride and water in the presence of heat, were elevated. The finding of increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among hot end workers was consistent with this exposure. Recommendations were made to reduce hazardous exposures at this plant. Individuals responsible for occupational health should be aware that relatively benign substances, such as stannic chloride and water, can combine spontaneously to form hazardous substances.

  6. Respiratory Paradoxical Adverse Drug Reactions Associated with Acetylcysteine and Carbocysteine Systemic Use in Paediatric Patients: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Bavoux, Françoise; Boyer-Gervoise, Marie-José; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Chalumeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine) that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. Design The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. Setting Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. Patients The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg) and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. Results The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old) were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27), worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35), dyspnoea (n = 18), cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11), and bronchospasm (n = 1). Fifty-one (86%) children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. Conclusion Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence. PMID:21818391

  7. Contrasting diagnosis performance of forced oscillation and spirometry in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Barbosa, Wellington Ribeiro; Lopes, Agnaldo José; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis is directly responsible for 10% to 20% of all mortality. The best way to improve the prognosis is early detection and treatment. The forced oscillation technique is easy to perform and offers a detailed exam, which may be helpful in the early detection of respiratory changes. This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the clinical potential of the forced oscillation technique in the detection of early respiratory alterations in rheumatoid arthritis patients with respiratory complaints and (2) to compare the sensitivity of forced oscillation technique and spirometric parameters. METHODS: A total of 40 individuals were analyzed: 20 healthy and 20 with rheumatoid arthritis (90% with respiratory complaints). The clinical usefulness of the parameters was evaluated by investigating the sensibility, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01641705. RESULTS: The early adverse respiratory effects of rheumatoid arthritis were adequately detected by the forced oscillation technique parameters, and a high accuracy for clinical use was obtained (AUC>0.9, Se = 80%, Sp = 95%). The use of spirometric parameters did not obtain an appropriate accuracy for clinical use. The diagnostic performance of the forced oscillation technique parameters was significantly higher than that of spirometry. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study provide substantial evidence that the forced oscillation technique can contribute to the easy identification of initial respiratory abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis patients that are not detectable by spirometric exams. Therefore, we believe that the forced oscillation technique can be used as a complementary exam that may help to improve the treatment of breathing disorders in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:23018292

  8. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust emission in garage working places. Long-term working as garage workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health. PMID:10076696

  9. Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Results A strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant. Conclusions Indoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. PMID:22958910

  10. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity and internalizing and externalizing symptoms are emotion specific

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Christine K.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Ram, Nilam

    2015-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing disorders are often, though inconsistently in studies of young children, associated with low baseline levels of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RSA is thus considered to reflect the capacity for flexible and regulated affective reactivity and a general propensity for psychopathology. However, studies assessing RSA reactivity to emotional challenges tend to report more consistent associations with internalizing than with externalizing disorders, although it is unclear whether this is a function of the type of emotion challenges used. In the present study, we examined whether baseline RSA was associated with internalizing and/or externalizing severity in a sample of 273 young children (ages 5–6) with elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Following motivation-based models of emotion, we also tested whether RSA reactivity during withdrawal-based (fear, sadness) and approach-based (happiness, anger) emotion inductions was differentially associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, respectively. Baseline RSA was not associated with externalizing or internalizing symptom severity. However, RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges was associated differentially with each symptom domain. As expected, internalizing symptom severity was associated with greater RSA withdrawal (increased arousal) during fearful and sad film segments. Conversely, externalizing symptom severity was related to blunted RSA withdrawal during a happy film segment. The use of theoretically derived stimuli may be important in characterizing the nature of the deficits in emotion processing that differentiate the internalizing and externalizing domains of psychopathology. PMID:23233122

  11. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in flour processing workers in the baking industry.

    PubMed

    Shamssain, M H

    1995-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 63 flour processing male bakery workers in Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The studied population was nonsmoking and no significant difference was noted in age, race, sex, or height between the groups. The exposed workers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean percent predicted values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FMF), forced expiratory flow between the first 200 ml and 1,200 ml of FVC (FEF 200-1,200), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were, respectively, 11.2%, 20.0%, 31.0%, 27.4%, and 36.1% lower in the exposed group compared with the controls. The prevalence of forced expiratory ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37% while in the controls it was 8%. The prevalence of PEF rate less than 5 1/s in the exposed group was 32% while in the controls it was 11%. The exposed workers reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the controls. The prevalence of nasal symptoms, phlegm, and cough in the exposed workers was 53.9%, 30.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that exposure to flour dust in flour processing workers in the baking industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary functions and a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and that these workers show signs of airway obstruction, compared to workers not exposed to flour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7747742

  12. Respiratory symptoms amongst females in a fishing settlement in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akani, Alexander B.; Okokon, Ita B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Approximately half of the earth's population in the rural areas of developing countries uses energy obtained from biomass burning, which is harmful to people. Objectives This study is aimed at determining which respiratory symptoms can be associated with biomass burning amongst fish smokers in the Oyorokoto fishing settlement. Method A community-based, cross-sectional questionnaire, which employed a modified cluster sampling technique, was used. Results A total of 300 subjects were recruited for the study, of which 210 (70%) were fish smokers. The mean age was 31.46 ± 13.03 years, with the majority (42.0%) having only primary school education. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms amongst the subjects was 86.7%, the most frequent of which were catarrh (30.48%) and a cough (28.57%). The respiratory symptom occurring least frequently was breathlessness (2.38%). The symptoms most often experienced during fish smoking were those of catarrh (75.5%) and sneezing (73.0%), whereas breathlessness occurred the least, in only 7 (3.3%) of the participants. Sneezing stopped in 64.2% of the subjects after fish smoking had ceased. Most of the fish smoking took place indoors. Conclusion Health promotion featuring preventive interventions, such as the wearing of face-masks and the use of modern fish smoking methods, which is associated with fewer health risks, is essential to improving the quality of life of fish smokers. The government's provision of certain social services, including better education opportunities for the young, is advocated, and should be especially targeted at improving the lot of the girl child.

  13. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  14. Lung function in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pirogowicz, I; Patyk, M; Popecki, P; Rudnicki, J; Gojny, L; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate lung function in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) who present respiratory symptoms suggestive of the possibility of co-morbid asthma. The study encompassed 20 patients (9 women and 11 men; age range from 11 to 68 years) diagnosed with GERD and presenting with chronic cough and other non-specific periodic respiratory complaints. The control group consisted of closely gender and age-matched 20 subjects without any gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms. All patients and control subjects were tested for lung function, which encompassed spirometric and flow-volume variables. We found that none of the GERD patients had lung function abnormalities characteristic of asthma. There were, however, decreases in forced expired volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity, and in maximal instantaneous forced expiratory flows in the GERD patients compared with the healthy subjects. We conclude that cough accompanying GERD is unlikely to be associated with the presence of co-morbid asthma, but rather suggests a mild airway inflammation developing as a sequel of GERD. The corollary is that chronic cough should prompt physician's attention to consider diagnostic work-up toward the possibility of GERD. PMID:23835974

  15. Association between childhood adversities and adulthood depressive symptoms in South Korea: results from a nationally representative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Jang, Hyobum; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Park, Young Su; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine how childhood adversity (ie, parental death, parental divorce, suspension of school education due to financial strain or being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain) is associated with prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms and whether this association differs by gender and by age in South Korea. Design Prospective cohort design. Setting Nationally representative longitudinal survey in South Korea. Participants 11 526 participants in South Korea. Outcome measure Prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms were assessed as a dichotomous variable using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in 2006 and 2007. Results In the prevalence analysis, each of the four childhood adversities was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of adulthood depressive symptoms. The higher incidence of depressive symptoms was associated with suspension of school education (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.82) and parental divorce (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.71). In the age-stratified analyses, prevalence of depressive symptoms was associated with all CAs across different adulthoods, except for parental divorce and late adulthood depressive symptoms. After being stratified by gender, the association was significant for parental divorce (OR 3.76, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.03) in the prevalence analysis and for being raised in a relative’s house (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.94) in the incidence analysis only among women. Conclusions This study suggests that childhood adversity may increase prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms, and the impact of parental divorce or being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain on adulthood depressive symptoms may differ by gender. PMID:23878171

  16. The Scars of Childhood Adversity: Minor Stress Sensitivity and Depressive Symptoms in Remitted Recurrently Depressed Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients. Method Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138). Results We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02–0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03–0.55). No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Conclusion No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment. Trial Registration Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503 PMID:25393812

  17. Cooking fuel smoke and respiratory symptoms among women in low-income areas in Maputo.

    PubMed Central

    Ellegård, A

    1996-01-01

    The association between exposure to air pollution from cooking fuels and health aspects was studied in Maputo. Mozambique. Almost 1200 randomly selected women residing in the suburbs of Maputo were interviewed and 218 were monitored for air pollution. The fuels most commonly used were wood, charcoal, electricity, and liquified petroleum gas (LPG). Wood users were exposed to significantly higher levels of particulate pollution during cooking time (1200 micrograms/m3) than charcoal users (540 micrograms/m3) and users of modern fuels (LPG and electricity) (200-380 micrograms/m3). Wood users were found to have significantly more cough symptoms than other groups. This association remained significant when controlling for a large number of environmental variables. There was no difference in cough symptoms between charcoal users and users of modern fuels. Other respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, wheezing, and inhalation and exhalation difficulties were not associated with wood use. Reducing wood use would likely improve acute respiratory health effects in wood users and possibly improve the ambient air pollution conditions in Maputo. To reduce the health impact of wood smoke exposure, it appears that the least costly and quickest method would be to encourage charcoal use to a greater extent, although high carbon monoxide levels would have to be addressed. Turning to modern fuels is beyond the means of most these households in the short term and could not be shown to be more effective. PMID:8899378

  18. Respiratory rehabilitation: a physiotherapy approach to the control of asthma symptoms and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Laurino, Renata André; Barnabé, Viviane; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M.; Stelmach, Rafael; Cukier, Alberto; do Patrocínio T. Nunes, Maria

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining) improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held once a week for three months or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements. RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients. PMID:23184206

  19. Respiratory and ocular symptoms among employees of a hotel indoor waterpark resort--Ohio, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    During January--March 2007, the Warren County Combined Health District (WCCHD) received 665 reports of respiratory and eye irritation from patrons and lifeguards at a hotel indoor waterpark resort in Ohio. Tests revealed normal water chemistry and air chlorine concentrations, and exposure to airborne trichloramine in the waterpark was suspected as the cause of the symptoms. Because of the number of symptom reports and WCCHD's limited ability to measure trichloramine, the district requested an investigation by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). This report describes the results of that investigation, which revealed that trichloramine concentrations in the waterpark ranged from below the limit of detection to 1.06 mg/m3, and some concentrations were at levels that have been reported to cause irritation symptoms (>/=0.5 mg/m3). Lifeguards reported significantly more work-related symptoms (e.g., cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and eye irritation) than unexposed hotel employees. Lifeguards also reported significantly more eye irritation and cough on days when hotel occupancy was high versus low. Insufficient air movement and distribution likely led to accumulation of trichloramine and exacerbation of symptoms. Based on recommendations to increase air movement and distribution at pool deck level, hotel management modified the ventilation system extensively, and subsequently no new cases were reported to WCCHD. The results of this investigation emphasize the importance of appropriate design and monitoring of ventilation and water systems in preventing illness in indoor waterparks. PMID:19194369

  20. Test Performance of Blood Beta-Glucan for Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with AIDS and Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brian R.; Komarow, Lauren; Zolopa, Andrew R.; Finkelman, Malcolm A.; Powderly, William G.; Sax, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define the test characteristics of plasma beta-glucan for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in AIDS patients with respiratory symptoms. Design Analysis of baseline blood samples in a randomized strategy study of patients with acute opportunistic infections, limited to participants with respiratory symptoms. Methods Participants in the 282-person ACTG A5164 trial had baseline plasma samples assayed for beta-glucan testing. As part of A5164, two study investigators independently adjudicated the diagnosis of PCP. Respiratory symptoms were identified by investigators from a list of all signs and symptoms with an onset or resolution in the 21 days prior to or 14 days following study entry. Beta-glucan was defined as positive if ≥80 pg/mL and negative if <80 pg/mL. Results Of 252 study participants with a beta-glucan result, 159 had at least one respiratory symptom, 139 of whom had a diagnosis of PCP. The sensitivity of beta-glucan for PCP in participants with respiratory symptoms was 92.8% (95% CI: 87.2%–96.5%), and specificity 75.0% (50.9%–91.3%). Among 134 individuals with positive beta-glucan and respiratory symptoms, 129 had PCP, for a positive predictive value of 96.3% (91.5%–98.8%). Fifteen of 25 patients with a normal beta-glucan did not have PCP, for a negative predictive value of 60% (38.7%–78.9%). Conclusion Elevated plasma beta-glucan has a high predictive value for diagnosis of PCP in AIDS patients with respiratory symptoms. We propose an algorithm for the use of beta-glucan as a diagnostic tool based on the pretest probability of PCP in such patients. PMID:23698062

  1. Dust exposure and chronic respiratory symptoms among coffee curing workers in Kilimanjaro: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to development of respiratory symptoms. Previous studies have mainly focused on workers involved in roasting coffee in importing countries. This study was carried out to determine total dust exposure and respiratory health of workers in Tanzanian primary coffee-processing factories. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 79 workers in two coffee factories, and among 73 control workers in a beverage factory. Personal samples of total dust (n = 45 from the coffee factories and n = 19 from the control factory) were collected throughout the working shift from the breathing zone of the workers. A questionnaire with modified questions from the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was used to assess chronic respiratory symptoms. Differences between groups were tested by using independent t-tests and Chi square tests. Poisson Regression Model was used to estimate prevalence ratio, adjusting for age, smoking, presence of previous lung diseases and years worked in dusty factories. Results All participants were male. The coffee workers had a mean age of 40 years and were older than the controls (31 years). Personal total dust exposure in the coffee factories were significantly higher than in the control factory (geometric mean (GM) 1.23 mg/m3, geometric standard deviation (GSD) (0.8) vs. 0.21(2.4) mg/m3). Coffee workers had significantly higher prevalence than controls for cough with sputum (23% vs. 10%; Prevalence ratio (PR); 2.5, 95% CI 1.0 - 5.9) and chest tightness (27% vs. 13%; PR; 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 - 5.2). The prevalence of morning cough, cough with and without sputum for 4 days or more in a week was also higher among coffee workers than among controls. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Workers exposed to coffee dust reported more respiratory symptoms than did the controls. This might relate to their exposure to coffee dust. Interventions for

  2. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND RISK FACTORS IN AN ARIZONA POPULATION SAMPLE OF ANGLO AND MEXICAN-AMERICAN WHITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in a large group of Anglos and Mexican-Americans were analyzed. ach subject completed a questionnaire. mong current smokers, chronic productive cough and dyspnea were significantly higher in both ethnic groups; wheezy symptoms...

  3. Long-term effects of welding fumes upon respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Akbarkhanzadeh, F

    1980-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term influence of welding fumes and of cigarette smoke on the function of the bronchopulmonary system a comparative study of spirometric measurements in 209 welders and 109 non-welder controls was performed in a shipyard. The two groups were matched for age, height, smoking habits, residence and social class. Fifty-one percent of the welders had one or more of the respiratory symptoms, while only 26% of the controls had any of the symptoms. Chronic bronchitis was found to be confined to welders who smoked or had smoked. The welders appeared to show significantly increased impairment of lung function and, with advancing years, a deterioration in lung function greater than that of the controls, but, in general, they did not show serious pulmonary insufficiency. PMID:7381614

  4. Effects of grain dust exposure and smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function.

    PubMed

    Cotton, D J; Graham, B L; Li, K Y; Froh, F; Barnett, G D; Dosman, J A

    1983-02-01

    In four groups of individually-matched subjects (nonsmoking grain workers, smoking grain workers, nonsmoking community controls, and smoking community controls) we measured pulmonary function variables from the spirogram, from the maximal expiratory flow-volume curve breathing air and helium, and from the single breath nitrogen test as well as symptom prevalences from a questionnaire in order to assess the relative effects of smoking and occupational exposure to grain dust in Saskatchewan country grain elevators. There were similar increased prevalences of respiratory symptoms and reductions in pulmonary function associated with either grain dust exposure or smoking, but the effects of smoking were slightly more pronounced. The combined effects of grain dust and smoking on lung function appeared to be additive except in the least exposed workers (five years or less) where a synergistic effect was observed in tests of peripheral airways dysfunction. PMID:6834161

  5. A randomized controlled trial on the benefits and respiratory adverse effects of morphine for refractory dyspnea in patients with COPD: Protocol of the MORDYC study.

    PubMed

    Verberkt, C A; van den Beuken-van Everdingen, M H J; Franssen, F M E; Dirksen, C D; Schols, J M G A; Wouters, E F M; Janssen, D J A

    2016-03-01

    Dyspnea is one of the most reported symptoms of patients with advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is often undertreated. Morphine has proven to be an effective treatment for dyspnea and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines, but questions concerning benefits and respiratory adverse effects remain. This study primarily evaluates the impact of oral sustained release morphine (morphine SR) on health-related quality of life and respiratory adverse effects in patients with COPD. Secondary objectives include the impact on exercise capacity, the relationship between description and severity of dyspnea and the presence of a clinically relevant response to morphine, and cost-effectiveness. A single-center, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study will be performed in 124 patients with COPD who recently completed a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program. Participants will receive 20-30 mg/24h morphine SR or placebo for four weeks. After the intervention, participants will be followed for twelve weeks. Outcomes include: the COPD Assessment Test, six minute walking test, Multidimensional Dyspnea Scale and a cost diary. Furthermore, lung function and arterial blood gasses will be measured. These measures will be assessed during a baseline and outcome assessment, two home visits, two phone calls, and three follow-up assessments. The intervention and control group will be compared using uni- and multivariate regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Finally, an economic evaluation will be performed from a societal and healthcare perspective. The current manuscript describes the rationale and methods of this study and provides an outline of the possible strengths, weaknesses and clinical consequences. PMID:26825021

  6. Reliability and Validity of Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey, Korean Version

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su-Young; Kang, Weechang; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Background The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS) is a self-administered questionnaire developed in the United States to evaluate the severity of the common cold and its reliability has been validated. We developed a Korean language version of this questionnaire by using a sequential forward and backward translation approach. The purpose of this study was to validate the Korean version of the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-K) in Korean patients with common cold. Methods This multicenter prospective study enrolled 107 participants who were diagnosed with common cold and consented to participate in the study. The WURSS-K includes 1 global illness severity item, 32 symptom-based items, 10 functional quality-of-life (QOL) items, and 1 item assessing global change. The SF-8 was used as an external comparator. Results The participants were 54 women and 53 men aged 18 to 42 years. The WURSS-K showed good reliability in 10 domains, with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.67 to 0.96 (mean: 0.84). Comparison of the reliability coefficients of the WURSS-K and WURSS yielded a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.71 (P = 0.02). Validity of the WURSS-K was evaluated by comparing it with the SF-8, which yielded a Pearson correlation coefficient of −0.267 (P < 0.001). The Guyatt’s responsiveness index of the WURSS-K ranged from 0.13 to 0.46, and the correlation coefficient with the WURSS was 0.534 (P < 0.001), indicating that there was close correlation between the WURSS-K and WURSS. Conclusions The WURSS-K is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and QOL in Korean patients with common cold. PMID:21691034

  7. Prevalence of Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms among University Students in Sari (North of Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Behzad; Shahabi Majd, Naghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite widely available data about childhood asthma, there are limited data about the prevalence of asthma among young adults in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms among medical students in the city of Sari in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms was studied using a standard questionnaire. Based on the information obtained from the questionnaires, the study participants were divided into two groups of asthmatics and non-asthmatics. Pulmonary function tests including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) before, and after salbutamol inhalation were measured in all subjects with asthma and approximately 10% of those without asthma. Results: A total of 1,011 subjects (374 males, 637 females) participated in this study. Asthma was found in 3.5% of the subjects (3.2% males and 3.6% females). The 12-month prevalence of wheezing, coughing at rest, coughing at night, breathlessness at rest, exercise-induced wheezing, and exercise-induced coughing in the entire study population was 11.1%, 12.4%, 13.4%, 13.3%, 17.7%, and 16.7%, respectively. The prevalence of all asthma-related symptoms was significantly higher among asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Moreover, asthmatic subjects showed lower FEV1 and FVC values compared to nonasthmatic subjects (P<0.001). Smoking and family history of asthma were statistically significant risk factors for developing asthma. Conclusion: The high prevalence of asthma related symptoms in the present study strongly suggests that asthma is under diagnosed and under treated among participants. PMID:27403172

  8. Occupational exposure to particulate matter and respiratory symptoms in Portuguese swine barn workers.

    PubMed

    Viegas, S; Mateus, V; Almeida-Silva, M; Carolino, E; Viegas, C

    2013-01-01

    Certain environmental conditions in animal and plant production have been associated with increased frequency in respiratory illnesses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, in farmers occupationally exposed in swine production. The aim of this study was to characterize particulate matter (PM) contamination in seven Portuguese swine farms and determine the existence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases, utilizing the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire. Environmental assessments were performed with portable direct-reading equipment, and PM contamination including five different sizes (PM0.5, PM1.0, PM2.5, PM5.0, PM10) was determined. The distribution of particle size showed the same trend in all swine farms, with high concentrations of particles with PM5 and PM10. Results from the questionnaire indicated a trend such that subjects with diagnosis of asthma were exposed to higher concentrations of PM with larger size (PM2.5, PM5, and PM10) while subjects with sneezing, runny nose, or stuffy nose without a cold or flu were exposed to higher concentrations of PM with smaller size (PM0.5 and PM1). Data indicate that inhalation of PM in swine farm workers is associated with increased frequency of respiratory illnesses. PMID:24168036

  9. Item Reduction of the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21) Leads to the WURSS-11

    PubMed Central

    Obasi, Chidi N.; Brown, Roger L.; Barrett, Bruce P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a shorter version of the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21), -a self-report questionnaire for evaluating daily symptoms and functional impairments during acute respiratory illness (ARI). Method WURSS-21 data were retrieved from 4 studies (n=1167) spanning the years 2002–2010. Similar methodologies were employed among these studies. Degree of missingness, ceiling/floor effects, and exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses were investigated and used to guide item retention. Stability of the reduced WURSS was evaluated across the 1st 3 days of ARI-illness. Results Degree of missingness was < 1% and appeared to be completely at random. Seven WURSS items with >30% of ratings of zero (floor effects) were eliminated. Cross-loading items (Head-congestion, Sleep-well and Breathe-easily) were excluded following EFA on subset-1. Subsequent CFA using subset-2 showed satisfactory indices of fit. The reduced WURSS-11 instrument demonstrated 3 dimensions of 3 items each, and was stable across 3 days of illness. The indicated dimensions (items) include; Nasal (Runny-nose, Plugged-nose, Sneezing), Throat (Cough, Sore-throat, Scratchy-throat) and Quality of life (Feeling-tired, Think-clearly, Accomplish-daily-activities). Conclusion The WURSS-11 has similar dimensional structure as the WURSS-21. This shorter version may reduce the time and burden required for completing the survey. PMID:24142237

  10. Chronic effects of welding exposure on pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, O; Numanoğlu, N; Gönüllü, U; Savaş, I; Alper, D; Gürses, H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The respiratory effects of exposure to welding fumes have been investigated in numerous studies; but results of these studies have not been consistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the respiratory effects of welding exposure in a large group of manual are welders exposed primarily to mild steel welding processes in confined spaces without respiratory protection. METHODS--Respiratory symptoms and spirometry were studied in 110 welders and 55 controls. The welders and controls were of similar average age and height; smoking habits of the groups were similar. Chest x ray films were taken to exclude people with radiological abnormalities that may influence pulmonary function tests. Welders were grouped according to smoking habits and duration of employment (< 20 years or > 20 years). RESULTS--No gross radiological abnormalities were found. Respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis were more prevalent in welders (P < 0.05). Welders who were smokers showed a higher frequency of chronic bronchitis than controls who smoked (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the occurrence of chronic bronchitis was found between welders who smoked and welders who were non-smokers or exsmokers. Compared with the controls, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum midexpiratory flow (MMEF) were significantly lower in welders (mean values of FVC for welders and controls were 86.06 (25.74) and 96.40 (13.03); and values for FEV1 were 87.54 (13.70) and 95.36 (12.40) respectively; P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in pulmonary function tests between welders who were non-smokers and controls who were non-smokers; whereas FVC, FEV1, PEF, and MMEF were significantly lower in welders who smoked than controls who smoked (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in pulmonary function tests and occurrence of chronic bronchitis between welders with more or less than 20

  11. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  12. Respiratory symptoms in households as an effective marker for influenza-like illness surveillance in the community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shui Shan; Wong, Ngai Sze

    2014-06-01

    To effectively track the growth of influenza, we piloted an online system to monitor influenza-like illness (ILI) in the community in one district of Hong Kong. Four syndromic markers, namely fever, respiratory symptoms, fever with respiratory symptoms, fever and/or respiratory symptoms, either of the individual or of the household, were collected during the study period from June 2012 to October 2013. A total of 132 residents of Tuen Mun District reported syndromic markers at the individual and household levels on a weekly basis. Temporal patterns of these markers were compared with data derived from laboratory surveillance by dynamic linear regression. Household respiratory symptoms were found to be an effective syndromic marker, pre-dating overall laboratory virus surveillance results on influenza diseases in two influenza seasons by 3-4 weeks. To conclude, respiratory symptoms can be a good marker predicting the onset of the influenza season in the community, and is particularly useful with regard to data from households, even if the sample size may not be a large one. PMID:24680819

  13. Association between exposure to workplace secondhand smoke and reported respiratory and sensory symptoms: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie; Trotter, Lisa; Cameron, Melissa; Woodward, Alistair; Inglis, Graeme; Hill, David

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work and reported respiratory and sensory symptoms. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 382 nonsmoking indoor workers in Victoria, Australia was used. After controlling for potential confounders, exposure to SHS at work for part of the day was significantly associated with an increased risk of wheeze (OR = 4.26), frequent cough (OR = 2.26), sore eyes (OR = 3.77), and sore throat (OR = 2.70). Among workers who had not experienced a cold in the past 4 weeks, we found strong dose-response relationships between increasing levels of exposure to SHS at work and morning cough, frequent cough, sore eyes and sore throat, and a positive relationship for wheeze. These findings provide compelling evidence that nonsmoking indoor workers are adversely affected by exposure to SHS at work and underline the importance of workplace smoke-free policies in protecting the health of workers. PMID:12802215

  14. Developmental nicotine exposure adversely effects respiratory patterning in the barbiturate anesthetized neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Santiago; Kidder, Ian J; Mudery, Jordan A; Bailey, E Fiona

    2015-03-01

    Neonates at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are hospitalized for cardiorespiratory monitoring however, monitoring is costly and generates large quantities of averaged data that serve as poor predictors of infant risk. In this study we used a traditional autocorrelation function (ACF) testing its suitability as a tool to detect subtle alterations in respiratory patterning in vivo. We applied the ACF to chest wall motion tracings obtained from rat pups in the period corresponding to the mid-to-end of the third trimester of human pregnancy. Pups were drawn from two groups: nicotine-exposed and saline-exposed at each age (i.e., P7, P8, P9, and P10). Respiratory-related motions of the chest wall were recorded in room air and in response to an arousal stimulus (FIO2 14%). The autocorrelation function was used to determine measures of breathing rate and respiratory patterning. Unlike alternative tools such as Poincare plots that depict an averaged difference in a measure breath to breath, the ACF when applied to a digitized chest wall trace yields an instantaneous sample of data points that can be used to compare (data) points at the same time in the next breath or in any subsequent number of breaths. The moment-to-moment evaluation of chest wall motion detected subtle differences in respiratory pattern in rat pups exposed to nicotine in utero and aged matched saline-exposed peers. The ACF can be applied online as well as to existing data sets and requires comparatively short sampling windows (∼2 min). As shown here, the ACF could be used to identify factors that precipitate or minimize instability and thus, offers a quantitative measure of risk in vulnerable populations. PMID:25596542

  15. Glucose Metabolism Disorder Is Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Individuals with Respiratory Symptoms from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Simone; Cafezeiro, Aparecida S.; Daltro, Carla; Netto, Eduardo M.; Kornfeld, Hardy; Andrade, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with increased risk for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in endemic settings but it is unknown whether PTB risk is also increased by pre-DM. Here, we prospectively examined the association between glucose metabolism disorder (GMD) and PTB in patients with respiratory symptoms at a tuberculosis primary care reference center in Brazil. Methods Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and levels of fasting plasma glucose and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured in a cohort of 892 individuals presenting with respiratory symptoms of more than two weeks duration. Patients were also tested for PTB with sputum cultures. Prevalence of pre-DM and DM (based on HbA1c) was estimated and tested for association with incident PTB. Other TB risk factors including smoking history were analyzed. Results The majority of the study population (63.1%) exhibited GMD based on HbA1c ≥5.7%. Patients with GMD had higher prevalence of PTB compared to normoglycemic patients. Individuals with DM exhibited increased frequency of TB-related symptoms and detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears. Among patients with previous DM diagnosis, sustained hyperglycemia (HbA1c ≥7.0%) was associated with increased TB prevalence. Smoking history alone was not significantly associated with TB in our study population but the combination of smoking and HbA1c ≥7.0% was associated with 6 times higher odds for PTB. Conclusions Sustained hyperglycemia and pre-DM are independently associated with active PTB. This evidence raises the question whether improving glycemic control in diabetic TB patients would reduce the risk of TB transmission and simultaneously reduce the clinical burden of disease. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying these associations, especially those suggesting that pre-DM may be a factor driving susceptibility to TB is warranted. PMID:27078026

  16. Bronchitis in two integrated steel works: III. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity related to atmospheric pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, C. R.; Campbell, H.; Khosla, T.

    1970-01-01

    Lowe, C. R., Campbell, H., and Khosla, T.(1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 121-129. Bronchitis in two integrated steel works. III. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity related to atmospheric pollution. This is the third in a series of papers presenting the results of an epidemiological study of respiratory symptomatology and lung function among men employed in two integrated steel works in South Wales. In this paper measurements of atmospheric pollution are related to respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity among 10 449 men who spent the greater part of their working hours in one or other of 114 defined working areas. The problem has been explored in three different ways. In the first, each man was assigned the mean value of sulphur dioxide and respirable dust for the area in which he was working and this was related to his ventilatory capacity (FEV1·0), age, smoking habits, and the number of years he had spent in his present department. In the second, the 114 working areas were divided into four sub-groups, according to defined levels of atmospheric pollution, and the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and mean FEV1·0 in the four sub-groups was examined. In the third way, the mean atmospheric pollution levels in each of the 114 areas were related to the prevalence of bronchitis and to the mean FEV1·0, age, and smoking habits in those areas. The analysis demonstrates very clearly the over-riding importance of cigarette smoking in the aetiology of chronic bronchitis, but, so far as the main purpose of the survey is concerned, it is concluded that, if there is any relation between respiratory disability and atmospheric pollution in the two steel works, it is so slight that none of the three approaches to the problem was sensitive enough to detect it. The implications of this are discussed in the light of the levels of pollution that were recorded in and around the two works. PMID:5428631

  17. Bordetella pertussis in infants hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms remains a concern

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preliminary results suggest that pertussis infection might be considered in infants during a seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreak. Methods In order to analyze clinical features and laboratory findings in infants with pertussis hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms during a seasonal RSV outbreak, we conducted a retrospective single-center study on 19 infants with pertussis (6 boys; median age 72 days) and 19 matched controls (RSV-bronchiolitis), hospitalized from October 2008 to April 2010. B. pertussis and RSV were detected from nasopharyngeal washes with Real Time-PCR. Results Infants with pertussis were less often breastfeed than infants with RSV bronchiolitis (63.2% vs 89.5%; p <0.06). Clinically, significantly fewer infants with pertussis than controls had more episodes of whooping cough (63.2% vs 0.0%; p < 0.001) and also less frequently fever at admission (15.8% vs 68.4%; p <0.01), apnea (52.6% vs 10.5%; p <0.006), and cyanosis (52.6% vs 10.5%; p < 0.006). Infants with pertussis had more often no abnormal chest sounds on auscultation than infants with RSV bronchiolitis (0% vs 42,1%; p < 0.005). The absolute blood lymphocyte and eosinophil counts were higher in infants with B. pertussis than in controls with bronchiolitis (23886 ± 16945 vs 10725 ± 4126 cells/mm3, p < 0.0001 and 13.653 ± 10.430 vs 4.730 ± 2.400 cells/mm3, p < 0.001). The molecular analysis of 2 B. pertussis isolates for ptxA1, ptxP3, and prn2 genes showed the presence of gene variants. Conclusions When infants are hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms, physicians should suspect a pertussis infection, seek for specific clinical symptoms, investigate lymphocyte and eosinophil counts and thus diagnose infection early enough to allow treatment. PMID:24209790

  18. Improved Exposure Characterization with Robotic (PIPER) Sampling and Association with Children's Respiratory Symptoms, Asthma and Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ramagopal, Maya; Wang, Zuocheng; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Stambler, Adam A; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents are recognized risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms and illness in children. Most measurements of exposure have relied upon stationary indoor monitors (SIMs), overlooking the role of resuspended PM. To improve exposure characterization to resuspended aerosol particulate matter a recently developed methodology has been employed. The goal of this study is to characterize the resuspendable fraction of house dust and early childhood exposures to PM and its constituents in the child's home and compare conventional SIM and the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER), an innovative mobile sampler. The study seeks to demonstrate that PIPER provides a more relevant estimate of exposure from inhalable particulate through improved correlation with respiratory symptoms in young children. Methods Seventy-five households with children between 3-59 months of age were recruited from clinics in central New Jersey. Demographic information and a health questionnaire based upon that used by the International Study of Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) and household data were collected. Household exposures to inhalable PM (PM100) and endotoxin were determined with simultaneous SIM and mobile (PIPER) sampling. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. History of wheeze [’recent’ (<1 year) and ’ever’], cough, asthma, and eczema were evaluated. Multivariate analysis models included PM100 and endotoxin levels by tertiles of exposure. Risk of asthma for the highest tertile of PM100, as measured by PIPER (Odds Ratio = 4.2; 95% Confidence Interval 0.7 – 24.0) was compared to measurements by SIM (Odds Ratio = 0.7; 95% Confidence Interval 0.2 – 2.6). Conclusions Measurement of PM and its constituents with PIPER are more strongly associated with asthma, eczema and wheeze than measurements using SIMs. Application of this methodology may provide

  19. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Respiratory symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dockery, D.W. |; Cunningham, J.; Damokosh, A.I.

