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Sample records for adverse sexual health

  1. Sexual behaviour: related adverse health burden in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S; McKenna, M; Marks, J

    2005-01-01

    As part of an analysis of the burden of disease and injury in the United States, we identified and quantified the incidence of adverse health events, deaths, and disability adjusted life years (DALY) attributed to sexual behaviour. In 1998, about 20 million such events (7532/100 000 people) and 29 782 such deaths (1.3% of all US deaths) occurred, contributing to 2 161 417 DALYs (6.2% of all US DALYs). The majority of incident health events (62%) and DALYs (57%) related to sexual behaviour were among females, and curable infections and their sequelae contributed to over half of these. Viral infections and their sequelae accounted for nearly all sexual behaviour related deaths—mostly HIV/AIDS. Sexual behaviour attributed DALYs in the United States are threefold higher than that in overall established market economies. PMID:15681721

  2. Early Adversity, Elevated Stress Physiology, Accelerated Sexual Maturation and Poor Health in Females

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Jay; Ruttle, Paula L.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary-minded developmentalists studying predictive-adaptive-response processes linking childhood adversity with accelerated female reproductive development and health scientists investigating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOoHaD) may be tapping the same process, whereby longer-term health costs are traded off for increased probability of reproducing before dying via a process of accelerated reproductive maturation. Using data from 73 females, we test the following propositions using path analysis: (a) greater exposure to prenatal stress predicts greater maternal depression and negative parenting in infancy, (b) which predicts elevated basal cortisol at 4.5 years, (c) which predicts accelerated adrenarcheal development, (d) which predicts more physical and mental health problems at age 18. Results prove generally consistent with these propositions, including a direct link from cortisol to mental health problems. DOoHaD investigators should consider including early sexual maturation as a core component linking early adversity and stress physiology with poor health later in life in females. PMID:25915592

  3. Early adversity, elevated stress physiology, accelerated sexual maturation, and poor health in females.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Ruttle, Paula L; Boyce, W Thomas; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2015-06-01

    Evolutionary-minded developmentalists studying predictive-adaptive-response processes linking childhood adversity with accelerated female reproductive development and health scientists investigating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOoHaD) may be tapping the same process, whereby longer-term health costs are traded off for increased probability of reproducing before dying via a process of accelerated reproductive maturation. Using data from 73 females, we test the following propositions using path analysis: (a) greater exposure to prenatal stress predicts greater maternal depression and negative parenting in infancy, (b) which predicts elevated basal cortisol at 4.5 years, (c) which predicts accelerated adrenarcheal development, (d) which predicts more physical and mental health problems at age 18. Results prove generally consistent with these propositions, including a direct link from cortisol to mental health problems. DOoHaD investigators should consider including early sexual maturation as a core component linking early adversity and stress physiology with poor health later in life in females. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  5. Recent Sexual Trauma and Adverse Health and Occupational Outcomes Among U.S. Service Women.

    PubMed

    Millegan, Jeffrey; Milburn, Emma K; LeardMann, Cynthia A; Street, Amy E; Williams, Diane; Trone, Daniel W; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2015-08-01

    Sexual trauma is prevalent among military women, but data on potential effects are needed. The association of sexual trauma with health and occupational outcomes was investigated using longitudinal data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Of 13,001 U.S. service women, 1,364 (10.5%) reported recent sexual harassment and 374 (2.9%) recent sexual assault. Women reporting recent sexual harassment or assault were more likely to report poorer mental health: OR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.71, 2.25], and OR = 3.45, 95% CI [2.67, 4.44], respectively. They reported poorer physical health: OR = 1.39, 95% CI [1.20, 1.62], and OR = 1.39, 95% CI [1.04, 1.85], respectively. They reported difficulties in work/activities due to emotional health: OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.59, 2.04], and OR = 2.70, 95% CI [2.12, 3.44], respectively. They also reported difficulties with physical health: OR = 1.55, 95% CI [1.37, 1.75], and OR = 1.52 95% CI [1.20, 1.91], respectively, after adjustment for demographic, military, health, and prior sexual trauma characteristics. Recent sexual harassment was associated with demotion, OR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.12, 1.93]. Findings demonstrated that sexual trauma represents a potential threat to military operational readiness and draws attention to the importance of prevention strategies and services to reduce the burden of sexual trauma on military victims. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Sexual Trauma and Adverse Health and Occupational Outcomes Among Men Serving in the U.S. Military.

    PubMed

    Millegan, Jeffrey; Wang, Lawrence; LeardMann, Cynthia A; Miletich, Derek; Street, Amy E

    2016-04-01

    Although absolute counts of U.S. service men who experience sexual trauma are comparable to service women, little is known about the impact of sexual trauma on men. The association of recent sexual trauma (last 3 years) with health and occupational outcomes was investigated using longitudinal data (2004-2013) from the Millennium Cohort Study. Of 37,711 service men, 391 (1.0%) reported recent sexual harassment and 76 (0.2%) sexual assault. In multivariable models, sexual harassment or assault, respectively, was associated with poorer mental health: AOR = 1.60, 95% CI [1.22, 2.12], AOR = 4.39, 95% CI [2.40, 8.05]; posttraumatic stress disorder: AOR = 2.50, 95% CI [1.87, 3.33], AOR = 6.63, 95% CI [3.65, 12.06]; depression: AOR = 2.37, 95% CI [1.69, 3.33], AOR = 5.60, 95% CI [2.83, 11.09]; and multiple physical symptoms: AOR = 2.22, 95% CI [1.69, 2.92]; AOR = 3.57, 95% CI [1.98, 6.42], after adjustment for relevant covariates. Sexual harassment was also associated with poorer physical health: AOR = 1.68, 95% CI [1.27, 2.22]. Men who reported sexual trauma were more likely to have left military service: AOR = 1.60, 95% CI [1.14, 2.24], and be disabled/unemployed postservice: AOR = 1.76, 95% CI [1.02, 3.02]. Results suggest that sexual trauma was significantly associated with adverse health and functionality extending to postmilitary life. Findings support the need for developing better prevention strategies and services to reduce the burden of sexual trauma on service men.

  7. Adverse health outcomes, perpetrator characteristics, and sexual violence victimization among U.S. adult males.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault among men. The main objective of this study was to identify health outcomes, risk behaviors, and perpetrator/victim relationship characteristics among men who have experienced an attempted or completed sexual assault using data from the sexual violence module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. A total of 59,511 male respondents participated in the sexual violence module, and the majority of participants were White (73.7%), between the ages of 35 to 44 years (19.8%), married (69.0%), graduated from college (34.6%), and had an annual household income of more than US$50,000 (49.9%). Stratified multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to test the associations between victimization and health outcomes and risk behaviors controlling for age, marital status, race/ethnicity, income, education, and other potential confounders. Results of these analyses suggest important associations between health and sexual violence victimization. Specifically, men who reported unwanted attempted intercourse and attempted and completed intercourse were more likely to report poor mental health, poor life satisfaction, activity limitations, and lower emotional and social support. The current study extends knowledge of consequences of male sexual violence by considering characteristics of sexual assault and by identifying associations between victimization and a broad range of health indicators.

  8. Alcohol Involvement in Sexual Behaviour and Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes from 26 to 38 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie L.; Kydd, Robyn M.; Dickson, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO) frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs), from 26–32 and 32–38 years of age. Methods Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years. Results Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported “usually/always”), and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to “use alcohol to make it easier to have sex” and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32–38. Conclusions Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour. PMID:26267272

  9. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease Medicines that affect sexual desire or performance

  10. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality-later-life. Accessed May 1, 2017. Waite LJ, et al. Sexuality in older couples: Individual and dyadic characteristics. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2017;46:605. Yafi ...

  11. Adverse Health Outcomes, Perpetrator Characteristics, and Sexual Violence Victimization among U.S. Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault…

  12. Adverse Health Outcomes, Perpetrator Characteristics, and Sexual Violence Victimization among U.S. Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault…

  13. Sexual Hookups and Adverse Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of First-Year College Women

    PubMed Central

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    “Hookups” are sexual encounters between partners who are not in a romantic relationship and do not expect commitment. We examined the associations between sexual hookup behavior and depression, sexual victimization (SV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among first-year college women. In this longitudinal study, 483 women completed 13 monthly surveys assessing oral and vaginal sex with hookup and romantic partners, depression, SV, and self-reported STIs. Participants also provided biological specimens that were tested for STIs. During the study, 50% of participants reported hookup sex, and 62% reported romantic sex. Covariates included previous levels of the outcome, alcohol use, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and romantic sex. Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed that controlling for covariates, hookup behavior during college was correlated with depression, Bs = .21, ps < .05, and SV, Bs = .19, ps < .05. Additionally, pre-college hookup behavior predicted SV early in college, B = .62, p < .05. Hookup sex, OR 1.32, p < .05, and romantic sex, OR 1.19, p < .05, were associated with STIs. Overall, sexual hookup behavior among college women was positively correlated with experiencing depression, SV, and STIs, but the nature of these associations remains unclear, and hooking up did not predict future depression. PMID:24350600

  14. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Tampons, Pads, ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Testicular Exams ...

  15. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  16. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy and enjoyable sex life at any age. Sex and aging Can older adults remain sexually active? ... from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into ...

  17. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Irregular. What's Going On? Pap Smears Pelvic Exams Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ... My Monthly Cycle Go Back to Normal With PCOS Treatment? For Guys Can I Stop Myself From ...

  18. Fistula and other adverse reproductive health outcomes among women victims of conflict-related sexual violence: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Nissou Ines; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Hatem, Marie; Fraser, William

    2014-03-01

    Sexual violence (SV) is being used widely as a weapon of war. However, few studies have investigated its health effects. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between sexual violence and several serious reproductive health conditions including fistula. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 320 women living in Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo. We assessed the association of four outcomes: fistula, chronic pelvic pain, desire for sex, and desire for children, with SV in two contexts: conflict-related and nonconflict-related. Two groups of women: those who experienced conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) and those who experienced nonconflict-related sexual violence (NCRSV), were compared with women who had not experienced SV. Data were collected by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. Compared with women who did not experience SV, after adjustment for potential confounders, women who experienced CRSV were significantly more likely to have fistula (OR = 11.1, 95% CI [3.1-39.3]), chronic pelvic pain (OR = 5.1, 95% CI [2.4-10.9]), and absence of desire for sex (OR = 3.5, 95% CI [1.7-6.9]) and children (OR = 3.5, 95% CI [1.6-7.8]). Women who experienced NCRSV were more likely to report absence of desire for children (OR = 2.7, 95% CI [1.1-6.5]), and seemed more likely to report chronic pelvic pain (OR = 2.3, 95% CI [0.95-5.8]), although the difference was not statistically significant. Women who experienced NCRSV did not have higher odds for fistula and absence of sexual desire. Conflict-related sexual violence can contribute to women's adverse reproductive health outcomes. Its impact is more devastating than that of NCRSV. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ072 WOMEN’S HEALTH Your Sexual Health • What causes sexual problems in women? • What are the types of sexual problems that affect women? • What are desire problems? • ...

  20. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... including older people, should have the opportunity to enjoy a satisfying and fulfilling sex life. In fact, most ... sexual response and feelings change, and how to enjoy your sex life despite ... surgery can have a severe impact on sexual response. Also, some medications ...

  1. Sexual Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Sexual Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  2. [Sexual diversity, health and citizenship].