    1996-05-01

    We examined the respiratory health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among 13,369 white children 8 to 12 years old from 24 communities in the United States and Canada between 1988 and 1991. Each child`s parent or guardian completed a questionnaire. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for a 1-year period. We used a two-stage logistic regression model to analyze the data, adjusting for the period confounding effects of sex, history of allergies, parental asthma, parental education, and current smoking in the home. Children living in the community with the highest levels of particle strong acidity were significantly more likely [odds ratio (OR) = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.48] to report at least one episode of bronchitis in the past year compared to children living in the least-polluted community. Fine particulate sulfate was also associated with higher reporting of bronchitis (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.12-2.42). No other respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in association with any of the air pollutants of interest. No sensitive subgroups were identified. Reported bronchitis, but neither asthma, wheeze, cough, nor phlegm, were associated with levels of particle strong acidity for these children living in a nonurban environment. 26 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Cumulative trauma, adversity and grief symptoms associated with fronto-temporal regions in life-course persistent delinquent boys.

    PubMed

    Lansing, Amy E; Virk, Agam; Notestine, Randy; Plante, Wendy Y; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2016-08-30

    Delinquent youth have substantial trauma exposure, with life-course persistent delinquents [LCPD] demonstrating notably elevated cross-diagnostic psychopathology and cognitive deficits. Because adolescents remain in the midst of brain and neurocognitive development, tailored interventions are key to improving functional outcomes. This structural magnetic resonance imaging study compared neuroanatomical profiles of 23 LCPD and 20 matched control adolescent boys. LCPD youth had smaller overall gray matter, and left hippocampal, volumes alongside less cortical surface area and folding within the left pars opercularis and supramarginal cortex. LCPD youth had more adversity-related exposures, and their higher Cumulative Trauma, Adversity and Grief [C-TAG] symptoms were associated with less surface area and folding in the pars opercularis and lingual gyrus. Neuroanatomical differences between LCPD and control youth overlap with data from both maltreatment and antisocial literatures. The affected left frontal regions also share connections to language- and executive-related functions, aligning well with LCPD youths' cognitive and behavioral difficulties. These data also dovetail with research suggesting the possibility of neurodevelopmental delays or disruptions related to cumulative adversity burden. Thus, concurrent treatment of LCPD youths' C-TAG symptoms and, cognitive deficits with overlapping neuroanatomical bases, may be most effective in improving outcomes and optimizing neurodevelopmental trajectories. PMID:27388804

  1. Potential associations between fecal shedding of Salmonella in feedlot cattle treated for apparent respiratory disease and subsequent adverse health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir Alam, Mohammad; Renter, David G.; Ives, Samuel E.; Thomson, Daniel U.; Sanderson, Michael W.; Hollis, Larry C.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.

    2009-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was used to assess whether Salmonella fecal shedding in commercial feedlot cattle treated with antimicrobials for respiratory disease was associated with subsequent adverse health outcomes. Feces were collected per rectum from cattle that were examined for apparent respiratory disease, had a rectal temperature ≥40 °C, and subsequently received antimicrobial treatment. Salmonella were recovered from 918 (73.7%) of 1 245 fecal samples and weekly prevalence estimates ranged from 49 to 100% over the 3-month study. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella strains in the population were determined. Serogroup E Salmonella were most common (73.3%), followed by C1 (11.0%), C3 (8.6%), and B (1.1%). Predominant serotypes were Orion (46.5%), Anatum (19.8%), Kentucky (8.7%), Montevideo (7.5%), and Senftenberg (4.9%). Few isolates (36/918) were positive for antimicrobial resistance-associated integron gene intI1. Phenotypic susceptibility was associated with isolate intI1 status. Crude re-pull, re-treatment and case fatality risks were higher for cattle that were Salmonella-positive versus -negative at initial treatment, but not statistically different on multivariable analysis. However, case fatality risk was higher for cattle shedding Group B Salmonella than for cattle shedding other serogroups. Lots (groups) with a higher Salmonella prevalence at first treatment had a higher proportion of mortalities occur in a hospital pen, higher overall re-treatment risks, and were more likely to be sampled later in the study. Results indicate a high prevalence of Salmonella in this population of cattle treated for apparent respiratory disease, but that effects associated with clinical outcomes may depend on the Salmonella strain. PMID:18817722

  2. Prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Sari-Minodier, I; Charpin, D; Signouret, M; Poyen, D; Vervloet, D

    1999-07-01

    Until now, no survey had been conducted to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in a large population that had been occupationally exposed to isocyanates, compared with that in a control group. We performed such a survey, using questionnaires administered by occupational physicians. Overall, 1114 workers' questionnaires (585 exposed and 529 control) were analyzed. Exposed workers, primarily painters from small factories, reported significantly (P < 0.05) more wheezing (8.6% vs 3.6%), more breathlessness with wheezing (3.4% vs 0.6%) in the last year, and more rhinitis (33.1% vs 19.1%) than did control workers. A trend for more asthma (2.1% vs 0.8%; P < or = 0.07) was also observed. Furthermore, 16.4%, 16.2%, and 10.6% of exposed workers reported (respectively) cough, rhinitis, and chest tightness when working in contact with isocyanates. We conclude that isocyanate-exposed workers demonstrate significantly higher prevalence rates of rhinitic and asthmatic symptoms than do control subjects. PMID:10412099

  3. Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms and air pollution: Methodological issues and results

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. ); Wypij, D.; Dockery D.; Ware, J.; Spengler, J.; Ferris, B. Jr. ); Zeger, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms are a powerful technique for detecting acute effects of air pollution exposure. While conceptually simple, these diary studies can be difficult to analyze. The daily symptom rates are highly correlated, even after adjustment for covariates, and this lack of independence must be considered in the analysis. Possible approaches include the use of incidence instead of prevalence rates and autoregressive models. Heterogeneity among subjects also induces dependencies in the data. These can be addressed by stratification and by two-stage models such as those developed by Korn and Whittemore. These approaches have been applied to two data sets: a cohort of school children participating in the Harvard Six Cities Study and a cohort of student nurses in Los Angeles. Both data sets provide evidence of autocorrelation and heterogeneity. Controlling for autocorrelation corrects the precision estimates, and because diary data are usually positively autocorrelated, this leads to larger variance estimates. Controlling for heterogeneity among subjects appears to increase the effect sizes for air pollution exposure. Preliminary results indicate associations between sulfur dioxide and cough incidence in children and between nitrogen dioxide and phlegm incidence in student nurses.

  4. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen E; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S; Bremner, Stephen A; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B; Kelly, Frank J; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions. PMID:26295579

  5. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Helen E.; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S.; Bremner, Stephen A.; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B.; Kelly, Frank J.; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children’s respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8–9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00–1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04–1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08–1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions. PMID:26295579

  6. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION IN RELATION TO PASSIVE SMOKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AMERICAN AND FRENCH WOMEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results are reported from a parallel analysis of the association of passive smoking with respiratory symptoms and lung function (FEV, FVC, and FEV/FVC) in 2200 U.S. and 3866 French women from the general population examined over the same time period using similar methods. ge, cit...

  7. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized patients with confirmed pneumococcal LRTI. Methods We studied a population-based multi-centre cohort of 705 adults hospitalized with LRTI and Streptococcus pneumoniae in LRT specimens or blood: 193 without pulmonary infiltrate or bacteraemia, 250 with X-ray confirmed pneumonia, and 262 with bacteraemia. We compared adverse outcomes in the three groups and used multiple regression analyses to adjust for differences in age, sex, comorbidity, and lifestyle factors. Results Patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia were of similar age but had more comorbidity than the other groups (Charlson index score ≥1: no infiltrate and no bacteraemia 81% vs. infiltrate without bacteraemia 72% vs. bacteraemia 61%), smoked more tobacco, and had more respiratory symptoms. In contrast, patients with a pulmonary infiltrate or bacteraemia had more inflammation (median C-reactive protein: no infiltrate and no bacteraemia 82 mg/L vs. infiltrate without bacteraemia 163 mg/L vs. bacteraemia 316 mg/L) and higher acute disease severity scores. All adverse outcomes increased from patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia to those with an infiltrate and to those with bacteraemia: Length of hospital stay (5 vs. 6 vs. 8 days); intensive care admission (7% vs. 20% vs. 23%); pulmonary complications (1% vs. 5% vs. 14%); and 30-day mortality (5% vs. 11% vs. 21%). Compared with patients with no infiltrate and no bacteraemia, the adjusted 30-day mortality rate ratio was 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-4.1) in patients with an infiltrate without bacteraemia and 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.5) in bacteraemia patients. Adjustment for acute disease severity and inflammatory markers weakened these

  8. Impact of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in children. Longitudinal repeated-measures study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salamanca, Mexico occupied fourth place nationally in contaminating emissions. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air pollution on the frequency of pulmonary function alterations and respiratory symptoms in school-age children in a longitudinal repeated-measures study. Methods We recruited a cohort of 464 children from 6 to 14 years of age, from two schools differing in distance from the major stationary air pollution sources. Spirometry, respiratory symptoms and air pollutants (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, PM10,) were obtained for each season. Mixed models for continuous variables and multilevel logistic regression for respiratory symptoms were fitted taking into account seasonal variations in health effects according to air pollution levels. Results Abnormalities in lung function and frequency of respiratory symptoms were higher in the school closer to major stationary air pollution sources than in the distant school. However, in winter differences on health disappeared. The principal alteration in lung function was the obstructive type, which frequency was greater in those students with greater exposure (10.4% vs. 5.3%; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), followed by the mixed pattern also more frequent in the same students (4.1% vs. 0.9%; OR = 4.69, 95% CI, 1.0-21.1). PM10 levels were the most consistent factor with a negative relationship with FVC, FEV1 and PEF but with a positive relationship with FEV1/FVC coefficient according to its change per 3-month period. Conclusions Students from the school closer to major stationary air pollution sources had in general more respiratory symptoms than those from the distant school. However, in winter air pollution was generalized in this city and differences in health disappeared. PM10 levels were the most consistent factor related to pulmonary function according, to its change per 3-month period. PMID:21106102

  9. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function and symptoms in Mexico City schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect

    Castillejos, M.; Gold, D.R.; Dockery, D.; Tosteson, T.; Baum, T.; Speizer, F.E. )

    1992-02-01

    The effects of ambient ozone (O3) on respiratory function and acute respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 143 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren followed longitudinally at 1- to 2-wk intervals over a period of 6 months at three schools in Pedregal, Mexico City. The maximum O3 level exceeded the World Health Organization guideline of 80 ppb and the U.S. standard of 120 ppb in every week. For an increase from lowest to highest in the mean O3 level during the 48 hr before spirometry (53 ppb), logistic regression estimated relative odds of 1.7 for a child reporting cough/phlegm on the day of spirometry. For the full population, the mean O3 level during the hour before spirometry, not adjusted for temperature and humidity, predicted a significant decrement in FVC but not in FEV1 or FEF25-75. In contrast, the mean O3 level during the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted significant decrements in FEV1 and FEF25-75 but not in FVC. Ozone was consistently associated with a greater decrement in lung function for the 15 children with chronic phlegm as compared with the children without chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or wheeze. Ozone in the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted decrements in FEV1 for children of mothers who were current or former smokers, but not for children of mothers who were never smokers. Many of these effects were reduced in multiple regression analyses including temperature and humidity, as temperature and O3 were highly correlated.

  10. An ecological study on air pollution: Changes in annual ring growth of the Japanese cedar and prevalence of respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren in Japanese rural districts

    SciTech Connect

    Kagamimori, S.; Katoh, T.; Naruse, Y.; Kakiuchi, H.; Matsubara, I.; Kasuya, M.; Kawano, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The effect of air pollution caused by oil-fired electricity-generating stations on the annual ring growth of the Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica, D. Don) and prevalence of respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren were investigated. By retrospective analysis the annual ring growth has been demonstrated to show good agreement with the general trend in air pollution. In addition it was found to be related to the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. The reduction in annual ring growth and increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms followed a deterioration in air pollution. Following upgrading of the power station and an improvement in air pollution, the annual ring growth and prevalence of respiratory symptoms showed opposite changes, respectively. Concerning the latter, the prevalence of wheezing and respiratory symptoms associated with school absence in schoolchildren with a positive skin test to house dust extract showed a closer correlation with the annual ring growth when compared with those who had never had a positive skin test.

  11. Respiratory viral infections and effects of meteorological parameters and air pollution in adults with respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise R; Viana, Vinícius P; Müller, Alice M; Livi, Fernando P; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso R

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are the most common causes of respiratory infections. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults is underestimated. Meteorological variations and air pollution are likely to play a role in these infections. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the number of emergency visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and to evaluate the association between ILI/SARI, RVI prevalence, and meteorological factors/air pollution, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, from November 2008 to October 2010. Methods Eleven thousand nine hundred and fifty-three hospitalizations (adults and children) for respiratory symptoms were correlated with meteorological parameters and air pollutants. In a subset of adults, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected and analyzed through IFI test. The data were analyzed using time-series analysis. Results Influenza-like illness and SARI were diagnosed in 3698 (30·9%) and 2063 (17·7%) patients, respectively. Thirty-seven (9·0%) samples were positive by IFI and 93 of 410 (22·7%) were IFI and/or PCR positive. In a multivariate logistic regression model, IFI positivity was statistically associated with absolute humidity, use of air conditioning, and presence of mold in home. Sunshine duration was significantly associated with the frequency of ILI cases. For SARI cases, the variables mean temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, and mean concentration of pollutants were singnificant. Conclusions At least 22% of infections in adult patients admitted to ER with respiratory complaints were caused by RVI. The correlations among meteorological variables, air pollution, ILI/SARI cases, and respiratory viruses demonstrated the relevance of climate factors as significant underlying contributors to the prevalence of RVI. PMID:24034701

  12. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'. PMID:19939573

  13. Respiratory symptoms and illnesses among brick kiln workers: a cross sectional study from rural districts of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational risk factors are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses and symptoms, and account for 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 11% of asthma worldwide. Majority of brick kilns in Pakistan use wood and coal for baking the bricks which makes the brick kiln workers susceptible to high exposure of air pollution. This study was designed to describe frequency of chronic respiratory symptoms and illnesses and study the association between these symptoms and different types of work. Methods This was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey conducted among the brick kiln workers in Larkana and Dadu districts, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 340 adult men were assessed using translated version of the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Disease (ATS-DLD) questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the relationship between various socio-demographic and occupational factors (age, education, type of work, number of years at work, smoking status), and the respiratory symptoms and illnesses (chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, Chronic Bronchitis and asthma). Results Results of the study show that 22.4% workers had chronic cough while 21.2% reported chronic phlegm. 13.8% had two or more attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing. 17.1% workers were suffering from Chronic Bronchitis while 8.2% reported physician diagnosed asthma. Amongst the non-smoking workers 8.9% had Chronic Bronchitis. Multivariate analysis found that workers involved in brick baking were more likely to have Chronic Bronchitis (OR= 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-11.6, p=<0.05) and asthma (OR= 3.9, 95% CI 1.01-15.5, p=<0.05) compared to those involved in carriage and placement work. Conclusion A high frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was observed among brick kiln workers. Age, nature of work and smoking were strong predictors of developing these symptoms and illnesses. PMID:23164428

  14. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  15. Biomarkers of exposure, antibodies, and respiratory symptoms in workers heating polyurethane glue.

    PubMed Central

    Skarping, G; Dalene, M; Svensson, B G; Littorin, M; Akesson, B; Welinder, H; Skerfving, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pathogenic basis of respiratory disorders associated with isocyanates are still obscure. One reason for this is the lack of good estimates of human exposure. In this study exposure was estimated by measurement of isocyanate metabolites in biological samples. METHODS: In a factory using isocyanate based polyurethane (PUR) glue, isocyanate concentrations in air were measured by liquid chromatography. Samples from 174 employees were analysed for metabolites of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in plasma (P-MDX) and urine (U-MDX). After hydrolysis, 4,4'-methylenedianiline was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The employees were screened for work related respiratory symptoms and tested for specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG antibodies directed against isocyanate conjugated to human serum albumin. RESULTS: The time weighted isocyanate concentrations in air were low (MDI < 0.2-7; hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) < 0.1-0.7; 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) < 0.1 microgram/m3). All subjects had detectable P-MDX and U-MDX. There were significant associations between the estimates of exposure to thermal degradation products of an MDI based glue and P-MDX (range < or = 0.10-5.5 micrograms/l); and U-MDX (< or = 0.04-5.0 micrograms/g creatinine); in cases of heavy exposure. P-MDX and U-MDX were associated with each other (r = 0.64; P = 0.0001), work related symptoms (P-MDX: P = 0.03; Mann-Whitney U test), and serum concentrations of MDI specific IgG antibodies (r = 0.26; P = 0.0007). Unexpectedly, high P-MDX and U-MDX concentrations were also encountered in workers cutting textile (P-MDX 2.4-4.5 micrograms/l; U-MDX 0.81-3.8 micrograms/g creatinine); the reason is still unknown. Equally unexpected, there were significant negative associations between P-MDX and liver function tests. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly show the value of biomarkers for isocyanate exposure; in particular, P-MDX is useful. Further, these results show

  16. Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms: Testing for Adverse and Protective Associations in Two Twin Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Markus; Berg, Venla; Silventoinen, Karri; Batty, G David; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kaprio, Jaakko; Davey Smith, George; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-08-01

    Studies have suggested both adverse and protective associations of obesity with depressive symptoms. We examined the contribution of environmental and heritable factors in this association. Participants were same-sex twin pairs from two population-based twin cohort studies, the Older Finnish Twin Cohort (n = 8,215; mean age = 44.1) and the US Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS; n = 1,105; mean age = 45.1). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI; Finnish Twin Cohort), and by negative and positive affect scales (MIDUS). In the Finnish Twin Cohort, higher BMI was associated with higher depressive symptoms in monozygotic (MZ) twins (B = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.0) and dizygotic (DZ) twins (B = 1.17, 0.5, 1.9) with BMI >22. This association was observed in within-pair analysis in DZ twins (B = 1.47, CI = 0.4, 2.6) but not in within-pair analysis of MZ twins (B = 0.03, CI = -1.9, 2.0). Consistent with the latter result, a bivariate genetic model indicated that the association between higher BMI and higher depressive symptoms was largely mediated by genetic factors. The results of twin-pair analysis and bivariate genetic model were replicated in the MIDUS sample. These findings suggest an association between obesity and higher depressive symptoms, which is largely explained by shared heritable biological mechanisms. PMID:27055784

  17. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity to a sad film predicts depression symptom improvement and symptomatic trajectory.

    PubMed

    Panaite, Vanessa; Hindash, Alexandra Cowden; Bylsma, Lauren M; Small, Brent J; Salomon, Kristen; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity, an index of cardiac vagal tone, has been linked to self-regulation and the severity and course of depression (Rottenberg, 2007). Although initial data supports the proposition that RSA withdrawal during a sad film is a specific predictor of depression course (Fraguas, 2007; Rottenberg, 2005), the robustness and specificity of this finding are unclear. To provide a stronger test, RSA reactivity to three emotion films (happy, sad, fear) and to a more robust stressor, a speech task, were examined in currently depressed individuals (n=37), who were assessed for their degree of symptomatic improvement over 30weeks. Robust RSA reactivity to the sad film uniquely predicted overall symptom improvement over 30weeks. RSA reactivity to both sad and stressful stimuli predicted the speed and maintenance of symptomatic improvement. The current analyses provide the most robust support to date that RSA withdrawal to sad stimuli (but not stressful) has specificity in predicting the overall symptomatic improvement. In contrast, RSA reactivity to negative stimuli (both sad and stressful) predicted the trajectory of depression course. Patients' engagement with sad stimuli may be an important sign to attend to in therapeutic settings. PMID:26681648

  18. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  19. Serious Adverse Events in the Canadian Registry of Children Receiving Palivizumab (CARESS) for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinghan Jenny; Chan, Parco; Paes, Bosco; Mitchell, Ian; Li, Abby; Lanctôt, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and tolerability of palivizumab for RSV prophylaxis in high-risk children in everyday practice. Methods High-risk children prophylaxed against RSV infection were recruited into a prospective, observational, Canadian RSV Evaluation Study of Palivizumab (CARESS) registry with active, serious adverse event (SAE) monitoring from 2008 to 2013. SAE reports were systematically collected and assessed for severity and relationship to palivizumab. Data were analyzed by Chi-square or Fisher Exact Tests to examine group differences in proportions. Results 13025 infants received 57392 injections. Hospitalizations for respiratory-related illness (RIH) were reported in 915 patients, and SAEs other than RIH were reported in 52 patients. Of these, 6 (0.05%) patients had a total of 14 hypersensitivity reactions that were deemed possibly or probably related to palivizumab (incidence: 2.8 per 10,000 patient-months). The SAEs of 42 patients were assessed as not related to palivizumab. SAEs in the remaining 4 patients were not classifiable as their records were incomplete. There were no significant demographic predictors of SAE occurrence. Conclusions Under active surveillance, a small proportion of infants in the CARESS registry experienced SAEs that had a potential relationship with palivizumab and these appeared to be unpredictable in terms of onset. Palivizumab appears to be a safe and well-tolerated antibody for RSV prophylaxis in high-risk children in routine practice. PMID:26237402

  20. [Occupational dust exposure and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among conduit repair workers].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Kurumatani, N; Nakachi, S; Nakagiri, S; Hara, K

    1993-11-01

    The amount of water supply in Japan was 16 billion ton as of 1989. Water from rivers and other sources is purified, sterilized and then supplied to the residents through conduits. When conduits are accidentally damaged, they must be repaired by the workers of the Waterworks Bureau of the local government. In this task, the workers are exposed to airborne dust which develops while digging and filling the ground and cutting the conduit and the concrete covering the road. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the airborne dust exposure level among the workers and to investigate its effect on their respiratory organs. First, we measured the total dust exposure concentration of 20 conduit repair workers and the total dust concentration in 10 office rooms. Second, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the employees of 119 Waterworks Bureaus. The subjects of the analysis were 322 conduit repair workers and as their controls 345 clerical/engineering workers. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) The average daily total dust exposure while repairing conduits ranged from 0.27 to 5.05 mg/m3 (mean = 0.91 mg/m3), while that while exchanging water meters from 0.23 to 0.52 mg/m3 (mean 0.41 mg/m3). These values were 4.6 and 2.1 fold higher than the total dust concentration in office rooms (mean = 0.20 mg/m3). 2) With the use of fluorescent X-ray method, iron and aluminum were detected in all samples collected while repairing conduits and the intensity of X-ray increased with increase in weight of collected dust. Iron exposure concentration ranged from 0.006 to 0.095 mg/m3, which is much higher than the levels in the air in urban areas. Iron and aluminum could not be detected by fluorescent X-ray method in most of the samples collected in office rooms. These findings indicate that the main element in the dust collected while repairing conduits is soil, while that in office rooms is tobacco

  1. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function Patterns in Workers Exposed to Wood Smoke and Cooking Oil Fumes (Mai Suya) in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, OO; Desalu, OO; Nwogu, KC; Adewole, TO; Erhabor, GE

    2013-01-01

    Background: ‘Mai suya’ is a common job in the most northern Nigeria in which there is significant exposures to wood smoke and oil fumes. The respiratory impact of these dual exposures on workers engaged in this work has not been previously documented, hence this study was carried out. Aim: The aim is to study the prevalence, patterns and respiratory function assessment among this group. Subject and Methods: This is a case controlled study involving mai suya and workers who are not exposed to wood smoke and oil fumes in an occupational setting. All consenting mai suya and matched controls were recruited. Both groups underwent an interviewer administered questionnaire followed by on spot spirometric test measuring forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Results are presented using descriptive statistics. Chi square was used to test for association between respiratory symptoms and the job categories. Student's t-test was used to compare values of continuous variables. Odd ratios were determined for the risk of respiratory symptoms and exposure to wood smoke and oil fumes. Results: Both groups are similar in their demographic characters except in their smoking status, so current smokers were excluded from further analysis. The test group had significantly increased occurrence of chest tightness: 59% (19/32), nasal congestion: 37% (12/32), cough: 32% (10/32), and wheeze: 12% (4/32) compared with the control group, odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval CI (0.1-5.8), P value 0.04, OR 1.2,95% CI (1.04-1.8), P value = 0.02, OR 0.9 95% CI (0.9-1.4), P value = 0.3, and OR 1.2,95% CI (1-1.3), P value = 0.04, respectively. Occurrences of some respiratory symptoms were associated with duration on the job, while a positive family history of asthma is not associated with increased occurrence of symptoms. The mean (SD) FEV1 and FVC were significantly lower among the test group compared with the control

  2. Contribution of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide exposure from power plant emissions on respiratory symptom and disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Amster, Eric D; Haim, Maayan; Dubnov, Jonathan; Broday, David M

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to ambient NOx and SO2 originating from power plant emissions and prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease and related symptoms. The Orot Rabin coal-fired power plant is the largest power generating facility in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two novel methods assessing exposure to power plant-specific emissions were estimated for 2244 participants who completed the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The "source approach" modeled emissions traced back to the power plant while the "event approach" identified peak exposures from power plant plume events. Respiratory symptoms, but not prevalence of asthma and COPD, were associated with estimates of power plant NOx emissions. The "source approach" yielded a better estimate of exposure to power plant emissions and showed a stronger dose-response relationship with outcomes. Calculating the portion of ambient pollution attributed to power plants emissions can be useful for air quality management purposes and targeted abatement programs. PMID:24361356

  3. Upper respiratory symptoms and other health effects among residents living near the World Trade Center site after September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James A; Hwang, Syni-An; Hoerning, Anne; Gomez, Marta I; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2005-09-15

    The authors investigated changes in respiratory health after September 11, 2001 ("9/11") among residents of the area near the World Trade Center (WTC) site in New York City as compared with residents of a control area. In 2002, self-administered questionnaires requesting information on the presence and persistence of respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, and medication use were sent to 9,200 households (22.3% responded) within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and approximately 1,000 residences (23.3% responded) in Upper Manhattan, more than 9 km from the site (control area). Residents of the affected area reported higher rates of new-onset upper respiratory symptoms after 9/11 (cumulative incidence ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.88, 2.63). Most of these symptoms persisted 1 year after 9/11 in the affected area. Previously healthy residents of the affected area had more respiratory-related unplanned medical visits (prevalence ratio = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.64) and more new medication use (prevalence ratio = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.75, 4.76) after 9/11. Greater impacts on respiratory functional limitations were also found in the affected area. Although bias may have contributed to these increases, other analyses of WTC-related pollutants support their biologic plausibility. Further analyses are needed to examine whether these increases were related to environmental exposures and to monitor long-term health effects. PMID:16107572

  4. Nxwisen, ntzarrin or ntzo’lin? Mapping children’s respiratory symptoms among indigenous populations in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ms. Lisa; Diaz, Janet; Jenny, Alisa; Anaite, Diaz; Nigel, Bruce; John, Balmes

    2007-01-01

    Estimating the prevalence of asthma is an epidemiologic challenge, particularly in rural areas of lesser-developed countries characterized by low literacy and poor access to health care. To avoid under- or over-reporting of symptoms, questionnaires must use terminology familiar to participants and that accurately describes the triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness characteristic of asthma. In preparation for a large longitudinal cohort study entitled Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) that will examine the effects of variable early lifetime woodsmoke exposure on the respiratory health of Mam-speaking children residing in communities in the western highlands of Guatemala, we conducted individual interviews (n=18) and five focus groups (n=46) with indigenous women from 17 of these communities to elicit and define local Mam and Spanish terms for common respiratory symptoms used to describe their own and their children’s respiratory symptoms. Focus group participants were also shown an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video of wheezing children and adults. We developed a conceptual framework that can be used as an efficient model for future studies investigating health and/or disease terminology in isolated communities, an integral step in the development of standardized questionnaires. Among this Mam-speaking population, wheeze was best described as: nxwisen or ntzarrin, “breathing sounds that are heard in the neck but come from the chest.” The variation in understanding of terms between women with and without children with a history of wheeze (such that for those without wheezing children some terms were virtually unrecognized), has important implications for large-scale populations surveys within countries and comparative surveys such as ISAAC. It is important to use linguistically and culturally appropriate terminology to describe wheeze in prevalence studies of

  5. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  6. Byssinosis, respiratory symptoms and spirometric lung function tests in Tanzanian sisal workers

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, K. Y.; Lakha, A. S.; Milla, M. H.; Dahoma, U.

    1978-01-01

    ABSTRACT Byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms and acute and chronic changes in FVC and FEV1·0 were investigated in 77 workers in sisal spinning and 83 workers in sisal brushing departments in six Tanzanian sisal factories. Although the prevalence of byssinosis in spinning departments was found to be low (5·2%), it was very high in brushing departments (48·2%). Workers in brushing were exposed to sisal dust for a significantly longer period (11·77 ± 7·3 years) compared to workers exposed to sisal in spinning (2·85 ± 2·56 years). Although the number of smokers in brushing (42%) was similar to that in spinning (37%), smokers were more prone to byssinosis than were non- or ex-smokers after standardisation for duration of exposure. We were unable to measure dust levels in this study, but dust levels in spinning and brushing are cited from previous studies. These confirm our impression that the dust level in spinning is higher than that in an average cotton carding department and far higher in brushing than in spinning. Acute falls in FVC and FEV1·0 were found during the work shift. The extent of the fall in FEV1·0 correlated well with the severity of byssinosis; 75% of the workers with grade II byssinosis and 33% of those with grade ½ + I were found to have acute falls in FEV1·0 greater than 0·2 litres. However some workers, 10% in spinning and 33% in brushing, who denied symptoms of byssinosis, were also found to have acute falls in FEV1·0. Some workers had slight or severe chronic ventilatory impairment from dust (FEV1·0 less than 80%, or less than 60% of the respective predicted values), and these workers were mostly from the brushing department. The prevalence of chronic cough and chronic bronchitis was found to be negligible in workers in the spinning and in the brushing departments: 9·6% had a chronic cough and 12% had chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that a high prevalence of byssinosis associated with chronic and acute changes in FVC and

  7. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Agustín; Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82-0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  8. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82–0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  9. Codevelopment of externalizing and internalizing symptoms in middle to late childhood: Sex, baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity as predictors

    PubMed Central

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; EL-Sheikh, Mona

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the roles of sex and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity, as predictors of codeveloping externalizing and internalizing symptoms in middle childhood. We expected that sex, baseline RSA (RSA-B), and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to two types of tasks would interact to differentiate co-occurring trajectories of symptoms. We tested these hypotheses by combining longitudinal data from two independent samples (n = 390; 210 girls, 180 boys) with repeated measures at ages 8, 9, 10, and 11. RSA-R was measured in response to a socially stressful and frustrating stressor. Indicators of growth in externalizing and internalizing symptoms were derived from multiple domain growth models and used in person-centered growth mixture analyses. Three groups of externalizing and internalizing trajectories were found. Profile membership was predicted by several two-way interactions among sex, RSA-B, or RSA-R but was not predicted by three-way interactions. Children with low RSA-B and strong RSA withdrawal, girls with low RSA-B, and girls with strong RSA withdrawal were more likely to be on a developmental trajectory of low externalizing symptoms and moderately elevated internalizing symptoms. Membership in the high externalizing and high internalizing trajectory was predicted by weak RSA withdrawal for boys and strong RSA withdrawal for girls. The type of stressor task also played a role in predicting probability of profile membership. Results are discussed in the context of developmental psychobiology and implications for the codevelopment of psychopathology symptoms in childhood. PMID:23627954

  10. Infant Infections and Respiratory Symptoms in Relation to in Utero Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Li, Zhigang; Korrick, Susan A.; Spiegelman, Donna; Enelow, Richard; Nadeau, Kari; Baker, Emily; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arsenic has been linked to disrupted immune function and greater infection susceptibility in highly exposed populations. Well arsenic levels above the U.S. EPA limit occur in our U.S. study area and are of particular concern for pregnant women and infants. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero arsenic exposure affects the risk of infections and respiratory symptoms over the first year of life. Methods: We prospectively obtained information on infant infections and symptoms, including their duration and treatment (n = 412) at 4, 8, and 12 months using a parental telephone survey. Using generalized estimating equation models adjusted for potential confounders, we evaluated the association between maternal pregnancy urinary arsenic and infant infections and symptoms over the first year. Results: Each doubling of maternal urinary arsenic was related to increases in the total number of infections requiring prescription medication in the first year [relative risk (RR) = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2]. Urinary arsenic was related specifically to respiratory symptoms (difficulty breathing, wheezing, and cough) lasting ≥ 2 days or requiring prescription medication (RR = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.2; and RR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5, respectively), and wheezing lasting ≥ 2 days, resulting in a doctor visit or prescription medication treatment (RR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7; RR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.8, and RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2, respectively). Associations also were observed with diarrhea (RR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and fever resulting in a doctor visit (RR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5). Conclusions: In utero arsenic exposure was associated with a higher risk of infection during the first year of life in our study population, particularly infections requiring medical treatment, and with diarrhea and respiratory symptoms. Citation: Farzan SF, Li Z, Korrick SA, Spiegelman D, Enelow R, Nadeau K, Baker E, Karagas MR. 2016. Infant infections and respiratory symptoms in

  11. The relationship between adverse childhood experience and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and beliefs: the role of anxiety, depression, and experiential avoidance.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Eric S; Price, Ian R

    2009-12-01

    Current cognitive-behavioral models of the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that maladaptive appraisal of otherwise normal intrusive thoughts have their origins in early learning experiences. The present study investigated the relationship between adverse childhood experience and OCD symptoms and related dysfunctional beliefs in a general population using a structural equation modeling approach. The role of experiential avoidance and anxiety and depression were also explored in the model. Results indicated that adverse childhood experience was strongly associated with OCD symptoms and beliefs, but after controlling for anxiety and depression the relationship with OCD symptoms became non-significant and only a weak relationship with OCD beliefs remained. Experiential avoidance was significantly associated with OCD symptoms and beliefs and remained significant after controlling for anxiety and depression. Implications of these results in the context of a complete model of the development of OCD are discussed. PMID:19635653

  12. Improving access to effective care for people with chronic respiratory symptoms in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic respiratory symptoms are amongst the most common complaints among low and middle-income country (LMICs) populations and they are expected to remain common over the 10 to 20 year horizon. The underlying diseases (predominantly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and tuberculosis) cause, and threaten to increasingly cause, substantial morbidity and mortality. Effective treatment is available for these conditions but LMICs health systems are not well set up to provide accessible clinical diagnostic pathways that lead to sustainable and affordable management plans especially for the chronic non communicable respiratory diseases. There is a need for clinical and academic capacity building together with well-conducted health systems research to underpin health service strengthening, policy and decision-making. There is an opportunity to integrate solutions for improving access to effective care for people with chronic respiratory symptoms with approaches to tackle other major population health issues that depend on well-functioning health services such as chronic communicable (e.g. HIV) and non-communicable (e.g. cardiovascular and metabolic) diseases.