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Talavera, Víctor A; Mazín Reynoso, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Non-heterosexual sexual orientations are no longer considered pathological by the American Psychiatric Association since 1973 and the World Health Organization since 1990. However, to many authors, these changes in Latin America have not been translated into an inclusive healthcare provision or the recognition of non-heterosexual citizens with full rights. The purpose of this document is to provide a theoretical view regarding sexuality, proposing proper conditions that allow to successfully facing arising challenges. Thus, the regulating role of medicine over sexuality has been exposed, which has led to both academic and political reactions. The progressive change given in medical science has been pointed out: from considering non-heterosexual sexuality to be pathological to offering, in theory at least, inclusion. The negative impacts of what an adverse social environment causes to an individual are described. Finally, specific actions are proposed to provide better health services to non-heterosexual citizens.

  3. Sexual health and contraception.

    PubMed

    Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte

    2012-10-01

    Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Extremity: New Evidence for Sexual Homicide.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt; Beauregard, Eric

    2017-08-23

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with a wide range of behavioral, health, and psychiatric deficits and have recently been used to study the development of serious offending careers. Unfortunately, this research paradigm has largely ignored forensic populations. This study utilized the adverse childhood experiences framework to examine the associations between exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences on sexual homicide using a sample of 616 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders from Canada 85 of whom committed sexual homicide. Epidemiological tables of odds revealed that a gradient of adverse childhood experiences was associated with sexual homicide, but that the most significant risks were for offenders who had the most extensive abuse histories. In adjusted models, exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences increased the odds of sexual homicide by 334%, 249%, and 546%, respectively. These effects intensified in models adjusted for childhood enuresis, cruelty to animals, parental abandonment, deviant sexual behaviors, poor self-image, and sexual problems to 559%, 326%, and 849%, respectively. The adverse childhood experiences framework is a systematic way to organize the criminogenic developmental sequela in sexual homicide. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ≥3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114

  6. Child sexual abuse and women's sexual health: the contribution of CSA severity and exposure to multiple forms of childhood victimization.

    PubMed

    Lacelle, Céline; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women from the province of Quebec. Results suggest that child sexual abuse survivors were more likely to report having experienced other forms of childhood victimization than were women without child sexual abuse. Women with a history of both child sexual abuse and multiple forms of victimization were at greater risk of experiencing more adverse outcomes, including risky sexual behaviors, sexual problems, and negative sexual self-concept. Regression analyses revealed that child sexual abuse was significantly related to indicators of sexual health outcomes even when controlling for the effect of single forms of victimization. Clinically, interventions optimizing sexual health may be particularly helpful for a subgroup of child sexual abuse survivors.

  7. A multidimensional model of sexual health and sexual and prevention behavior among adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-02-01

    Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N = 387, 14-17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 - 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person's experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood Adversities and Adult Cardiometabolic Health: Does the Quantity, Timing, and Type of Adversity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Montez, Jennifer Karas; Sheehan, Connor McDevitt; Guenewald, Tara L.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse events in childhood can indelibly influence adult health. While evidence for this association has mounted, a fundamental set of questions about how to operationalize adverse events has been understudied. Method We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States to examine how quantity, timing, and types of adverse events in childhood are associated with adult cardiometabolic health. Results The best-fitting specification of quantity of events was a linear measure reflecting a dose–response relationship. Timing of event mattered less than repeated exposure to events. Regarding the type of event, academic interruptions and sexual/physical abuse were most important. Adverse childhood events elevated the risk of diabetes and obesity similarly for men and women but had a greater impact on women’s risk of heart disease. Discussion Findings demonstrate the insights that can be gleaned about the early-life origins of adult health by examining operationalization of childhood exposures. PMID:25903978

  9. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  10. Serious Games for Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Shegog, Ross; Brown, Katherine; Bull, Sheana; Christensen, John L; Hieftje, Kimberly; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-04-01

    Program developers and researchers in the sexual health domain have increasingly embraced technological trends as they emerge. With the emergence of serious game applications to impact health behaviors, a natural step for research enquiry will be the investigation of serious games for sexual health education. We invited a panel of sexual health researchers who are working at the intersection of sexual health behavior change and technology applications to comment on the place of serious games in furthering the field of sexual health. The panel grappled with six questions.

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  13. Adolescent health and sexuality.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A dissemination workshop, which was held jointly by the family health unit of the African Medical and Research Foundation and the Population Council, delivered the findings of a female adolescent health and sexuality survey. The study revealed that 10,000 schoolgirls drop out of school every year due to pregnancy. In addition, an alarming degree of ignorance regarding contraception, fertility, and pregnancy exists among the 10,314 schoolgirls in the sample population. One-third reported sexual experience, 18% had ever used contraceptives, and 42% had experienced abortion. It was explained in the workshop that pregnancy in immature females is likely to lead to compounded and multiple medical problems including physical damage to the girl, risk of getting sexually transmitted diseases which may lead to infertility at a later stage, and high susceptibility to HIV infection. The Catholic Church has developed a sex education syllabus, which is being used in Catholic-sponsored schools. Furthermore, other groups are dealing with equipping the youth with knowledge, skills, and attitudes to help them cope with the demands of modern life. Legal protection against sexual abuse and the role of media for advocacy were also tackled in the workshop.

  14. Linking Adverse Childhood Effects and Attachment: A Theory of Etiology for Sexual Offending.

    PubMed

    Grady, Melissa D; Levenson, Jill S; Bolder, Tess

    2016-01-25

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem affecting significant portions of the population. Unfortunately, an agreed upon theory of etiology remains elusive leading to challenges in developing effective prevention and treatment interventions. Recently, there is a growing body of literature examining the role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the development of sexually violent behavior. This research has begun to explore the rates of various types of child maltreatments and family dysfunction in individuals who have been convicted of a sexual crime. These empirical inquiries have been primarily descriptive in nature and have not yet provided a cohesive theoretical model as to why the presence of ACEs might contribute to sexually abusive behavior. This article suggests that attachment theory offers an explanatory link between early adversity and sexually abusive behavior in adulthood. We first summarize important attachment theory concepts, then integrate them with research in the area of developmental psychopathology and ACEs, and finally propose a model by which attachment can be used as an explanatory theory for subsequent sexualized coping and sexually abusive behaviors. Finally, this article explores the implications for practice, policy, and research using this explanatory theory as a framework for understanding sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. College Health: Sexual Health, Relationships, and Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional Health College Health: Sexual Health, Relationships, and Resources Posted under Health Guides . Updated 31 March 2015. + ... Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved. × Additional Resources: Phone Numbers and Hotlines: National Teen Dating Abuse ...

  16. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs.

  17. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  18. The evolving sexual health paradigm: transforming definitions into sexual health practices.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences.

  19. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  20. Sexual Health in Prime Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The term "sexual health" is often used in sexuality education without any concrete, operational definition, and students are left to ascertain the meaning for themselves. In the absence of a clear definition, students may adopt diverse or narrow understandings of this vague term, without learning the full scope of everything that sexual health…

  1. Teen Sexual Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Teen Sexual Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  2. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sexual disorders, including the emotional, physical, and interpersonal aspects. Couples therapy may be suggested to help with interpersonal issues. Individual counseling may help build sexual confidence ...

  3. Teenage pregnancy and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Alison; Evans, David T

    The under-18 conception rate in England is at a 40-year low but a further reduction is needed to reach levels in comparable western European countries. Sexually transmitted infections are common among young people, with chlamydia the most prevalent STI in the UK. To challenge this, a multi-agency approach is needed, with high-quality sex and relationships education, easy access to contraception and sexual health services and an open culture around relationships and sexual health. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people within both contraception and sexual health services and as trusted practitioners in a range of settings.

  4. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A

    2016-09-29

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p < 0.001) and parental violence (β = -0.0002; p = 0.012). Among men, IPV perpetration fully mediated sexual abuse (β = -0.0005; p = 0.012) and HIV/STIs while among women, IPV perpetration was not a statistically significant mediator. HIV/STI prevention and intervention programs should use a life course approach by addressing adverse childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.

  5. Sexually transmitted infections, adverse pregnancy outcome and neonatal infection.

    PubMed

    Moodley, P; Sturm, A W

    2000-08-01

    Prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the sexually active population are the main steps to prevent perinatal infection. However, the spread of STIs continues at an astronomical pace despite various attempts at controlling the epidemic. An important reason for this lack of STI control is that a large percentage of infected people go untreated because they have asymptomatic or unrecognized infections. The microbial differential diagnosis of STIs implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome is broad and includes viral, bacterial and protozoal infections. Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth and puerperal sepsis are some of complications seen in women as a result of infection with sexually transmitted pathogens. In addition, STIs may facilitate the acquisition and transmission of HIV. In the fetus or neonate, complications include abnormalities of the major organ systems. Infections in the form of pneumonia or conjunctivitis may also occur. Due to the lack of simple, inexpensive and sensitive point-of-care tests, screening for STIs in pregnancy is not performed routinely.

  6. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Kågesten, Anna E; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-11-18

    There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Half of females (48%) reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57%) of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality-more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  7. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars.

  8. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  9. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  10. Health Disparities Among Young Adult Sexual Minorities in the US

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. Purpose To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a national sample of U.S. young adults. Methods Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24–32 years, n=13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured body mass index; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2013. Results Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Conclusions Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health. The results highlight the multidimensionality of sexual minority status and respond to calls for greater understanding of the health of this population. PMID:25241194

  11. Diet and Men's Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    La, Justin; Roberts, Natalie H; Yafi, Faysal A

    2017-08-01

    Male sexual dysfunctions are more prevalent with aging. With increasing evidence about the impact of various diets on chronic diseases, there is a growing interest in establishing an association between various diets and men's health and sexual dysfunction. To review the current literature examining diet and dietary patterns and male sexual health. A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the association between diet and dietary patterns and male sexual health (erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and infertility) was carried using the online PubMed database from 1977 through 2017 with the keywords diet, dietary patterns, erectile dysfunction, male hypogonadism, low testosterone, and male infertility. Summary of significant findings on erectile function, androgen levels, and semen analysis parameters in relation to diets or dietary patterns. Thirteen studies on diet and erectile dysfunction and 15 studies on diet and testosterone levels were reviewed, including observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Thirteen studies analyzing the relation between diet and semen analysis parameters were reviewed but consisted of only cross-sectional and case-control studies. Evidence exists demonstrating the association between various diets and men's sexual health. Erectile dysfunction appears to lessen in men adhering to the Mediterranean diet. Obese and overweight men who lose weight through low-fat, low-calorie diets seem to have improvements in their erectile function and testosterone levels. Furthermore, a Western diet is associated with lower semen quality. Future prospective and randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish the benefit of diet and dietary patterns on men's sexual health. La J, Roberts NH, Yafi FA. Diet and Men's Sexual Health. Sex Med Rev 2017;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What Factors Predict Women's Disclosure of Sexual Assault to Mental Health Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzynski, Laura L.; Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Long, LaDonna M.; Long, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Although many sexual assault survivors seek support from mental health sources for adverse psychological symptoms due to sexual assault, many do not. A diverse sample of adult sexual assault survivors was surveyed about their sexual assault experiences, social reactions received when disclosing assault, attributions of blame, coping strategies,…

  13. Advancing adolescent sexual and reproductive health by promoting healthy relationships.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Carter, Marion; Fasula, Amy M; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Jayne, Paula E; Latzman, Natasha E; Kinsey, Jennine

    2013-11-01

    The field of public health faces a challenge in preventing adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes such as sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancy, and dating and sexual violence among adolescents. Innovative approaches are needed to better address these issues. Focusing on healthy relationships is an emerging approach that may be used to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. In this report, we discuss the need for innovative and efficient strategies for adolescent sexual and reproductive health, the benefits of a healthy relationships approach, describe the need for a science-based conceptual framework on healthy relationships, and provide some considerations for developing a conceptual framework of healthy relationships in order to move the field of public health forward.

  14. Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. Purpose To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Methods Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states’ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071). Results Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Conclusions Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population. PMID:23372755

  15. Gender, sexual health and reproductive health promotion.

    PubMed

    Moeti, M R

    1995-01-01

    The underlying factors of poverty, migration, marginalization, lack of information and skills, disempowerment, and poor access to services which affect HIV/STD risk are also closely related to those which affect sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive health problems include unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, pregnancy-related illness and death, and STDs including HIV/AIDS. This interrelationship between factors is leading increasingly to the integration of HIV/STD education and prevention within the broader framework of sexual and reproductive health promotion. Such intervention allows the possible reinforcement of the impact of interventions upon important underlying factors and behaviors linked to individual, family, and community vulnerability to HIV/STDs as well as other reproductive health problems. Integration will also optimize the use of increasingly scarce resources and increase the likelihood of responses, interventions, and programs being sustainable. Sexual and reproductive health, placing HIV/STD prevention into context, and focus upon men are discussed.

  16. Adolescent sexual health in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Edgardh, K

    2002-10-01

    In Sweden, society's attitudes towards teenage sexual relationships are liberal, and sexual and reproductive health issues are given high priority. Family and sex education has been taught in schools since the 1950s. The age of sexual consent is 15 years. Since 1975, abortion has been free on demand. Contraceptive counselling is free, easily available at family planning and youth health clinics. Screening for genital chlamydial infection is performed at these clinics, thus providing a "one stop shop" service. Condoms and oral contraception are available at low cost, emergency contraception is sold over the counter. Teenage childbearing is uncommon. However, sexual and reproductive health problems are on the increase among young people. During the 1990s, a period of economic stagnation in Sweden, schools have suffered budget cut backs. Sex education is taught less. Social segregation, school non-attendance, smoking, and drug use have increased. Teenage abortion rates have gone up, from 17/1000 in 1995 to 22.5/1000 in 2001. Genital chlamydial infections have increased from 14,000 cases in 1994 to 22,263 cases in 2001, 60% occurring among young people, and with the steepest increase among teenagers. Thus, a question of major concern is whether and how adolescent sexual behaviour has shifted towards more risky practices during the late 1990s.

  17. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  18. Sexuality. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The seven sections in this book…

  19. Sexuality. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The seven sections in this book…

  20. Cannabis use and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony M A; Ferris, Jason A; Simpson, Judy M; Shelley, Julia; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet

    2010-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance worldwide. Despite this, its impact on sexual health is largely unknown. The aim of this article is to examine the association between cannabis use and a range of sexual health outcomes. The main outcome measures include the number of sexual partners in the past year, condom use at most recent vaginal or anal intercourse, diagnosis with a sexually transmissible infection in the previous year, and the occurrence of sexual problems. Method used in this article includes a computer-assisted telephone survey of 8,656 Australians aged 16-64 years resident in Australian households with a fixed telephone line. Of the 8,650 who answered the questions about cannabis use, 754 (8.7%) reported cannabis use in the previous year with 126 (1.5%) reporting daily use, 126 reported (1.5%) weekly use, and 502 (5.8%) reported use less often than weekly. After adjusting for demographic factors, daily cannabis use compared with no use was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting two or more sexual partners in the previous year in both men (adjusted odds ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.89; P = 0.02) and women (2.58, 1.08-6.18; P = 0.03). Daily cannabis use was associated with reporting a diagnosis of a sexually transmissible infection in women but not men (7.19, 1.28-40.31; P = 0.02 and 1.45, 0.17-12.42; P = 0.74, respectively). Frequency of cannabis use was unrelated to sexual problems in women but daily use vs. no use was associated with increased reporting among men of an inability to reach orgasm (3.94, 1.71-9.07; P < 0.01), reaching orgasm too quickly (2.68, 1.41-5.08; P < 0.01), and too slowly (2.05, 1.02-4.12; P = 0.04). Frequent cannabis use is associated with higher numbers of sexual partners for both men and women, and difficulties in men's ability to orgasm as desired.

  1. Lesbian and bisexual women's human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship: negotiating sexual health in England.

    PubMed

    Formby, Eleanor

    2011-11-01

    Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health is neglected in much Government policy and practice in England and Wales. This paper examines lesbian and bisexual women's negotiation of sexual health, drawing on findings from a small research project. Themes explored include invisibility and lack of information, influences on decision-making and sexual activities and experiences of services and barriers to sexual healthcare. Key issues of importance in this respect are homophobic and heterosexist social contexts. Drawing on understandings of lesbian, gay and bisexual human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship, it is argued that these are useful lenses through which to examine and address lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health and related inequalities.

  2. Friendship, sexual intimacy and young people's negotiations of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Byron, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.

  3. Controlling Anxiety Mediates the Influence of Childhood Adversities on Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Chan, Claudia Kor-Yee; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2017-02-14

    Relatively little research has assessed the exposure-response relationship of childhood adversities on engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Also, no previous research has examined the interrelationship among childhood adversities, adult anxiety and depressive symptoms, and risky sexual behaviors. This study aimed to investigate their interrelationships. We used data from a multisite survey of emerging adults aged 18 to 29 studying at four universities in Hong Kong between September and December 2015. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the pathways from childhood adversities to risky sexual behaviors. Participants who had higher childhood adversity scores reported more severe adult anxiety symptoms (β = 0.20, p = 0.002); and adult anxiety symptoms were associated with significantly more risky sexual behaviors (β = 0.46, p < 0.0001). The model with adult anxiety symptoms as the mediator between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors showed good fit (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.04, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.96, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.94 and standardized root mean square residual [SRMSR] = 0.04). However, adult depressive symptoms failed to mediate between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors. This study demonstrates the link between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors via adult anxiety but not adult depressive symptoms. It is essential to reduce anxious symptoms in dealing with emerging adults who have risky sexual behaviors to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy.

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Health among Indigenous Kanak Women and Non-Kanak Women of New Caledonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Health among Indigenous Kanak Women and Non-Kanak Women of New Caledonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…

  6. Health Communication Practices among Parents and Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among…

  7. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  8. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  9. Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts.

  10. A systematic review of sexual health interventions for adults: narrative evidence.

    PubMed

    Hogben, Matthew; Ford, Jessie; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Brown, Kathryn F

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has explored the intersection between sexual health (as construed by the World Health Organization and others) and public health domains of action in the United States of America. This article reports the narrative results of a systematic review of sexual health intervention effects on public health-relevant outcomes. To qualify, interventions had to be based on the principles (1) that sexual health is intrinsic to individuals and their overall health and (2) that relationships reflecting sexual health must be positive for all parties concerned. Outcomes were classed in domains: knowledge, attitudes, communication, health care use, sexual behavior, and adverse events. We summarized data from 58 studies (English language, adult populations, 1996-2011) by population (adults, parents, sexual minorities, vulnerable populations) across domains. Interventions were predominantly individual and small-group designs that addressed sexual behaviors (72%) and attitudes/norms (55%). They yielded positive effects in that 98% reported a positive finding in at least one domain; 50% also reported null effects. The most consistently positive effects on behaviors and adverse events were found for sexual minorities, vulnerable populations, and parental communication. Whether via direct action or through partnerships, incorporating principles from existing sexual health definitions in public health efforts may help improve sexual health.

  11. Sexual health promotion and adult retail stores.

    PubMed

    Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine

    2004-05-01

    To explore the extent to which adult retail stores may contribute to a community's sexual health promotion infrastructure, we collected data from 294 customer service employees of 80 adult retail stores in 61 U.S. cities. Findings indicated that these stores and their employees do possess at least a baseline level of characteristics that indicate they are serving, or have the potential to serve, as sexual health resources in their communities. As researchers and practitioners continue to explore new and effective mechanisms for responding to sexual health issues, they should consider outlets such as adult stores. Enhancing the capacity of these stores to contribute to sexual health may require strategic collaborations between sexual health researchers, sexual health practitioners, and the adult retail industry in order to develop initiatives that are responsive to the unique goals and cultures of each. Copyright The American Society of Gene Therapy

  12. A Systematic Review of Sexual Health Interventions for Adults: Narrative Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hogben, Matthew; Ford, Jessie; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Brown, Kathryn F

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has explored the intersection between sexual health (as construed by the World Health Organization and others) and public health domains of action in the United States of America. This paper reports the narrative results of a systematic review of sexual health intervention effects on public health-relevant outcomes. To qualify, interventions had to be based on the principles: (1) that sexual health is intrinsic to individuals and their overall health and (2) that relationships reflecting sexual health must be positive for all parties concerned. Outcomes were classed in domains: knowledge, attitudes, communication, healthcare use, sexual behavior and adverse events. We summarized data from 58 studies (English language, adult populations, 1996–2011) by population (adults, parents, sexual minorities, vulnerable populations) across domains. Interventions were predominantly individual and small-group designs that addressed sexual behaviors (72%) and attitudes/norms (55%). They yielded positive effects in that 98% reported a positive finding in at least one domain: 50% also reported null effects. The most consistently positive effects on behaviors and adverse events were found for sexual minorities, vulnerable populations, and parental communication. Whether via direct action or through partnerships, incorporating principles from existing sexual health definitions in public health efforts may help improve sexual health. PMID:25406027

  13. Sexual Health Care in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gerald; Cohen, May

    1985-01-01

    Although patients frequently present with sexual concerns, family doctors generally do not handle them well. Sexual issues may present in many ways: as specific concerns; as a component of non-sexual complaints or as a factor in relationship or marital problems. The family doctor must include sexual enquiry and counselling as part of overall health care, and in the management of illnesses. In order to be effective counsellors, physicians must examine their own attitudes, and become knowledgeable about sexuality and myths influencing sexual behavior, and skillful at interviewing and sexual history-taking. The family doctor can become adept at giving patients permission to discuss their sexuality, and at providing information and strategies to enhance sensual enjoyment and communication with partners. Small group training sessions incorporating discussion and role-playing effectively teach physicians skills and strategies in sexual counselling. PMID:21274058

  14. Deafness, pregnancy and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jessica

    2013-06-01

    This article exposes the need for support for midwives, to ensure that they are equipped to meet the needs of deaf parents to be. It uncovers research which demonstrates the urgent need for an increase in awareness, education and resources; and the reasons that deaf people have higher rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections than the general population. With stories from midwives at a loss as to how to communicate with deaf mothers in labour, and stories from deaf women who can't understand their health professionals, nor read the literature that has been given to them--this is thought provoking reading.

  15. Improving a Sexual Health Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowden, Kevin; And Others

    This report summarizes an evaluation of a 4-week sexual health education program in a disadvantaged, urban target school in Scotland, and the investigation of the longer term impact of a previous 10-week program involving sexual health education provided by health workers. In-depth interviews with 5 boys and 5 girls revealed that the 10-week…

  16. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-07

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  17. Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Hartgens, Fred

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone. Illegally, these drugs are regularly self-administered by body builders and power lifters to enhance their sportive performance. Adverse side effects of AAS include sexual dysfunction, alterations of the cardiovascular system, psyche and behavior, and liver toxicity. However, severe side effects appear only following prolonged use of AAS at high dose and their occurrence is limited. Occasionally, AAS abuse may be linked to certain social and psychological traits of the user, like low self-esteem, low self-confidence, suffered hostility, childhood conduct disorder, and tendency to high-risk behavior. The overwhelming stereotype about AAS is that these compounds cause aggressive behavior in males. However, the underlying personality traits of a specific subgroup of the AAS abusers, who show aggression and hostility, may be relevant, as well. Use of AAS in combination with alcohol largely increases the risk of violence and aggression. The dependence liability of AAS is very low, and withdrawal effects are relatively mild. Based on the scores for acute and chronic adverse health effects, the prevalence of use, social harm and criminality, AAS were ranked among 19 illicit drugs as a group of drugs with a relatively low harm.