  13. Adverse Respiratory Health and Hematological Alterations among Agricultural Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Cross-Sectional Study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were

  14. Early effects of burning rice farm residues on respiratory symptoms of villagers in suburbs of Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Golshan, Mohammad; Faghihi, Mehri; Roushan-Zamir, Tooraj; Masood Marandi, Mohammad; Esteki, Behnoosh; Dadvand, Payam; Farahmand-Far, Hooshmand; Rahmati, Sharareh; Islami, Firouzeh

    2002-06-01

    Villagers residing in areas with rice farms are exposed to smoke from burning of agricultural waste that may affect respiratory health. To assess respiratory effects of this smoke-induced air pollution, a cross-sectional study has been conducted in three randomly selected villages of Isfahan rural areas. A physician-administered health questionnaire was completed for 433 male and 561 female villagers aged 1-80 years, followed by physical examinations and spirometry in symptomatic cases, before and after a rice burning episode in October 2000. Total particulate and respirable particulate maters (PM 10 was doubled during burning episode. Prevalence rates for respiratory symptoms before smoke were: recent asthma attacks (7.7%), using asthma medications (3%), sleep disturbed by dyspnea and cough (7.4%), exercise-induced cough (13.3%), which increased to 9.5, 7.1, 9.3 and 17%, respectively. Mean initial values (as percent of prediction) for; FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR, and FEF25-75 were: 85.9 +/- 22.7, 81.7 +/- 8, 86.2 +/- 26.2 and 60 +/- 26.4, respectively. The mentioned values decreased to to 83.2 +/- 19.5, 76.5 +/- 10.3, 85.5 +/- 21.1 and 54.3 +/- 26.4, respectively. All of the clinical and spirometric changes were statistically significant. Study findings suggest increased respiratory morbidity associated with rice burning episodes among all people living in the area. PMID:12396529

  15. Influence of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Adverse Life Events on Depressive Symptoms in the Elderly: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Davin, Annalisa; Monti, Maria Cristina; Polito, Letizia; Vaccaro, Roberta; Abbondanza, Simona; Gnesi, Marco; Villani, Simona; Guaita, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is common in the elderly. The role of genetic and environmental factors in modulating depressive symptoms is not clear. Methods We evaluated the influence of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and recent adverse life events on depressive symptoms in an elderly Italian population. We used data from “InveCe.Ab”, a population-based study of 1321 subjects aged 70–74 years. We used the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to assess depressive symptoms–a GDS score ≥5 points (GDS≥5) indicated the presence of clinically relevant symptoms–and performed 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 genotyping to obtain the triallelic polymorphism of the serotonin transporter. We used the Geriatric Adverse Life Events Scale to measure adverse life events, and logistic regression models to evaluate the role of genotype and recent adverse life events in depressive symptoms, controlling for potential confounders and independent predictors. Results Two hundred subjects (15.76%) had a GDS≥5. The 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism was significantly associated with GDS≥5. Only S′S′ carriers showed an increased risk of depressive symptoms (ORadj = 1.81, p = .022); one extra adverse life event increased this risk by 14% (p = .061) independently of genotype. Other factors significantly related to GDS≥5 were: female gender (ORadj = 2.49, p < .001), age (ORadj = 1.19, p = .007), a history of depression (ORadj = 4.73, p < .001), and comorbidity (ORadj = 1.23, p = .001). One extra adverse life event increased the risk of depressive symptoms by 57% (p = .005) only in the L′L′ carriers, while antidepressant intake was directly related to GDS≥5 in the L′S′ carriers (ORadj = 2.46, p = .036) and borderline significant in the S′S′ carriers (ORadj = 2.41, p = .081). Discussion The S′S′ genotype and recent exposure to adverse life events were independently associated with depressive symptoms. The S′S′ genotype, compared with the environment

  16. Symptoms of respiratory illness in young children and the use of wood-burning stoves for indoor heating

    SciTech Connect

    Honicky, R.E.; Osborne, J.S.; Akpom, C.A.

    1985-03-01

    The occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness among preschool children living in homes heated by wood-burning stoves was examined by conducting an historical prospective study (n . 62) with an internal control group (matched for age, sex, and town of residence). Exposures of subjects were not significantly different (P greater than .05) with respect to parental smoking, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and use of humidifiers. The control group made significantly greater use of gas stoves for cooking whereas the study group made greater use of electric stoves for cooking and of air filters (P less than .05). Only one home used a kerosene space heater. During the winter of 1982, moderate and severe symptoms in all categories were significantly greater for the study group compared with the control group (P less than .001). These differences could not be accounted for by medical histories (eg, allergies, asthma), demographic or socioeconomic characteristics, or by exposure to sources of indoor air pollution other than wood-burning stoves. Present findings suggest that indoor heating with wood-burning stoves may be a significant etiologic factor in the occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness in young children.

  17. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases in schoolchildren living in a polluted and in a low polluted area in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, A.I.; Hellmann, S.

    1988-02-01

    Second and fifth grade schoolchildren living in two communities with different levels of air pollution were studied. The parents of these children filled out ATS-NHLI health questionnaires. The prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases was found to be significantly higher among children growing up in the polluted community (Ashdod) as compared with the low-pollution area (Hadera). Logistic models fitted for the respiratory conditions which differed significantly between both areas of residence also included background variables that could be responsible for these differences. Relative risk values, which were calculated from the logistic models, were in the range of 1.47 for cough without cold to 2.66 for asthma for children from Ashdod, as compared with 1.00 for children from Hadera.

  18. Examining Biological Vulnerability in Environmental Context: Parenting Moderates Effects of Low Resting Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia on Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Sarah I.; Ahles, Joshua J.; Crowell, Sheila E.

    2015-01-01

    Polyvagal theory suggests that parasympathetic regulation of cardiac function, indexed by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), may be a marker of emotion regulatory capacity and associated with youth psychopathology. Contemporary models of psychopathology suggest that the effects of biological vulnerability may be moderated by developmental context. The aim of the present study was to examine whether parenting, particularly parental responses to youth’s negative emotions, moderated the effects of resting RSA on depressive symptoms among early adolescents. We examined resting RSA, depressive symptoms, and parental responses to youth negative emotions among 120 adolescents aged 11–14 years (M = 12.86, SD = .85; 52.5% female). Resting RSA and lack of supportive parenting interacted to predict youth depressive symptoms, such that low resting RSA predicted more depressive symptoms only in the context of low levels of supportive parental responses to youth’s negative emotions. By contrast, high resting RSA buffered the effects of low supportive parenting on youth depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of understanding joint contributions of biological vulnerability and developmental context on youth depression outcomes. PMID:26290213

  19. Respiratory symptoms, lung function and particulate matter pollution in residential indoor environment in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibhafidon, Lawrence I.; Obaseki, Daniel O.; Erhabor, Gregory E.; Akor, Alexander A.; Irabor, Iziegbe; Obioh, IB

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Particulate air pollution is associated with increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and decreased pulmonary, function but the relative impact of pollution from different domestic energy sources is not well-known or studied. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the association between particulate concentrations, respiratory symptoms and lung function. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study comprised of randomly selected residents of three communities. These communities were selected according to the predominant type of fuel used for household cooking which were: firewood, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Assessment of the indoor PM10 levels was done by filtration using the Gent stacked filter unit sampler for collection of atmospheric aerosol in two size fractions (PM2.5 and PM10). The Medical Research Council (MRC) questionnaire was administered followed by spirometry test. Results: The mean PM10 concentration in participants using LPG, kerosene and firewood was 80.8 ± 9.52 μg/m3, 236.9 ± 26.5 μg/m3 and 269 ±93.7 μg/m3, respectively. The mean age and height-adjusted percent predicted forced expiratory volumes in 1 s (FEV1) for men were 127 ± 7, 109 ± 40 and 91 ± 20 and for women were 129 ± 13, 115 ± 14, 100 ± 14 in users of LPG, kerosene and firewood, respectively. A similar trend was found in the forced vital capacity (FVCs). Users of firewood had significantly lower FEV1 and FVC compared with LPG users (P < 0.05). The participants using firewood had the highest prevalence of pulmonary and non-pulmonary symptoms (57.1%), whereas subjects using LPG had the lowest (23.8%). Conclusion: There are high levels of particulate matter pollutions with respiratory effects in residential indoor environments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria PMID:24970970

  20. Use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of picornavirus infection in subjects with and without respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S L; Sanderson, G; Pattemore, P K; Smith, S; Bardin, P G; Bruce, C B; Lambden, P R; Tyrrell, D A; Holgate, S T

    1993-01-01

    Rhinoviruses and enteroviruses are the major members of the picornavirus genus that cause human disease. We compared the polymerase chain reaction and viral culture for the identification of picornaviruses in nasal aspirates from children during episodes of respiratory symptoms and when asymptomatic and from asymptomatic adults. One hundred eight children, aged 9 to 11 years, completed a year-long study. Within 24 to 48 h of a report of respiratory symptoms, a nasal aspirate was taken in the home. Nasal aspirates were also taken from 65 of the children and from 33 normal adults when they had been free of respiratory symptoms for at least 2 weeks. Picornaviruses were isolated by culture for three passages in Ohio HeLa cells in rolling tubes at 33 degrees C and pH 7.0. For the polymerase chain reaction, duplicate 50-microliters samples were amplified with conserved primers from the 5' noncoding region. Picornaviruses generated approximately 380-bp bands in agarose gel electrophoresis; the specificity of these bands was confirmed by filter hybridization with a conserved internal probe. Picornaviruses were isolated by culture in 47 (46 rhinoviruses) of 292 symptomatic episodes (16%), whereas the polymerase chain reaction identified picornavirus genomic material in 146 episodes (50%), including all but one of the culture-positive episodes. As for asymptomatic samples, eight (12%) children and two (4%) adults were positive by the polymerase chain reaction, whereas only one child's specimen was positive by culture. This polymerase chain reaction assay represents a clear advance in the identification of picornavirus infection, with a detection rate threefold greater than the virus culture method. Images PMID:8380179

  1. Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Frida; San Sebastian, Miguel; Strömsten, Lotta M. J.; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low) in adolescence (age 16) were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/non-manual) was measured using the participant’s own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068) which was partially explained by people’s own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an unfavorable

  2. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?: A Patient Study Considering Just World Beliefs as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  3. Diagnosis and Anti-Reflux Therapy for GERD with Respiratory Symptoms: A Study Using Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Jimin; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Diangang; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Respiratory symptoms are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance–pH (MII-pH) monitoring in GERD is clear, little is known regarding the characteristics of patients with respiratory symptoms based on MII-pH monitoring and anti-reflux therapy. We evaluated a cohort of GERD patients to identify the MII-pH parameters of GERD-related respiratory symptoms and to assess the anti-reflux therapy outcomes. Methods We undertook a prospective study of patients who were referred for GERD evaluation from January 2011 to January 2012. One hundred ninety-five patients underwent MII-pH monitoring and esophageal manometry, and one hundred sixty-five patients underwent invasive anti-reflux therapy that included laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and the Stretta procedure. The patient characteristics and MII-pH parameters were analyzed, and the symptom scores were assessed at baseline and at 1- and 3-year follow-up evaluations. Results Of the 195 patients, 96 (49.2%) exhibited respiratory symptoms and significantly more reflux episodes (70.7±29.3) than patients without respiratory symptoms (64.7±24.4, p = 0.044) based on the MII-pH monitoring results. Moreover, the group of patients with respiratory symptoms exhibited more proximal reflux episodes (35.2±21.3) than the non-respiratory symptomatic group (28.3±17.9, p = 0.013). One hundred twenty-five patients following the Stretta procedure (n = 60, 31 with respiratory symptoms) or LTF (n = 65, 35 with respiratory symptoms) completed the designated 3-year follow-up period and were included in the final analysis. The symptom scores after anti-reflux therapy all decreased relative to the corresponding baseline values (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences in the control of respiration between the Stretta procedure and LTF (p>0.05). However, LTF significantly reduced the recurrence (re-operation) rate compared with the

  4. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  5. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

    2014-11-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  6. Lower respiratory symptoms among residents living near the World Trade Center, two and four years after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Morse, Dale; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether residents living near the World Trade Center (WTC) continued to experience respiratory problems several years after September 11, 2001 (9/11). Residents living within one mile of the WTC surveyed after 9/11 responded two and four years later to follow-up surveys that asked about lower respiratory symptoms (LRS), medical history, psychological stress, and indoor environmental characteristics. There were declines in the proportion of residents reporting LRS, new lower respiratory diagnoses, unplanned medical visits, and asthma medication use. However, the proportion of residents reporting any LRS in the affected area at follow-up remained higher than the original proportion in the control area; residents with multiple sources of potential 9/11-related exposures were at greatest risk for LRS at follow-up. Psychological stress, dust/odors, and moisture were significantly associated with LRS at follow-up. These data demonstrate that LRS continue to burden residents living in the areas affected by the WTC disaster. PMID:20166318

  7. Rhinovirus-induced VP1-specific Antibodies are Group-specific and Associated With Severity of Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Jackson, David J.; Gallerano, Daniela; Trujillo-Torralbo, Belen; del Rosario, Ajerico; Mallia, Patrick; Valenta, Rudolf; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of common colds and induce exacerbations of asthma and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Methods We expressed and purified recombinant RV coat proteins VP1-4, non-structural proteins as well as N-terminal fragments of VP1 from four RV strains (RV14, 16, 89, C) covering the three known RV groups (RV-A, RV-B and RV-C) and measured specific IgG-subclass-, IgA- and IgM-responses by ELISA in subjects with different severities of asthma or without asthma before and after experimental infection with RV16. Findings Before infection subjects showed IgG1 > IgA > IgM > IgG3 cross-reactivity with N-terminal fragments from the representative VP1 proteins of the three RV groups. Antibody levels were higher in the asthmatic group as compared to the non-asthmatic subjects. Six weeks after infection with RV16, IgG1 antibodies showed a group-specific increase towards the N-terminal VP1 fragment, but not towards other capsid and non-structural proteins, which was highest in subjects with severe upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Interpretation Our results demonstrate that increases of antibodies towards the VP1 N-terminus are group-specific and associated with severity of respiratory symptoms and suggest that it may be possible to develop serological tests for identifying causative RV groups. PMID:26137535

  8. Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A study from the 2007 the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Bentall, Richard P; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86-42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26-37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations. PMID:22496540

  9. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. Methods We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. Results The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function

  10. Respiratory symptoms, lung functions, and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in two types of fish processing workers: Russian trawler fishermen and Norwegian salmon industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaeva, Olga; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Straume, Bjørn; Bang, Berit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory outcomes and work-related factors were studied in two seafood worker populations representing different occupational environments. Methods: Levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometric values, prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and self-evaluated exposures were compared between 139 Norwegian salmon workers and 127 Russian trawler workers. Results: Increased odds ratios (ORs) of shortness of breath with wheezing and prolonged cough as general respiratory symptoms were found in salmon workers, while increased ORs of work-related dry cough and running nose were found in trawler fishermen. Both worker groups ranked “cold work environment,” “use of disinfectants,” and “contaminated indoor air” as the first, second, and third most important causes of work-related respiratory symptoms, respectively. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in asthmatic trawler workers compared to asthmatic salmon workers. Conclusions: Respiratory symptoms commonly associated with obstructive airway diseases were more prevalent in salmon workers, while symptoms commonly associated with asthma and short-term effects of cold air exposure were more prevalent in trawler workers. PMID:25351376

  11. The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Jaakkola, J.J.; Vilkka, V.; Marttila, O.; Jaeppinen, P.H.; Haahtela, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The paper mills in South Karelia, the southeast part of Finland, are responsible for releasing a substantial amount of malodorous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and methyl sulfides ((CH3)2S and (CH3)2S2), into ambient air. In the most polluted residential area the annual mean concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are estimated to be 8 and 2 to 5 micrograms/m3 and the highest daily average concentration 100 and 50 micrograms/m3. The annual mean and highest daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are very low. We studied the effects of malodorous sulfur compounds on eye, nasal and respiratory symptoms, and headache in adults. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was distributed in February 1987 and responded to by 488 adults living in a severely (n = 198), a moderately (n = 204), and a nonpolluted community (n = 86). This included questions about occurrence of the symptoms of interest during the previous 4 wk and 12 months and individual, behavioral, and other environmental determinants of the symptoms. The response rate was 83%. The odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced often or constantly in severely versus nonpolluted and moderately versus nonpolluted communities were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling potential confounders. The odds ratios for eye (moderate exposure OR 11.70, Cl95% 2.33 to 58.65; severe exposure OR 11.78, Cl95% 2.35 to 59.09) and nasal symptoms (OR 2.01, Cl95% 0.97 to 4.15; OR 2.19, Cl95% 1.06 to 4.55) and cough (OR 1.89, Cl95% 0.61 to 5.86; OR 3.06, Cl95% 1.02 to 9.29) during the previous 12 months were increased, with a dose-response pattern.

  12. [Eosinophil cationic protein in children with allergic diseases of the respiratory tract in exacerbation and remission of symptoms].

    PubMed

    Marciniak, D; Tomaszewicz-Fryca, J; Płusa, T; Chciałowski, A

    1998-02-01

    The role of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in allergic inflammatory reaction has been documented in experimental and clinical studies, but a clinical usefulness is still discussed. In the study serum level of ECP has been evaluated in children with allergic diseases of the respiratory system in exacerbation and remission of symptoms for purpose of monitoring of disease course. In 111 children aged 12.0 +/- 3.3 yrs with atopic bronchial asthma and/ or allergic rhinits ECP serum concentrations have been determined in following groups: children with grass pollen hypersensitivity (group P, 17 female and 41 male), children with hypersensitivity to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae (group D, 16 female and 37 male) and controls without allergic hypersensitivity with negative prick skin tests (19 children, 11 female and 5 male). All children have been qualified to immunotherapy with pollen or mite allergens (Allergovit or Novo-Helisen, Nexter, Allergopharma) and ECP evaluation was performed before, during and after therapy. Serum ECP and IgE levels have been determined with CAP-system (Pharmacia) and obtained results related to clinical symptoms. In all analyzed children serum total IgE has been significantly increased in relation to controls. Serum ECP levels have been increased during clinical exacerbation of symptoms in observed children and parallel with clinical score of symptoms, especially during pollen season. Authors conclude that a degree of increase of serum ECP level is parallel with clinical score of symptoms, especially during highest exposition to pollen allergens. Observed changes of serum ECP levels during immunotherapy suggest the close relationship with allergic inflammatory reaction and indicate clinical usefulness for monitoring of this process. PMID:9591438

  13. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  14. Prevalence of ocular, respiratory and cutaneous symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers and exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs).

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; Righi, Elena; Predieri, Guerrino; Giacobazzi, Pierluigi; Mastroianni, Katia; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory, ocular and cutaneous symptoms in subjects working at indoor swimming pools and to assess the relationship between frequency of declared symptoms and occupational exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs). Twenty indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 133 employees was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Subjects working at swimming pools claimed to frequently experience the following symptoms: cold (65.4%), sneezing (52.6%), red eyes (48.9%) and itchy eyes (44.4%). Only 7.5% claimed to suffer from asthma. Red eyes, runny nose, voice loss and cold symptoms were declared more frequently by pool attendants (lifeguards and trainers) when compared with employees working in other areas of the facility (office, cafe, etc.). Pool attendants experienced generally more verrucas, mycosis, eczema and rash than others workers; however, only the difference in the frequency of self-declared mycosis was statistically significant (p = 0.010). Exposure to DBPs was evaluated using both environmental and biological monitoring. Trihalomethanes (THMs), the main DBPs, were evaluated in alveolar air samples collected from subjects. Swimming pool workers experienced different THM exposure levels: lifeguards and trainers showed the highest mean values of THMs in alveolar air samples (28.5 +/- 20.2 microg/m(3)), while subjects working in cafe areas (17.6 +/- 12.1 microg/m(3)), offices (14.4 +/- 12.0 microg/m(3)) and engine rooms (13.6 +/- 4.4 microg/m(3)) showed lower exposure levels. Employees with THM alveolar air values higher than 21 microg/m(3) (median value) experienced higher risks for red eyes (OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.6-14.9), itchy eyes (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.5-8.0), dyspnea/asthma (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.0-27.2) and blocked nose (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.0-4.7) than subjects with less exposure

  15. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  16. Respiratory symptoms and lung function 8–10 months after community exposure to chlorine gas: a public health intervention and cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We implemented a community based interventional health screening for individuals located within one mile of a 54 metric tons release of liquid chlorine following a 16 tanker car train derailment on 6 January, 2005 in Graniteville, South Carolina, USA. Public health intervention occurred 8–10 months after the event, and provided pulmonary function and mental health assessment by primary care providers. Its purpose was to evaluate those exposed to chlorine for evidence of ongoing impairment for medical referral and treatment. We report comparative analysis between self-report of respiratory symptoms via questionnaire and quantitative spirometry results. Methods Health assessments were obtained through respiratory symptom and exposure questionnaires, simple spirometry, and physical exam. Simple spirometry was used as the standard to identify continued breathing problems. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were applied to evaluate the validity of the respiratory questionnaire. We also identified the direction of discrepancy between self-reported respiratory symptoms and spirometry measures. Generalized estimation equations determined prevalence ratios for abnormal spirometry based on the presence of participant persistent respiratory symptoms. Covariate adjustment was made for participant age, sex, race, smoking and educational status. Results Two hundred fifty-nine people participated in the Graniteville health screening; 53 children (mean age = 11 years, range: <1-16), and 206 adults (mean age = 50 years, range: 18–89). Of these, 220 (85%) performed spirometry maneuvers of acceptable quality. Almost 67% (n = 147) displayed abnormal spirometry, while 50% (n = 110) reported persistent new-onset respiratory symptoms. Moreover, abnormal spirometry was seen in 65 participants (29%) who did not report any discernible breathing problems. This represented a net 16.8% underreporting of symptoms. Sensitivity and specificity of

  17. Permanent respiratory impairment and upper airway symptoms despite clinical improvement in patients with reactive airways dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Demeter, S L; Cordasco, E M; Guidotti, T L

    2001-04-10

    We previously reported clinical findings for 19 patients who developed symptomatic airways hyperactivity following an acute exposure to an inhaled irritant and who were given the diagnosis of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). We now report on nine of these patients who have been followed for a mean of 9 years, allowing assessment of function, symptoms, and comorbidity beyond the early phase of acute airway injury and inflammation. None of the patients have resolved their airway hyper-responsiveness and symptoms completely, although only in one subject, who had a premorbid history of asthma, has the condition progressed. A common feature has been sinusitis and other upper-airway symptoms. We conclude that in this group of patients, RADS presented in a consistent pattern regardless of the cause of airway injury, resolved only partially, even in subjects without a premorbid history of respiratory disease, and was associated with significant secondary morbidity, especially affecting the upper airway. This pattern was evident regardless of smoking status or age at time of exposure. We conclude that for these subjects, RADS was a distinct entity with a consistent natural history that conferred permanent impairment, but did generally improve somewhat over time. PMID:11327398

  18. Relevance of Respiratory Symptoms and Signs to Ventilatory Capacity Changes after Exposure to Grain Dust and Phosphate Rock Dust

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, Bryan; Ritchie, Blair

    1966-01-01

    Ventilatory capacity was measured before and after exposure to high concentrations of wheat dust in 24 men, 18 of whom were similarly studied while working with calcium phosphate rock. Changes in ventilatory capacity were examined in relation to respiratory symptoms as commonly elicited in occupational surveys, and to the presence or absence of a productive cough on request and under observation. A significant decrease in the forced expiratory volume at one second was observed within half an hour of beginning work in the wheat dust, and this decrease was maintained throughout the work shift. A smaller significant decrease was found on exposure to phosphate rock over several hours, no significant change occurring within the first half-hour. Greater or more consistent decreases were recorded in those men who gave a history of persistent cough and sputum, and more particularly in those who had a productive cough on request, than in those without these features. A history of symptoms on exposure failed to define a group showing any more severe ventilatory reaction on exposure to wheat dust than the average. Some of the factors influencing the history of symptoms in occupational populations are reviewed, and the advantage of an objective sign, as provided by a deliberate cough, is indicated in defining an `abnormal' group within such a population. PMID:5946127

  19. Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilário da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

  20. Respiratory symptoms associated with low level sulphur dioxide exposure in silicon carbide production workers.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W; Greaves, I A; Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Robins, J M; Thériault, G

    1989-01-01

    Relations between pulmonary symptoms and exposure to respirable dust and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were evaluated for 145 silicon carbide (SiC) production workers with an average of 13.9 (range 3-41) years of experience in this industry. Eight hour time weighted average exposures to SO2 were 1.5 ppm or less with momentary peaks up to 4 ppm. Cumulative SO2 exposure averaged 1.94 (range 0.02-19.5) ppm-years. Low level respirable dust exposures also occurred (0.63 +/- 0.26 mg/m3). After adjusting for age and current smoking status in multiple logistic regression models, highly significant, positive, dose dependent relations were found between cumulative and average exposure to SO2, and symptoms of usual and chronic phlegm, usual and chronic wheeze, and mild exertional dyspnoea. Mild and moderate dyspnoea were also associated with most recent exposure to SO2. Cough was not associated with SO2. No pulmonary symptoms were associated with exposure to respirable dust nor were any symptoms attributable to an interaction between dust and SO2. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but not dyspnoea. A greater than additive (synergistic) effect between smoking and exposure to SO2 was present for most symptoms. These findings suggest that long term, variable exposure to SO2 at 1.5 ppm or less was associated with significantly raised rates of phlegm, wheezing, and mild dyspnoea in SiC production workers, and that current threshold limits for SO2 may not adequately protect workers in this industry. PMID:2789966

  1. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services. PMID:23821904

  2. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mowry, Annelise V.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Sirman, Aubrey E.; Potts, Wayne K.; Hood, Wendy R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage. PMID:27537547

  3. TRAINING LOAD, IMMUNE SYSTEM, UPPER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED CYCLISTS THROUGHOUT A COMPETITIVE SEASON

    PubMed Central

    Gobatto, C.A.; Manchado-Gobatto, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 ± 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance. PMID:24744500

  4. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert

    2016-07-01

    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified. PMID:26438634

  5. Medication Monitoring in a Nurse-Led Respiratory Outpatient Clinic: Pragmatic Randomised Trial of the West Wales Adverse Drug Reaction Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gabe, Marie E.; Murphy, Fiona; Davies, Gwyneth A.; Russell, Ian T.; Jordan, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical effect of medication monitoring using the West Wales Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Profile for Respiratory Medicine. Design Single-site parallel-arm pragmatic trial using stratified randomisation. Setting Nurse-led respiratory outpatient clinic in general hospital in South Wales. Participants 54 patients with chronic respiratory disease receiving bronchodilators, corticosteroids or leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intervention Following initial observation of usual nursing care, we allocated participants at random to receive at follow up: either the West Wales ADR Profile for Respiratory Medicine in addition to usual care (‘intervention arm’ with 26 participants); or usual care alone (‘control arm’ with 28 participants). Main Outcome Measures Problems reported and actions taken. Results We followed up all randomised participants, and analysed data in accordance with treatment allocated. The increase in numbers of problems per participant identified at follow up was significantly higher in the intervention arm, where the median increase was 20.5 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 13–26], while that in the control arm was −1 [−3 to +2] [Mann-Whitney U test: z = 6.28, p<0.001]. The increase in numbers of actions per participant taken at follow up was also significantly higher in the intervention arm, where the median increase was 2.5 [1]–[4] while that in the control arm was 0 [−1.75 to +1] [Mann-Whitney U test: z = 4.40, p<0.001]. Conclusion When added to usual nursing care, the West Wales ADR Profile identified more problems and prompted more nursing actions. Our ADR Profile warrants further investigation as a strategy to optimise medication management. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN10386209 PMID:24798210

  6. Inhibition by nilutamide of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP formation. Possible contribution to the adverse effects of this antiandrogen.

    PubMed

    Berson, A; Schmets, L; Fisch, C; Fau, D; Wolf, C; Fromenty, B; Deschamps, D; Pessayre, D

    1994-07-01

    The effects of nilutamide on the mitochondrial respiratory chain were investigated in rats. In isolated mitochondria, nilutamide (100 microM) inhibited respiration that was supported by substrates feeding electrons into complex I of the respiratory chain but did not inhibit respiration that was supported by substrates donating electrons to complexes II, III or IV. Inhibition of complex I occurred without any lag time. In submitochondrial particles, nilutamide (100 microM) decreased both oxygen consumption mediated by NADH and the oxidation of NADH; addition of superoxide dismutase and catalase did not alleviate inhibition. There was no electron spin resonance evidence for detectable mitochondrial formation of the nilutamide nitro anion free radical by submitochondrial particles or for the formation of iron-nitrosyl complexes with mitochondrial Fe-S clusters in isolated hepatocytes. Severe inhibition of complex I by nilutamide (500 microM) led to upstream inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Nilutamide (100 microM) decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP formation in mitochondria energized by malate plus glutamate. In hepatocytes incubated without glucose, nilutamide (500 microM) led to an early (2 hr) drop in cellular ATP and early (4 hr) toxicity. With 5 mM glucose, however, ATP was not decreased and toxicity was mild at these early times. It was concluded that nilutamide itself inhibited the mitochondrial respiratory chain at the level of complex I and decreased ATP in hepatocytes incubated without glucose, which resulted in early toxicity. In the presence of glucose, ATP was not depleted at early times and delayed toxicity was probably the result of an oxidative stress (as previously reported). PMID:8035313

  7. Broad implications for respiratory sinus arrhythmia development: Associations with childhood symptoms of psychopathology in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Michelle A.; Lorenzi, Jill; Scarpa, Angela; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    Replicating the group-based developmental trajectory methodology from our prior study (Patriquin, Lorenzi, Scarpa, & Bell, 2014), the current study examines the development of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) across a new, larger cohort of typically developing children at 5, 10, 24, 36, and 48 months of age and examines the trajectory relationship with symptoms of childhood psychopathology. Group-based developmental trajectory modeling replicated our prior findings of a two-group model fit: a “High RSA” and “Low RSA” group. The “Low RSA” group, which demonstrated lower baseline RSA across all time points, had significantly more childhood problems at 48 months, namely increased withdrawal, aggressive behavior, pervasive developmental problems, and oppositional defiant problems. All participants for whom there were developmental or autism spectrum concerns (n = 6; based on maternal report at 48 months) were allocated to the Low RSA trajectory group. These results suggest that consistent developmental trajectories of RSA may point to protective factors (i.e., high RSA) against developing symptoms of childhood psychopathology. PMID:25503815

  8. Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bentall, Richard P.; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86–42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26–37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations. PMID:22496540

  9. Respirable coal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms in South-African coal miners: A comparison of current and ex-miners

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Seixas, N.; Lalloo, U.G.; Becklake, M.

    2006-06-15

    Dose-response associations between respirable dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and between symptoms and spirometry outcomes among currently employed and formerly employed South-African coal miners were investigated. Work histories, interviews, and spirometry and cumulative exposure were assessed among 684 current and 212 ex-miners. Results: Lower prevalences of symptoms were found among employed compared with ex-miners. Associations with increasing exposure for symptoms of phlegm and past history of tuberculosis were observed, whereas other symptom prevalences were higher in the higher exposure categories. Symptomatic ex-miners exhibited lower lung-function compared to the nonsymptomatic. Compared with published data, symptoms rates were low in current miners but high in ex-miners. Although explanations could include the low prevalence of smoking and/or reporting/selection bias, a 'Survivor' and/or a 'hire' effect is more likely, resulting in an underestimation of the dust-related effect.

  10. The effect of the use of NP305 masks in improving respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to sulfuric acid mists in plating and pickling units

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, Athena; Dolatshahi, Narges Gholamzadeh Taj; Ghasemkhan, Alireza Haj; Asghari, Mehdi; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Asadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plating and pickling processes are the most effective ways for increasing the strength of metal structures, and workers in these units are exposed to various contaminants, including acid mists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protective masks in decreasing the respiratory symptoms and the aerobic capacity of workers that are exposed sulfuric acid mist. Methods: This interventional study was based on National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard 7903 in which silica gel tubes are used for sampling the air in plating and pickling units for eight hours. After the samples were acquired and prepared, they were analyzed by ion chromatography and were compared with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) exposure limits. Respiratory symptoms were evaluated among two sets of test subjects, i.e., those who used NP305 masks in the workplace and those who did not use the mask. Results: The results showed that the concentration of sulfuric acid mist in the plating units was greater than the exposure limits, and concentrations at this level can cause an increase in symptoms related to irritation of the airway and a slight decrease in respiratory capacity. In this study, smoking had no significant effect on the severity of pulmonary dysfunction. Conclusion: The results indicated that the use of an NP305 mask is effective for decreasing symptoms resulting from exposure to sulfuric acid mist and improving respiratory capacity. PMID:26120392

  11. Using the Skindex-16 and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events to assess rash symptoms: results of a pooled-analysis (N0993)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kelli N.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Wittich, Michelle A. Neben; Miller, Robert C.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, skin toxicity has been assessed in prospective clinical trials using the clinician-reported National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The patient-reported Skindex-16 measures symptoms and perceptions of toxicity. This study was designed to compare information provided by these two measures. Methods Data were compiled from three placebo-controlled North Central Cancer Treatment Group studies (N06C4, N03CB, N05C4) having rash prevention as the primary objective. All used the Skindex-16 and CTCAE at baseline, weekly during treatment and during a minimum 2-week follow-up period. Statistical procedures, including Pearson correlations, were utilized to determine relationships between adverse event (AE) grades and Skindex-16 scores. Results Four hundred and twelve individual patients provided data (median age, 61; 134 male). Patients’ Skindex-16 score results show a 0.9 overall mean (range 0–6 with 6 being worse symptoms), a 0.4 baseline mean (range, 0–4.3) and a 1.3 end-of-treatment mean (range, 0–5.9). Ninety-three, 142 and 177 patients experienced a grade 0, 1 and 2+ CTCAE skin toxicity, respectively. Baseline Skindex-16 scores had relatively low correlation with CTCAE grades. The correlation of rash grade with Skindex-16 scores ranged from r=0.49 with the function subscale to r=0.62 with the symptom subscale. The highest correlations of the maximum grade of any dermatological AE with the Skindex-16 were r=0.48 for the total score and r=0.55 for the symptom subscale. Conclusions The data reported support the decision to include both measures in a clinical trial to assess the patient experience, as each measure may specifically target varying symptoms and intensities. PMID:21922203

  12. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  13. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-10-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km(-1). By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, -0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  14. Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France): relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Benamghar, L; Pham, Q T; Teculescu, D; Rebstock, E; Mur, J M

    1993-01-01

    An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. A detailed analysis, however, was not possible due to the lack of data for survivors. In this study the cohort included 1178 workers selected at random from all the 5300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests, and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980, and 1985. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 389, p < 0.001) and of stomach cancer (SMR = 273, p < 0.05). There was no excess of lung cancer in non-smokers and moderate smokers (< 20 pack-years) or the miners who worked only at the surface or underground for less than 20 years. A significant excess (SMR = 349, p < 0.001) was found in moderate smokers when they worked underground for between 20 and 29 years. Heavy smokers (over 30 pack-years) or subjects who worked underground for more than 30 years experienced a high risk: SMR = 478 (p < 0.001) for moderate smokers who worked underground for over 30 years; 588 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for between 20 and 29 years; and 877 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for over 30 years. This showed an interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. The excess mortality from lung cancer was because there were some subjects who died young (from 45 years old). Comparison with the results of a previous study showed that additional hazards produced by diesel engines and explosives increased the mortality from lung cancer. The SMR was higher than 400 (p < 0.001) from 45 years old instead of from 56 years. A relation was found between a decrease in vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and of FEV1/VC and mortality from all causes and from lung cancer in heavy smokers or men who had worked

  15. The impact of adverse life events and the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism on the development of eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Akkermann, Kirsti; Kaasik, Kadri; Kiive, Evelyn; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus

    2012-01-01

    Adverse life events have been shown to predict weight fluctuations and dietary restraint, as well as eating disorders during adolescence or early adulthood. Since the s-allele carriers of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are biologically more reactive to stress related stimuli, we aimed to explore whether the eating disturbances are predicted by environmental stressors and moderated by the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The sample was based on the younger cohort of the Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study and included those participating in its second and third wave. The history of stressful life events was self-reported at age 15. Data on eating behaviour and attitudes, anxiety, impulsivity and depressiveness were collected at age 18. The effect of the adverse life events on binge eating and on drive for thinness was found to be moderated by the 5-HTTLPR. Adolescent girls who at age 15 had reported a history of frequent adverse life events had elevated scores in EDI-2 Bulimia subscale at age 18 if they were carrying the s-allele. The effect of the s-allele on binge eating was even more pronounced when solely the experience of sexual abuse was considered. The interaction effect of the 5-HTTLPR and the past sexual abuse was also observed on drive for thinness. These data give further support to the idea that adverse life events in childhood may heighten susceptibility to serotonergic dysregulation following stress, and suggest that in individuals vulnerable to eating disorders this may result in disturbed eating behaviours. PMID:22018958

  16. Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Zeger, S. )

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of approximately 100 student nurses in Los Angeles was recruited for a diary study of the acute effects of air pollution. Smoking histories and presence of asthma and other allergies were determined by questionnaire. Diaries were completed daily and collected weekly for as long as 3 yr. Air pollution was measured at a monitoring location within 2.5 miles of the school. Incidence and duration of a symptom were modeled separately. Pack-years of cigarettes were predictive of the number of episodes of coughing (p less than 0.0001) and of bringing up phlegm (p less than 0.0001). Current smoking, rather than cumulative smoking, was a better predictor of the duration of a phlegm episode (p less than 0.0001). Controlling for personal smoking, a smoking roommate increased the risk of an episode of phlegm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, p less than 0.001), but not of cough. Excluding asthmatics (who may be medicated), increased the odds ratio for passive smoking to 1.76 (p less than 0.0001). In logistic regression models controlling for temperature and serial correlation between days, an increase of 1 SD in carbon monoxide exposure (6.5 ppm) was associated with increased risk of headache (OR = 1.09, p less than 0.001), photochemical oxidants (7.4 pphm) were associated with increased risk of chest discomfort (OR = 1.17, p less than 0.001) and eye irritation (OR = 1.20 p less than 0.001), and nitrogen dioxide (9.1 pphm) was associated with increased risk of phlegm (OR = 1.08 p less than 0.01), sore throats (OR = 1.26, p less than 0.001), and eye irritation (OR = 1.16, p less than 0.001).

  17. Breastfeeding modifies the effects of environment tobacco smoke exposure on respiratory diseases and symptoms in Chinese children: the Seven Northeast Cities Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Q; Qian, Z; Wang, J; Lu, T; Lin, S; Zeng, X-W; Liu, R-Q; Zhu, Y; Qin, X-D; Yuan, P; Zhou, Y; Li, M; Hao, Y-T; Dong, G-H

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potential effect of interaction between breastfeeding and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on respiratory health, we studied 31 049 children (aged 2-14 years) from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China. Parents of the children completed standardized questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illness, feeding methods, ETS exposure, and other associated risk factors. Breastfeeding was defined as having been mainly breastfed for 3 months or more. The results showed that the association of ETS exposure with childhood respiratory conditions/diseases was modified by breastfeeding, and the association for nonbreastfed children was stronger than that for breastfed children. In particular, for nonbreastfed children, the odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of current ETS exposure asthma was 1.71 (95% CI: 1.43-2.05); however, the OR for breastfed children was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.20-1.48), indicating that the interactions between breastfeeding and current ETS exposure on asthma were statistically significant (P = 0.019). When stratified by school (kindergarten vs. elementary school), breastfeeding was more protective for asthma-related symptoms among children from kindergarten. In conclusion, this study shows that breastfeeding is associated with smaller associations between ETS exposure and respiratory conditions in children, suggesting that breastfeeding reduces susceptibility to the respiratory effects of ETS. PMID:26264239

  18. Exposure to Household Air Pollution from Wood Combustion and Association with Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Nonsmoking Women: Results from the RESPIRE Trial, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Lie, Rolv T.; Bakke, Per; Balmes, John R.; Smith, Kirk R.; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Background With 40% of the world’s population relying on solid fuel, household air pollution (HAP) represents a major preventable risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Meta-analyses have confirmed this relationship; however, constituent studies are observational, with virtually none measuring exposure directly. Objectives We estimated associations between HAP exposure and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young, nonsmoking women in rural Guatemala, using measured carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in exhaled breath and personal air to assess exposure. Methods The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) Guatemala study was a trial comparing respiratory outcomes among 504 women using improved chimney stoves versus traditional cookstoves. The present analysis included 456 women with data from postintervention surveys including interviews at 6, 12, and 18 months (respiratory symptoms) and spirometry and CO (ppm) in exhaled breath measurements. Personal CO was measured using passive diffusion tubes at variable times during the study. Associations between CO concentrations and respiratory health were estimated using random intercept regression models. Results: Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or chest tightness) during the previous 6 months were positively associated with breath CO measured at the same time of symptom reporting and with average personal CO concentrations during the follow-up period. CO in exhaled breath at the same time as spirometry was associated with lower lung function [average reduction in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) for a 10% increase in CO was 3.33 mL (95% CI: –0.86, –5.81)]. Lung function measures were not significantly associated with average postintervention personal CO concentrations. Conclusions: Our results provide further support for the effects of HAP exposures on airway inflammation. Further longitudinal research modeling continuous

  19. Occurrence of respiratory symptoms in persons with restrictive ventilatory impairment compared with persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The PLATINO study.

    PubMed

    Nonato, Nívia L; Nascimento, Oliver A; Padilla, Rogelio P; de Oca, Maria M; Tálamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmen; López, Maria V; Celli, Bartolomé; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually complain of symptoms such as cough, sputum, wheezing, and dyspnea. Little is known about clinical symptoms in individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and type of respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD to those reported by individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment in the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar study. Between 2002 and 2004, individuals ≥40 years of age from five cities in Latin America performed pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry and had their respiratory symptoms recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Among the 5315 individuals evaluated, 260 (5.1%) had a restrictive spirometric diagnosis (forced vital capacity (FVC) < lower limit of normal (LLN) with forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) ≥ LLN; American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) 2005) and 610 (11.9%) were diagnosed with an obstructive pattern (FEV1/FVC < LLN; ATS/ERS 2005). Patients with mild restriction wheezed more ((30.8%) vs. (17.8%); p < 0.028). No difference was seen in dyspnea, cough, and sputum between the two groups after adjusting for severity stage. The health status scores for the short form 12 questionnaire were similar in restricted and obstructed patients for both physical (48.4 ± 9.4 vs. 48.3 ± 9.8) and mental (50.8 ± 10.6 vs. 50.0 ± 11.5) domains. Overall, respiratory symptoms are not frequently reported by patients with restricted and obstructed patterns as defined by spirometry. Wheezing was more frequent in patients with restricted pattern compared with those with obstructive ventilatory defect. However, the prevalence of cough, sputum production, and dyspnea are not different between the two groups when adjusted by the same severity stage. PMID:26041119

  20. Exposure to secondhand smoke from neighbours and respiratory symptoms in never-smoking adolescents in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lok Tung; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home from neighbours in Hong Kong adolescents and its association with respiratory symptoms in never-smokers. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 79 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Participants 61 810 secondary 1 (USA grade 7) to 7 students, in which 50 762 never-smokers were identified and included in the analysis of the association between SHS exposure at home from neighbours and respiratory symptoms. Main outcome measures Smoking status, family smoking status, SHS exposure at home from inside the home and from neighbours in the past 7 days, respiratory symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics were reported. Adjusted ORs (AORs) of respiratory symptoms for SHS exposure from the 2 sources in never-smokers were calculated using logistic regression. Results In all students, 33.2% were exposed to SHS at home, including 16.2% from inside the home only, 10.0% from neighbours only and 7.0% from both. The prevalence of SHS exposure from neighbours was 17.1%, including 13.5% for 1–4 days/week and 3.6% for 5–7 days/week. In never-smokers (n=50 762), respiratory symptoms were significantly associated with SHS exposure from neighbours with AORs (95% CI) of 1.29 (1.20 to 1.39) for any exposure (p<0.001), 1.21 (1.12 to 1.31) for 1–4 days/week (p<0.001) and 1.63 (1.44 to 1.86) for 5–7 days/week (p<0.001) (P for trend <0.001). Compared with no SHS exposure at home from any source, the AORs were 1.16 (1.07 to 1.25) for SHS from inside the home only (p<0.001), 1.20 (1.11 to 1.31) from neighbours only (p<0.001), and 1.74 (1.56 to 1.94) from both (p<0.001). Conclusions SHS exposure at home from neighbours was prevalent in Hong Kong adolescents, and was associated with respiratory symptoms in never-smokers. SHS exposure at home may be underestimated by ignoring the neighbouring source. Smoke-free housing policy is needed to protect children and adolescents from harms of SHS

  1. High prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in the development section of a manually operated coal mine in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mamuya, Simon HD; Bråtveit, Magne; Mashalla, Yohana; Moen, Bente E

    2007-01-01

    Background Few studies of miners have been carried out in African countries; most are from South Africa, where the working conditions are assumed to be better than in the rest of Africa. Several studies have focused on respiratory disorders among miners, but development workers responsible for creating underground road ways have not been studied explicitly. This is the first study assessing the associations between exposure to dust and quartz and respiratory symptoms among coal mine workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania, focusing on development workers, as they have the highest exposure to coal dust. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 production workers from a coal mine. Interviews were performed using modified standardized questionnaires to elicit information on occupational history, demographics, smoking habits and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. The relationships between current dust exposure as well as cumulative respirable dust and quartz and symptoms were studied by group comparisons as well as logistic regression. Results Workers from the development group had the highest dust exposure, with arithmetic mean of 10.3 mg/m3 for current respirable dust and 1.268 mg/m3 for quartz. Analogous exposure results for mine workers were 0.66 mg/m3 and 0.03 mg/m3, respectively; and for other development workers were 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.10 mg/m3, respectively. The workers from the development section had significantly higher prevalence of the acute symptoms of dry cough (45.7%), breathlessness (34.8%) and blocked nose (23.9%). In addition, development workers had significantly more chronic symptoms of breathlessness (17.0%) than the mine workers (6.4%) and the other production workers (2.4%). The highest decile of cumulative exposure to respirable dust was significantly associated with cough (OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.06, 7.97) as were cumulative exposure to quartz and cough (OR = 2.87, CI 1.05, 7.88), compared with the reference

  2. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms in children: application of measurement error correction techniques to utilize data from multiple surrogates.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Weller, Edie; Dockery, Douglas W; Neas, Lucas M; Spiegelman, Donna

    2006-07-01

    In 1991, Neas et al. reported that indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), a byproduct of high-temperature combustion, was significantly associated with lower respiratory symptoms among a cohort of 1,159 white children aged 7-11 years in six US cities studied from 1983 to 1988. For each 15 p.p.b. increment of NO(2), the multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=[1.1, 1.7]). Although indoor NO(2) concentration in the ambient air was assessed only in a subset of the children, the prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms and surrogate exposure variables were available in all of the children at the time of the indoor monitoring program. This paper evaluates the effect of indoor NO(2) exposure on the annual risk of lower respiratory symptoms by applying a regression calibration method to the 2,891 children in the overall study with complete covariate and outcome data, 1,137 of whom had NO(2) directly measured and 1,754 of whom only surrogate exposure data were available. An estimate of the indoor annual NO(2) exposure effect (p.p.b.) is obtained, which is adjusted for measurement error induced by the use of surrogate NO(2) sources among the 1,754. These sources include the presence of a gas stove with or without a pilot light, the presence of a kerosene space heater, the presence of a wood stove, and the usage of a stove for heating, and residential characteristics, including fan usage for kitchen ventilation and the total number of rooms in the home. After adjusting for age, gender, city, parental history of respiratory diseases, and smoking inside the children's home (packs/day), a 15-p.p.b. increment in NO(2) exposure was found to be associated with a significant 50% increased annual risk of lower respiratory symptoms (OR=1.5, 95% CI=[1.2, 1.8]). Simulation results indicated that, under conditions similar to those observed in these data, the estimator is unbiased and has a coverage probability close to the nominal value. Using the

  3. Respiratory symptoms and lung function effects of domestic exposure to tobacco smoke and cooking by gas in non-smoking women in Singapore.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P; Hui, K P; Tan, W C

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES--To investigate the effects of passive exposure to tobacco smoke and gas cooking at home on respiratory symptoms and lung function of non-smoking women. SETTING--Evidence on the effects of passive smoking and exposure to nitrogen dioxide from gas cooking on the respiratory health of adults is limited and variable. Over 97% of women in Singapore do not smoke, and a principal source of indoor air pollution for housewives is passive smoking and gas cooking. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional (prevalence) study of a population based sample of 2868 adults aged 20 to 74 years in Singapore. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect data on passive smoking, gas cooking, respiratory symptoms, and other relevant variables. Passive smoking was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke from one or more members of the household who had ever smoked. Gas cooking was defined in terms of the weekly frequency of gas cooking, as well as the frequency with which the respondent's kitchen was filled with heavy cooking fumes (rarely, occasionally, often). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured by using a portable Micro-spirometer. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate relative odds of association for respiratory symptoms and FEV1 effect, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. PARTICIPANTS--Of a total of 1438 women in the sample, 1282 women who had never smoked provided questionnaire data and 1008 women provided acceptable readings of FEV1 for analysis. MAIN RESULTS--Passive smoking was significantly associated with greater relative odds of usual or chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, and breathlessness on exertion, as well as lower FEV1. Greater relative odds of respiratory symptoms were also associated with the weekly frequency of gas cooking, although these results were statistically insignificant. Chronic cough and phlegm and breathlessness on exertion, however, were significantly

  4. Low testosterone and sexual symptoms in men with acute coronary syndrome can be used to predict major adverse cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, A; Mizia-Stec, K; Wierzbicka-Chmiel, J; Rychlik, S; Muras, A; Mizia, M; Bienkowski, J

    2015-11-01

    Low total testosterone (TT) and sexual symptoms are common among men with coronary artery disease, however its impact on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) is still debatable. We investigated whether low TT and coexisting sexual symptoms in men with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be used to predict the incidence of MACE. In the prospective study 120 consecutive men (mean age 58 ± 9 years; diabetes 27%; current smokers 58%; left ventricular ejection fraction 50 ± 10%) with ACS were included. The group of men with the presence of three sexual symptoms (decreased frequency of morning erections, a lack of sexual thoughts and erectile dysfunction) and with TT serum concentration <3.2 ng/mL was distinguished. All of the patients had their prognosis assessed according to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE Score 2.0). Primary composite endpoint - MACE (recurrent ischaemia, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and death) and secondary endpoint - in stent restenosis (ISR) were registered during the 18.3 month follow-up period. The mean TT level in the entire group was 3.7 ± 0.5 ng/mL. Low TT was diagnosed in 63 (52.5%) men. Both low TT and sexual symptoms were diagnosed in 57 (47%) participants. During the follow-up, 29 (24.2%) participants experienced MACE, 20 (16.6%) men ISR. In the Cox proportional hazards regression, high risk of death on the GRACE score (HR 3.16; 95% CI: 1.5-6.6; p = 0.002), the presence of low TT and sexual symptoms (HR 2.75; 95% CI: 1.26-6.04; p = 0.02) independently predicted an incidence of a MACE (p = 0.006). For the secondary endpoint only low TT and sexual symptoms (HR 2.68; 95% CI: 1.03-6.94; p = 0.034) were independent covariates which predicted IRS. Low TT which coexists with sexual symptoms in males with ACS can be used to predict MACE, especially IRS independently of classic cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26460501

  5. Evaluation of clinical bradycardiac effect and respiratory adverse effect of β-blocking agents in coronary computed tomography angiography based on theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujito, Kaori; Takayanagi, Risa; Kimura, Koji; Yokoyama, Haruko; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    β-blocking agents are used for patients with tachycardia to improve the image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). In this study, we analyzed the clinical bradycardiac effects and the adverse respiratory effects of five β-blocking agents (landiolol, esmolol, propranolol, metoprolol and atenolol) used for CCTA. The changes of the occupancy binding to β1 or β2 receptor of these drugs were calculated based on the receptor occupancy theory. Thereafter, we predicted both the rate of heart rate decline (▲HR) as a clinical effect and the rate of decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (▲FEV1) as an adverse effect, by using the ternary complex model. The results showed that the drugs with ▲HR greater than 10 %, necessary for CCTA, were as follows: landiolol at 13.5 %, propranolol at 11.0 %, and atenolol at 22.6 %. The ▲HR values at the end of CCTA for those three drugs were 0.3, 6.7, and 22.9 %, respectively. It is desirable for the bradycardiac effect to disappear at the end of CCTA. Therefore, landiolol is thought to be a preferable drug. On the other hand, ▲FEV1 at start and end of CCTA for those three drugs was 0.04-2.5, 34.9-40.3, and 6.0-6.1 %, respectively. Our results suggested that landiolol has the most appropriate effect and safety for patients with tachycardia who are undergoing a CCTA procedure. PMID:25510848

  6. Presentation of respiratory symptoms prior to diagnosis in general practice: a case–control study examining free text and morbidity codes

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Richard A; Chen, Ying; Croft, Peter; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2015-01-01

    Objective General practitioners can record patients’ presenting symptoms by using a code or free text. We compared breathlessness and wheeze symptom codes and free text recorded prior to diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Design A case–control study. Setting 11 general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, contributing to the Consultations in Primary Care Archive consultation database. Participants Cases with an incident diagnosis of IHD, COPD or asthma in 2010 were matched to controls (four per case) with no such diagnosis. All prior consultations with codes for breathlessness or wheeze symptoms between 2004 and 2010 were identified. Free text of cases and controls were also searched for mention of these symptoms. Results 592 cases were identified, 194 (33%) with IHD, 182 (31%) with COPD and 216 (37%) with asthma. 148 (25%) cases and 125 (5%) controls had a prior coded consultation for breathlessness. Prevalence of a prior coded symptom of breathlessness or wheeze was 30% in cases, 6% in controls. Median time from first coded symptom to diagnosis among cases was 57 weeks. After adding symptoms recorded in text, prevalence rose to 62% in cases and 25% in controls. Median time from first recorded symptom increased to 144 weeks. The associations between diagnosis of cases and prior symptom codes was strong IHD relative risk ratio (RRR) 3.21 (2.15 to 4.79); COPD RRR 9.56 (6.74 to 13.60); asthma RRR 10.30 (7.17 to 14.90). Conclusions There is an association between IHD, COPD and asthma diagnosis and earlier consultation for respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are often noted in free text by GPs long before they are coded. Free text searching may aid investigation of early presentation of long-term conditions using GP databases, and may be an important direction for future research. PMID:26070795

  7. Pulmonary involvement in lifelong non-smoking patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis without respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ayhan-Ardic, F Figen; Oken, Oznur; Yorgancioglu, Z Rezan; Ustun, Nilgun; Gokharman, F Dilek

    2006-03-01

    Pulmonary involvement seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has been detected increasingly by using highly sensitive diagnostic techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, HRCT findings in healthy controls and the effects of smoking and drugs have not been well studied. The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the relationships between disease-specific clinical, laboratory, HRCT and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings in 20 RA patients using methotrexate (MTX) and 20 AS patients using sulphasalazine who were non-smokers and exhibited asymptomatic respiratory signs. For this purpose, a total of 60 persons (40 patients and 20 healthy controls) were included in this study. A restrictive pattern on PFT was detected in four patients (20%) with AS, one patient with RA and one control (p<0.05). Fourteen patients (70%) with RA and ten patients (50%) with AS had positive HRCT findings. Only one patient (5%) in the control group had abnormal HRCT findings (p<0.05). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) was the most frequently seen HRCT finding in both the RA (35%) and AS (20%) groups. The chest expansion measurement, the score of the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were statistically significantly better in patients with AS having normal HRCT than in those with abnormal findings (p<0.05). There was no correlation detected between HRCT and duration of disease, disease activity markers, functional indexes and PFT in patients with RA and AS. HRCT is a sensitive tool in detecting ILD in patients with RA and AS with no signs and symptoms of pulmonary involvement and may be an integral part of such work-up. However, future prospective studies are needed to better determine if HRCT is in fact a predictor of subsequent MTX toxicity. PMID:16091838

  8. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688

  9. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    PubMed

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. PMID:26826976

  10. Associations between specific psychotic symptoms and specific childhood adversities are mediated by attachment styles: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Bentall, Richard P; Shevlin, Mark; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Sellwood, William

    2014-07-30

    Accumulated evidence over the past decade consistently demonstrates a relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis in adulthood. There is some evidence of specific associations between childhood sexual abuse and hallucinations, and between insecure attachment and paranoia. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey were used in assessing whether current attachment styles influenced the association between adverse childhood experiences and psychotic symptoms in adulthood. Hallucinations and paranoid beliefs were differentially associated with sexual abuse (rape and sexual molestation) and neglect, respectively. Sexual abuse and neglect were also associated with depression. The relationship between neglect and paranoid beliefs was fully mediated via anxious and avoidant attachment. The relationship between sexual molestation and hallucinations was independent of attachment style. The relationship between rape and hallucinations was partially mediated via anxious attachment; however this effect was no longer present when depression was included as a mediating variable. The findings highlight the importance of addressing and understanding childhood experiences within the context of current attachment styles in clinical interventions for patients with psychosis. PMID:24726818

  11. The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. Methods: All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Results: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. Conclusion: EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations. PMID:24626074

  12. Acute respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in other subjects living near a coal-fired plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pershagen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Daily symptom rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in other subjects with presumed high sensitivity to air pollution who lived near a coal-fired power plant were compared with 24 h ambient air concentrations of NO/SUB/2, SO/SUB/2, soot and suspended particles, as well as with emissions from the plant. The mean concentrations of each of the pollutants during the 4-month study period were below 30GAMMA/m/SUP/3, and no single 24h concentration exceeded 100GAMMA/m/SUP/3. There were no consistent associations between plant emissions and pollutant levels, or between these two variables and daily symptom rates. The results indicate that the coal-fired plant was not of major importance for the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms in the surrounding population.

  13. An epidemiologic investigation of forced expiratory volume at 1 second and respiratory symptoms among employees of a toluene diisocyanate production plant.

    PubMed

    Olsen, G W; Shellenberger, R; Bodner, K M; Flores, G H; Emmitte, J A; Bond, G G; Saunders, J H

    1989-08-01

    Pulmonary function tests were done and compared to current and past potential exposure levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) for 57 TDI manufacturing workers and 89 workers not exposed to TDI or other known respiratory hazards. The average TDI plant experience was 4.1 years (standard deviation = 2.8). Routine industrial hygiene measurements have shown TDI exposure below a time-weighted average of 0.005 parts per million and a short-term exposure level of 0.02 parts per million. A certified industrial hygienist ranked department and job classification by level of potential exposure to TDI (none, low, moderate, and high). A questionnaire was administered to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. Using backward regression analysis, cumulative pack-years of cigarette smoking and prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms were statistically significant predictors of a standardized forced expiratory volume at 1 second observed v expected difference; however, TDI exposure, whether classified as current, highest career level, cumulative, or cumulative highest-to-date, was not associated with a decline in forced expiratory volume. PMID:2547915

  14. Characterization of serum platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase. Correlation between deficiency of serum PAF acetylhydrolase and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children.

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, M; Miyake, T; Yamanaka, T; Sugatani, J; Suzuki, Y; Sakata, S; Araki, Y; Matsumoto, M

    1988-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase has been recognized as an enzyme that inactivates PAF. We developed a convenient and reproducible method for determining human serum PAF acetylhydrolase activity. The assay was based on measurement of [14C]acetate produced from 1-O-alkyl-2-[14C]-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine upon precipitation of the complex of radioactive substrate and albumin with TCA. The apparent Km value of PAF acetylhydrolase (near the physiological concentration of serum protein) was 1.5 X 10(-4) M PAF. 32 subjects with serum PAF acetylhydrolase deficiency were found among 816 healthy Japanese adults. The low PAF acetylhydrolase activity in the deficient serum might not be due to the presence of enzyme inhibitor. Both the sensitivity to PAF and the metabolism of PAF in platelets from PAF acetylhydrolase-deficient subjects were almost the same as those of normal subjects. Deficiency in serum PAF acetylhydrolase appeared to be transmitted by autosomal recessive heredity among five Japanese families. Among healthy adults, healthy children, and asthmatic children, who were grouped into five classes on the basis of respiratory symptoms (remission, wheezy, mild, moderate, and severe groups), the probability of PAF acetylhydrolase deficiency was significantly higher in groups with severe symptoms (moderate and severe) (P less than 0.01). These results suggest that deficiency of serum PAF acetylhydrolase might be one of the factors leading to severe respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children. Images PMID:3198761

  15. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-09-01

    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  16. Respiratory disease in United States farmers

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; Long, Stuart; Rinsky, Jessica L; Henneberger, Paul K; Salo, Paivi M; Zeldin, Darryl C; London, Stephanie J; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Farmers may be at increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes compared with the general population due to their regular exposures to dusts, animals and chemicals. However, early life farm exposures to microbial agents may result in reduced risk. Understanding respiratory disease risk among farmers and identifying differences between farmers and other populations may lead to better understanding of the contribution of environmental exposures to respiratory disease risk in the general population. Methods We compared the prevalence of self-reported respiratory outcomes in 43548 participants from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort of farmers and their spouses from Iowa and North Carolina, with data from adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) over the same period (2005–2010). Results AHS participants had lower prevalences of respiratory diseases (asthma, adult-onset asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema), but higher prevalences of current respiratory symptoms (wheeze, cough and phlegm) even after controlling for smoking, body mass index and population characteristics. The overall prevalence of asthma in the AHS (7.2%, 95% CI 6.9 to 7.4) was 52% of that in NHANES (13.8%, 95% CI 13.3 to 14.3), although the prevalence of adult-onset asthma among men did not differ (3.6% for AHS, 3.7% for NHANES). Conversely, many respiratory symptoms were more common in the AHS than NHANES, particularly among men. Conclusions These findings suggest that farmers and their spouses have lower risk for adult-onset respiratory diseases compared with the general population, and potentially higher respiratory irritation as evidenced by increased respiratory symptoms. PMID:24913223

  17. [A case of relapsing polychondritis with oculobulbar symptoms and successful treatment of respiratory failure with BiPAP].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Yamazaki, M; Takei, Y; Miyazaki, A; Hanyu, N

    1999-10-01

    A 66-year-old man developed diplopia, ptosis, dysphagia, and acute respiratory failure. The initial diagnosis was myasthenia gravis and prednisolone had been administrated for three years. Because of recurrent upper respiratory infections, prednisolone was tapered off. Two months later, auricular chondritis, arthritis, and conjunctivitis appeared. He was diagnosed as having relapsing polychondritis on the basis of histological findings of the ear lobe biopsy. Reinstituted prednisolone had the effect on the auricular chondritis, arthritis, and conjunctivitis, but no effect on dysphagia, hoarseness, and respiratory failure caused by the deformity of the pharynx and airway. Tracheal collapse usually causes rapid death, so early tracheostomy and the use of endotracheal prostheses have been recommended in patients with airway obstruction from relapsing polychondritis, but such surgical management can only partially open up the large airways and has no effect on smaller airways. In this case tracheostomy and endoluminal stent placement have helped improve the patient's respiratory failure, but have had little effect on its aggravation at night in the supine position. The use of BiPAP after surgical management can be an effective treatment for airway involvement in relapsing polychondritis probably because it keeps the narrowed airways from collapsing, especially at night. PMID:10655766

  18. Heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-03-01

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM2.5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p < 0.05), however, no significant difference was found for chromium and manganese in PM2.5 and in blood. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and wheeze of children was higher in Guiyu compared to Haojiang (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for the prevalence of asthma in children between Guiyu and Haojiang. Living in Guiyu was positively associated with blood lead (B = 0.196, p < 0.001), blood cadmium (B = 0.148, p < 0.05) and cough (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.30-4.32; p < 0.01). Blood lead>5 μg/dL was significantly associated with asthma (OR, 9.50; 95% CI, 1.16-77.49). Higher blood chromium and blood manganese were associated with more cough and wheeze, respectively. Our data suggest that living in e-waste exposed area may lead to increased levels of heavy metals, and accelerated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma. PMID:26803791

  19. Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran) and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Farhang, Lila; Mahmoodinia, Mahbobeh; Boskabady, Morteza; Heydari, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of water pipe (WP) smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25) were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Results: A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6%) including 24 males (6.5%) and 34 females (11.3%). All pulmonary functional test (PFT) values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS) in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between PFT values and positive correlation between RS and duration, rate, as well as total smoking (duration X rate) (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms. PMID:25125810

  20. [Examination of the lower respiratory tract of Psittacinae and Amazoninae species by means of reconstructive transmission computed tomography. 2: Examination of parrots with respiratory symptoms].