  18. Let's talk about sex: gender norms and sexual health in English schools.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Wooder, Kai; Blake, Simon

    2015-03-01

    The sexual health of young people in England is an urgent public health concern. While interventions to address young people's sexual health have focussed on knowledge, skills and contraception access, amazingly none in the UK has explicitly addressed the effects of the social hierarchies of gender and gendered behavioural ideals that shape young people's sexual expectations, attitudes and behaviour. The lack of attention to gender is a persistent gap in health research, practice and policy. A rigorous evaluation of such an intervention package would go some way to building an evidence base for challenging gender norms, which appear to be strongly associated with adverse sexual health outcomes.

  19. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  20. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  1. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research.

  2. Health Disparities Among Sexual Minority Women Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Lesbian and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) identity is more common among women veterans than among male veterans. Unique health issues have been identified among women veterans and among sexual minority women, but little is known about women who are both sexual minorities and veterans. This study aimed to compare demographic and health information from sexual minority women veterans with sexual minority women non-veterans and heterosexual women veterans. Methods Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data were pooled from ten U.S. states that elected to ask sexual identity during 2010. The analytic sample was comprised of women who identified both their sexual identity and veteran status (n=1,908). Mental health indicators were frequent mental distress, sleep problems, low social/emotional support, and low satisfaction with life. Health risk indicators included current smoking, overweight, and obesity. Physical health status was defined by three components: disability requiring assistive equipment, >14 days of poor physical health in the past 30 days, and activity limitations. Results Compared with heterosexual women veterans, sexual minority women veterans had higher odds of mental distress (odds ratio [OR]=3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61–5.70) and smoking (OR=2.31, 95%CI: 1.19–4.48). After adjusting for demographic correlates, sexual minority women veterans had three times the odds of poor physical health (OR=3.01, 95%CI: 1.51–5.99) than their sexual minority non-veteran peers. Conclusions Results suggest sexual minority women veterans may experience unique health disparities relevant to provision of care in both Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA healthcare systems. Future research requires availability of data that include sexual minority status. PMID:23746281

  3. The sexuality connection in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, R

    1993-01-01

    Sexuality and power relations based on gender are relevant to researchers, policymakers, and service providers in the reproductive health field, because they underlie virtually all of the behaviors and conditions that their programs address. Yet, a review of conventional treatments in the demographic and family planning literature reveals that, when they consider these topics at all, researchers typically adopt narrow definitions of sexual behavior and focus almost exclusively on risks of pregnancy and disease. This article proposes an analytic framework as a guide to researchers and family planning providers. It relates four dimensions of sexuality to reproductive health outcomes and concludes that family planning policies and programs should address a broader spectrum of sexual behaviors and meanings, consider questions of sexual enjoyment as well as risk, and confront ideologies of male entitlement that threaten women's sexual and reproductive rights and health.

  4. Sexual Health Issues in Men

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and prostate surgery may affect a man’s sexual function, lower libido, and make it difficult to get an erection. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems, during cancer treatment.

  5. Sexual Health Issues in Women

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation may cause sexual problems in women. Conditions may include vaginal dryness, vaginal stenosis, and vaginal atrophy. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems.

  6. Sexual Dimorphism in Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes - A Retrospective Australian Population Study 1981-2011

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Petra E.; Tucker, Graeme; Scheil, Wendy; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Dekker, Gus A.; Roberts, Claire Trelford

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sexual inequality starts in utero. The contribution of biological sex to the developmental origins of health and disease is increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to assess and interpret sexual dimorphisms for three major adverse pregnancy outcomes which affect the health of the neonate, child and potentially adult. Methods Retrospective population-based study of 574,358 South Australian singleton live births during 1981–2011. The incidence of three major adverse pregnancy outcomes [preterm birth (PTB), pregnancy induced hypertensive disorders (PIHD) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)] in relation to fetal sex was compared according to traditional and fetus-at-risk (FAR) approaches. Results The traditional approach showed male predominance for PTB [20–24 weeks: Relative Risk (RR) M/F 1.351, 95%-CI 1.274–1.445], spontaneous PTB [25–29 weeks: RR M/F 1.118, 95%-CI 1.044–1.197%], GDM [RR M/F 1.042, 95%-CI 1.011–1.074], overall PIHD [RR M/F 1.053, 95%-CI 1.034–1.072] and PIHD with term birth [RR M/F 1.074, 95%-CI 1.044–1.105]. The FAR approach showed that males were at increased risk for PTB [20–24 weeks: RR M/F 1.273, 95%-CI 1.087–1.490], for spontaneous PTB [25–29 weeks: RR M/F 1.269, 95%-CI 1.143–1.410] and PIHD with term birth [RR M/F 1.074, 95%-CI 1.044–1.105%]. The traditional approach demonstrated female predominance for iatrogenic PTB [25–29 weeks: RR M/F 0.857, 95%-CI 0.780–0.941] and PIHD associated with PTB [25–29 weeks: RR M/F 0.686, 95%-CI 0.581–0.811]. The FAR approach showed that females were at increased risk for PIHD with PTB [25–29 weeks: RR M/F 0.779, 95%-CI 0.648–0.937]. Conclusions This study confirms the presence of sexual dimorphisms and presents a coherent framework based on two analytical approaches to assess and interpret the sexual dimorphisms for major adverse pregnancy outcomes. The mechanisms by which these occur remain elusive, but sex differences in placental gene

  7. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance--those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment.

  8. Characterizing sexual health resources on college campuses.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Lechner, Kate E; Frerich, Ellen A; Lust, Katherine A; Garcia, Carolyn M

    2012-10-01

    This observational study describes the development of the college resources and sexual health inventory, the profile of sexual health promotion resources at participating colleges, and comparisons of resources across several college characteristics. 28 diverse college campuses in one Midwestern state participated. 10 domains were assessed, including characteristics of campus health services (e.g. convenience), condom programs, sexual health information, communication about resources, sexual violence resources and gay/lesbian/bisexual student resources. Scores for each measure reflected the presence or extent of each resource. Summary scores were created for the overall level of sexual health resources and for each domain. T tests and ANOVAs were used to compare resources at 2-year versus 4-year colleges, public versus private sectors, metro versus non-metro locations, and across enrollment size. Inventory scores ranged from 6 to 53. 4-year colleges offered significantly more resources than 2-year; resource levels were statistically similar across location and enrollment size. Subsequent analyses comparing campuses with and without a health center indicated that several resources which were not inherently tied to a clinic nonetheless differed significantly with having a health center. Colleges without this resource could position sexual health resources in other offices or departments or provide referrals to sexual health resources in the broader community.

  9. Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Health in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnam, Farnaz; Pakgohar, Minoo; Mirmohamadali, Mandana; Mahmoodi, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a special sex education program in sexual health on Iranian newly-wed couples. A sample of 64 couples referred to three health centers of Tehran Medicine University, a few months prior to their marriage, were divided into case and control groups. The case group received three lecture sessions…

  10. Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Health in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnam, Farnaz; Pakgohar, Minoo; Mirmohamadali, Mandana; Mahmoodi, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a special sex education program in sexual health on Iranian newly-wed couples. A sample of 64 couples referred to three health centers of Tehran Medicine University, a few months prior to their marriage, were divided into case and control groups. The case group received three lecture sessions…

  11. A Comparison by Sexual Orientation of Sexual Health and Sexual Behaviors among Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Joseph P.; Valdes, Beatriz; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Gattamorta, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Significance High rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related to high risk sexual behaviors are a public health problem in the U.S. Hispanics have the second highest rates of HIV infection among racial/ethnic minorities. Previous research with Hispanic men has identified a number of factors that influence sexual risk and render Hispanic men at risk for HIV/STIs. These factors vary by sexual orientation. Despite these differences in sexual risk by sexual orientation, no study to date has compared the sexual behaviors of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual behaviors of a sample of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Method A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 Hispanic men in South Florida, 80 heterosexual and 83 MSM. Participants completed measures of sexual health, sexual behaviors, and demographics. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners during the previous 3 months, condom usage during the previous 3 months, HIV testing history, and substance use during sex. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of certain STIs. Implications Hispanic men as a population may engage in high risk sexual behaviors that place them at risk for HIV/STIs. More research is needed to develop both culturally tailored and sexual orientation appropriate interventions to assist Hispanic men reduce high risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25663832

  12. Cumulative Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction in Sex Therapy Patients: What Role for Symptom Complexity?

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    Patients consulting for sexual difficulties frequently present additional personal or relational disorders and symptoms. This is especially the case when they have experienced cumulative adverse childhood experiences (CACEs), which are associated with symptom complexity. CACEs refer to the extent to which an individual has experienced an accumulation of different types of adverse childhood experiences including sexual, physical, and psychological abuse; neglect; exposure to inter-parental violence; and bullying. However, past studies have not examined how symptom complexity might relate to CACEs and sexual satisfaction and even less so in samples of adults consulting for sex therapy. To document the presence of CACEs in a sample of individuals consulting for sexual difficulties and its potential association with sexual satisfaction through the development of symptom complexity operationalized through well-established clinically significant indicators of individual and relationship distress. Men and women (n = 307) aged 18 years and older consulting for sexual difficulties completed a set of questionnaires during their initial assessment. (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (ii) Dyadic Adjustment Scale-4, (iii) Experiences in Close Relationships-12, (iv) Beck Depression Inventory-13, (v) Trauma Symptom Inventory-2, and (vi) Psychiatric Symptom Inventory-14. Results showed that 58.1% of women and 51.9% of men reported at least four forms of childhood adversity. The average number of CACEs was 4.10 (SD = 2.23) in women and 3.71 (SD = 2.08) in men. Structural equation modeling showed that CACEs contribute directly and indirectly to sexual satisfaction in adults consulting for sex therapy through clinically significant individual and relational symptom complexities. The findings underscore the relevance of addressing clinically significant psychological and relational symptoms that can stem from CACEs when treating sexual difficulties in adults seeking sex

  13. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  14. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  15. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  16. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  17. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  18. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Text mining electronic health records to identify hospital adverse events.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Hardahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Manual reviews of health records to identify possible adverse events are time consuming. We are developing a method based on natural language processing to quickly search electronic health records for common triggers and adverse events. Our results agree fairly well with those obtained using manual reviews, and we therefore believe that it is possible to develop automatic tools for monitoring aspects of patient safety.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence, PTSD, and Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey I.; Roesch, Darren M.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Krause, Elizabeth D.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated…

  1. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence, PTSD, and Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey I.; Roesch, Darren M.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Krause, Elizabeth D.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated…

  3. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  4. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adverse Childhood Environment: Relationship With Sexual Risk Behaviors and Marital Status in a Large American Sample.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kermyt G

    2017-01-01

    A substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that stressful events in childhood influence the timing and patterning of subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviors. Stressful childhood environments have been predicted to produce a life history strategy in which adults are oriented more toward short-term mating behaviors and less toward behaviors consistent with longevity. This article tests the hypothesis that adverse childhood environment will predict adult outcomes in two areas: risky sexual behavior (engagement in sexual risk behavior or having taken an HIV test) and marital status (currently married vs. never married, divorced, or a member of an unmarried couple). Data come from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample contains 17,530 men and 23,978 women aged 18-54 years living in 13 U.S. states plus the District of Columbia. Adverse childhood environment is assessed through 11 retrospective measures of childhood environment, including having grown up with someone who was depressed or mentally ill, who was an alcoholic, who used or abused drugs, or who served time in prison; whether one's parents divorced in childhood; and two scales measuring childhood exposure to violence and to sexual trauma. The results indicate that adverse childhood environment is associated with increased likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behaviors or taking an HIV test, and increased likelihood of being in an unmarried couple or divorced/separated, for both men and women. The predictions are supported by the data, lending further support to the hypothesis that childhood environments influence adult reproductive strategy.