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M E; Schuhmacher, F; Sohn, H G

    1998-04-01

    To date, the lack of clinical signs, the misjudgement of possible signs and the limits of available, diagnostic tools in non-domesticated birds have made the diagnosis of respiratory disease in tropic psittacines very difficult. In accordance to this, the examinations performed prove that many diseased psittacines are diagnostically misjudged. The disease was either not noticed at all, or was only noticed in advanced stages when therapy was without success. With the use of a non-invasive diagnostic tool--computed tomography--pathological alterations in diseased gray parrots and amazons were able to be assessed based on anatomical data gained in the previous investigations on healthy birds (see part 1). In a next step results gained by CT examinations were compared to those obtained by conventional radiography. In contrast to the conventional radiography, the CT was able to demonstrate less evident alterations in earlier stages of development, thus solving problems of diagnosis which are specific for avian medicine. Especially in endangered animals, the use of such a diagnostic technique in combination with other conventional methods should be highly considered. A quick and early recognition of disease, paving the way for a successful therapy, is the fundamental prerequisite for the preservation and breeding of endangered species, making it an important, veterinary contribution to animal conservation. PMID:9587986

  1. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates. PMID:8334539

  2. Individual Differences in Self-Regulatory Failure and Menstrual Dysfunction Predict Upper Respiratory Infection Symptoms and Antibody Response to Flu Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Strauman, Timothy J.; Coe, Christopher L.; McCrudden, Megan C.; Vieth, Angela Z.; Kwapil, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Prior research indicates that cognitive priming manipulations that activate personal goals acutely increase or decrease natural killer cell cytotoxicity depending on whether individuals see themselves as making or failing to make progress toward their goals. Those findings in a laboratory setting revealed a psychobiological pathway whereby experiences of failure can influence health, but did not assess the impact of chronic perceived success/failure in goal pursuit on actual health outcomes. Three new studies investigated whether individual differences in perceived failure to attain personal goals influenced the self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory infections (URIs) as well as antibody response to flu immunization. Based on pilot data in young women, it also was hypothesized that the occurrence of menstrual dysfunction might interact with goal pursuit failure to more specifically predict cold and flu symptoms and optimal responses to vaccination. Perceived failure to attain goals did predict the reporting of URI symptoms as well as antibody levels post-immunization, both alone and in combination with menstrual dysfunction. PMID:18294813

  3. A Study of Byssinosis, Chronic Respiratory Symptoms, and Ventilatory Capacity in English and Dutch Cotton Workers, with Special Reference to Atmospheric Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, B.; Schilling, R. S. F.; Walford, Joan

    1964-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of 414 English and 980 Dutch male cotton workers was undertaken to determine the prevalence of byssinosis and respiratory symptoms, and to compare the ventilatory capacities in the two populations, with particular reference to the influence of air pollution. The English workers were employed in six mills in Lancashire and the Dutch workers in three mills in Almelo spinning similar grades of cotton. The methods used included a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and illnesses, the collection and examination of sputum, and the measurement of the forced expiratory volume over 0·75 sec. Concentrations of smoke and sulphur dioxide were measured in the English and Dutch towns. The crude rates for byssinosis were similar, 13·5% and 17% respectively in the English and Dutch card and blow rooms, and 1·5% and 1·6% respectively in the spinning rooms. The English workers had significantly higher prevalences of persistent cough and persistent phlegm and significantly lower indirect maximum breathing capacities. These findings were supported by the results of a sputum survey. Nearly twice as many English produced specimens, and the mean volume of sputum was greater for the English workers. The prevalence of bronchitis, defined as persistent phlegm and at least one chest illness during the past three years, causing absence from work, was higher in the English than in the Dutch workers in both types of work room, but not significantly so after standardizing for differences in age. Since there are important differences in the social security systems of the two countries, which may encourage more absence from illness among the Dutch, a comparison of bronchitis thus defined is likely to be invalid. The higher prevalences of respiratory symptoms and lower ventilatory capacities in the English are unlikely to be due to observer error. They are discussed in relation to smoking habits, exposure to cotton dust, and air pollution. The most likely explanation

  4. Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

  5. Salivary IgA response and upper respiratory tract infection symptoms during a 21-week competitive season in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Mortatti, Arnaldo L; Arruda, Ademir F S; Freitas, Camila G; de Arruda, Miguel; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-02-01

    Sports training and competition are significant sources of stress, especially for young athletes. It is well known that physiological and psychological stressors induce neuroendocrine responses that could modulate immune system function. However, to date, little is known about the immune responses of young soccer players during a competitive season. Therefore, this study examined the effects of a 21-week competitive season divided into preseason, competitive season, and detraining on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms, and salivary cortisol in preadolescent male soccer players. Thirty-four young soccer players agreed to participate, and 26 (12.9 ± 0.2 years) completed the entire study. The investigation period was structured as follows: a 12-week preparatory training phase (preseason training), a 7-week competitive and a 2-week detraining phase. Resting saliva samples were taken to determine cortisol and SIgA responses. The players were required to complete a weekly log during the entire investigation reporting every sign or symptoms consistent with URTI. A significant increase in SIgA secretion rate and a decrease in URTI symptoms were observed after the 2-week detraining period (p < 0.05). No change was observed for cortisol during the study. These results indicate that training and competition demands affect the mucosal immune responses of young athletes. In addition, a short-prophylactic period (2-week detraining period) after a competitive period may attenuate mucosal immunosuppression related to URTI symptoms. Sport coaches should monitor markers of mucosal immune function to minimize illness that ultimately might lead to a decrease in performance. PMID:24473469

  6. Contributions of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein to a diagnosis of pneumonia in acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hopstaken, R M; Muris, J W; Knottnerus, J A; Kester, A D; Rinkens, P E; Dinant, G J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tests enabling general practitioners (GPs) to differentiate rapidly between pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are needed to prevent increase of bacterial resistance by unjustified antibiotic prescribing. AIMS: To assess the diagnostic value of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) for pneumonia; to derive a prediction rule for the presence of pneumonia; and to identify a low-risk group of patients who do not require antibiotic treatment. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Fifteen GP surgeries in the southern part of The Netherlands. METHOD: Twenty-five GPs recorded clinical information and diagnosis in 246 adult patients presenting with LRTI. Venous blood samples for CRP and ESR were taken and chest radiographs (reference standard) were made. Odds ratios, describing the relationships between discrete diagnostic variables and reference standard (pneumonia or no pneumonia) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of ESR, CRP, and final models for pneumonia was performed. Prediction rules for pneumonia were derived from multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Dry cough, diarrhoea, and a recorded temperature of > or = 38 degrees C were independent and statistically significant predictors of pneumonia, whereas abnormal pulmonary auscultation and clinical diagnosis of pneumonia by the GPs were not. ESR and CRP had higher diagnostic odds ratios than any of the symptoms and signs. Adding CRP to the final 'symptoms and signs' model significantly increased the probability of correct diagnosis. Applying a prediction rule for low-risk patients, including a CRP of < 20, 80 of the 193 antibiotic prescriptions could have been prevented with a maximum risk of 2.5% of missing a pneumonia case. CONCLUSION: Most symptoms and signs traditionally associated with pneumonia are not predictive of pneumonia in general practice. The prediction rule for low

  7. Notes from the Field: Respiratory Symptoms and Skin Irritation Among Hospital Workers Using a New Disinfection Product - Pennsylvania, 2015.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Brie; Casey, Megan L; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Edwards, Nicole; Fedan, Kathleen B; Cummings, Kristin J

    2016-01-01

    In March 2014, a new disinfection product, consisting of hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, and acetic acid, was introduced at a Pennsylvania hospital to aid in the control of health care-associated infections. The product is an Environmental Protection Agency-registered non-bleach sporicide advertised as a one-step cleaner, disinfectant, and deodorizer. According to the manufacturer's safety data sheet, the product requires no personal protective equipment when it is diluted with water by an automated dispenser before use. On January 30, 2015, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH) received a confidential employee request to conduct a health hazard evaluation at the hospital. The request cited concerns about exposure of hospital environmental services staff members to the product and reported symptoms among persons who had used the product that included eye and nasal problems, asthma-like symptoms, shortness of breath, skin problems, wheeze, chest tightness, and cough. PMID:27100053

  8. Absence of back to school peaks in human rhinovirus detections and respiratory symptoms in a cohort of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Tovey, Euan R; Willenborg, Christiana M; Toelle, Brett G; Ampon, Rose; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Strachan, Roxanne; Belessis, Yvonne; Jaffe, Adam; Reddel, Helen K; Crisafulli, Daniel; Marks, Guy B; Rawlinson, William D

    2016-04-01

    Much of what is known about the seasonality of human rhinovirus (hRV) infections has been learned from the study of acute asthma exacerbations presenting to emergency care, including those among children at the start of the school term. Much less is known about the patterns of hRVs in the community. In this study, viruses and day-to-day symptoms of asthma and colds were monitored twice weekly in 67 children with asthma aged 5-12 years, over a 15 month period in Sydney, Australia. Overall hRV was detected in 314/1232 (25.5%) of nasal wash samples and 142/1231 (11.5%) of exhaled breath samples; of these, 231 and 24 respectively were genotyped. HRVs were detected with similar prevalence rate throughout the year, including no peak in hRV prevalence following return to school. No peaks were seen in asthma and cold symptoms using twice-weekly diary records. However, over the same period in the community, there were peaks in asthma emergency visits both at a large local hospital and in state-wide hospitalizations, following both return to school (February) and in late autumn (May) in children of the same age. This study suggests that hRV infections are common throughout the year among children, and differences in virus prevalence alone may not account for peaks in asthma symptoms. PMID:26331908

  9. Prevalence, codetection and seasonal distribution of upper airway viruses and bacteria in children with acute respiratory illnesses with cough as a symptom.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, K F; Grimwood, K; Sloots, T P; Whiley, D M; Acworth, J P; Phillips, N; Goyal, V; Chang, A B

    2016-06-01

    Most studies exploring the role of upper airway viruses and bacteria in paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARI) focus on specific clinical diagnoses and/or do not account for virus-bacteria interactions. We aimed to describe the frequency and predictors of virus and bacteria codetection in children with ARI and cough, irrespective of clinical diagnosis. Bilateral nasal swabs, demographic, clinical and risk factor data were collected at enrollment in children aged <15 years presenting to an emergency department with an ARI and where cough was a symptom. Swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 17 respiratory viruses and seven respiratory bacteria. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between child characteristics and codetection of the organisms of interest. Between December 2011 and August 2014, swabs were collected from 817 (93.3%) of 876 enrolled children, median age 27.7 months (interquartile range 13.9-60.3 months). Overall, 740 (90.6%) of 817 specimens were positive for any organism. Both viruses and bacteria were detected in 423 specimens (51.8%). Factors associated with codetection were age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for age <12 months = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 7.9; age 12 to <24 months = 6.0, 95% CI 3.7, 9.8; age 24 to <60 months = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9), male gender (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.1, 2.0), child care attendance (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.8) and winter enrollment (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3, 3.0). Haemophilus influenzae dominated the virus-bacteria pairs. Virus-H. influenzae interactions in ARI should be investigated further, especially as the contribution of nontypeable H. influenzae to acute and chronic respiratory diseases is being increasingly recognized. PMID:26916343

  10. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health

  11. Lipid-Laden Alveolar Macrophages and pH Monitoring in Gastroesophageal Reflux-Related Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kitz, R.; Boehles, H. J.; Rosewich, M.; Rose, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages and pH monitoring have been used in the diagnosis of chronic aspiration in children with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). This study was conducted to prove a correlation between the detection of alimentary pulmonary fat phagocytosis and an increasing amount of proximal gastroesophageal reflux. It was assumed that proximal gastroesophageal reflux better correlates with aspiration than distal GER. Patients from 6 months to 16 years with unexplained recurrent wheezy bronchitis and bronchial hyperreactivity, or recurrent pneumonia with chronic cough underwent 24-hour double-channel pH monitoring and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Aspiration of gastric content was determined by counting lipid laden alveolar macrophages from BAL specimens. There were no correlations between any pH-monitoring parameters and counts of lipid-laden macrophages in the whole study population, even when restricting analysis to those with abnormal reflux index expressing clinically significant GER. Quantifying lipid-laden alveolar macrophages from BAL in children with gastroesophageal-related respiratory disorders does not have an acceptable specificity to prove chronic aspiration as an underlying etiology. Therefore, research for other markers of pulmonary aspiration is needed. PMID:22448325

  12. Public Beliefs on Antibiotics and Symptoms of Respiratory Tract Infections among Rural and Urban Population in Poland: A Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Cals, Jochen W. L.; Francis, Nick; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C.; Goossens, Herman; Zakowska, Izabela; Panasiuk, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction General public views and expectations around the use of antibiotics can influence general practitioners' antibiotic prescribing decisions. We set out to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the use of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections in adults in Poland, and explore differences according to where people live in an urban-rural continuum. Material and Methods Face to face survey among a stratified random sample of adults from the general population. Results 1,210 adults completed the questionnaire (87% response rate); 44.3% were rural; 57.9% were women. 49.4% of rural respondents and 44.4% of urban respondents had used an antibiotic in the last 2 years. Rural participants were less likely to agree with the statement “usually I know when I need an antibiotic,” (53.5% vs. 61.3% respectively; p = 0.015) and reported that they would consult with a physician for a cough with yellow/green phlegm (69.2% vs. 74.9% respectively; p = 0.004), and were more likely to state that they would leave the decision about antibiotic prescribing to their doctor (87.5% vs. 85.6% respectively; p = 0.026). However, rural participants were more likely to believe that antibiotics accelerate recovery from sore throat (45.7% vs. 37.1% respectively; p = 0.017). Use of antibiotic in the last 2 years, level of education, number of children and awareness of the problem of developing antimicrobial resistance predicted accurate knowledge about antibiotic effectiveness. Conclusions There were no major differences in beliefs about antibiotics between urban and rural responders, although rural responders were slightly less confident in their knowledge about antibiotics and self-reported greater use of antibiotics. Despite differences in the level of education between rural and urban responders, there were no significant differences in their knowledge about antibiotic effectiveness. PMID:25275516

  13. Determination of the Minimal Clinically Important Difference Scores for the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised Respiratory Symptom Scale in Two Populations of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Airway Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Modi, Avani C.; Wainwright, Claire; Otto, Kelly; Kirihara, Jean; Montgomery, A. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) is a validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) containing both generic scales and scales specific to cystic fibrosis (CF). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) score for a PRO corresponds to the smallest clinically relevant change a patient can detect. MCID scores for the CFQ-R respiratory symptom (CFQ-R-Respiratory) scale were determined using data from two 28 day, open-label, tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) studies in patients with CF and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection. At study enrollment, patients in the study 1-exacerbation had symptoms indicative of pulmonary exacerbation (n = 84; < 14 years of age, 31 patients; ≥ 14 years of age, 53 patients); patients in study 2-stable had stable respiratory symptoms (n = 140; < 14 years of age, 14 patients; ≥ 14 years, 126 patients). Methods: The anchor-based method utilized a global rating-of-change questionnaire (GRCQ) that assessed patients' perceptions of change in their respiratory symptoms after TIS treatment. The mean change from baseline CFQ-R-Respiratory scores were mapped onto the GRCQ to estimate the MCID. The two distribution-based methods were as follows: (1) 0.5 SD of mean change in CFQ-R-Respiratory scores (baseline to end of TIS treatment); and (2) 1 SEM for baseline CFQ-R-Respiratory scores. Triangulation of these three estimates defined the MCIDs. Results: MCID scores were larger for patients in study 1-exacerbation (8.5 points) than for those in study 2-stable (4.0 points), likely reflecting differences in patient disease status (exacerbation/stable) between these studies. Conclusions: Patient benefit from new and current CF therapies can be evaluated using changes in CFQ-R-Respiratory scores. Using the MCID provides a systematic way to interpret these changes, and facilitates the identification of CF treatments that improve both symptoms and physiologic variables, potentially leading to better treatment

  14. Respiratory Conditions Update: Asthma.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Timothy A

    2016-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation and variable expiratory airflow limitation. Related clinical features include wheezing, dyspnea, chest tightness, and cough that worsens at night or in the early morning, and that varies over time and in intensity. A finding of variable expiratory airflow limitation on spirometry confirms the diagnosis. A forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity ratio less than the level predicted for the patient's age is suggestive of airflow limitation. Variability also must be confirmed. Updated guidelines recommend control-based management administered in a stepwise manner, with goals of achieving symptom control and minimizing the risks of exacerbations, future fixed airway limitation, and adverse effects of therapy. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of asthma education and self-management plans. Short-acting bronchodilators should be used as needed for symptom relief, with the addition of an inhaled corticosteroid early as maintenance therapy if symptoms are not well controlled. If asthma remains uncontrolled despite therapy, patients should be referred for more specialized treatment. Biomarkers, biologic drugs, and endoscopic treatments are being studied in the management of severe asthma, and ongoing research may determine which patients might benefit most from these emerging therapies. PMID:27576231

  15. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  16. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of respiratory disease and community belief about the severity of pollution from various sources.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul R; Davies, Maria A; Hill, Hill; Whittaker, Mike; Sufi, Farzana

    2003-09-01

    It is postulated that health effects of air pollution may be direct and indirect through people's perception about the severity of pollution and concerns over its impact on their health. A cross sectional postal survey of some 6,559 households was conducted in the area of Ellesmere Port and Neston Borough Council. A total of 3,402 (51.9%) usable questionnaires were returned and included in the subsequent analyses. Childhood asthma was associated with central heating. Adult asthma was associated with the number of people in the house who had ever smoked and 'crowding'. General adult respiratory symptoms were associated with perception of industrial air pollution and neighbour noise in univariable but not multivariable analyses. In the multivariable model number of people in the household who had ever smoked, exposure to traffic fume pollution, crowding and living in rented accommodation. This suggests a complex relationship between actual levels of pollution (though not directly measured in this study), social deprivation, socio-behavioural factors and people's perceptions about pollution. A model of the relationship of these factors is proposed and it is argued that studies of the health impact of air pollution that concentrate only on chemical exposure will be flawed unless they are placed in the context of perception and socio-behavioural factors. PMID:12909554

  17. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-01

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region. PMID:26928836

  18. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  19. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  20. Menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2000-01-01

    Definition Menopause begins one year after the last menstrual period. Symptoms often begin in the perimenopausal years. Incidence/prevalence In the United Kingdom the mean age for the menopause is 50 years 9 months. The median onset of the perimenopause is between 45.5 and 47.5 years. One Scottish survey (of 6096 women aged 45 to 54 years) found that 84% had experienced at least one of the classic menopausal symptoms, with 45% finding one or more symptoms a problem.1 InterventionsBeneficial:OestrogensTiboloneLikely to be beneficial:ProgestogensClonidineUnknown effectiveness:Phyto-oestrogensTestosteroneAntidepressants Aetiology/risk factors Urogenital symptoms of menopause are caused by decreased oestrogen concentrations, but the cause of vasomotor symptoms and psychological effects is complex and remains unclear. Prognosis Menopause is a physiological event. Its timing may be genetically determined. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time.2 However, some symptoms, such as genital atrophy, may remain the same or worsen. Aims To reduce or prevent menopausal symptoms, and to improve quality of life with minimum adverse effects. Outcomes Frequency and severity of vasomotor, urogenital, and psychological symptoms; quality of life. Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal December 1999. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews that met Clinical Evidence quality criteria. PMID:11118182

  1. Age-associated mosaic respiratory chain deficiency causes trans-neuronal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Eric; Terzioglu, Mügen; Sterky, Fredrik Hansson; Sörensen, Lene; Galter, Dagmar; Olson, Lars; Wilbertz, Johannes; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2008-05-15

    Heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations (mutations present only in a subset of cellular mtDNA copies) arise de novo during the normal ageing process or may be maternally inherited in pedigrees with mitochondrial disease syndromes. A pathogenic mtDNA mutation causes respiratory chain deficiency only if the fraction of mutated mtDNA exceeds a certain threshold level. These mutations often undergo apparently random mitotic segregation and the levels of normal and mutated mtDNA can vary considerably between cells of the same tissue. In human ageing, segregation of somatic mtDNA mutations leads to mosaic respiratory chain deficiency in a variety of tissues, such as brain, heart and skeletal muscle. A similar pattern of mutation segregation with mosaic respiratory chain deficiency is seen in patients with mitochondrial disease syndromes caused by inherited pathogenic mtDNA mutations. We have experimentally addressed the role of mosaic respiratory chain deficiency in ageing and mitochondrial disease by creating mouse chimeras with a mixture of normal and respiratory chain-deficient neurons in cerebral cortex. We report here that a low proportion (>20%) of respiratory chain-deficient neurons in the forebrain are sufficient to cause symptoms, whereas premature death of the animal occurs only if the proportion is high (>60-80%). The presence of neurons with normal respiratory chain function does not only prevent mortality but also delays the age at which onset of disease symptoms occur. Unexpectedly, respiratory chain-deficient neurons have adverse effect on normal adjacent neurons and induce trans-neuronal degeneration. In summary, our study defines the minimal threshold level of respiratory chain-deficient neurons needed to cause symptoms and also demonstrate that neurons with normal respiratory chain function ameliorate disease progression. Finally, we show that respiratory chain-deficient neurons induce death of normal neurons by a trans-neuronal degeneration

  2. Respiratory effects of exposure of shipyard workers to epoxy paints.

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, D; Jones, J; Atterbury, M; Balmes, J

    1991-01-01

    Epoxy resin systems have been associated with occupational asthma in several case reports, but medical publications contain little on the potential adverse respiratory effects of these chemicals in exposed worker populations. To further evaluate the association of workplace exposure to epoxy paints and respiratory dysfunction, the cross workshift changes in pulmonary function and symptoms of 32 shipyard painters exposed to epoxy paints were compared with 28 shipyard painters not exposed to epoxy paints. The prevalence of lower respiratory tract symptoms was significantly higher among painters exposed to epoxy paints compared with controls. Among exposed painters the mean cross workshift change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-3.4%) was greater than the decrement in the non-exposed group (-1.4%). A significant linear relation was seen between % decrement in FEV1 and hours of exposure to epoxy paints. This study suggests that epoxy resin coatings as used by shipyard painters are associated with increased lower respiratory tract symptoms and acute decrements in FEV1. Adequate respiratory protection and medical surveillance programmes should be established in workplaces where exposure to epoxy resin systems occurs. PMID:1954156

  3. Impact of Cabin Ozone Concentrations on Passenger Reported Symptoms in Commercial Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G.; Weschler, Charles J.; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  4. Impact of cabin ozone concentrations on passenger reported symptoms in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G; Weschler, Charles J; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  5. Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tam, Elizabeth K.; Miike, Rei; Labrenz, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Elias, Tamar; Davis, James A.; Chen, Yi-Leng; Tantisira, Kelan; Dockery, Douglas; Avol, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Environmental data suggested 4 different vog exposure zones with SO2, PM2.5, and particulate acid concentrations (mean ± s.d.) as follows: 1) Low (0.3 ± 0.2 ppb, 2.5 ± 1.2 μg/m3, 0.6 ± 1.1 nmol H +/m3), 2) Intermittent (1.6 ± 1.8 ppb, 2.8 ± 1.5 μg/m3, 4.0 ± 6.6 nmol H +/m3), 3) Frequent (10.1 ± 5.2 ppb, 4.8 ± 1.9 μg/m3, 4.3 ± 6.7 nmol H +/m3), and 4) Acid (1.2 ± 0.4 ppb, 7.2 ± 2.3 μg/m3, 25.3 ± 17.9 nmol H +/m3). Participants (1957) in the 4 zones differed in race, prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, presence of mold in the home, and physician-diagnosed asthma. Multivariable analysis showed an association between Acid vog exposure and cough and strongly suggested an association with FEV1/FVC < 0.8, but not with diagnosis of asthma, or chronic persistent wheeze or bronchitis in the last 12 months. Conclusions: Hawai'i Island's volcanic air pollution can be very acidic, but contains few co-contaminants originating from anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Chronic exposure to acid vog is associated with increased cough and possibly with reduced FEV1/FVC, but not with asthma or bronchitis. Further study is needed to better understand how volcanic air pollution interacts with host and environmental factors to affect respiratory symptoms, lung function, and lung growth, and to determine acute effects of episodes of increased emissions.

  6. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease ) Diseases of the chest ( ...

  7. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  8. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    PubMed

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  9. [Effects of outdoor pollutants on the respiratory health of children].

    PubMed

    Frischer, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The exposure against common air pollutants such as NO2, PM10 and SO2 has decreased in the last decades due to efforts of the EC to reduce emissions of industrial or traffic related origins. However, ozone exposure demonstrates an upward trend. New epidemiologic studies use geographical information systems for a more precise special and temporal categorisation of exposure. They show adverse effects of ultrafine particles as well as elemental carbon on the respiratory system of children. Children growing up next to busy traffic routes are most affected. Adverse effects include respiratory symptoms as well as a delay in lung growth. Intrauterine exposure against PM10 seems to effect lung function in newborns. There is a lack of data about other organic substances widely used in synthetic materials in the outdoor air such as phthalates or bisphenols, some studies show detrimental effects. PMID:26335772

  10. Respiratory effects of portland cement dust

    SciTech Connect

    Abrons, H.L.; Sanderson, W.T.; Petersen, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of the respiratory effects of Portland cement dust was conducted. The cohort consisted of 2,736 cement workers at 16 facilities in the United States. The comparisons consisted of 2,213 individuals in activities not involving dust exposure. Spirometry testing was performed. Respiratory-symptom questionnaires were administered. Chest x-rays were taken and examined. Personal sampling for total and respirable dust, quartz, and oxides of sulfur and nitrogen was performed. Cement workers had a significantly elevated adjusted-odds ratio for dyspnea, rounded and irregular small x-ray opacities, and pleural abnormalities. None of the ventilatory-function variables were significantly different between cement workers and the comparisons. The authors conclude that cement dust exerts little adverse effect on respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function. To determine whether the increase in x-ray abnormalities represents pneumoconiosis or another pathological process would require histological study. There is insufficient evidence to suggest a change in the exposure limit for cement dust.

  11. Respiratory Health Risks for Children Living Near a Major Railyard.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Soret, Sam; Knutsen, Synnove; Shavlik, David; Ghamsary, Mark; Beeson, W Lawrence; Kim, Wonha; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    Inland southern California is a region of public health concern, especially for children, given the area's perennially poor air quality and increasing sources of local pollution. One elementary school specifically is located only a few hundred yards from the San Bernardino Railyard, one of the busiest goods movement facilities in California, potentially increasing respiratory problems. Through ENRRICH (Environmental Railyard Research Impacting Community Health) Project, we assessed association of proximity to a major freight railyard on adverse respiratory health in schoolchildren. Respiratory screening was provided for children at two elementary schools: one near the railyard and a socio-demographically matched comparison school 7 miles away. Screening included testing for airway inflammation (FE NO), lung function (peak expiratory flow, PEF) and parent reported respiratory symptoms. Parental questionnaires collected additional information. Log-binomial and linear regression assessed associations. Children attending school near the railyard were more likely to exhibit airway obstruction with higher prevalence of abnormal PEF (<80%): prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.59 (95% CI 1.19-2.12). The association with inflammation was less clear. Children at the exposure school, who had lived 6 months or longer at their current address (vs. all children at that school) were more likely to have values suggesting inflammation (FE NO > 20 ppb) (PR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.02-2.02) and present with a trend for increased adverse respiratory symptoms. Children attending school near the railyard were significantly more likely to display respiratory health challenges. Ideally these low-income, low resource communities should be supported to implement sustainable intervention strategies to promote an environment where children can live healthier and thrive. PMID:25894422

  12. Respiratory Health Risks for Children Living Near a Major Railyard

    PubMed Central

    Soret, Sam; Knutsen, Synnove; Shavlik, David; Ghamsary, Mark; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Kim, Wonha; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Inland southern California is a region of public health concern, especially for children, given the area’s perennially poor air quality and increasing sources of local pollution. One elementary school specifically is located only a few hundred yards from the San Bernardino Railyard, one of the busiest goods movement facilities in California, potentially increasing respiratory problems. Through ENRRICH (Environmental Railyard Research Impacting Community Health) Project, we assessed association of proximity to a major freight railyard on adverse respiratory health in schoolchildren. Respiratory screening was provided for children at two elementary schools: one near the railyard and a socio-demographically matched comparison school 7 miles away. Screening included testing for airway inflammation (FeNO), lung function (peak expiratory flow, PEF) and parent reported respiratory symptoms. Parental questionnaires collected additional information. Log-binomial and linear regression assessed associations. Children attending school near the railyard were more likely to exhibit airway obstruction with higher prevalence of abnormal PEF (<80 %): prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.59 (95 % CI 1.19–2.12). The association with inflammation was less clear. Children at the exposure school, who had lived 6 months or longer at their current address (vs. all children at that school) were more likely to have values suggesting inflammation (FeNO > 20 ppb) (PR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.02–2.02) and present with a trend for increased adverse respiratory symptoms. Children attending school near the railyard were significantly more likely to display respiratory health challenges. Ideally these low-income, low resource communities should be supported to implement sustainable intervention strategies to promote an environment where children can live healthier and thrive. PMID:25894422

  13. ACUTE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PEAK FLOW MEASUREMENTS OF SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC CHILDREN IN NIZHNI TAGIL, RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A panel study with 85 elementary school children of 9 to 11 years old was carried out during March 16 - May 16, 1998 in Nizhni Tagil, Russia. All of the children were recruited from a single school and their respiratory health status was characterized through questionnaires and...

  14. Characterization of the non-coding control region of polyomavirus KI isolated from nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and from blood from healthy blood donors in Norway.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobo; Van Ghelue, Marijke; Ludvigsen, Maria; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Ehlers, Bernhard; Moens, Ugo

    2016-07-01

    Seroepidemiological studies showed that the human polyomavirus KI (KIPyV) is common in the human population, with age-specific seroprevalence ranging from 40-90 %. Genome epidemiological analyses demonstrated that KIPyV DNA is predominantly found in respiratory tract samples of immunocompromised individuals and children suffering from respiratory diseases, but viral sequences have also been detected in brain, tonsil, lymphoid tissue studies, plasma, blood and faeces. Little is known about the sequence variation in the non-coding control region of KIPyV variants residing in different sites of the human body and whether specific strains dominate in certain parts of the world. In this study, we sequenced the non-coding control region (NCCR) of naturally occurring KIPyV variants in nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and in blood from healthy donors in Norway. In total 86 sequences were obtained, 44 of which were identical to the original isolated Stockholm 60 variant. The remaining NCCRs contained one or several mutations, none of them previously reported. The same mutations were detected in NCCRs amplified from blood and nasopharyngeal samples. Some patients had different variants in their specimens. Transient transfection studies in HEK293 cells with a luciferase reporter plasmid demonstrated that some single mutations had a significant effect on the relative early and late promoter strength compared with the Stockholm 60 promoter. The effect of the NCCR mutations on viral replication and possible virulence properties remains to be established. PMID:27031170

  15. Early detection of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma by 18FDG-PET/CT with diffuse FDG uptake in the lung without respiratory symptoms or chest CT abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Shiiba, Masato; Izutsu, Koji; Ishihara, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of systemic extranodal non-Hodgkin diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We report a rare case of IVLBCL who showed diffuse 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the lung in FDG-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) without respiratory symptoms or chest CT abnormalities. Serum biochemical studies showed a raised level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), which suggested the presence of malignant lymphoma strongly. A non-contrast CT showed no abnormalities in the lung fields, no lymphadenopathy was found. FDG-PET/CT revealed diffuse FDG uptake in the both lungs and in spleen as well as multiple hot spots in the liver. Under the suspicion of IVLBCL especially by the diffuse FDG uptake in the lung, a random skin biopsy was performed from three regions, the left forearm, right abdomen and left thigh in which there had been no evidence of FDG uptake. The definite diagnosis of IVLBCL was made based on the pathological analysis of the specimen from the left thigh. She achieved complete remission (CR) after combined chemoimmunotherapy. FDG-PET/CT was useful for the early detection of IVLBCL even without respiratory symptoms or any abnormal findings by chest CT.

  16. [Respiratory failure in disseminated sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Popova, L M; Avdiunina, I A; Alferova, V P

    2000-01-01

    The development and patterns of respiratory failure (RF) are analyzed in 9 patients with disseminated sclerosis (DS). Forced ventilation of the lungs was carried out with consideration for main location of the process. Relationship between patterns of respiratory disorders and neuroanatomy of respiratory regulation is discussed. Involvement of the corticospinal routes is paralleled by dissociation during functional pulmonary tests: spontaneous volumes are less than controlled inspirations. The most severe symptom complexes were observed in RF of predominantly bulbar localization: respiratory anarchy, blocking of airways caused by impaired swallowing, impaired mechanism of coughing reflex, loss of spontaneous respiration, sometimes apnea during sleeping. Involvement of the respiratory nuclei of medullary respiratory center and airways and of the corticonuclear routes of caudal cranial nerves causes the development of a triad of symptoms: glossopharyngolaryngeal paralysis, dysfunction of respiratory nuclei of medulla oblongata, and decreased sensitivity of respiratory center to CO2. Aspiration complications caused by dysphagia are characteristic of bulbar DS. Respiratory function in 5 patients without clinical picture of RF are specially discussed. The authors emphasize unfavorable prognostic significance of signs of extracorporeal obstruction indicating the probability of RF long before its manifestation. Special attention is paid to early diagnosis of symptoms of coming RF when evaluating the status of patients with DS during treatment. Timely use of respiratory resuscitation methods reduces the mortality and ensures a good chance for remissions with recovery of respiratory function, which are characteristic of RF. PMID:11014001

  17. Occupational exposure to poultry dust and effects on the respiratory system in workers.

    PubMed

    Viegas, S; Faísca, V M; Dias, H; Clérigo, A; Carolino, E; Viegas, C

    2013-01-01

    Farmers are occupationally exposed to many respiratory hazards at work and display higher rates of asthma and respiratory symptoms than other workers. Dust is one of the components present in poultry production that increases risk of adverse respiratory disease occurrence. Dust originates from poultry residues, molds, and feathers and is biologically active as it contains microorganisms. Exposure to dust is known to produce a variety of clinical responses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic airways obstructive disease (COPD), allergic alveolitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). A study was developed to determine particle contamination in seven poultry farms and correlate this with prevalence rate of respiratory defects and record by means of a questionnaire the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases by European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Poultry farm dust contamination was found to contain higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM5 and PM10. Prevalence rate of obstructive pulmonary disorders was higher in individuals with longer exposure regardless of smoking status. In addition, a high prevalence for asthmatic (42.5%) and nasal (51.1%) symptoms was noted in poultry workers. Data thus show that poultry farm workers are more prone to suffer from respiratory ailments and this may be attributed to higher concentrations of PM found in the dust. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to dust will ameliorate occupational working conditions and enhance the health of workers. PMID:23514065

  18. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  19. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-07-25

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  20. Respiratory alkalosis

    MedlinePlus

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  1. Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Eves, Neil D; Davidson, Warren J

    2011-07-01

    The 2 most common respiratory diseases are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Growing evidence supports the benefits of exercise for all patients with these diseases. Due to the etiology of COPD and the pathophysiology of asthma, there may be some additional risks of exercise for these patients, and hence accurate risk assessment and clearance is needed before patients start exercising. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature regarding the risks of exercise for patients with respiratory disease and provide evidence-based recommendations to guide the screening process. A systematic review of 4 databases was performed. The literature was searched to identify adverse events specific to exercise. For COPD, 102 randomized controlled trials that involved an exercise intervention were included (n = 6938). No study directly assessed the risk of exercise, and only 15 commented on exercise-related adverse events. For asthma, 30 studies of mixed methodologies were included (n = 1278). One study directly assessed the risk of exercise, and 15 commented on exercise-related adverse events. No exercise-related fatalities were reported. The majority of adverse events in COPD patients were musculoskeletal or cardiovascular in nature. In asthma patients, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and (or) asthma symptoms were the primary adverse events. There is no direct evidence regarding the risk of exercise for patients with COPD or asthma. However, based on the available literature, it would appear that with adequate screening and optimal medical therapy, the risk of exercise for these respiratory patients is low. PMID:21800949

  2. Respiratory assessment in centronuclear myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Barbara K; Goddard, Melissa; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    The centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) are a group of inherited neuromuscular disorders classified as congenital myopathies. While several causative genes have been identified, some patients do not harbor any of the currently known mutations. These diverse disorders have common histological features, which include a high proportion of centrally-nucleated muscle fibers, and clinical attributes of muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency. Respiratory problems in CNMs may manifest initially during sleep, but daytime symptoms, ineffective airway clearance, and hypoventilation predominate as more severe respiratory muscle dysfunction evolves. Respiratory muscle capacity can be evaluated using a variety of clinical tests selected with consideration for the age and baseline motor function of the patient. Similar clinical tests of respiratory function can also be incorporated into preclinical CNM canine models to offer insight for clinical trials. Since respiratory problems account for significant morbidity in patients, routine assessments of respiratory muscle function are discussed. PMID:24668768

  3. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  4. Environmentally mediated disorders of the respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Samet, J.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Although much of the evidence in environmental lung disease remains equivocal, some environmental exposures are known to be clinically relevant. Ambient air pollution remains of concern as a source of morbidity, particularly for susceptible populations such as persons with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac disease and the elderly. The adverse effects of several components of indoor air pollution have been established. Environmental tobacco smoke contributes to lower-respiratory illness in infants; office workers exposed to thermophilic actinomycetes contaminating ventilation systems have developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and in the home, components of house dust and fungus spores may provoke asthma via immediate hypersensitivity. The evidence is less compelling for a link between other exposures and disorders of the respiratory tract. For example, formaldehyde may be responsible for provoking vague respiratory symptoms and even nasal cancers; however, the associations are unproved. Likewise, the relation between low-level exposure to asbestos and the development of lung cancer, although a concern, is not conclusively established. The clinician should be aware of practical measures for patients who inquire about air cleaning. Often, relatively simple solutions are effective. A knowledge of sources and exposures as well as an understanding of the principles of inhalation lung injury should prove useful in directing patient care. 33 references.

  5. Respiratory and skin health among glass microfiber production workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Only a few studies have investigated non-malignant respiratory effects of glass microfibers and these have provided inconsistent results. Our objective was to assess the effects of exposure to glass microfibers on respiratory and skin symptoms, asthma and lung function. Methods A cross-sectional study of 102 workers from a microfiber factory (response rate 100%) and 76 office workers (73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted. They answered a questionnaire on respiratory health, occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors, and performed spirometry. Measurements of respirable dust were available from 2004 and 2005. Results Workers exposed to glass microfibers experienced increased risk of cough (adjusted OR 2.04), wheezing (adjOR 2.20), breathlessness (adjOR 4.46), nasal (adjOR 2.13) and skin symptoms (adjOR 3.89) and ever asthma (adjOR 3.51), the risks of breathlessness (95%CI 1.68–11.86) and skin symptoms (1.70–8.90) remaining statistically significant after adjustment for confounders. There was an exposure-response relation between the risk of breathlessness and skin symptoms and increasing level of microfiber exposure. Workers exposed to sensitizing chemicals, including phenol-formaldehyde resin, experienced increased risk of cough (3.43, 1.20–9.87) and nasal symptoms (3.07, 1.05–9.00). Conclusion This study provides evidence that exposure to glass microfibers increases the risk of respiratory and skin symptoms, and has an exposure-response relation with breathlessness and skin symptoms. Exposure to sensitizing chemicals increased the risk of cough and nasal symptoms. The results suggest that occupational exposure to glass microfibers is related to non-malignant adverse health effects, and that implementing exposure control measures in these industries could protect the health of employees. PMID:19689806

  6. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas. PMID:27625447

  7. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  8. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  9. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  10. Outdoor air pollution in urban areas and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G

    1999-12-01

    Respiratory allergic diseases (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchial asthma and its equivalents) appear to be increasing in most countries, and subjects living in urban and industrialized areas are more likely to experience respiratory allergic symptoms than those living in rural areas. This increase has been linked, among various factors, to air pollution, which is now an important public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm the epidemiological evidence that inhalation of some pollutants, either individually or in combination, adversely affect lung function in asthmatics. The most abundant air pollutants in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are respirable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. While nitrogen dioxide does not exert consistent effects on lung function, ozone, respirable particulate matter and allergens impair lung function and lead to increased airway responsiveness and bronchial obstruction in predisposed subjects. However, besides acting as irritants, airborne pollutants can modulate the allergenicity of antigens carried by airborne particles. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived paucimicronic particles, pollutants can modify the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents and after their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway epithelial permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and so facilitate the allergen-induced inflammatory responses. Moreover, air pollutants such as diesel exhaust emissions are thought to modulate the immune response by increasing immunoglobulin E synthesis, thus facilitating allergic sensitization in atopic subjects and the subsequent development of clinical respiratory symptoms. PMID:10695313

  11. Biological Sensitivity to Context: The Interactive Effects of Stress Reactivity and Family Adversity on Socio-Emotional Behavior and School Readiness

    PubMed Central

    Obradović, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Adler, Nancy E.; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socio-emotional and cognitive development in 338 five-to-six-year-old children. Neurobiological stress reactivity was measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia and salivary cortisol responses to social, cognitive, sensory, and emotional challenges. Adaptation was assessed using child, parent, and teacher reports of externalizing symptoms, prosocial behaviors, school engagement, and academic competence. Results revealed significant interactions between reactivity and adversity. High stress reactivity was associated with more maladaptive outcomes in the context of high adversity but with better adaption in the context of low adversity. The findings corroborate a reconceptualization of stress reactivity as biological sensitivity to context by showing that high reactivity can both hinder and promote adaptive functioning. PMID:20331667

  12. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  13. Six-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress and severe psychological distress symptoms and associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and sense of injustice: a latent transition analysis of a community cohort in conflict-affected Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Silove, DM

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the 6-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological distress symptoms, and examine for associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and with the sense of injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Setting A whole-of-household survey was conducted in 2004 and 2010 in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. Participants 1022 adults were followed up over 6 years (retention rate 84.5%). Interviews were conducted by field workers applying measures of traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, a sense of injustice, PTS symptoms and psychological distress. Results Latent transition analysis supported a 3-class longitudinal model (psychological distress, comorbid symptoms and low symptoms). We derived 4 composite trajectories comprising recovery (20.8%), a persisting morbidity trajectory (7.2%), an incident trajectory (37.2%) and a low-symptom trajectory (34.7%). Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the persistent and incident trajectories reported greater stress arising from poverty and family conflict, higher TE exposure for 2 historical periods, and a sense of injustice for 2 historical periods. The persistent trajectory was unique in reporting greater TE exposure in the Indonesian occupation, whereas the incident trajectory reported greater TE exposure during the later internal conflict that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the incident trajectory reported a greater sense of injustice relating to the periods of the Indonesian occupation and independence. The persistent trajectory was characterised by a sense of injustice relating to the internal conflict and contemporary times. The recovery trajectory was characterised by the absence of these risk factors, the only difference from the low-symptom trajectory being that the former reported a sense of injustice for the period surrounding independence. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the timing

  14. [Respiratory behavior].

    PubMed

    Gallego, J; Gaultier, C

    2000-02-01

    The notion of respiratory behaviour is grounded, among other approaches, on studies of neuronal mechanisms of voluntary breathing, clinical data, conditioning experiments and respiratory sensations. The interactions between cortical centres of voluntary breathing and respiratory neurones in the brain stem are poorly understood: voluntary control operates through the direct action of corticomotor centres on respiratory motoneurones; however these cortical structures may directly act on bulbopontine centres, and therefore indirectly on respiratory motoneurones. Recordings in animals of brain stem neuronal activity, brain imaging in humans, and transcortical stimulation of the diaphragm in humans and in animal models support either one or the other hypothesis. The mutual independence of the automatic and the voluntary controls of breathing appears in patients with impaired bulbopontine automatism and operational voluntary control (Central Congenital Hypoventilation Syndrome), and in patients with the reverse impairment (locked-in syndrome). Finally, recent studies in humans and animals show that classical conditioning affects respiratory control and sensations. PMID:10756555

  15. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  16. Vagal Regulation and Internalizing Psychopathology among Adolescents Exposed to Childhood Adversity

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alves, Sonia; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is strongly associated with youth psychopathology. Identifying factors that reduce vulnerability following CA is critical for developing preventive interventions. Vagal tone and vagal reactivity reactivity following psychosocial stressors might influence psychopathology among youths exposed to CA. We acquired heart period and impedance cardiography data to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) from 157 adolescents aged 13–17 years at rest and during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms and multiple forms of CA were assessed. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity interacted with CA in predicting internalizing but not externalizing psychopathology; CA was unassociated with internalizing problems in adolescents with high resting RSA and RSA reactivity. No interactions were observed with PEP. High resting RSA predicted greater vagal rebound and accelerated heart rate recovery following the TSST, highlighting one potential mechanism underlying low internalizing symptoms following CA among youths with high RSA. PMID:24338154

  17. Diphtheria Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... into and attach to the lining of the respiratory system, which includes parts of the body that help ... neck The poison destroys healthy tissues in the respiratory system. Within two to three days, the dead tissue ...

  18. Respiratory Health before and after the Opening of a Road Traffic Tunnel: A Planned Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Christine T.; Rose, Nectarios; Ezz, Wafaa; Xuan, Wei; Cortes-Waterman, Adriana; Belousova, Elena; Toelle, Brett G.; Sheppeard, Vicky; Marks, Guy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The construction of a new road tunnel in Sydney, Australia, and concomitant reduction in traffic on a major road presented the opportunity to study the effects of this traffic intervention on respiratory health. Methods We made measurements in a cohort of residents in the year before the tunnel opened (2006) and in each of two years afterwards (2007–2008). Cohort members resided in one of four exposure zones, including a control zone. Each year, a respiratory questionnaire was administered (n = 2,978) and a panel sub-cohort (n = 380) performed spirometry once and recorded peak expiratory flow and symptoms twice daily for nine weeks. Results There was no consistent evidence of improvement in respiratory health in residents living along the bypassed main road, despite a reduction in traffic from 90,000 to 45,000 vpd. Residents living near tunnel feeder roads reported more upper respiratory symptoms in the survey but not in the panel sub-cohort. Residents living around the tunnel ventilation stack reported more upper and lower respiratory symptoms and had lower spirometric volumes after the tunnel opened. Air pollutant levels measured near the stack did not increase over the study period. Conclusion The finding of adverse health effects among residents living around the stack is unexpected and difficult to explain, but might be due to unmeasured pollutants or risk factors or an unrecognized pollutant source nearby. The lack of improvement in respiratory health among people living along the bypassed main road probably reflects a minimal change in exposure due to distance of residence from the road. PMID:23209560

  19. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

  20. Response to a Respiratory Survey

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald O.; Zickmantel, Rosalie; Ferris, Benjamin G.

    1963-01-01

    Respondents to a respiratory survey of Berlin, New Hampshire, residents in 1961 have been studied to assess the relationship between co-operation and respiratory disease prevalence. Two hundred and forty-three unco-operative subjects, interviewed at home, had significantly more morning phlegm and a lower vital capacity than carefully matched subjects who attended the central clinic. Fifty-one volunteers had the same prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms and physiological abnormalities as carefully matched subjects drawn from a probability sample of the city. It is concluded that respiratory disease prevalence will be underestimated if calculated from studies of co-operative subjects who attend a clinic. Case-finding by respiratory disease screening clinics will also miss many persons who suffer from chronic bronchitis. PMID:14012836

  1. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health of children in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a key contributor to the global burden of disease mainly in developing countries. The use of solid fuel for cooking and heating is the main source of IAP in developing countries, accounting for an estimated 3.5 million deaths and 4.5% of Disability-Adjusted Life Years in 2010. Other sources of IAP include indoor smoking, infiltration of pollutants from outdoor sources and substances emitted from an array of human utilities and biological materials. Children are among the most vulnerable groups for adverse effects of IAP. The respiratory system is a primary target of air pollutants resulting in a wide range of acute and chronic effects. The spectrum of respiratory adverse effects ranges from mild subclinical changes and mild symptoms to life threatening conditions and even death. However, IAP is a modifiable risk factor having potential mitigating interventions. Possible interventions range from simple behavior change to structural changes and from shifting of unclean cooking fuel to clean cooking fuel. Shifting from use of solid fuel to clean fuel invariably reduces household air pollution in developing countries, but such a change is challenging. This review aims to summarize the available information on IAP exposure during childhood and its effects on respiratory health in developing countries. It specifically discusses the common sources of IAP, susceptibility of children to air pollution, mechanisms of action, common respiratory conditions, preventive and mitigating strategies. PMID:25254169

  2. ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR. PMID:19967009

  3. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Eli O; Caballero, Fernan; Fromer, Leonard M; Krouse, John H; Scadding, Glenis

    2010-01-01

    Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1) diagnosis of the cause(s), (2) patient education and monitoring, (3) avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4) pharmacotherapy, and (5) immunotherapy (for patients with allergic rhinitis) or surgery for patients whose condition is otherwise uncontrolled. PMID:20463825

  4. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide the body produces. This causes body fluids, especially ... Acute respiratory acidosis is a condition in which carbon dioxide builds up very quickly, before the kidneys can ...

  5. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  6. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  7. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    PubMed

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records. PMID:24814817

  8. [Respiratory function in glass blowers].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Butković, D; Mustajbegović, J

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and diseases and changes in lung function in a group of 80 glass blowers have been investigated. In addition a group of 80 not exposed workers was used as a control group for respiratory symptoms and diseases. In glass blowers, there was significant increase in prevalence of chronic bronchitis, nasal catarrh, and sinusitis than in the controls. Glass blowers exposed for more and less than 10 years had similar prevalences of respiratory symptoms. A large number of glass blowers complained of acute across-shift symptoms. Significant increase in FVC, FEF50 and FEF25 was documented at the end of the work shift. Comparison with predicted normal values showed that glass blowers had FVC and FEF25 significantly lower than predicted. RV and RV/TLC were significantly increased compared with the predicted normal values. DLCO was within the normal values in most glass blowers. It is concluded that work in the glass blower industry is likely to lead the development of chronic respiratory disorders. PMID:1343122

  9. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  10. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis? The signs and ... mucus that contains blood and bacteria. Respiratory System Signs and Symptoms People who have CF have thick, ...

  11. Nature-Based Stress Management Course for Individuals at Risk of Adverse Health Effects from Work-Related Stress—Effects on Stress Related Symptoms, Workability and Sick Leave

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa; Grahn, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management context. This study aimed to explore effects on burnout, work ability, stress-related health symptoms, and sick leave for 33 women participating in a 12-weeks nature based stress management course and to investigate how the nature/garden activities were experienced. A mixed method approach was used. Measures were taken at course start and three follow-ups. Results showed decreased burnout-scores and long-term sick leaves, and increased work ability; furthermore less stress-related symptoms were reported. Tools and strategies to better handle stress were achieved and were widely at use at all follow-ups. The garden and nature content played an important role for stress relief and for tools and strategies to develop. The results from this study points to beneficial effects of using garden activities and natural environments in a stress management intervention. PMID:25003175

  12. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 μm) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ≤ 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of

  13. [Medically unexplained symptoms].

    PubMed

    Sayar, Kemal

    2002-01-01

    Patients with physical symptoms for which no medical explanation can be found are relatively common in general practice. Patients with medically unexplained symptoms are frequently frustrating to physicians both in primary and secondary care and utilize health sources disproportionately. They frequently attend both primary care units and hospitals and are usually not satisfied with the care they receive. Medically unexplained symptoms in patient populations are strongly associated with psychiatric pathology and with anxiety and depression in particular. They are also linked to personality pathology, childhood adversity, adult trauma or medically unexplained symptoms in childhood. The predictive value of alexithymia in determining these symptoms is controversial. Patients who have high negative affectivity or neuroticism tend to score high on measures of physical symptoms. These symptoms have a high degree of co-occurrence. The same person may meet the diagnostic criteria for several functional somatic syndromes simultaneously. The clinician should be aware of the cultural and social shaping of the bodily experience of these patients and hence acknowledge the somatic nature and reality of the symptoms. The clinician should make the person feel understood and establish a positive collaborative relationship. This would enable him/her to correct misconceptions about the disease and give a positive explanation of symptoms. Antidepressant therapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy have been proved to be moderately effective in this group of patients. Because of the high disability that might be caused by these symptoms, psychiatrists and primary and secondary care physicians should pay careful attention to this clinical condition. These symptoms may also aid us in challenging the long-held idea of mind-body dualism which is inherent in Western biomedicine. PMID:12794657

  14. Subjective psychological symptoms in outpatient asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, M D; Thompson, H C; Strunk, R C

    1981-12-01

    Outpatient adolescent asthmatics were studied using the Asthma Symptom Checklist (ASC) of Kinsman et al. The study showed that outpatient asthmatic adolescents are similar in many respects to older institutionalized asthmatics, except that in the former, psychological symptoms are more diffuse and recognition of respiratory symptoms is less severe. Further studies are needed to determine which psychological symptoms are most important in predicting prognosis in affected asthmatics or the development of "psychosomatic" asthma. PMID:7338897

  15. Respiratory Health Effects Associated with Restoration Work in Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Roy J.; Lefante, John J.; Freyder, Laurie M.; Jones, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study examines prevalence of respiratory conditions in New Orleans-area restoration workers after Hurricane Katrina. Methods. Between 2007 and 2010, spirometry and respiratory health and occupational questionnaire were administered to 791 New Orleans-area adults who mostly worked in the building construction and maintenance trades or custodial services. The associations between restoration work hours and lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms were examined by multiple linear regression, χ2, or multiple logistic regression. Results. 74% of participants performed post-Katrina restoration work (median time: 620 hours). Symptoms reported include episodes of transient fever/cough (29%), sinus symptoms (48%), pneumonia (3.7%), and new onset asthma (4.5%). Prevalence rate ratios for post-Katrina sinus symptoms (PRR = 1.3; CI: 1.1, 1.7) and fever and cough (PRR = 1.7; CI: 1.3, 2.4) were significantly elevated overall for those who did restoration work and prevalence increased with restoration work hours. Prevalence rate ratios with restoration work were also elevated for new onset asthma (PRR = 2.2; CI: 0.8, 6.2) and pneumonia (PRR = 1.3; CI: 0.5, 3.2) but were not statistically significant. Overall, lung function was slightly depressed but was not significantly different between those with and without restoration work exposure. Conclusions. Post-Katrina restoration work is associated with moderate adverse effects on respiratory health, including sinusitis and toxic pneumonitis. PMID:23365586

  16. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Naren N; Pine, Harold S; Underbrink, Michael P

    2012-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign disease with no known cure. RRP is caused by infection of the upper aerodigestive tract with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Passage through the birth canal is thought to be the initial transmission event, but infection may occur in utero. HPV vaccines have helped to provide protection from cervical cancer; however, their role in the prevention of RRP is undetermined. Clinical presentation of initial symptoms of RRP may be subtle. RRP course varies, and current management focuses on surgical debulking of papillomatous lesions with or without concurrent adjuvant therapy. PMID:22588043

  17. A revised inventory of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    This study examines whether the items from the original Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale can be improved in their prediction of health outcomes by adding some additional widely recognized childhood adversities. The analyses come from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence 2014, a telephone survey conducted from August 2013 through April 2014 with a nationally representative sample of 1,949 children and adolescents aged 10-17 and their caregivers who were asked about adversities, physical health conditions and mental health symptoms. The addition of measures of peer victimization, peer isolation/rejection, and community violence exposure added significantly to the prediction of mental health symptoms, and the addition of a measure of low socioeconomic status (SES) added significantly to the prediction of physical health problems. A revised version of the ACES scale is proposed. PMID:26259971

  18. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort Shortness of breath Confusion or dizziness ... aches Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Swelling of neck or neck glands Sore throat ...

  19. Respiratory effects of mesquite broiling

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, R.E. Jr.; Lee, J.S.; Agahian, B.; Gibbons, H.L.; Reading, J.C.

    1986-11-01

    Mesquite wood charcoal has been widely promoted for the unique taste it imparts to broiled food. We recently examined a 21-year-old mesquite broiler cook with evidence suggestive of respiratory allergy or irritation following exposure to mesquite broiler smoke in a Salt Lake City restaurant. We subsequently surveyed 13 mesquite and 17 gas-flame (charcoal) broiler cooks to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to broiler smoke. The survey demonstrated statistically significant (P less than or equal to .05) respiratory irritation in the mesquite broiler group compared with the gas-flame broiler group in one of four symptom categories. Two other symptom categories strongly suggested the presence of (P less than .10) respiratory irritation in the mesquite broiler group. Personal air sampling was conducted or two mesquite broiler cooks and two gas-flame broiler cooks and compared. Unidentified saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (C8 through C12) with high molecular weights from 108 to 182 were present in air samples from the mesquite broiler cooks and not in the air samples from the gas-flame broiler cooks.

  20. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... from inhaling smoke or harmful fumes Treatment for respiratory failure depends on whether the condition is acute (short-term) or chronic (ongoing) and how severe it is. It also depends on the underlying cause. You may receive oxygen therapy and other treatment to help you breathe. NIH: ...

  1. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  2. Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Hoetzenecker, W; Nägeli, M; Mehra, E T; Jensen, A N; Saulite, I; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Guenova, E; Cozzio, A; French, L E

    2016-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous drug reactions are recognized as being major health problems worldwide causing considerable costs for health care systems. Most adverse cutaneous drug reactions follow a benign course; however, up to 2% of all adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are severe and life-threatening. These include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Physicians should be aware of specific red flags to rapidly identify these severe cutaneous drug eruptions and initiate appropriate treatment. Besides significant progress in clinical classification and treatment, recent studies have greatly enhanced our understanding in the pathophysiology of adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Genetic susceptibilities to certain drugs have been identified in SJS/TEN patients, viral reactivation in DRESS has been elucidated, and the discovery of tissue resident memory T cells helps to better understand the recurrent site-specific inflammation in patients with fixed drug eruption. PMID:26553194

  3. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  4. Gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity: symptoms, diagnosis and provocation tests.

    PubMed

    Arslan Lied, Gülen

    2007-03-01

    As many as 25% of the general population in Western countries believe that they suffer from adverse reactions to food. However, the actual prevalence of food allergy is much lower. Food-induced allergic reactions cause a variety of symptoms including cutaneous, gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. Food allergy might be caused by IgE-mediated, mixed (IgE and/or non-IgE) or non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. The clinical diagnosis is based on a careful history, laboratory findings (total and specific IgE), skin prick test, elimination diet and food challenges. New intestinal provocation tests have also been applied to pick up the allergic response of the duodenal mucosa by endosonography and external ultrasound. The management of food allergy continues to be a strict avoidance of the offending food item. PMID:17450488

  5. Respiratory system involvement in Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Kuo, Christin; Ananth, Amitha Lakshmi; Myers, Angela; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Stevenson, David A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hudgins, Louanne

    2016-07-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the HRAS proto-oncogene. Respiratory system complications have been reported in individuals with CS, but a comprehensive description of the full spectrum and incidence of respiratory symptoms in these patients is not available. Here, we report the clinical course of four CS patients with respiratory complications as a major cause of morbidity. Review of the literature identified 56 CS patients with descriptions of their neonatal course and 17 patients in childhood/adulthood. We found that in the neonatal period, respiratory complications are seen in approximately 78% of patients with transient respiratory distress reported in 45% of neonates. Other more specific respiratory diagnoses were reported in 62% of patients, the majority of which comprised disorders of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Symptoms of upper airway obstruction were reported in CS neonates but were more commonly diagnosed in childhood/adulthood (71%). Analysis of HRAS mutations and their respiratory phenotype revealed that the common p.Gly12Ser mutation is more often associated with transient respiratory distress and other respiratory diagnoses. Respiratory failure and dependence on mechanical ventilation occurs almost exclusively with rare mutations. In cases of prenatally diagnosed CS, the high incidence of respiratory complications in the neonatal period should prompt anticipatory guidance and development of a postnatal management plan. This may be important in cases involving rarer mutations. Furthermore, the high frequency of airway obstruction in CS patients suggests that otorhinolaryngological evaluation and sleep studies should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102959

  6. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  7. An adverse reaction to local anaesthesia: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, E; Ertürk, S; Afrashi, A

    1996-10-01

    The safety of local anaesthetic agents is high but adverse reactions do occur. A common mistake among practitioners is misdiagnosing an adverse reaction to local anaesthesia as a hypersensitivity reaction. Some prospective dental patients are unable to undergo routine dental treatment because they have been mislabelled as allergic to local anaesthetics. This case report illustrates the need for practitioners to be sure of the signs and symptoms of potential adverse reactions and their appropriate management. PMID:9452627

  8. Respiratory effects of secondhand smoke exposure among young adults residing in a "clean" indoor air state.

    PubMed

    Lee, David J; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John D; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures and its association with respiratory symptoms in a sample of young adults residing in a state with a partial clean indoor air law. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Florida households and a single state University was conducted in 2005. Enrolled participants between 18 and 24 years of age completed a 15-20 min interview assessing past and current SHS exposure and current respiratory symptoms (n = 1858). Approximately 60% of the sample were female; nearly 70% were non-Hispanic white, 10% were non-Hispanic Black, and 11% were Hispanic. Over two-thirds reported completing at least some college; 23% reported smoking in the past month. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported visiting a bar or nightclub which exposed them to SHS in the previous month; nearly half (46%) reported SHS exposure while riding in automobiles; 15% reported occupational SHS exposure; and nearly 9% reported living with at least one smoker. In multivariable models, personal smoking behavior, parental smoking history, and exposure to SHS in automobiles and in bars or nightclubs were significantly associated with increased reports of respiratory symptoms. Despite residing in a "clean" indoor air state, the majority of surveyed young adults continue to report exposure to SHS, especially in automobiles and in bars, and these exposures adversely impact respiratory health. All municipalities should pursue clean indoor air legislation which does not exempt bars and restaurants. Educational campaigns directed at reducing SHS exposure in motor vehicles also are needed. PMID:18246415

  9. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment. PMID:23836598

  10. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  11. An open-label, in-use study assessing the warming sensation accompanying IFF Flavour 316282 and the acceptability and local tolerability of a syrup containing paracetamol and pseudoephedrine for the short-term treatment of symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup used for short-term treatment by patients suffering from nasal congestion and mild to moderate body pain, headache, fever or sore throat associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. Methods: A single cohort, single treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30 mL dose of syrup containing IFF Flavour 316282, paracetamol and pseudoephedrine and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessments of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture and acceptability of the product was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 56 subjects were included; 53 (94.6%) experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 114 s (95% confidence interval: 87–120 s). All subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good or fair for treating their symptoms; 100% and 94.6% of subjects respectively described texture and taste as excellent, good or fair. There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup for treatment of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe and palatable. PMID:26770771

  12. Comprehensive non-clinical respiratory evaluation of promising new drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Dennis J. . E-mail: dennis.j.murphy@GSK.com

    2005-09-01

    The need to evaluate the potential for new drugs to produce adverse effects on respiratory function in non-clinical safety assessment is based on the known effects of drugs from a variety of pharmacological/therapeutic classes on the respiratory system, the life-threatening consequences of respiratory dysfunction, and compliance with world-wide regulatory safety guidelines. The objective of this article is to provide a brief overview of the functional disorders of the respiratory system and to present the strategy and techniques considered to be most appropriate for detecting and characterizing drug-induced respiratory disorders in non-clinical safety studies.

  13. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  14. Asthma Outcomes: Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Elward, Kurtis S.; Kattan, Meyer; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Mitchell, Herman; Sutherland, E. Rand; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory symptoms are commonly used to assess the impact of patient-centered interventions. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to propose which measurements of asthma symptoms should be used as a standardized measure in future clinical research studies. Methods Asthma symptom instruments were classified as daily diaries (prospectively recording symptoms between research visits) or retrospective questionnaires (completed at research visits). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and a search for articles that cited key studies describing development of instruments. We classified outcome instruments as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Four instruments (3 daily diaries, 1 for adults and 2 for children; and 1 retrospective questionnaire for adults) were identified. Minimal clinically important differences have not been established for these instruments, and validation studies were only conducted in a limited number of patient populations. Validity of existing instruments may not be generalizable across racial-ethnic or other subgroups. Conclusions An evaluation of symptoms should be a core asthma outcome measure in clinical research. However, available instruments have limitations that preclude selection of a core instrument. The working group participants propose validation studies in diverse populations, comparisons of diaries versus retrospective questionnaires, and evaluations of symptom assessment alone versus composite scores of asthma control. PMID:22386505

  15. The respiratory health of swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bougault, Valérie; Turmel, Julie; Levesque, Benoît; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is recognized as an effective health promotion measure. Among various activities, swimming is preferred by a large portion of the population. Although swimming is generally beneficial to a person's overall health, recent data suggest that it may also sometimes have detrimental effects on the respiratory system. Chemicals resulting from the interaction between chlorine and organic matter may be irritating to the respiratory tract and induce upper and lower respiratory symptoms, particularly in children, lifeguards and high-level swimmers. The prevalence of atopy, rhinitis, asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is increased in elite swimmers compared with the general population. This may be related to the airway epithelial damage and increased nasal and lung permeability caused by the exposure to chlorine subproducts in indoor swimming pools, in association with airway inflammatory and remodelling processes. Currently, the recommended management of swimmers' respiratory disorders is similar to that of the general population, apart from the specific rules for the use of medications in elite athletes. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the development or worsening of respiratory disorders in recreational or competitive swimmers, to determine how we can optimize treatment and possibly help prevent the development of asthma. PMID:19317518

  16. The Effectiveness and Safety of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Pediatric Upper Respiratory Tract Infections With Fever

    PubMed Central

    van Haselen, Robert; Thinesse-Mallwitz, Manuela; Maidannyk, Vitaliy; Buskin, Stephen L.; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Burkart, Julia; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical effectiveness of a homeopathic add-on therapy in a pediatric subpopulation with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in a randomized, controlled, multinational clinical trial. Patients received either on-demand symptomatic standard treatment (ST-group) or the same ST plus a homeopathic medication (Influcid; IFC-group) for 7 days. Outcome assessment was based on symptom and fever resolution and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey–21 (WURSS-21). A total of 261 pediatric (<12 years) patients (130 IFC-group; 131 ST-group) were recruited in Germany and the Ukraine. The IFC-group used less symptomatic medication, symptoms resolved significantly earlier (P = .0001), had higher proportions of fever-free children from day 3 onwards, and the WURSS-assessed global disease severity was significantly less (P < .0001) during the entire URTI episode. One adverse event (vomiting) was possibly related to IFC. IFC as add-on treatment in pediatric URTI reduced global disease severity, shortened symptom resolution, and was safe in use. PMID:27493984

  17. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary. PMID:24638909

  18. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  19. Community -and hospital laboratory-based surveillance for respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Philip; Whittier, Susan; Reed, Carrie; LaRussa, Philip; Larson, Elaine L; Vargas, Celibell Y; Saiman, Lisa; Stockwell, Melissa S

    2016-09-01

    Traditional surveillance for respiratory viruses relies on symptom detection and laboratory detection during medically attended encounters for acute respiratory infection/influenza-like illness (ARI/ILI). Ecological momentary reporting using text messages is a novel method for surveillance. This study compares respiratory viral activity detected through longitudinal community-based surveillance using text message responses for sample acquisition and testing to respiratory viral activity obtained from hospital laboratory data from the same community. We demonstrate a significant correlation between community- and hospital laboratory-based surveillance for most respiratory viruses, although the relative proportions of viruses detected in the community and hospital differed significantly. PMID:26987664

  20. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  1. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  2. CHINA 4 CITIES RESPIRATORY HEALTH FOLLOW-UP (AX INITIATIVE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this project, outdoor and indoor air pollution exposures will be ascertained, and prevalences of respiratory illnesses and symptoms will be ascertained, for children and adults who live in the same districts as were studied in the original cooperative U.S.-China respiratory he...