  6. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  7. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  8. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  9. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  10. Teen Sexual Health: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Tests Estrogen Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Testosterone Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Specifics Dating and Sexual Feelings (Department of Health ...

  11. Teenage Sexual Health Needs: Asking the Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Carolyn; Allan, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In response to rising prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among teenagers, this study was designed to examine teenage perceptions of sex education, access to services, and attitudes relevant to STI. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group study was conducted in three schools to discuss the sexual health needs of…

  12. Health and sexual behaviour among exchange students.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Carina; Peterson, Ulla; Swahnberg, Katarina; Oscarsson, Marie

    2016-08-26

    The objective was to describe the exchange students' health and sexual behaviour associated with their exchange studies, and examine the extent to which they had received preventive efforts against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) and safer sex before departure. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a web survey with questions about sexual behaviour, self-esteem and psychological well-being. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. A total of 136 outgoing exchange students from a Swedish University participated. Most of the exchange students rated their health as good, had psychological well-being and rated their self-esteem as being high. Approximately half of the exchange students had sex with a new partner during the exchange semester, and 87% of them had sexually risky behaviour. More than half (61%) of the exchange students had received preventive efforts before departure. No statistically significant difference regarding preventive information was found between those who reported sexually risky behaviour and those who did not. The group that had sexually risky behaviour desired free condoms and access to clinics for sexual health. CONCLUSIONS EXCHANGE STUDENTS RATED THEIR HEALTH AS GOOD, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM PARTICIPATED IN INFORMATION SESSIONS THAT ADDRESSED PREVENTIVE EFFORTS ON HIV/STI AND SAFER SEX BEFORE DEPARTURE SEXUALLY RISKY BEHAVIOUR DURING EXCHANGE STUDIES WAS REPORTED AND HIGHLIGHTS THE NEED FOR MORE EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE MEASURES; FOR EXAMPLE, A RECOLLECTION OF READING STI INFORMATION. © Author(s) 2016.

  13. Teenage Sexual Health Needs: Asking the Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Carolyn; Allan, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In response to rising prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among teenagers, this study was designed to examine teenage perceptions of sex education, access to services, and attitudes relevant to STI. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group study was conducted in three schools to discuss the sexual health needs of…

  14. Common Questions about Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Provides research-based answers to questions commonly posed by educators, parents, and others about the philosophy, methods, and impact of school sexual health education, discussing such issues as: whether these school programs are needed, what values they teach, whether the programs should teach about sexual orientation and abstinence, and…

  15. Sexual health needs and the LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sue

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) individuals have particular vulnerabilities to sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection. Globally, reasons for this include physiological factors, discrimination and poor understanding of their sexual health needs. In many countries LGBT individuals are not able to exercise fully their rights to health care. This raises public health concerns for the LGBT community and the wider population. This article explores these issues, and makes recommendations for the healthcare profession to address health inequalities and promote improved health outcomes for LGBT populations. This article aims to promote an evidence-based approach that focuses on rights and public health issues.

  16. Neurological rehabilitation: sexuality and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Aisen, Mindy Lipson

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality is the embodiment of sexual and reproductive activities involving complex interactions among biological, psychological, and social systems. An individual's perception of their sexuality, as well as society's perception, can have an inestimable impact on self-esteem, and hence willingness to openly address these issues Earle S (2001). Disability, facilitated sex and the role of the nurse. J Adv Nurs 3: 433-440. Such barriers to communication represent a real challenge to practicing clinicians. However, advances in treatment options obligate the clinician providing care to those with neurogenic sexual/reproductive dysfunction to learn to communicate effectively about these issues, provide effective therapies, and refer patients to appropriate specialists. This chapter will address counseling, an overview of male and female sexual and reproductive physiological responses in the case of an intact nervous system, and a description of the impact of disorders of the nervous system on sexual function and reproductive health. Treatment options are also reviewed.

  17. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages.

  18. Adverse effects of public health interventions: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Theo; Oliver, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Public health interventions may have a range of adverse effects. However, there is limited guidance as to how evaluations should address the possibility of adverse effects. This discussion paper briefly presents a framework for thinking about the potential harms of public health interventions, focusing on the following categories: direct harms; psychological harms; equity harms; group and social harms; and opportunity harms. We conclude that the possibility of adverse effects needs to be taken into account by those implementing and evaluating interventions, and requires a broad perspective on the potential impacts of public health strategies.

  19. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  20. Sexual Health and Canadian Youth: How Do We Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the current sexual health status of Canadian youth in relation to sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy rates, and sexual practices, discussing the social and historical context of adolescence and adolescent sexuality in Canada. The paper draws insights from international comparisons of adolescent sexual health indicators and discusses…

  1. Privacy Concerns Keep Some Young Americans from Sexual Health Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Privacy Concerns Keep Some Young Americans From Sexual Health Services Survey reveals reluctance of teens, young adults ... Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Teen Sexual Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  2. Sexuality talk during adolescent health maintenance visits.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stewart C; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J Kelly; Ostbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A; Dolor, Rowena J; Shields, Cleveland G

    2014-02-01

    Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. RESULTS One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥ 36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥ 36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant associations between adolescent, physician, and visit characteristics were

  3. Sexuality Talk During Adolescent Health Maintenance Visits

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant

  4. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Gh; Izadi, Z

    2012-01-01

    Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do. Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Iran’s supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual’s characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined. Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance. Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market. PMID:23113209

  5. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    PubMed

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  6. Utilizing the salutogenic paradigm to investigate well-being among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and other adversities.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Rishi, Shobhana

    2017-02-26

    The long-term negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences are well documented. However, less is known about salutogenesis (well-being) among adult survivors of childhood adversity. The 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed to assess the contribution of four health promoting factors (physical activity, smoking abstinence, educational level, social-emotional support) with positive health-related quality of life (HRQoL), among adults who retrospectively reported childhood abuse or exposure to other childhood toxic stressors (n=12,032) and separately for adults who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Outcomes examined included positive self-rated health (good/very good/excellent); mentally unhealthy days (MUDS) and physically unhealthy days (PUDS) in the past 30 days. After controlling for demographic characteristics and existing health conditions, physical activity (p<.05), smoking abstinence (p<.05), education of high school or greater (p<.05), and social-emotional support (p<.05) were associated with positive HRQoL outcomes among adult survivors of childhood adversity and adult survivors of CSA. Each unit increase of the health promoting factor score (0-4) resulted in adjusted odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3-2.4) for self-rated health and 1.6 (95%CI: 1.1-2.6) for <14 PUDs among male CSA survivors; among female survivors the adjusted odds ratios were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.8-3.2) for self-rated health, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7-3.1) for <14 MUDs, and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.6-3.0) for <14 PUDs. The study validates that a large proportion of adults survive childhood adversities and underscores the importance of the salutogenic paradigm to identify strategies that may contribute to well-being.

  7. Health disparities among young adult sexual minorities in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Strutz, Kelly L; Herring, Amy H; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a national sample of U.S. young adults. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24-32 years, n=13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured BMI; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health. The results highlight the multidimensionality of sexual minority status and respond to calls for greater understanding of the health of this population. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring errors and adverse events in health care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eric J; Petersen, Laura A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we identify 8 methods used to measure errors and adverse events in health care and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. We focus on the reliability and validity of each, as well as the ability to detect latent errors (or system errors) versus active errors and adverse events. We propose a general framework to help health care providers, researchers, and administrators choose the most appropriate methods to meet their patient safety measurement goals.

  9. Religion in sexual health: a staff perspective.

    PubMed

    Hobern, Kylie

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports data on the complexities of delivering religious/spiritual care in sexual health from a staff perspective. A learning needs analysis, in survey format, was conducted with the nursing staff of a leading London, sexual health clinic. Recruitment took place in May 2011 over a period of 2 weeks. The sample consisted of 25 members of staff which included service support workers and registered nurses. The 25 question survey was conducted and reviewed using Survey Monkey™. The survey was divided into three sections, being population demographics, clinical experience and understanding and education. This article will explore the second section of being clinical experience and understanding. This section used six open-ended questions to investigate participant's experience of common clinical episodes where religion was an influential part of the patient experience and decision-making. A range of contemporary sexual health and religious issues were extrapolated from the survey findings ranging from homosexuality to termination of pregnancy. Four main areas of complexity identified from participants responses were sexual dysfunction, treatment issues, sexual health knowledge and high-risk behaviour. Findings from the study highlight the diversity of influence of religion has on the sexual health of patients.

  10. Sexual satisfaction and sexual health among university students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B

    2011-09-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P < .05) correlates of both physiological and psychological satisfaction included sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships.

  11. Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Health Among University Students in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J. Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P < .05) correlates of both physiological and psychological satisfaction included sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships. PMID:21778509

  12. Confidentiality and access to sexual health services.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Nathan; McNulty, Anna M

    2009-06-01

    Confidentiality concerns are often described as barriers to seeking sexual health care. There has been little research describing the relative importance of confidentiality to clients of sexual health clinics, and whether members of high-risk groups have greater concerns. This study aimed to determine the importance of confidentiality and anonymity to clients of a public sexual health clinic, and determine associations with gender and sexuality. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to consecutive new English-speaking clients in October and November 2007. Participants were asked to describe the reasons for presenting, likelihood of disclosing identifying information, and concern should specific people and agencies become aware of their attendance. Of 350 eligible clients, 270 (77%) participated in the survey. Expert care was included in the top three reasons for choosing a sexual health clinic rather than a general practitioner by over half of participants, while confidentiality and cost were each included in the top three reasons by one-third of respondents respectively. Over 90% of clients reported they were likely to give accurate identifying information to the clinic. Participants were comfortable with disclosure of information to other health-care workers but became increasingly unwilling for information to be shared with services not directly involved in their care. Overall there were few associations with gender or sexuality. Clients choose to attend our clinic for a variety of reasons, with confidentiality and anonymity being of lesser importance than competence and cost. Confidentiality is important to the majority of clients, whereas few desire anonymity. Most clients would accept information being shared with other health services, suggesting that confidentiality may not be a barrier to the use of electronic health records in sexual health clinics.

  13. The forensic nursing in sexual assaults: the immunochemical diagnosis and prevention of its adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Elsa

    2012-04-01

    Sexual assault was a ubiquitous and serious problem in our society. The world's care centers and forensic associations, which were at the forefront of scientific research in sexual assaults, discussed the role of the Forensic Nursing in their early diagnosis and their prevention, but little has been written in literature regarding their appropriate management. This article focuses on the immunochemical laboratory investigation in diagnosis and prevention of its adverse effects in sexual assaults and the role of the Forensic Nursing played in this task. After a careful reading of all the material received from many of the care centers and the associations contacted, a Forensic Nursing Examination Program, with specific immunochemical address, is identified.

  14. Uneasy promises: sexuality, health, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Miller, A M

    2001-06-01

    Although attention to the links between health and human rights is growing globally, the full potential of a progressive human rights approach to health has not yet been explored, and it is even more faintly understood in the United States than in the rest of the world. At the same time, global claims for sexual rights, particularly for those identifying as gay, lesbian, transsexual, or bisexual, are increasingly being made as human rights claims. All of these approaches to rights advocacy risk limiting their own transformative impact unless advocates critique their own strategies. Paradoxically, using health as a way to bring attention to nonheteronormative sexualities can be both helpful and potentially dangerous, especially when coupled with human rights. Recognizing sexuality as a critical element of humanity, and establishing a fundamental human right to health, can play a role in broader social justice claims, but the tendency of both public health and human rights advocacy to "normalize" and regulate must be scrutinized and challenged.

  15. Measurement of sexual health in the U.S.: an inventory of nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Ivankovich, Megan B; Leichliter, Jami S; Douglas, John M

    2013-01-01

    To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health.

  16. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  17. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  18. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  19. Adverse Experiences in Childhood and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk From Adolescence Into Adulthood.

    PubMed

    London, Stephanie; Quinn, Kelly; Scheidell, Joy D; Frueh, B Christopher; Khan, Maria R

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment, particularly sexual abuse, has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors later in life. We aimed to evaluate associations between a broad range of childhood traumas and sexual risk behaviors from adolescence into adulthood. Using data from Waves I, III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we used logistic regression to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR (AOR) for associations between 9 childhood traumas and a cumulative trauma score and three sexual risk outcomes (multiple partnerships, sex trade involvement, and sexually transmitted infection [STI]) in adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. We also examined modification of these associations by gender. Associations between cumulative trauma score and sexual risk outcomes existed at all waves, though were strongest during adolescence. Dose-response-like relationships were observed during at least 1 wave of the study for each outcome. Violence exposures were strong independent correlates of adolescent sexual risk outcomes. Parental binge drinking was the only trauma associated with biologically confirmed infection in young adulthood (AOR, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.11), whereas parental incarceration was the trauma most strongly associated with self-reported STI in adulthood (AOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.11-2.58). A strong connection was also found between sexual abuse and sex trade in the young adulthood period (AOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.43-2.49). A broad range of traumas are independent correlates of sex risk behavior and STI, with increasing trauma level linked to increasing odds of sexual risk outcomes. The results underscore the need to consider trauma history in STI screening and prevention strategies.

  20. Lifetime Adversity Leads to Blunted Stress Axis Reactivity: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Can stressful events in early life alter the response characteristics of the human stress axis? Individual differences in stress reactivity are considered potentially important in long-term health and disease, however little is known about the sources of these individual differences. We present evidence that adverse experience in childhood and adolescence can alter core components of the stress axis, including cortisol and heart rate reactivity. Methods We exposed 354 healthy young adults (196 women) to public speaking and mental arithmetic stressors in the laboratory. Stress responses were indexed by self-report, heart rate, and cortisol levels relative to measures on a nonstress control day. Subjects were grouped into those who had experienced 0, 1, or 2 or more significant adverse life events including Physical or Sexual Adversity (mugged, threatened with a weapon, experienced a break-in or robbery; or raped or sexually assaulted by a relative or nonrelative) or Emotional Adversity (separation from biological mother or father for at least 6 months prior to age 15). Results Experience of adversity predicted smaller heart rate and cortisol responses to the stressors in a dose-dependent fashion (0 > 1 > 2 or more events; (Fs = 5.79 and 8.11, ps < .004) for both men and women. This was not explained by differences in socioeconomic status, the underlying cortisol diurnal cycle, or subjective experience during the stress procedure. Conclusion The results indicate a long-term impact of stressful life experience on the reactivity of the human stress axis. PMID:22112928

  1. Sexual health and religion: a primer for the sexual health clinician (CME).

    PubMed

    Kellogg Spadt, Susan; Rosenbaum, Talli Y; Dweck, Alyssa; Millheiser, Leah; Pillai-Friedman, Sabitha; Krychman, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Sexual health is an integral part of the multifaceted human experience that is driven both by biological factors and psychological facets. Religion may provide a moral code of conduct or a sexual compass as to sexual norms and behaviors. The aim of this study was to summarize the integration of sexuality and religion. A review of published literature and religious texts was conducted. The integration of religion with country or state politics and laws is a complicated dilemma and will not be discussed in the scope of this article. The extent to which an individual incorporates their religious doctrine into their sexual life is a personal and individualized choice. The sexual medicine health professional will likely encounter a diverse patient population of distinct religious backgrounds, and a primer on religion and sexuality is a much needed adjunctive tool for the clinician. Because religion can influence sexuality and dictate, in part, the behavioral and medical treatments for sexual complaints, the clinician should be familiar with religious guidelines regarding sexuality, and treatment should be customized and individualized. Failure to do so can impact compliance with the therapeutic interventions. Religious awareness also solidifies the therapeutic alliance between clinician and patient as it demonstrates respect and acknowledgment for patient's beliefs and autonomy. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Health Risks and Adverse Reactions to Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, Rohan; Crooks, Christine; Simmons, Greg; Woon, See-Tarn

    2016-01-01

    Functional foods have become increasingly popular with consumers anxious to mitigate the effects of an unhealthy lifestyle or aging. In spite of attractive health claims, these products do not have legal or regulatory status in most countries and are regulated through their health claims. Regulation of functional foods by health claims does not address health risks and adverse effects of these products. In this essay regulatory aspects of functional foods are reviewed along with adverse effects published in the peer-reviewed literature. We detail why the lack of an internationally accepted definition of functional foods places consumers at risk of adverse outcomes. Our review will assist regulatory agencies, manufacturers and consumer groups to assess the benefits and reduce the risks associated with these products.

  3. Diabetes and adverse mental health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Hairston, Kristen G; Charles, Shelton M

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the connection between diabetes and adverse mental health among African Americans. Concern about safe insulin prescribing and administration is raised, and the importance of integrated physical and mental health care in the prevention and control of diabetes is highlighted.

  4. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  5. Adverse Health Effects of Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Peng, Roger D.; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Background The short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) on mortality and morbidity differ by geographic location and season. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this variation, including different exposures with air conditioning (AC) versus open windows. Methods Bayesian hierarchical modeling was used to explore whether AC prevalence modified day-to-day associations between PM10 and mortality, and between PM2.5 and cardiovascular or respiratory hospitalizations, for those 65 years and older. We considered yearly, summer-only, and winter-only effect estimates and 2 types of AC (central and window units). Results Communities with higher AC prevalence had lower PM effects. Associations were observed for cardiovascular hospitalizations and central AC. Each additional 20% of households with central AC was associated with a 43% decrease in PM2.5 effects on cardiovascular hospitalization. Central AC prevalence explained 17% of between-community variability in PM2.5 effect estimates for cardiovascular hospitalizations. Conclusions Higher AC prevalence was associated with lower health effect estimates for PM. PMID:19535984

  6. Discussing adolescent sexual health in African-American churches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C; Griffith, Derek M

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African-American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan, that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education: (1) churches as sources of sexual information, (2) churches as complex communities, and (3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  7. Discussing Adolescent Sexual Health in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C.; Griffith, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education 1) churches as sources of sexual information; 2) churches as complex communities; and 3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:22814618

  8. Sexual self-concept as influencing intended sexual health behaviour of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a process model that assesses the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention, with sexual self-concept as a mediating variable. The model is intended to assist in the prediction of which adolescents would exhibit a lower intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. Previous research has shown that sexual-related behaviours are associated with sexual self-concept, sexual health knowledge and perceived parental/peer approval of sexual behaviour. This study is a cross-sectional research. This study was conducted with 545 adolescent girls, aged 12-15 years, from eight junior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Sexual Health Behavior Intention Scale, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (PASB), the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale and the Sexual Health Knowledge Scale. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling, with the maximum likelihood estimate determined by the LISREL 8.52 program. The model exhibited adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index = 0.96, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, normed fit index = 0.96, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardised root mean square residual = 0.049 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.048) and the findings indicate that sexual self-concept was a significant influence on the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention. The results of this study revealed the importance of sexual self-concept for adolescent girls' sexual health behaviour. Evidence-based strategies that reinforce and clarify sexual self-concept as a mediating factor may aid in adolescent females' intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed.

  10. Adverse staff health outcomes associated with endoscope reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Gutterman, Elane; Jorgensen, Lindsay; Mitchell, Amber; Fua, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    There are occupational challenges associated with cleaning, disinfecting, storing, and transporting flexible endoscopes. Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set standards to protect the safety of health workers in the United States, the standards are not specific to endoscope reprocessing, and the general standards that are in place are not fully implemented. Furthermore, adverse staff outcomes may not be fully preventable. To assess the evidence for adverse outcomes in staff associated with endoscope reprocessing, a literature review was performed in the PubMed database for articles on this topic published between Jan. 1, 2007 and March 7, 2012. Eight studies were identified, mainly European, which reported numerous adverse outcomes to healthcare personnel associated with endoscope reprocessing including respiratory ailments and physical discomfort. More scientifically rigorous studies are required to comprehensively describe adverse health outcomes in personnel engaged in reprocessing, particularly in the United States, and examine whether increased automation of the reprocessing process leads to decreased adverse health outcomes for staff.

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Arrest Patterns in a Sample of Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-06-01

    Developmental psychopathology theories suggest that childhood adversity can contribute to antisocial conduct and delinquent activities. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on arrest patterns in a sample of sexual offenders (N = 740). Higher ACE scores were associated with a variety of arrest outcomes, indicating that the accumulation of early trauma increased the likelihood of versatility and persistence of criminal behavior. Rapists of adults had higher ACE scores, lower levels of specialization, and higher levels of persistence than sex offenders with minor victims only. Child sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and domestic violence in the childhood home were significant predictors of a higher number of sex crime arrests. For measures of nonsexual arrests and criminal versatility, it was the household dysfunction factors-substance abuse, unmarried parents, and incarceration of a family member-that were predictive, suggesting that family dysfunction and a chaotic home environment contributed significantly to increased risk of general criminal behavior. Sex offenders inspire little sympathy in our society but may be among those most in need of trauma-informed models of treatment that recognize the influence of early adversity on maladaptive schema and self-regulation deficits related to criminal behavior.

  12. Peer Sexual Health Education: Interventions for Effective Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…

  13. Peer Sexual Health Education: Interventions for Effective Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…

  14. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  15. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  16. Sexual Behaviour and Interest in Using a Sexual Health Mobile App to Help Improve and Manage College Students' Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Alice R.; Webb, Monica C.; Brinkley, Jason; Martin, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Many US college students are reported to engage in risky sexual behaviour. Smartphone applications are a popular way to provide users with information in real time. We explored the potential for mobile technology to be used in promoting the sexual health of college students. Using findings from an online survey among a random sample of 5000…

  17. Sexual Behaviour and Interest in Using a Sexual Health Mobile App to Help Improve and Manage College Students' Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Alice R.; Webb, Monica C.; Brinkley, Jason; Martin, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Many US college students are reported to engage in risky sexual behaviour. Smartphone applications are a popular way to provide users with information in real time. We explored the potential for mobile technology to be used in promoting the sexual health of college students. Using findings from an online survey among a random sample of 5000…

  18. Smoking and Adverse Maternal and Child Health Outcomes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous studies from high-income countries document the causal relationship between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes. Less research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, but a burgeoning literature can be found for Brazil. Methods: We review Brazilian studies of the prevalence of maternal smoking, the relative risk of smoking-attributable adverse MCH outcomes, and present new estimates for these outcomes, using the attributable fraction method. Results: We found that Brazilian studies of the relative risks of smoking-attributable adverse MCH outcomes were broadly consistent with previous reviews. Based on a comparison of maternal smoking over time, smoking during pregnancy has declined by about 50% over the last 20 years in Brazil. For 2008, we estimate that 5,352 cases of spontaneous abortion, 10,929 cases of preterm birth, 20,717 cases of low birth weight, and 29 cases of sudden infant death syndrome are attributable to maternal smoking. Between 1989 and 2008, the percent of smoking-attributable adverse MCH outcomes in Brazil was at least halved. Conclusions: The results show that over a 20-year period, during which Brazil implemented numerous effective tobacco control measures, the country experienced a dramatic decrease in both maternal smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable adverse MCH outcomes. Countries that implement effective tobacco control measures can expect to reduce both maternal smoking and adverse MCH outcomes, thereby improving the public health. PMID:23873977

  19. Adverse effects of drug therapies on male and female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Th; Bader, M; Uckert, S; Staehler, M; Becker, A; Stief, C G

    2006-12-01

    Sexual dysfunctions (SD) are adverse effects of common drug therapies that have rarely been considered in investigations so far. Possibly it is barely known that many widespread and frequently prescribed medications and drug therapies can have significant impact on vascular and nerval processes as well as on endocrinologic and psychoneuroendocrinologic systems and therefore can influence sexual functions. Impotence and disorders of the erectile function can mainly be caused by antidopaminergic mechanisms, whereas ejaculatory disorders and anorgasmia often can be explained by antiserotoninergic effects. Anticholinergic and adrenoloytic agents can also cause a particular impairment of erectile functions. The following considerations will show that the detection and treatment of SD (also in women!) should be given much more attention since drug-induced SDs occur predominantly in indications where a SD itself can be a symptom of the disease.