  3. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Interferon-α

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Demetrashvili, Marina; Capuron, Lucile; Miller, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant preparations of the cytokine interferon (IFN)-α are increasingly used to treat a number of medical conditions, including chronic viral hepatitis and several malignancies. Although frequently effective, IFNα induces a variety of neuropsychiatric adverse effects, including an acute confusional state that develops rapidly after initiation of high-dose IFNα, a depressive syndrome that develops more slowly over weeks to months of treatment, and manic conditions most often characterised by extreme irritability and agitation, but also occasionally by euphoria. Acute IFNα-induced confusional states are typically characterised by disorientation, lethargy, somnolence, psychomotor retardation, difficulties with speaking and writing, parkinsonism and psychotic symptoms. Strategies for managing delirium should be employed, including treatment of contributing medical conditions, use of either typical or atypical antipsychotic agents and avoidance of medications likely to worsen mental status. Significant depressive symptoms occur in 21–58% of patients receiving IFNα, with symptoms typically manifesting over the first several months of treatment. The most replicated risk factor for developing depression is the presence of mood and anxiety symptoms prior to treatment. Other potential, but less frequently replicated, risk factors include a past history of major depression, being female and increasing IFNα dosage and treatment duration. The available data support two approaches to the pharmacological management of IFNα-induced depression: antidepressant pretreatment or symptomatic treatment once IFNα has been initiated. Pretreatment might be best reserved for patients already receiving antidepressants or for patients who endorse depression or anxiety symptoms of mild or greater severity prior to therapy. Several recent studies demonstrate that antidepressants effectively treat IFNα-induced depression once it has developed, allowing the vast majority of

  4. Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Response in a Panel of Asthmatic Children along the U.S.–Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Li, Wen-Whai; Holguin, Fernando; Johnson, Brent A.; Luevano, Silvia Flores; Garcia, Jose Humberto

    2011-01-01

    Background: Concerns regarding the health impact of urban air pollution on asthmatic children are pronounced along the U.S.–Mexico border because of rapid population growth near busy border highways and roads. Objectives: We conducted the first binational study of the impacts of air pollution on asthmatic children in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, and compared different exposure metrics to assess acute respiratory response. Methods: We recruited 58 asthmatic children from two schools in Ciudad Juarez and two schools in El Paso. A marker of airway inflammation [exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)], respiratory symptom surveys, and pollutant measurements (indoor and outdoor 48-hr size-fractionated particulate matter, 48-hr black carbon, and 96-hr nitrogen dioxide) were collected at each school for 16 weeks. We examined associations between the pollutants and respiratory response using generalized linear mixed models. Results: We observed small but consistent associations between eNO and numerous pollutant metrics, with estimated increases in eNO ranging from 1% to 3% per interquartile range increase in pollutant concentrations. Effect estimates from models using school-based concentrations were generally stronger than corresponding estimates based on concentrations from ambient air monitors. Both traffic-related and non–traffic-related particles were typically more robust predictors of eNO than was nitrogen dioxide, for which associations were highly sensitive to model specification. Associations differed significantly across the four school-based cohorts, consistent with heterogeneity in pollutant concentrations and cohort characteristics. Models examining respiratory symptoms were consistent with the null. Conclusions: The results indicate adverse effects of air pollution on the subclinical respiratory health of asthmatic children in this region and provide preliminary support for the use of air pollution monitors close to schools to track exposure and

  5. Metapneumovirus Infections and Respiratory Complications.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Mastrolia, Maria Vincenza

    2016-08-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are the most common illnesses experienced by people of all ages worldwide. In 2001, a new respiratory pathogen called human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was identified in respiratory secretions. hMPV is an RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, and it has been isolated on every continent and from individuals of all ages. hMPV causes 7 to 19% of all cases of ARTIs in both hospitalized and outpatient children, and the rate of detection in adults is approximately 3%. Symptoms of hMPV infection range from a mild cold to a severe disease requiring a ventilator and cardiovascular support. The main risk factors for severe disease upon hMPV infection are the presence of a high viral load, coinfection with other agents (especially human respiratory syncytial virus), being between 0 and 5 months old or older than 65 years, and immunodeficiency. Currently, available treatments for hMPV infections are only supportive, and antiviral drugs are employed in cases of severe disease as a last resort. Ribavirin and immunoglobulins have been used in some patients, but the real efficacy of these treatments is unclear. At present, the direction of research on therapy for hMPV infection is toward the development of new approaches, and a variety of vaccination strategies are being explored and tested in animal models. However, further studies are required to define the best treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27486733

  6. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  7. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Español: SÃntomas Prevent Dehydration Drink plenty of liquids to replace fluids that ...

  8. HOME DAMPNESS AND RESPIRATORY MORBIDITY IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the relationship between measures of home dampness and respiratory illness and symptoms in a cohort of 4,625 eight- to 12-year old children in six U.S. cities. ome dampness was characterized from questionnaire reports of mold or mildew damage inside the home, ...

  9. CHRONIC RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INDOOR FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6 - 15 years of age) and 613 adults. CHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. ata on chronic cough and phlegm...

  10. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  11. Role of respiratory sleep disorders in the pathogenesis of nocturnal angina and arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    Liston, R.; Deegan, P. C.; McCreery, C.; McNicholas, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents how respiratory sleep disorders can adversely effect ischaemic heart disease. Three male patients (aged 60-67 years) with proven ischaemic heart disease are described. They illustrate a spectrum of nocturnal cardiac dysfunction, two with nocturnal angina and one with nocturnal arrhythmias. Full sleep studies were performed in a dedicated sleep laboratory on all patients, and one patient had 48 hours of continuous Holter monitoring. Two patients were found to have obstructive sleep apnoea with apnoea/hypopnoea indices of 57 and 36 per hour, respectively, the former with nocturnal arrhythmias and the latter with nocturnal angina. In both cases, nasal continuous positive airways pressure successfully treated the sleep apnoea, with an associated improvement in nocturnal arrhythmias and angina. The third patient who presented with nocturnal angina, did not demonstrate obstructive sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index = 7.2) but had significant oxygen desaturation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This patient responded to a combination of nocturnal oxygen and protriptyline, an agent known to suppress REM sleep, and had no further nocturnal angina. All patients were considered to be an optimum cardiac medication and successful symptom resolution only occurred with the addition of specific therapy aimed at their sleep-related respiratory problem. We conclude that all patients with nocturnal angina or arrhythmias should have respiratory sleep abnormalities considered in their assessment. PMID:8183772

  12. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents. PMID:25984527

  13. Respiratory disease among military personnel in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, A L; Hyams, K C; Watts, D M; Rozmajzl, P J; Woody, J N; Merrell, B R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine whether respiratory disease due to crowded living conditions and high levels of suspended and blowing sand had a major adverse impact on US military personnel during Operation Desert Shield. METHODS. A questionnaire survey was administered to 2598 combat troops stationed in Northeast Saudi Arabia for a mean of 102 days. Samples of surface sand from seven different locations were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. RESULTS. Among surveyed troops, 34.4% reported a sore throat, 43.1% complained of a cough, 15.4% complained of chronic rhinorrhea, and 1.8% were unable to perform their routine duties because of upper respiratory symptoms. Evaluation of sleeping accommodations indicated that complaints of a sore throat and cough were most closely associated with sleeping in air-conditioned buildings; in contrast, complaints of rhinorrhea were associated with exposure to the outdoor environment while living in tents. Sand samples consisted mostly of quartz, with just 0.21% by weight of respirable size (< 10 microns in diameter). CONCLUSIONS. These findings indicate that upper respiratory complaints were frequent among Operation Desert Shield troops and were related both to the troops' housing and to their exposure to the outside environment. PMID:8363011

  14. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-01

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  15. Respiratory health effects of diesel particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Ristovski, Zoran D; Miljevic, Branka; Surawski, Nicholas C; Morawska, Lidia; Fong, Kwun M; Goh, Felicia; Yang, Ian A

    2012-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions involve a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in a gas, where it is noted that PM emissions from diesel engines are a major contributor to the ambient air pollution problem. While epidemiological studies have shown a link between increased ambient PM emissions and respiratory morbidity and mortality, studies of this design are not able to identify the PM constituents responsible for driving adverse respiratory health effects. This review explores in detail the physico-chemical properties of diesel PM (DPM) and identifies the constituents of this pollution source that are responsible for the development of respiratory disease. In particular, this review shows that the DPM surface area and adsorbed organic compounds play a significant role in manifesting chemical and cellular processes that if sustained can lead to the development of adverse respiratory health effects. The mechanisms of injury involved included inflammation, innate and acquired immunity, and oxidative stress. Understanding the mechanisms of lung injury from DPM will enhance efforts to protect at-risk individuals from the harmful respiratory effects of air pollutants. PMID:22126432

  16. Respiratory conditions in Malaysian asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Lim, H H; Rampal, K G; Joginder, S; Bakar, C M Abu; Chan, K H; Vivek, T N

    2002-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of respiratory conditions including asbestos-related diseases among Malaysian asbestos cement workers. The study population consisted of 1164 workers who had undergone medical surveillance from 1995 to 1997, including full history, physical examination, chest radiography and spirometry. More than half the male workers were smokers or ex-smokers, with smokers having more respiratory symptoms and signs, and reduced FEV1 compared with non smokers. The five most common respiratory conditions diagnosed were bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections and allergic rhinitis. On follow-up, there were also two cases of asbestosis and one case of bronchial carcinoma. The asbestosis cases were probably related to heavy occupational exposure to asbestos fibres in the past, before governmental regulations were gazetted in 1986. Further follow-up is essential for continued monitoring of the health status of asbestos workers. PMID:12440274

  17. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  18. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and other adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Mary C

    2011-01-01

    Amiodarone is a class III antiarrhythmic agent that is frequently prescribed today for the treatment of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. Amiodarone has many adverse effects, and one of them is thyroid dysfunction. Advanced practice and staff nurses need to be vigilant, recognizing early signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction to prevent adverse drug reactions. Often, the signs and symptoms of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism are overlooked because of the complexity of the patient's condition. The purpose of this article was to review a case study, present differential diagnoses and testing, discuss risk factors associated with amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, discuss its pathogenesis, and review clinical management. PMID:21307683

  19. Respiratory viruses within homeless shelters in Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Homeless shelters are identified as places where humans are at high risk of acquiring respiratory disease. We previously reported the prevalence of the main respiratory diseases affecting a population of homeless in Marseille, France. Here, we investigated the prevalence of 10 respiratory viruses in a similar homeless population during 2 successive winter seasons. Findings Following a clinical examination, we collected nasal specimens from which the RT-PCR detection of 10 respiratory viruses was performed through snapshot investigations. Among the 265 patients included, 150 (56.6%) reported at least one respiratory symptom of which 13 (8.7%) had positive swabs for at least one respiratory virus, and 115 patients reported any respiratory symptom of which 10 (8.7%) had positive swabs for respiratory virus. Overall, 23 patients had positive swabs for at least one respiratory virus. Human rhinovirus (HRV) was the predominant virus (13 isolates) followed by enteroviruses (3), human metapneumovirus (2), human coronavirus OC43 (2), 229E virus (2) and human respiratory syncytial virus subtype B (1). Among the patients infected with HRV, 10 were collected during the same snapshot. Conclusions Although one half of the patients reported respiratory symptoms, the prevalence of respiratory viruses was within the range of that previously described in adult asymptomatic patients outside the homeless community. Most HRV-positive swabs were collected during the same snapshot suggesting a local outbreak. No influenza viruses were found despite the fact that one half of the patients were investigated during the peak of the seasonal influenza epidemic in Marseille. PMID:24499605

  20. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  1. Coping with upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, John W

    2002-09-01

    Your doctor has diagnosed your problem as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI). Common URIs include viral rhinitis (the common cold), sore throat, and sinusitis (sinus infection). Most URIs are caused by viruses, but some are caused by bacteria. Your physician may have recommended medication to treat your symptoms; these include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen for pain or fever and antihistamines and/or decongestants to treat congestion and runny nose. Because they treat bacterial infections, antibiotics will not help a viral URI. PMID:20086546

  2. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Galeiras Vázquez, Rita; Rascado Sedes, Pedro; Montoto Marqués, Antonio; Ferreiro Velasco, M. Elena

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC) is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB). Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients' inspiratory function following a SCI. PMID:24089664

  3. [Injectable fillers: adverse reactions and their management].

    PubMed

    Rzany, B; Bachmann, F; Nast, A

    2013-02-01

    Injectable fillers are one of the corner stones of aesthetic medicine. In general they are safe to use. However, adverse reactions may occur. These reactions may be acute, subacute or delayed, e.g. after decades. It is important to know these reactions and to be prepared so that they can be adequately treated, in view of the clinical symptoms, the injected material and if applicable other diseases/treatments that might trigger these reactions. Last but not least, all reactions should be reported either to specialized registries or regulatory agencies. Only then we are able to learn more about these reactions and their best possible treatment. PMID:23407758

  4. Respiratory morbidities among working children of gem polishing industries, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, R R; Saha, A; Parikh, J R

    2009-02-01

    There are millions of working children worldwide. In gem polishing industry, exposure to occupational hazards of dust and chemicals used in polishing of gemstone may result in respiratory symptoms and respiratory disorders. The present study included 586 exposed and 569 comparison group subjects. Data was collected through personal interview, clinical examination, and chest radiography. The respiratory morbidity was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and chest radiography. The study variables included age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure. The mean age of the child laborers was 11.31 +/- 5.34 years. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was significantly high in the female child laborers. The other study variables namely age, duration of exposure, and daily working hours were found to be statistically non-significant. The prevalence of respiratory morbidity among child laborers of gem polishing industry in Jaipur was found to be 7%. PMID:19318508

  5. Salicylate pre-treatment attenuates intensity of bronchial and nasal symptoms precipitated by aspirin in aspirin-intolerant patients.

    PubMed

    Nizankowska, E; Dworski, R; Soja, J; Szczeklik, A

    1990-11-01

    Aspirin (ASA) and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, precipitate asthmatic attacks in ASA-intolerant patients, while sodium salicylate, hardly active on COX by itself, is well tolerated by these patients. However, salicylate moiety appears to interfere with aspirin inhibitory action on platelets and vascular COX. Such interaction, if present at the level of respiratory tract, may be of interest to pathogenesis of ASA-induced asthma. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study on the effect of choline magnesium trisalicylate (CMT, trilisate) pre-treatment on ASA-induced adverse reactions in nine patients. Pulmonary function tests, nasal symptoms score, PNIF and serum salicylate levels were monitored following challenges with threshold doses of ASA. Trilisate administered at a dose of 3000 mg daily for 3 days, offered a moderate protection against ASA-induced symptoms; it diminished the severity and/or delayed the appearance of FEV1 fall. Maximal decreases in FEV1 as well as reaction intensity indexes were significantly lower (P less than 0.02 and P less than 0.002, respectively) after trilisate pre-treatment as compared to placebo. Trilisate also attenuated nasal symptoms in three out of five patients. Although the precise mechanism of the protective action of trilisate is unknown, our data support the possibility of interaction between salicylate and ASA on cyclo-oxygenase locus in the respiratory tract in ASA-intolerant patients. PMID:2083404

  6. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  7. Respiratory problems among cotton textile workers

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Fariba; Pili, Jaber Parsa; Abbasi, Akram; Soltani, Mina; Izadi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long term occupational exposure to cotton dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and loss of pulmonary function. Aim: This study was conducted to explore respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and chest radiography of workers, and to evaluate the findings of high resolution computed tomographyand its correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT). Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 cotton workers as exposed group and 100 unexposed subjects. Smokers were excluded from the study. All workers were interviewed and examined by the pulmonologist. PFT and chest radiography were conducted for all subjects. HRCT was performed for those with abnormal PFT or chest radiography. Results: A total of 51% and 31% of the cotton textile workers had one or more respiratory symptoms and respiratory signs respectively. 28% of subjects in the exposed group and 5% of subjects in unexposed group had obstructive pattern. Bronchia wall thickening and air trapping were the most frequent chest radiography and HRCT abnormalities respectively. There was a significant correlation between HRCT and the results of PFT. Conclusion: We conclude that long term exposure to cotton dust is associated with obstructive disease that increase with duration of exposure (history of working years), also use of HRCT as a sensitive tool in the assessment of pathologic changes and it's correlation with PFT, confirms the expected pathophysiology of airway obstruction in cotton workers. PMID:27051104

  8. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  9. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  10. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... Neonatal RDS occurs in infants whose lungs have not yet fully ... disease is mainly caused by a lack of a slippery substance in ...

  11. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  12. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  13. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... include: Bluish color of the skin and mucus membranes (cyanosis) Brief stop in breathing (apnea) Decreased urine ...

  14. Do Family Mealtime Interactions Mediate the Association between Asthma Symptoms and Separation Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Winter, Marcia A.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Anbar, Ran D.; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Respiratory problems have been shown to be associated with the development of panic anxiety. Family members play an essential role for children to emotionally manage their symptoms. This study aimed to examine the relation between severity of respiratory symptoms in children with asthma and separation anxiety. Relying on direct…

  15. Conceptual Model for Assessing Criteria Air Pollutants in a Multipollutant Context: A Modified Adverse Outcome Pathway Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Air pollution consists of a complex mixture of particulate and gaseous components. Individual criteria and other hazardous air pollutants have been linked to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health outcomes. However, assessing risk of air pollutant mixtures is d...

  16. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Hung; Wang, Chuang-Wei; Dao, Ro-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The clinical manifestations of drug eruptions can range from mild maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) which are rare but occasionally fatal. Some pathogens may induce skin reactions mimicking SCAR. There are several models to explain the interaction of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), drug and T-cell receptor (TCR): (i) the "hapten/prohapten" theory; (ii) the "p-i concept"; (iii) the "altered peptide repertoire"; and (iv) the "altered TCR repertoire". The checkpoints of molecular mechanisms of SCAR include specific drug antigens interacting with the specific HLA loci (e.g. HLA-B*15:02 for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN and HLA-B*58:01 for allopurinol-induced SCAR), involvement of specific TCR, induction of T-cell-mediated responses (e.g. granulysin, Fas ligand, perforin/granzyme B and T-helper 1/2-associated cytokines) and cell death mechanism (e.g. miR-18a-5p-induced apoptosis; annexin A1 and formyl peptide receptor 1-induced necroptosis in keratinocytes). In addition to immune mechanism, metabolism has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of SCAR, such as recent findings of strong association of CYP2C9*3 with phenytoin-induced SCAR and impaired renal function with allopurinol SCAR. With a better understanding of the mechanisms, effective therapeutics and prevention for SCAR can be improved. PMID:27154258

  17. Current issues in the respiratory care of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Marco; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira de; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Freitas, Marcos Raimundo Gomes de; Nascimento, Osvaldo Jose Moreira do; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2015-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neuromuscular disease, resulting in respiratory muscle weakness, reduced pulmonary volumes, ineffective cough, secretion retention, and respiratory failure. Measures as vital capacity, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure, cough peak flow and pulse oximetry are recommended to monitor the respiratory function. The patients should be followed up by a multidisciplinary team, focused in improving the quality of life and deal with the respiratory symptoms. The respiratory care approach includes airway clearance techniques, mechanically assisted cough and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Vaccination and respiratory pharmacological support are also recommended. To date, there is no enough evidence supporting the inspiratory muscle training and diaphragmatic pacing. PMID:26331388

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Watson, Amelia K; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-06-01

    Since the identification of the first patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, over 1,600 cases have been reported as of February 2016. Most cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia or in other countries on or near the Arabian Peninsula, but travel-associated cases have also been seen in countries outside the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV causes a severe respiratory illness in many patients, with a case fatality rate as high as 40%, although when contacts are investigated, a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic or only have mild symptoms. At this time, no vaccines or treatments are available. Epidemiological and other data suggest that the source of most primary cases is exposure to camels. Person-to-person transmission occurs in household and health care settings, although sustained and efficient person-to-person transmission has not been observed. Strict adherence to infection control recommendations has been associated with control of previous outbreaks. Vigilance is needed because genomic changes in MERS-CoV could result in increased transmissibility, similar to what was seen in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). PMID:27337460

  19. Brazilian medicinal plants to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial illness: systematic review and meta-analyses—study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Luciane C; Silva, Maria Carolina O; Motta, Cristiane Bergamashi; Macho Quirós, Antonio; Biavatti, Maique Weber; de Oliveira, Jardel Corrêa; Guyatt, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory illness, often associated with cough and sputum, is frequent. In Brazil, herbal medicines are often recommended as a first-line treatment for respiratory illness. There exists uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of these treatments. No systematic review has evaluated Brazilian medicinal plants (BMP) to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial illness (URTI). Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review and, if appropriate, a series of meta-analyses evaluating the safety and effectiveness of BMP for URTI. Eligible randomised controlled trials and observational studies will enrol adult or paediatric patients presenting with URTI treated by BMP approved by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency compared with placebo, no treatment or an alternative therapy. Our search will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Illness Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Web of Science; AMED; LILACS; CAB abstracts; clinical trial.gov; the WHO Trial Register and the Brazilian thesis database (CAPES) without any language restrictions. Outcomes of interest are time to resolution of clinical symptoms and/or signs (cough, sputum production or activity limitations), severity of symptoms prior to resolution and major/minor adverse events. Teams of reviewers will, independently and in duplicate, screen titles and abstracts and the complete full text to determine eligibility. For eligible studies, reviewers will perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. When appropriate, we will conduct meta-analyses. We will also assess the quality of body of evidence (confidence in estimates of effect) for each of the outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will be published in

  20. Adverse antibiotic drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bint, A J; Burtt, I

    1980-07-01

    There is enormous potential for drug interactions in patients who, today, often receive many drugs. Antibiotics are prominent amongst the groups of drugs commonly prescribed. Many interactions take place at the absorption stage. Antacids and antidiarrhoeal preparations, in particular, can delay and reduce the absorption of antibiotics such as tetracyclines and clindamycin, by combining with them in the gastrointestinal tract to form chelates or complexes. Other drugs can affect gastric motility, which in turn often controls the rate at which antibiotics are absorbed. Some broad spectrum antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora of the gut which may be related to malabsorption states. The potentiation of toxic side effects of one drug by another is a common type of interaction. Antibiotics which are implicated in this type of interaction are those which themselves possess some toxicity such as aminoglycosides, some cephalosporins, tetracyclines and colistin. Some of the most important adverse interactions with antibiotics are those which involve other drugs which have a low toxicity/efficacy ratio. These include anticoagulants such as warfarin, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin and phenobarbitone and oral antidiabetic drugs like tolbutamide. Risk of interaction arises when the metabolism of these drugs is inhibited by liver microsomal enzyme inhibitors such as some sulphonamides and chloramphenicol, or is enhanced by enzyme inducers such as rifampicin. PMID:6995091

  1. Symptoms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Fotherby, K J; Hunter, J O

    1985-07-01

    Adverse reactions to foods can be due to many causes, but only those involving an immunological mechanism can be defined as food allergic disease. An increasing number of gastrointestinal and other diseases are being shown to involve food intolerances. Immediate reactions with symptoms within hours of eating a particular food are most readily shown to be due to food allergy and are often associated with the presence of food-specific IgE as shown by skin prick tests and RASTs. When reactions are delayed for 24 to 48 hours or more, underlying food intolerance is harder to recognize and much less often shown to be due to allergy. At present, diagnosis and management depends on dietary manipulation, showing that symptoms improve on food avoidance and are reproduced by food challenge (preferably double-blind). Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in food allergy, in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome may allow the development of simple tests to identify the foods concerned and perhaps, in the case of allergic disease, cure by the induction of tolerance. PMID:4064357

  2. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:26324808

  3. Distinct symptom experiences in subgroups of patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Vivi L; Rustøen, Tone; Cooper, Bruce A; Miaskowski, Christine; Henriksen, Anne H; Bentsen, Signe B; Holm, Are M

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to their respiratory symptoms, patients with COPD experience multiple, co-occurring symptoms. Objectives The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of COPD patients based on their distinct experiences with 14 symptoms and to determine how these subgroups differed in demographic and clinical characteristics and disease-specific quality of life. Patients and methods Patients with moderate, severe, and very severe COPD (n=267) completed a number of self-report questionnaires. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of patients with distinct symptom experiences based on the occurrence of self-reported symptoms using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Results Based on the probability of occurrence of a number of physical and psychological symptoms, three subgroups of patients (ie, latent classes) were identified and named “high”, “intermediate”, and “low”. Across the three latent classes, the pairwise comparisons for the classification of airflow limitation in COPD were not significantly different, which suggests that measurements of respiratory function are not associated with COPD patients’ symptom burden and their specific needs for symptom management. While patients in both the “high” and “intermediate” classes had high occurrence rates for respiratory symptoms, patients in the “high” class had the highest occurrence rates for psychological symptoms. Compared with the “intermediate” class, patients in the “high” class were younger, more likely to be women, had significantly more acute exacerbations in the past year, and reported significantly worse disease-specific quality of life scores. Conclusion These findings suggest that subgroups of COPD patients with distinct symptom experiences can be identified. Patients with a higher symptom burden warrant more detailed assessments and may have therapeutic needs that would not be identified using current classifications based only on

  4. Adverse Effects of Systemic Immunosuppression in Keratolimbal Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, M.; Welder, J. D.; Pandya, H. K.; Nassiri, N.; Djalilian, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) is a treatment for limbal stem cell deficiency. One disadvantage is systemic immunosuppression to avoid rejection. Our purpose was to examine the adverse effects of systemic immunosuppression in KLAL. Methods. A retrospective case review of 16 patients with KLAL who received systemic immunosuppression consisting of a corticosteroid, an antimetabolite, and/or a calcineurin inhibitor was performed. Patients were monitored for signs, symptoms, or laboratory evidence of toxicity. Results. Eleven of 16 patients (68%) experienced an adverse effect. The average age of those with adverse effects was 43.5 years and without was 31.4 years. Ten of 11 patients (91%) had resolution during mean followup of 16.4 months. No serious adverse effects occurred. The most common included anemia, hyperglycemia, elevated creatinine, and elevated liver function tests. Prednisone and tacrolimus were responsible for the most adverse effects. Patients with comorbidities were more likely to experience an adverse effect (82% versus 20%, P = 0.036). Conclusions. KLAL requires prolonged systemic immunosuppression. Our data demonstrated that systemic immunosuppression did not result in serious adverse effects in our population and is relatively safe with monitoring for toxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that adverse effects are more likely in older patients with comorbidities. PMID:22523651

  5. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis--the story so far.

    PubMed

    Simoes, E A F; Groothuis, J R

    2002-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious pathogen that infects nearly all children by the age of 2 years. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide among certain high-risk paediatric populations. Therapy is sub-optimal for RSV, thus treatment focuses on ameliorating symptoms. Since discovery of the virus in the 1950s, efforts have been ongoing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. These efforts have met with serious obstacles. Passive immunoprophylaxis presents a viable alternative to active immunization. In 1998, the genetically engineered humanized monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) was granted FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for prophylaxis of high-risk children in the United States; EMEA (European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) approval followed in 1999 for Europe. It is now approved in over 45 countries worldwide. Palivizumab was shown to significantly reduce RSV-related hospitalizations in North America and Europe with few adverse effects. Clinical trial and outcomes data documenting experience with palivizumab to date continue to extend the initial safety and efficacy observations. PMID:11996400

  7. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    PubMed

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:8711730

  8. Pulmonary adverse effects of welding fume in automobile assembly welders.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Aminian, Omid

    2011-01-01

    Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease. PMID:21598218

  9. Completeness of adverse drug reactions reports of the Saudi adverse event reporting system

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Thamir M.; Al-Kathiri, Wa’ad H.; Louet, Hervé Le; Aljadhey, Hisham S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess completeness of reports in the Saudi Adverse Event Reporting System (SAERS), which is a part of the Saudi Food and Drug Authority pharmacovigilance system for monitoring the safety of medications. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using the reports that were received between December 2009 and June 2012 in the SAERS. The completeness was assessed by reviewing the components of the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) form, and how many fields were completed. Descriptive statistics are reported. Result: There were 14,783 reports during the study period. Eighty percent of these reports were spontaneous reports. Information related to the drug (99%) and adverse events (98%) of the reports were completed. While the patient’s demographic data were completed only in 38% of all reports, the least completed item in the ADRs form was the reporter information (15%). The most reported drug class was tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (7%), whereas events involving the respiratory organ system were the most frequently reported (4.5%). Conclusion: Although the SAERS is considered new, it has a high number of reports. More efforts are needed to improve the completeness of the SAERS to be a good source to assess the signals between events and suspected drugs, especially when there is a high number of reports. PMID:26108586

  10. A pilot study of qigong practice and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peggy A; Innes, Kim E; Alton, John; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Owens, Justine E

    2011-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are a common complaint in competitive swimmers and can adversely affect performance. No intervention has yet been shown to reduce URI incidence in intensively trained athletes. The University of Virginia varsity swim team received three weeks of training in qigong for the purpose of reducing stress and improving health. Our primary objective was to assess the relationship between qigong practice and symptoms of URI during a time when swimmers would be at high URI risk. Secondary objectives were to assess degree of compliance with a qigong practice regimen, to evaluate differences between qigong practitioners and non-practitioners, and to determine the response-rate and reliability of a newly developed internet-based, self-report survey. The design was observational, cross-sectional, and prospective. Weekly data on cold and flu symptoms, concurrent health problems and medication use, and qigong practice were gathered for seven weeks. Retrospective information on health and qigong training response was also collected. Participants were 27 of the 55 members of the University of Virginia Swim Team in the Virginia Athletic Department. Main outcomes were measures of aggregated cold/flu symptoms and Qigong practice. Survey completion was 100%, with no missing data, and reliability of the instrument was acceptable. Cold and flu symptoms showed a significant non-linear association with frequency of qigong practice (R(2) = 0.33, p < 0.01), with a strong, inverse relationship between practice frequency and symptom scores in swimmers who practised qigong at least once per week (R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.01). Qigong practitioners did not differ from non-practitioners in demographic or lifestyle characteristics, medical history, supplement or medication use, or belief in qigong. These preliminary findings suggest that qigong practice may be protective against URIs among elite swimmers who practice at least once per week. PMID:21598415

  11. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1). PMID:25817970

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus epidemiology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kanra, Güler; Tezcan, Sabahat; Yilmaz, Gülden

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of RSV among high-risk children admitted with respiratory symptoms in a developing country. This is a multicenter study conducted among children less than 24 months of age and admitted to the hospital with respiratory symptoms. The inclusion criteria included: lower respiratory tract symptoms on admission, gestational age less than 35 weeks, and admission age less than six months, or children less than 24 months of age with a diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia requiring medical treatment or intervention during the last six months or with an uncorrected congenital heart disease (other than patent ductus arteriosus). Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained with one of the three standard methods: nasopharyngeal aspirate, nasopharyngeal wash or nasopharyngeal swab. RSV antigen was determined by enzyme immunoassay using Abbott TESTPACK RSV (No. 8100/2027-16). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and chi-square test. In this study, 332 children (135 females, 40.7%; 197 males, 59.3%) were included, and the nasopharyngeal specimens of 98 (29.5%) children were determined to be RSV-positive. There were no differences in sex, age of gestation, age of admission, family education, number of siblings and smoking at home for RSV-positive and -negative cases. Furthermore, underlying disease and duration of hospital and intensive care unit stay were similar among groups. Only otitis media was more common among RSV-positive cases. No fatality at hospital was recorded. Frozen samples revealed more negative results. Most cases presented during winter and the number of RSV-positive cases was higher in cold and economically poor areas. Premature children and children with underlying medical condition acquire RSV irrespective of other sociodemographic risk factors, and most of them

  13. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    PubMed

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  14. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  15. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  16. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies show that young children can be exposed to pesticides during normal oral exploration of their environment and their level of dermal contact with floors and other surfaces. Children living in agricultural areas may be exposed to higher pesticide levels than other children because of pesticides tracked into their homes by household members, by pesticide drift, by breast milk from their farmworker mother, or by playing in nearby fields. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the extent of children's pesticide exposure, and no studies have examined whether there are adverse health effects of chronic exposure. There is substantial toxicologic evidence that repeated low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may affect neurodevelopment and growth in developing animals. For example, animal studies have reported neurobehavorial effects such as impairment on maze performance, locomotion, and balance in neonates exposed (italic)in utero(/italic) and during early postnatal life. Possible mechanisms for these effects include inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, downregulation of muscarinic receptors, decreased brain DNA synthesis, and reduced brain weight in offspring. Research findings also suggest that it is biologically plausible that OP exposure may be related to respiratory disease in children through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The University of California Berkeley Center for Children's Environmental Health Research is working to build a community-university partnership to study the environmental health of rural children. This Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas, or CHAMACOS in Monterey County, California, will assess (italic)in utero(/italic) and postnatal OP pesticide exposure and the relationship of exposure to neurodevelopment, growth, and symptoms of respiratory illness in children. The ultimate goal of the center is to translate research findings into a reduction of children

  17. Building-related symptoms among U.S. office workers and risks factors for moisture and contamination: Preliminary analyses of U.S. EPA BASE Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark J.; Cozen, Myrna

    2002-09-01

    dirty cooling coils were associated with a nonsignificant increase in lower respiratory symptoms. These preliminary findings suggest that some factors that indicate risks for moisture or contamination in office buildings may have adverse effects on respiratory or neurologic health of office workers. More refined analyses are underway that will include these risk factors in simultaneous multivariate models along with additional risk factors that may be confounders, such as ventilation rate and indoor temperature. Future analyses will also use more refined metrics for both health outcomes and environmental risks, as well as assess risk in susceptible sub-groups.