  20. Adverse health events associated with domestic violence during pregnancy among Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Segall-Corrêa, Ana M; Santiago, Silvia M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    domestic violence during pregnancy remains an unsolved and neglected social problem despite the recognised adverse physical and mental health consequences. to examine the association between domestic violence (psychological violence and physical or sexual violence) and health problems self-reported by pregnant women. a cross-sectional analysis from a cohort study of 1,379 pregnant women attending prenatal care in public primary care units in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing women when they enroled for prenatal care. Domestic violence and alcohol abuse were ascertained by validated questionnaires. Referred morbidities, undesirable behaviours and sociodemographic characteristics were also recorded. Univariate analyses were used to estimate prevalence and unadjusted odd ratios. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent association between psychological violence and physical or sexual violence during pregnancy and women's health outcomes. psychological violence and physical or sexual violence were reported by 19.1% (n=263) and 6.5% (n=89) of the pregnant women, respectively. Psychological violence was significantly associated with obstetric problems [odds ratio (OR) 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.73], premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.01-2.68), urinary tract infection (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.19-2.42), headache (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.25-2.40) and sexual risk behaviours (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.41). Physical or sexual violence was significantly associated with: obstetric problems (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.08-2.75), premature rupture of membranes (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.14-3.88), urinary tract infection (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.26-3.34), vaginal bleeding (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.10-3.43) and lack of sexual desire (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.23-6.09). domestic violence during pregnancy was associated with adverse clinical and psychological outcomes for women. These results suggest that a well-organised health-care system and

  1. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual…

  2. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual…

  3. Sexual and reproductive health of Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Neuza; Palma, Fátima; Serrano, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    As adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major sources of morbidity, preventing them is an important health goal for Portuguese society. To review data on the knowledge, attitudes and statistics on sexual and reproductive health. A systematic review was conducted including peer-reviewed articles addressing issues influencing the sexuality of Portuguese adolescents (aged 13 to 19), published up to 2011 and conducted in any type of setting. After crossing-cleaning the reference list, 33 articles were included. The rate of sexual activity by Portuguese adolescents is high (44%-95%), but there has been an increase in the age of intercourse debut (currently 15.6 years). Early commencement of sexual intercourse is associated with smoking and regular alcohol consumption. Condoms are the most frequently chosen contraceptive method for first (76%-96%) and subsequent (52%-69%) sexual encounters. The perception of a double standard in sex still exists in teenage culture for both genders and influence behavior. There are significant differences between migrant and native adolescents: African adolescents initiate sexual intercourse at earlier ages and are more likely to have unprotected sex. Only one-third of Portuguese teenagers have ever visited a health facility to seek counseling concerning contraception or STIs, and less than half have ever attended classes on reproductive health. Very few (12%) have knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The prevalence of STIs in Portuguese youth is unknown. The adolescent fertility rate is still high (14.7 births per 1000 females aged 15-19 years), but it, as well as the rate of abortion, is steadily decreasing. There is still a long way to go towards promoting a resourceful young population. Citizens and institutions must focus on increasing both the competence of youths and external supports. Information must be provided systematically and health services must have greater accessibility. Studies

  4. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Ryszard; Sobiecka, Joanna; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Nowak-Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Kobiołka, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians). The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women). The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45), athletes with disabilities (n = 126) and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47). The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33%) with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388). Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%). Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities. PMID:26133132

  5. Online sexual health services: examining youth's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Jean; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy; Gilbert, Mark; Ogilvie, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are high and rising in British Columbia, Canada, and youth ages 15-24 account for a disproportionate amount of the infections. As a result, new public health interventions have increasingly turned towards media such as the internet to reach youth populations at risk for STIs/HIV. We describe youth's perceptions about online sexual health services. We used data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 38 men and 14 women between the ages of 15 and 24 who discussed: online STI/HIV testing services and online counselling and education services. In general, youth are familiar with, receptive to and have an affinity for online sexual health services. Youth in the current study suggested that online STI/HIV risk assessment and testing as well as online counselling and education could enhance opportunities for low-threshold service provision. Online services appealed to youth's needs for convenience, privacy, as well as expedient access to testing and/or counselling; however, youth also appear to have relatively low tolerance for technologies that they perceive to be antiquated (e.g., printing lab requisition forms), revealing the challenges of designing online approaches that will not quickly become outdated. Globally, pilot programs for Internet-based sexual health services such as online testing and partner notification have shown promising results. As Canadian interventions of this type emerge, research with youth populations can provide relevant insights to help program planners launch effective interventions.

  6. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  7. Organizational Capacity Building for Sexual Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa G.; Dean, Randa; Balakumar, Kavitha; Stevens, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    We present an organizational capacity building program that is a systemic approach to training professionals, creating organizational policies and practices, and enhancing the physical environment with materials about sexual and reproductive health. The evaluation of four different organizations showed increases over six months in: staff reports…

  8. Organizational Capacity Building for Sexual Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa G.; Dean, Randa; Balakumar, Kavitha; Stevens, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    We present an organizational capacity building program that is a systemic approach to training professionals, creating organizational policies and practices, and enhancing the physical environment with materials about sexual and reproductive health. The evaluation of four different organizations showed increases over six months in: staff reports…

  9. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  10. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  11. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  12. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  13. [Study progress of adverse effects of arsenic on health].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiaqi; Jin, Yinlong

    2004-05-01

    Adverse effects on health of high arsenic in drinking water and contaminated environment are currently of great concern. This review focuses on metabolism of arsenic and it's impairments to skin, blood circle system, nervous system, reproductive-and-urinary system, digestive system, respiratory system and immune system.

  14. Health consequences of sexual violence against women.

    PubMed

    Jina, Ruxana; Thomas, Leena S

    2013-02-01

    Sexual violence can lead to a multitude of health consequences, including physical, reproductive and psychological. Some may be fatal, whereas others, such as unhealthy behaviours, may occur indirectly as a result of the violence. In total, these result in a significant health burden and should be considered by service providers, government authorities and non-governmental agencies. For women who present early, immediate care should be provided with plans for follow up. Mental-health interventions are important, as women who are sexually assaulted have the highest burden of post-traumatic stress disorder. Cognitive- behavioural therapy has been found to be effective for preventing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder, but psychological debriefing for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder is not recommended. Implementing a routine screening and intervention programme in obstetrics and gynaecology departments may be valuable, as reproductive health consequences are common.

  15. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15-49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease

  16. Female Sexual Victimization Among College Students: Assault Severity, Health Risk Behaviors, and Sexual Functioning.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hassija, Christina M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between college women's sexual victimization experiences, health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. A sample of 309 college women at a mid-sized Midwestern university completed measures assessing sexual victimization, sexual risk taking, substance use behaviors, sexual desire, sexual functioning, prior sexual experiences, and social desirability. Severity of sexual victimization was measured using a multi-item, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure, which was divided into four categories based on severity (none, sexual contact, sexual coercion, rape). Within the sample, 72.8% (n = 225) of women reported at least one experience of sexual victimization since age 16. Results from MANCOVAs and a multinomial logistic regression, controlling for social desirability and prior sexual experience, revealed that sexual victimization among female students was related to increased drug use, problematic drinking behaviors, sexual risk taking, sexual dysfunction, and dyadic sexual desire. In addition, findings indicated that women exposed to more severe forms of sexual victimization (i.e., rape) were most likely to report these risk-taking behaviors and sexual functioning issues. Implications for sexual assault risk reduction programming and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Health Inequalities Among Sexual Minority Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Silenzio, Vincent M. B.; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals is a Healthy People 2020 goal; however, the IOM highlighted the paucity of information currently available about LGB populations. Purpose To compare health indicators by gender and sexual orientation statuses. Methods Data are from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys conducted January–December of 2010 with population-based samples of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged over 18 years (N=93,414) in ten states that asked about respondents’ sexual orientation (response rates=41.1%–65.6%). Analyses were stratified by gender and sexual orientation to compare indicators of mental health, physical health, risk behaviors, preventive health behaviors, screening tests, health care utilization, and medical diagnoses. Analyses were conducted in March 2013. Results Overall, 2.4% (95% CI=2.2, 2.7) of the sample identified as LGB. All sexual minority groups were more likely to be current smokers than their heterosexual peers. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian women had over 30% decreased odds of having an annual routine physical exam, and bisexual women had over 2.5 times the odds of not seeking medical care owing to cost. Compared with heterosexual men, gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese, and bisexual men were twice as likely to report a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Conclusions This study represents one of the largest samples of LGB adults and finds important health inequalities, including that bisexual women bear particularly high burdens of health disparities. Further work is needed to identify causes of and intervention for these disparities. PMID:24650836

  18. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  19. Medical Students' Perceptions and Preferences for Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian; Bezek, Katelyn

    2017-01-01

    Sexual health topics are not well-covered in US medical schools. Research has not typically asked medical students what sexual health topics they would like addressed and their preferred methods of sexual health education. This study attempted to address this deficit via an online survey of medical students at an institution where little sexual…

  20. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  1. Sexual identity, partner gender, and sexual health among adolescent girls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Riskind, Rachel G; Tornello, Samantha L; Younger, Brendan C; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2014-10-01

    We examined associations between adolescent girls' sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n=6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls' reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services.

  2. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure.

  3. The Prevalence Of Sexually Transmitted Infections On Teen Pregnancies And Their Association To Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Zaskia M; Leavitt, Karla; Martin, Jose; Benabe, Erika; Romaguera, Josefina; Negrón, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Based on our population data, the teen pregnancy rate and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported during pregnancy are worrisome. STIs appear to pose a threat to pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB), neonatal low birth weight (NLBW) and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of STIs in pregnant teens and the association of this variable to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of STIs among pregnant teens during a 4-year period at our institution. Birth outcomes such as gestational age at delivery, PROM and NLBW were analyzed and compared with adults. In the four years of our study, teen pregnancy rate fluctuated from 21.7% in 2010 to 16.8% in 2013. The rate of STIs for adult and teen pregnancies was similar, 21% and 23%, respectively. Chlamydia was the most common STI (67.3%) for both groups. PTB was more prevalent among adults affected with STIs than teens, 13.8% and 11.5%, respectively. NLBW was similar among teens and adults with STIs. PROM complicated 9.1% of teen pregnancies with STIs, compared to 6.7% in adults. There was no significant correlation between the STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes on teen pregnancies for our population, except for PROM. This age group is associated with a high-risk sexual behavior and poor adherence to treatment. They would benefit from efforts to prevent unintended pregnancies and infectious diseases.