  18. Relationship between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Kathryn L; Maloney, Elizabeth A; Stain, Helen J; Loughland, Carmel M; Carr, Vaughan J

    2012-05-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for a wide range of adult psychiatric disorders, and has significant and sustained negative effects on adult behavioural and social functioning. Elevated rates of childhood adversity have been reported for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to assess rates of retrospectively reported childhood adversity among adults with schizophrenia and to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features. Data were available for 408 schizophrenia participants and 267 healthy control participants recruited through the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB). History of childhood adversity was obtained using the Childhood Adversity Questionnaire (CAQ). A five-factor solution was identified from the CAQ. Schizophrenia participants reported experiencing more childhood adversities than controls. In both groups, those reporting childhood adversity were more likely to be female and older. Among participants with schizophrenia, positive symptom severity and fewer years of education were associated with childhood adversity. Lower IQ scores and personality traits were associated with reporting a greater number of childhood adversities and with adversity sub-types of abusive, neglectful and dysfunctional parenting. The rate of childhood adversity reported in this sample was high which suggests greater exposure to adverse childhood events among participants with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy controls. We identified unique groups amongst CAQ items that provided a salient framework from which to investigate the connection between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features. PMID:22329951

  19. Personal Exposures to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Health among Bronx Schoolchildren with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Spira-Cohen, Ariel; Chen, Lung Chi; Kendall, Michaela; Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported relationships between adverse respiratory health outcomes and residential proximity to traffic pollution, but have not shown this at a personal exposure level. Objective We compared, among inner-city children with asthma, the associations of adverse asthma outcome incidences with increased personal exposure to particulate matter mass ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) air pollution versus the diesel-related carbonaceous fraction of PM2.5. Methods Daily 24-hr personal samples of PM2.5, including the elemental carbon (EC) fraction, were collected for 40 fifth-grade children with asthma at four South Bronx schools (10 children per school) during approximately 1 month each. Spirometry and symptom scores were recorded several times daily during weekdays. Results We found elevated same-day relative risks of wheeze [1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–2.04)], shortness of breath (1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.99), and total symptoms (1.30; 95% CI, 1.04–1.62) with an increase in personal EC, but not with personal PM2.5 mass. We found increased risk of cough, wheeze, and total symptoms with increased 1-day lag and 2-day average personal and school-site EC. We found no significant associations with school-site PM2.5 mass or sulfur. The EC effect estimate was robust to addition of gaseous pollutants. Conclusion Adverse health associations were strongest with personal measures of EC exposure, suggesting that the diesel “soot” fraction of PM2.5 is most responsible for pollution-related asthma exacerbations among children living near roadways. Studies that rely on exposure to PM mass may underestimate PM health impacts. PMID:21216722

  20. Obesity, expiratory flow limitation and asthma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mahadev, Sriram; Farah, Claude S; King, Gregory G; Salome, Cheryl M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is associated with poor asthma control, but the reason for this is unclear. Reduction in operating lung volume, as occurs in obesity, and bronchoconstriction, as occurs in asthma, can increase expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing (EFLt), which may in turn increase respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on EFLt at baseline and after bronchoconstriction in non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects, and to determine the association between EFLt, and respiratory symptoms. Data from previously published studies in non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects were reanalyzed using an index of EFLt derived from respiratory system reactance measured by the forced oscillation technique. The analysis showed that during bronchoconstriction both non-asthmatic and asthmatic obese individuals were more likely to develop EFLt than non-obese subjects, despite similar changes in FEV1. Furthermore the index of EFLt was a significant determinant of the severity of breathlessness during challenge in non-asthmatic subjects, and of asthma symptom control in asthmatic subjects following anti-inflammatory treatment. These studies suggest that the combination of bronchoconstriction and low resting lung volume increase the risk of EFLt, and that this altered response to bronchoconstriction may increase the severity of symptoms and lead to worse asthma control. PMID:22609068

  1. The human respiratory gate

    PubMed Central

    Eckberg, Dwain L

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this ‘respiratory gating’ is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R–R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R–R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms. PMID:12626671

  2. The respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Zifko, U; Chen, R

    1996-10-01

    Neurological disorders frequently contribute to respiratory failure in critically ill patients. They may be the primary reason for the initiation of mechanical ventilation, or may develop later as a secondary complication. Disorders of the central nervous system leading to respiratory failure include metabolic encephalopathies, acute stroke, lesions of the motor cortex and brain-stem respiratory centres, and their descending pathways. Guillan-Barré syndrome, critical illness polyneuropathy and acute quadriplegic myopathy are the more common neuromuscular causes of respiratory failure. Clinical observations and pulmonary function tests are important in monitoring respiratory function. Respiratory electrophysiological studies are useful in the investigation and monitoring of respiratory failure. Transcortical and cervical magnetic stimulation can assess the central respiratory drive, and may be useful in determining the prognosis in ventilated patients, with cervical cord dysfunction. It is also helpful in the assessment of failure to wean, which is often caused by a combination of central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Phrenic nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography of the diaphragm and chest wall muscles are useful to characterize neuropathies and myopathies affecting the diaphragm. Repetitive phrenic nerve stimulation can assess neuromuscular transmission defects. It is important to identify patients at risk of respiratory failure. They should be carefully monitored and mechanical ventilation should be initiated before the development of severe hypoxaemia. PMID:9117072

  3. The human respiratory gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

  4. Formaldehyde: an analysis of its respiratory, cutaneous, and immunologic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bardana, E.J. Jr.; Montanaro, A. )

    1991-06-01

    Formaldehyde is truly ubiquitous in our ecology and continuing important commercial applications. Most of us have daily contact with this chemical. The most significant outdoor source of this chemical is gasoline and diesel fuel combustion. The primary indoor source is combustion of tobacco products. Formaldehyde is associated with a disagreeable odor that can produce annoyance symptoms and at higher concentrations can be a transient and completely reversible irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. It is so soluble and rapidly metabolized that it rarely reaches the lower respiratory tract to inflict damage. The exception is in cigarette smokers who actively inhale. Formaldehyde may on rare occasions induce bronchial asthma at relatively high exposure doses. There are no conclusive studies that prove the development of de novo IgE-mediated respiratory tract symptoms secondary to inhalation of formaldehyde vapors. The approach to formaldehyde-induced symptoms should be one of careful documentation of objective physiologic changes.147 references.

  5. Formaldehyde: an analysis of its respiratory, cutaneous, and immunologic effects.

    PubMed

    Bardana, E J; Montanaro, A

    1991-06-01

    Formaldehyde is truly ubiquitous in our ecology and continuing important commercial applications. Most of us have daily contact with this chemical. The most significant outdoor source of this chemical is gasoline and diesel fuel combustion. The primary indoor source is combustion of tobacco products. Formaldehyde is associated with a disagreeable odor that can produce "annoyance" symptoms and at higher concentrations can be a transient and completely reversible irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. It is so soluble and rapidly metabolized that it rarely reaches the lower respiratory tract to inflict damage. The exception is in cigarette smokers who actively inhale. Formaldehyde may on rare occasions induce bronchial asthma at relatively high exposure doses. There are no conclusive studies that prove the development of de novo IgE-mediated respiratory tract symptoms secondary to inhalation of formaldehyde vapors. The approach to formaldehyde-induced symptoms should be one of careful documentation of objective physiologic changes. PMID:2048760

  6. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  7. Pyogenic sacroiliitis and adult respiratory distress syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asavamongkolkul, A; Keerasuntonpong, A; Kuagoolwongse, C

    2007-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus sacroiliitis is uncommon and may lead to bacteraemia, sepsis, and death if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Its association with pulmonary symptoms has not been reported. We report a 36-year-old Thai woman who presented with a 4-day history of right buttock pain, aggravated by walking, which came on after having a traditional foot massage. She later developed adult respiratory distress syndrome. She was treated with open drainage, respiratory support, and antibiotics. PMID:17709867

  8. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection. PMID:22490115

  9. Respiratory dose of inhaled particulate matter and its health implications in susceptible populations.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the air is known to cause adverse health effects, particularly in elderly subjects with respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease. Although observed health effects are likely caused by multiple factors, the respiratory dose is one factor of particular con...

  10. The respiratory neuromuscular system in Pompe disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, David D.; ElMallah, Mai K.; Smith, Barbara K.; Corti, Manuela; Lawson, Lee Ann; Falk, Darin J.; Byrne, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Pompe disease is due to mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). Absence of functional GAA typically results in cardiorespiratory failure in the first year; reduced GAA activity is associated with progressive respiratory failure later in life. While skeletal muscle pathology contributes to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease, emerging evidence indicates that respiratory neuron dysfunction is also a significant part of dysfunction in motor units. Animal models show profound glycogen accumulation in spinal and medullary respiratory neurons and altered neural activity. Tissues from Pompe patients show central nervous system glycogen accumulation and motoneuron pathology. A neural mechanism raises considerations about the current clinical approach of enzyme replacement since the recombinant protein does not cross the blood-brain-barrier. Indeed, clinical data suggest that enzyme replacement therapy delays symptom progression, but many patients eventually require ventilatory assistance, especially during sleep. We propose that treatments which restore GAA activity to respiratory muscles, neurons and networks will be required to fully correct ventilatory insufficiency in Pompe disease. PMID:23797185

  11. [New argentine consensus of respiratory rehabilitation 2008].

    PubMed

    Sívori, Martín; Almeida, Marta; Benzo, Roberto; Boim, Clarisa; Brassesco, Marisa; Callejas, Osvaldo; Capparelli, Ignacio; Conti, Ernesto; Díaz, Mariano; Draghi, Jorge; Franco, Javier; Gando, Sebastián; Giuliano, Germán; Guida, Roxana; Jolly, Enrique; Pessolano, Fernando; Rabinovich, Roberto; Ratto, Patricia; Rhodius, Edgardo; Saadia, Marcela; Salvado, Alejandro; Sobrino, Edgardo; Victorio, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory rehabilitation (RR) is a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment, individually tailored, designed to optimize physical and social performance and patient autonomy. It is particularly indicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with exercise intolerance. The objectives of respiratory rehabilitation are: reduction in symptoms and exercise intolerance, improvement of health-related quality of life, and reduction of health costs. A group of neumonologists, nutritionists and physical therapists performed a systematic review of the evidence in RR to update previous local guidelines. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, guidelines for initial evaluation and follow up and resources needed are defined. Training characteristics are recommended regarding frequency of the visits, intensity, progression and duration of the exercise training. Aerobic training was recommended for lower limb (1A), upper limb (1B). Strength training must be added (1B). Respiratory muscle training and other physiotherapy techniques were recommended only for specific patients (1C). In addition recommendations have been made for educational objectives of the program including smoking cessation, nutritional and psychological support. The positive impact of RR on reductions of health care costs and reductions on hospitalizations (Evidence A) and mortality (Evidence B) were analized. Respiratory rehabilitation is a key component in the modern treatment of COPD patients. This consensus statement was prepared based on the most recent scientific evidence and adjusted to the local environment with the aim of being implemented nationally. PMID:18786894

  12. Cannabis smoking and respiratory health: consideration of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter; Jaffe, Adam; Copeland, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The respiratory health effects from tobacco smoking are well described. Cannabis smoke contains a similar profile of carcinogenic chemicals as tobacco smoke but is inhaled more deeply. Although cannabis smoke is known to contain similar harmful and carcinogenic substances to tobacco smoke, relatively little is understood regarding the respiratory health effects from cannabis smoking. There is a need to integrate research on cannabis and respiratory health effects so that gaps in the literature can be identified and the more consistent findings can be consolidated with the purpose of educating smokers and health service providers. This review focuses on several aspects of respiratory health and cannabis use (as well as concurrent cannabis and tobacco use) and provides an update to (i) the pathophysiology; (ii) general respiratory health including symptoms of chronic bronchitis; and (iii) lung cancer. PMID:24831571

  13. Workplace respiratory irritants and asthma.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M

    2000-01-01

    Workplace respiratory irritants can have a variety of effects in relation to asthma. Very high exposures can cause new-onset asthma (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome or irritant-induced asthma) with or without concurrent sensitization, e.g., to diisocyanate. Aggravation of underlying asthma can result from moderate exposures. Adjuvant or other effects enhancing the risk of sensitization to high molecular weight allergens have occurred with chronic low-moderate exposures. Enhancement of airway responsiveness on a short-term basis can be produced by ozone and biological irritants such as endotoxin and beta 1-3 glucans. Production of nonasthmatic responses such as hyperventilation and vocal cord dysfunction can mimic asthma symptoms. Controversy exists as to whether moderate irritant exposures can cause asthma or long-term worsening of underlying asthma. PMID:10769351

  14. Respiratory Care Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of respiratory care therapist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of respiratory care therapist. The following…

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A ... often get it when older kids carry the virus home from school and pass it to ... often happen in epidemics that last from late fall through early spring. ...

  16. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  17. Respiratory function in coffee workers.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Valić, F; Skurić, Z

    1979-01-01

    Respiratory function was studied in three groups of workers employed in processing coffee. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in coffee processors than in control workers. In each group during the Monday work shift there was a significant mean acute decrease in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% vital capacity (VC), ranging from 4.0% to 8.7%, and at 25% VC, ranging from 6.0% to 18.5%. Acute reductions in FEV1.0 were considerably lower, ranging from 1.3% to 2.8%. On Thursdays the acute ventilatory function changes were somewhat lower than on Mondays. Acute decreases in flow rates at low lung volumes suggest that the bronchoconstrictor effect of the dust acts mostly on smaller airways. Administration of Intal (disodium cromoglycate) before the shift considerably diminished acute reductions in flow rates. A comparison of Monday pre-shift values of ventilatory capacity in coffee workers with those in controls indicates that exposure to dust in green or roasted coffee processing may lead to persistent loss of pulmonary function. PMID:111700

  18. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  19. Do respiratory symptoms predict job choices in teenagers?

    PubMed

    Radon, K; Huemmer, S; Dressel, H; Windstetter, D; Weinmayr, G; Weiland, S; Riu, E; Vogelberg, C; Leupold, W; von Mutius, E; Goldberg, M; Nowak, D

    2006-04-01

    Existing guidelines advise adolescents with asthma and allergies against high-risk occupations. The aim of the current authors' analyses was to investigate the resulting self-selection in a prospective cohort study. The participants of Phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood in Germany (aged 9-11 yrs at baseline) were re-contacted after 7 yrs (response rate was 77%) and were asked to complete a questionnaire, which included items on atopic diseases. The subjects were also asked about the type of job they would like to have in the future (preferred job choice). Exposure to agents with potential asthma risk was evaluated using a job exposure matrix. The analyses were restricted to those in school-based vocational training programmes without occupational exposures. A total of 33% of subjects chose jobs with high asthma risk, 23% selected low asthma risk jobs and the remaining adolescents indicated jobs without known asthma risk (reference category). There were no statistically significant associations between asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis and selecting jobs with asthma risk. Participants with allergic rhinitis tended to select high risk jobs less frequently. In conclusion, self-selection into low risk jobs seems to play a minor role in teenagers with asthma or allergies. PMID:16585085

  20. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... underlying cause and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. A low oxygen level in ... on the skin, lips, and fingernails. A high carbon dioxide level can cause rapid breathing and confusion. Some ...

  1. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD symptoms can be very subtle. "For example, some ...

  2. [The undesirable, psychologically adverse effects of screening].

    PubMed

    Döbrössy, Bence; Kovács, Attila; Budai, András; Cornides, Agnes; Döbrössy, Lajos

    2007-09-01

    The psychological adverse effects might play an important role in the non-compliance with the offered screening examination. The possible sources of them are three-fold: 1. The general human attitude, such as the rejection of health interventions, particularly those aiming at the prevention of eventual future health problems instead of handling existing complaints and symptoms at present; the screening can be seen as a "future-oriented" intervention. 2. The cultural image of cancer and the disbelief of its curability. 3. The subjective experiences in relation to the screening process. The providers have to do their best to eliminate these causes: by means of a) health education addressing people of various ages, social classes and cultural levels, promoting the understanding of the importance of disease prevention, and, changing their negative, defeatist attitude towards cancer; b) minimizing the psychological adverse effects of all kinds. This can be done by proper organisation of the screening process; optimizing the quality of work, and, provision of good quality of information and advice to the screenees before, during and after the screening. PMID:17766222

  3. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Franklin J

    2010-08-15

    Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

  4. Urban city transportation mode and respiratory health effect of air pollution: a cross-sectional study among transit and non-transit workers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Design Cross-sectional, randomised survey. Setting A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Participants Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18–35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. Main outcome measure The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV1<80% predicted or FEV1/FVC<70% predicted) using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD) and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) criteria were calculated. In order to investigate specific occupation-dependent respiratory function impairment, a comparison was made between the ORs for respiratory impairment in the three occupations. Adjustments were made for some demographic variables such as age, BMI, area of residence, etc. Results Exposure to ambient air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVC<80% predicted and OR 1.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 4.76 for FEV1/FVC<70% predicted using GOLD and NICE criteria. In addition, uneducated, currently smoking transit workers who had worked for more than 1 year, with three trips per day and more than 1 h transit time per trip were significantly associated with higher odds for respiratory function

  5. Harm reduction--a treatment approach for resistant smokers with tobacco-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Solano, Segismundo; Viteri, Soledad Alonso; Ferrero, Miguel Barrueco; Torrecilla, Miguel; Mezquita, Miguel Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to represent a hard-core group, and this presents a dilemma for chest physicians. A reduction in cigarette smoking benefits health, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can aid smoking reduction. Hence we studied the efficacy of nicotine gum in helping hard-core smokers with severe COPD to quit. Seventeen smokers with severe COPD (FEV(1) 38-47% of predicted normal) who smoked >30 cigarettes/day but were unable to quit were encouraged to reduce their smoking as much as possible by using 4-mg nicotine gum. Five gradually reduced their daily tobacco consumption and, 18 months after starting NRT, were smoking an average of 6 cigarettes/day while still using nicotine gum. Compared to baseline, their respiratory symptoms had improved, and both FEV(1) and FVC had increased. There was no improvement in pulmonary function in the group of smokers who did not reduce their cigarette consumption. No adverse events relating to nicotine occurred among the patients who used NRT to reduce their smoking. We propose that this reduction approach should be considered for patients with respiratory disease who are unable or unwilling to stop smoking. PMID:12232455

  6. Fat embolism syndrome in a patient demonstrating only neurologic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bardana, D; Rudan, J; Cervenko, F; Smith, R

    1998-10-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a recognized complication of both long bone fractures and intramedullary orthopedic procedures. The usual presenting features are respiratory failure, neurologic dysfunction and petechiae. In this report, a 25-year-old woman with FES presented with serious neurologic symptoms and signs in the absence of respiratory dysfunction. The diagnosis is essentially a clinical one, but nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed distinctive lesions that may help future diagnosis of FES. PMID:9793509

  7. Fat embolism syndrome in a patient demonstrating only neurologic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bardana, David; Rudan, John; Cervenko, Frank; Smith, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a recognized complication of both long bone fractures and intramedullary orthopedic procedures. The usual presenting features are respiratory failure, neurologic dysfunction and petechiae. In this report, a 25-year-old woman with FES presented with serious neurologic symptoms and signs in the absence of respiratory dysfunction. The diagnosis is essentially a clinical one, but nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed distinctive lesions that may help future diagnosis of FES. PMID:9793509

  8. Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background From a mechanistic or physical perspective there is no basis to suspect that electric charges on clusters of air molecules (air ions) would have beneficial or deleterious effects on respiratory function. Yet, there is a large lay and scientific literature spanning 80 years that asserts exposure to air ions affects the respiratory system and has other biological effects. Aims This review evaluates the scientific evidence in published human experimental studies regarding the effects of exposure to air ions on respiratory performance and symptoms. Methods We identified 23 studies (published 1933–1993) that met our inclusion criteria. Relevant data pertaining to study population characteristics, study design, experimental methods, statistical techniques, and study results were assessed. Where relevant, random effects meta-analysis models were utilized to quantify similar exposure and outcome groupings. Results The included studies examined the therapeutic benefits of exposure to negative air ions on respiratory outcomes, such as ventilatory function and asthmatic symptoms. Study specific sample sizes ranged between 7 and 23, and studies varied considerably by subject characteristics (e.g., infants with asthma, adults with emphysema), experimental method, outcomes measured (e.g., subjective symptoms, sensitivity, clinical pulmonary function), analytical design, and statistical reporting. Conclusions Despite numerous experimental and analytical differences across studies, the literature does not clearly support a beneficial role in exposure to negative air ions and respiratory function or asthmatic symptom alleviation. Further, collectively, the human experimental studies do not indicate a significant detrimental effect of exposure to positive air ions on respiratory measures. Exposure to negative or positive air ions does not appear to play an appreciable role in respiratory function. PMID:24016271

  9. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn. PMID:26760414

  10. The effect of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of school children: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Epton, Michael J; Dawson, Robin D; Brooks, Wendy M; Kingham, Simon; Aberkane, Teresa; Cavanagh, Jo-Anne E; Frampton, Christopher M; Hewitt, Tracey; Cook, Julie M; McLeod, Susan; McCartin, Fiona; Trought, Katherine; Brown, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Background Adverse respiratory effects of particulate air pollution have been identified by epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution from wood burning on school-age students in Christchurch, New Zealand, and to explore the utility of urine and exhaled breath condensate biomarkers of exposure in this population. Methods A panel study of 93 male students (26 with asthma) living in the boarding house of a metropolitan school was undertaken in the winter of 2004. Indoor and outdoor pollution data was continuously monitored. Longitudinal assessment of lung function (FEV1 and peak flow) and symptoms were undertaken, with event studies of high pollution on biomarkers of exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene) and effect (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration). Results Peak levels of air pollution were associated with small but statistically significant effects on lung function in the asthmatic students, but not healthy students. No significant effect of pollution could be seen either on airway inflammation and oxidative stress either in healthy students or students with asthma. Minor increases in respiratory symptoms were associated with high pollution exposure. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were raised in association with pollution events by comparison with low pollution control days. Conclusion There is no significant effect of ambient wood-smoke particulate air pollution on lung function of healthy school-aged students, but a small effect on respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic students show small effects of peak pollution levels on lung function. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene shows potential as a biomarker of exposure to wood smoke in this population; however measurement of EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide appears not to be useful for assessment of population health effects of air pollution. Some of the data presented in this paper has previously been published in Kingham and co

  11. Pediatric Respiratory Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Richards, Amber M

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory emergencies are 1 of the most common reasons parents seek evaluation for the their children in the emergency department (ED) each year, and respiratory failure is the most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in pediatric patients. Whereas many respiratory illnesses are mild and self-limiting, others are life threatening and require prompt diagnosis and management. Therefore, it is imperative that emergency clinicians be able to promptly recognize and manage these illnesses. This article reviews ED diagnosis and management of foreign body aspiration, asthma exacerbation, epiglottitis, bronchiolitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and pertussis. PMID:26614243

  12. The Coping with Asthma Study: a randomised controlled trial of a home based, nurse led psychoeducational intervention for adults at risk of adverse asthma outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J; Mildenhall, S; Noble, M; Shepstone, L; Koutantji, M; Mugford, M; Harrison, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Morbidity and mortality associated with severe asthma might be reduced by interventions that address psychosocial factors contributing to adverse outcomes. A study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of a 6 month home based psychoeducational intervention delivered by a respiratory nurse specialist for adults at risk of adverse asthma outcomes. Methods: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was performed in 92 adults registered with hospital or primary care asthma clinics. All had previous hospital admissions and/or were on British Thoracic Society step 4–5 treatment and had failed to attend clinic appointments or were considered to have poor adherence to other aspects of their agreed management. Patients were visited in their homes for assessment and, where appropriate, intervention. The main outcomes measured were symptom control, asthma specific quality of life, and generic health status. Results: At the 6 month primary time point there were no significant differences between usual care and intervention groups in mean symptom control, physical functioning, or mental health scores (differences (with 95% CI) –0.35 (–1.83 to 1.13), 3.10 (–11.42 to 17.63), 0.42 (–10.22 to 11.07), respectively). Small effects on asthma specific quality of life up to 12 months (e.g. adjusted difference at 12 months 0.13 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.25)) and short term effects on generic health status, which mirrored improvements in aspects of self-care observed at the end of the intensive phase of the intervention, were apparent only from fully adjusted analyses. Conclusions: A home based intervention provided by a nurse receiving psychological supervision may have effects on quality of life but is overall of limited long term benefit to adults at risk of adverse asthma outcomes. PMID:16055616

  13. Respiratory morbidity in office workers in a water-damaged building.

    PubMed

    Cox-Ganser, Jean M; White, Sandra K; Jones, Rebecca; Hilsbos, Ken; Storey, Eileen; Enright, Paul L; Rao, Carol Y; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    We conducted a study on building-related respiratory disease and associated social impact in an office building with water incursions in the northeastern United States. An initial questionnaire had 67% participation (888/1,327). Compared with the U.S. adult population, prevalence ratios were 2.2-2.5 for wheezing, lifetime asthma, and current asthma, 3.3 for adult-onset asthma, and 3.4 for symptoms improving away from work (p < 0.05). Two-thirds (66/103) of the adult-onset asthma arose after occupancy, with an incidence rate of 1.9/1,000 person-years before building occupancy and 14.5/1,000 person-years after building occupancy. We conducted a second survey on 140 respiratory cases, 63 subjects with fewer symptoms, and 44 comparison subjects. Health-related quality of life decreased with increasing severity of respiratory symptoms and in those with work-related symptoms. Symptom status was not associated with job satisfaction or how often jobs required hard work. Respiratory health problems accounted for one-third of sick leave, and respiratory cases with work-related symptoms had more respiratory sick days than those without work-related symptoms (9.4 vs. 2.4 days/year; p < 0.01). Abnormal lung function and/or breathing medication use was found in 67% of respiratory cases, in 38% of participants with fewer symptoms, and in 11% of the comparison group (p < 0.01), with similar results in never-smokers. Postoccupancy-onset asthma was associated with less atopy than preoccupancy-onset asthma. Occupancy of the water-damaged building was associated with onset and exacerbation of respiratory conditions, confirmed by objective medical tests. The morbidity and lost work time burdened both employees and employers. PMID:15811840

  14. PASSIVE SMOKING, GAS COOKING, AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF CHILDREN LIVING IN SIX CITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a longitudinal study of the respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollutants, pulmonary function, respiratory illness history, and symptom history were recorded at 2 successive annual examinations of 10,106 white children living in 6 cities in the United...

  15. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  16. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION OF HUMAN PRIMARY NASAL AND BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELL CULTURES AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In adult clinical symptoms caused by respiratory syncytial virus RSV are confined to the upper respiratory tract, while RSV infection in infants frequently causes bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The preferential localization of RSV infection to the Upper airways may be due partially...

  17. Biologics in dermatology: adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2015-12-01

    Biologics are a group of drugs that precisely affect certain specific steps in the immune response and are an extremely useful group when used in an appropriate setting. However, their use can often be a double-edged sword. Careful patient selection and thorough knowledge of adverse effects is a key to their successful use in various disorders. The initial enthusiasm has gradually given way to a more cautious approach wherein a balance is sought between clinical usefulness and expected side effects. The adverse effects of the biologics most commonly used in dermatology have been carefully listed for ready reference. The plausible causes of the adverse reactions are succinctly outlined along with their incriminating factor(s). Besides, in brief, the attention has been focused on their management. The content should provide an essential didactic content for educating the practitioner. PMID:26147909

  18. The Violent Content in Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Deighton, Stephanie; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel; Addington, Jean

    2016-08-30

    The relationship between psychosis and violence has typically focused on factors likely to predict who will commit violent acts. One unexplored area is violence in the content of subthreshold positive symptoms. The current aim was to conduct an exploratory analysis of violent content in the attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) of those at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) who met criteria for attenuated psychotic symptom syndrome (APSS). The APS of 442 CHR individuals, determined by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, were described in comprehensive vignettes. The content of these symptoms were coded using the Content of Attenuated Positive Symptoms Codebook. Other measures included clinical symptoms, functioning, beliefs and trauma. Individuals with violent content had significantly higher APS, greater negative beliefs about the self and others, and increased bullying. The same findings and higher ratings on anxiety symptoms were present when participants with self-directed violence were compared to participants with no violent content. Individuals reporting violent content differ in their clinical presentation compared to those who do not experience violent content. Adverse life events, like bullying, may impact the presence of violent content in APS symptoms. Future studies should explore violent content in relation to actual behavior. PMID:27259137

  19. Predicting respiratory morbidity from pulmonary function tests: A reanalysis of ozone chamber studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Jewell, N.P.

    1989-10-01

    Some consequences of acute exposure to ozone are best measured in studies of human respiratory responses in controlled exposure chambers. These studies typically examine relationships between exposures to alternative pollutant concentrations and indicators of lung function as measured by spirometry, such as forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1. However, the association of respiratory morbidity with these changes in lung function is not well established. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between ozone-related changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms, data from several clinical studies have been reanalyzed. Logistic regression models were used to determine the quantitative relationship between changes in FEV1 and the probability of a mild or moderate lower respiratory symptom. Models were developed that corrected for repeated sampling of individuals and both population-averaged and subject-specific effects were determined. The results indicate the existence of a strong and consistent quantitative relationship between changes in lung function and the probability of a respiratory symptom. Specifically, a 10 percent reduction in FEV1 is associated with a 15 percentage point increase in the probability of a mild, moderate or severe lower respiratory symptom and a 6 percentage point increase in the probability of a moderate or severe lower respiratory symptom.

  20. Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-01-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  1. Evaluating respiratory patient disability.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Manzano, Juan; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada; Chiner Vives, Eusebi; Martínez González, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    The evaluation of the disabilities of patients with respiratory disease is regulated by the Spanish Ministry of Labor and Social Security, as are disabilities of any other type. We believe, however, that in respiratory pathologies this evaluation is especially complicated because, as they are chronic processes, they inter-relate with other systems. Furthermore, they tend to have occasional exacerbations; therefore, normal periods may alternate with other periods of important functional limitations. The present document arises from the desire of SEPAR to update this topic and to respond to the requests of respiratory disease patient associations who have asked us to do so. In this paper, we analyze the current situation of work disability legislation as well as the determination of degrees and percentages, including the current criteria for assigning disabilities due to respiratory tract deficiencies. Lastly, we propose work guidelines that would improve the existing scenario and outline this evaluation for specific pathologies. PMID:22341300

  2. Upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

  3. Respiratory chain supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Schägger, H

    2001-01-01

    Respiratory chain supercomplexes have been isolated from mammalian and yeast mitochondria, and bacterial membranes. Functional roles of respiratory chain supercomplexes are catalytic enhancement, substrate channelling, and stabilization of complex I by complex III in mammalian cells. Bacterial supercomplexes are characterized by their relatively high detergent-stability compared to yeast or mammalian supercomplexes that are stable to sonication. The mobility of substrate cytochrome c increases in the order bacterial, yeast, and mammalian respiratory chain. In bacterial supercomplexes, the electron transfer between complexes III and IV involves movement of the mobile head of a tightly bound cytochrome c, whereas the yeast S. cerevisiae seems to use substrate channelling of a mobile cytochrome c, and mammalian respiratory chains have been described to use a cytochrome c pool. Dimeric ATP synthase seems to be specific for mitochondrial OXPHOS systems. Monomeric complex V was found in Acetobacterium woodii and Paracoccus denitrificans. PMID:11798023

  4. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily move oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide from your blood (gas exchange). This can cause a low oxygen level or high carbon dioxide level, or both, in your blood. Respiratory failure ...

  5. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    PubMed

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health. PMID:26207724

  6. Respiratory exercise program for elderly individuals with asthma