  4. Foundations of Life-Long Sexual Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Allyson Stella; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual education in adolescence may represent the only formal sexual information individuals ever receive. It is unclear whether this early educational experience is sufficient to promote lifelong sexual health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the timing and source of sexual knowledge on current safe sex…

  5. Foundations of Life-Long Sexual Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Allyson Stella; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual education in adolescence may represent the only formal sexual information individuals ever receive. It is unclear whether this early educational experience is sufficient to promote lifelong sexual health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the timing and source of sexual knowledge on current safe sex…

  6. Evaluating a Sexual Health Patient Education Resource

    PubMed Central

    Matzo, Marianne; Troup, Sandi; Hijjazi, Kamal; Ferrell, Betty

    2015-01-01

    This article shares the findings of an evaluation of a patient teaching resource for sexual health entitled Everything Nobody Tells You About Cancer Treatment and Your Sex Life: From A to Z, which was accomplished through systematic conceptualization, construction, and evaluation with women diagnosed with breast or gynecologic cancer. This resource, which has evolved from patient-focused research and has been tested in the clinical setting, can be used in patient education and support. Oncology professionals are committed to addressing quality-of-life concerns for patients across the trajectory of illness. Sexuality is a key concern for patients and impacts relationships and overall quality of life. Through careful assessment, patient education, and support, clinicians can ensure that sexuality is respected as an essential part of patient-centered care. PMID:26557411

  7. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  8. Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-01-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  9. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  10. Sexual health behaviors and sexual orientation in a U.S. national sample of college students.

    PubMed

    Oswalt, Sara B; Wyatt, Tammy J

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based on sexual orientation with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in higher risk sexual behavior than people with opposite sex partners. However, few of these studies were large, national sample studies that also include those identifying as unsure. To address that gap, this study examined the relationship of sexual orientation and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2009 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment was used to examine sexual health related responses from heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students (N = 25,553). Responses related to sexual behavior, safer sex behaviors, prevention and screening behaviors, and diagnosis of sexual health related conditions were examined. The findings indicated that sexual orientation was significantly associated with engaging in sexual behavior in the last 30 days. Sexual orientation was also significantly associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months, with unsure men having significantly more partners than gay, bisexual and heterosexual men and heterosexual men having significantly less partners than gay, bisexual and unsure men. Bisexual women had significantly more partners than females reporting other sexual orientations. Results examining the associations between sexual orientation and safer sex, prevention behaviors, and screening behaviors were mixed. Implications for practice, including specific programmatic ideas, were discussed.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices in reproductive and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    To help support and direct the Lions Club's construction of a Community Health Clinic specializing in Reproductive and Sexual Health, this descriptive study began in November of 2004 and was completed in May 2005. The sample consists of 552 high school students in Rumiñahui County, and surveys were used to study four principle themes: reproductive and sexual health education, family planning, sexually transmitted infections, and domestic violence. The results show a widespread lack of accurate and adequate information about reproductive and sexual health. Statistically significant variables studied include sex, age, monthly income, and age of first sexual experience. Female sex, younger age, lower monthly income, and younger age of first sexual experience all contribute to a lower quality of reproductive and sexual health, in terms of having less information about and access to these four aspects of reproductive and sexual health. PMID:18523623

  12. Study of resilience and environmental adversity in midlife health (STREAM).

    PubMed

    Velthorst, Eva; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Levine, Stephen Z

    2015-12-01

    The Jerusalem study of resilience and environmental adversity in midlife health (STREAM) was established to examine the prevalence of common mental and physical health issues in mid-adulthood in the inner city of Jerusalem, and to examine their association with lifespan psychosocial factors of vulnerability and resilience. Participants were 811 randomly selected individuals from 7000 individuals who were born and grew up in inner-Jerusalem. Participants were 34-44 years old during first wave of STREAM assessment. Initial telephone surveys took place in 2007-2008 and participants were followed-up for a second survey 1 year later. Upon funding, a new wave is planned for 2017-2018. Survey topics comprised common health problems (e.g., type 2 diabetes/migraine), health markers (e.g., BMI), and psychiatric vulnerabilities (e.g., anxiety, post-traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, psychosis). Other measures included socioeconomic status, creativity, life style behavior (e.g., smoking, exercise), social contact and adaptation to change. Survey data were retrospectively merged with data of national registry sources that included adverse psychosocial factors, psychiatric and social measures assessed across all developmental stages through midlife. This includes data available on birth factors, school achievement and adjustment, cognitive and behavioral functioning during young adulthood, psychiatric hospitalizations, immigration and socioeconomic status. Results on health outcomes of the first STREAM wave indicate that prevalence rates of health problems are comparable to recent World Mental Health Surveys. Apart from measures on adverse psychosocial factors, STREAM provides a cohort to examine resilience to developing health problems and having a poor health and functional outcome.

  13. Adverse selection in the health insurance market: some empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Resende, Marcelo; Zeidan, Rodrigo

    2010-08-01

    This paper tests for the existence of adverse selection in the Brazilian individual health insurance market in 2003. The testing approach adapts that conceived by Chiappori and Salanié (Eur Econ Rev 41, 943-950, 1997; J Polit Econ 108, 56-78, 2000). After controlling for sex, age, income, number of dependents, occupational groups and schooling levels, the evidence favors adverse selection as indicated by a positive correlation between the coverage of the contract and occurrence of illnesses (as approximated by hospitalization) was not strong. The consideration of complex sampling in the probit estimations led to empirical evidence that does not indicate the presence of adverse selection, but which highlighted some interesting features of the relationship between the selected variables.

  14. Predicting adverse drug events from personal health messages.

    PubMed

    Chee, Brant W; Berlin, Richard; Schatz, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) remain a large problem in the United States, being the fourth leading cause of death, despite post market drug surveillance. Much post consumer drug surveillance relies on self-reported "spontaneous" patient data. Previous work has performed datamining over the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) and other spontaneous reporting systems to identify drug interactions and drugs correlated with high rates of serious adverse events. However, safety problems have resulted from the lack of post marketing surveillance information about drugs, with underreporting rates of up to 98% within such systems. We explore the use of online health forums as a source of data to identify drugs for further FDA scrutiny. In this work we aggregate individuals' opinions and review of drugs similar to crowd intelligence3. We use natural language processing to group drugs discussed in similar ways and are able to successfully identify drugs withdrawn from the market based on messages discussing them before their removal.

  15. Mental health and substance use of sexual minority college athletes.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Davoren, Ann Kearns

    2016-07-01

    Assess the mental health and substance use of sexual minority collegiate student-athletes in the United States, as compared with heterosexual college students and heterosexual student-athletes. Undergraduate students (N = 196,872) who completed the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (Fall 2008-Fall 2012 administrations). Written cross-sectional survey. Sexual minority student-athletes had a higher risk of experiencing mental health difficulties than their heterosexual athlete peers. There were no significant differences in mental health between sexual minority male athletes and nonathletes. Sexual minority female athletes appeared to fare better than nonathlete peers. Substance use was greater among sexual minority students (athlete and nonathlete) and was mediated by mental health. Participation in athletics does not appear to be associated with an elevated risk of negative mental health outcomes for sexual minority participants; however, there are disparities in mental health outcomes by sexual orientation regardless of athletics participation.

  16. Sexual Trauma: Women Veterans Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States reported experiencing an attempted or completed rape at some time in their lives. Sexual violence, ... the CDC .* Military Sexual Trauma VA refers to sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment during military service ...

  17. Social Influences on Young People's Sexual Health in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of social context on young people's sexual lives and sexual health, and to highlight the need for HIV prevention and sexual health programmes which better take into account these contextual influences. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on findings from a multi-method,…

  18. Sexual Health Services and Education: Young People's Experiences and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, C.; Whitaker, R.; Parsonage, R. K.; Robinson, C. A.; Swale, K.; Bayley, L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine young people's requirements and perceptions of sexual health services and education in the context of their experience of sexual relationships and knowledge of sexual health. Design: A questionnaire based cohort study. Setting: Three hundred and sixty Year 11 students (aged 15-16 years) surveyed in three Secondary Schools.…

  19. Social Influences on Young People's Sexual Health in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of social context on young people's sexual lives and sexual health, and to highlight the need for HIV prevention and sexual health programmes which better take into account these contextual influences. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on findings from a multi-method,…

  20. The potential adverse health effects of dental amalgam.

    PubMed

    Brownawell, Amy M; Berent, Stanley; Brent, Robert L; Bruckner, James V; Doull, John; Gershwin, Eric M; Hood, Ronald D; Matanoski, Genevieve M; Rubin, Raphael; Weiss, Bernard; Karol, Meryl H

    2005-01-01

    There is significant public concern about the potential health effects of exposure to mercury vapour (Hg(0)) released from dental amalgam restorations. The purpose of this article is to provide information about the toxicokinetics of Hg(0), evaluate the findings from the recent scientific and medical literature, and identify research gaps that when filled may definitively support or refute the hypothesis that dental amalgam causes adverse health effects. Dental amalgam is a widely used restorative dental material that was introduced over 150 years ago. Most standard dental amalgam formulations contain approximately 50% elemental mercury. Experimental evidence consistently demonstrates that Hg(0) is released from dental amalgam restorations and is absorbed by the human body. Numerous studies report positive correlations between the number of dental amalgam restorations or surfaces and urine mercury concentrations in non-occupationally exposed individuals. Although of public concern, it is currently unclear what adverse health effects are caused by the levels of Hg(0) released from this restoration material. Historically, studies of occupationally exposed individuals have provided consistent information about the relationship between exposure to Hg(0) and adverse effects reflecting both nervous system and renal dysfunction. Workers are usually exposed to substantially higher Hg(0) levels than individuals with dental amalgam restorations and are typically exposed 8 hours per day for 20-30 years, whereas persons with dental amalgam restorations are exposed 24 hours per day over some portion of a lifetime. This review has uncovered no convincing evidence pointing to any adverse health effects that are attributable to dental amalgam restorations besides hypersensitivity in some individuals.

  1. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in changing health systems

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Gita; Govender, Veloshnee

    2015-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are centrally important to health. However, there have been significant shortcomings in implementing SRHR to date. In the context of health systems reform and universal health coverage/care (UHC), this paper explores the following questions. What do these changes in health systems thinking mean for SRHR and gender equity in health in the context of renewed calls for increased investments in the health of women and girls? Can SRHR be integrated usefully into the call for UHC, and if so how? Can health systems reforms address the continuing sexual and reproductive ill health and violations of sexual and reproductive rights (SRR)? Conversely, can the attention to individual human rights that is intrinsic to the SRHR agenda and its continuing concerns about equality, quality and accountability provide impetus for strengthening the health system? The paper argues that achieving equity on the UHC path will require a combination of system improvements and services that benefit all, together with special attention to those whose needs are great and who are likely to fall behind in the politics of choice and voice (i.e., progressive universalism paying particular attention to gender inequalities). PMID:25536851

  2. Are hand preference and sexual orientation possible predicting factors for finasteride adverse effects in male androgenic alopecia?

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Tampa, Mircea; Baleanu, Bogdan C; Paunica, Stana

    2016-07-01

    Sexual side effects of finasteride seem to be redoubtable, being encountered not only during therapy but also after treatment cessation. Consequently, any possible clinical/paraclinical elements that might predict these adverse effects would be useful in the selection of a therapeutic strategy for male androgenic alopecia. Previous published studies show that some compounds that interfere with sexual hormones can decrease sexual activation and response, according to hand preference (as reported for finasteride and tamoxifen) and according to sexual orientation (as noted for bicalutamide). Our preliminary published data and the arguments presented here suggest that these two individual parameters might be used by dermatologists in the therapeutic approach of male androgenic alopecia, so as to alert specific subsets of men, prior to treatment, of the potential increased risk for developing adverse effects to finasteride.

  3. Sexual health resources at Minnesota colleges: associations with students' sexual health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Hannan, Peter J; Lust, Katherine A; Lechner, Kate E; Garcia, Carolyn; Frerich, Ellen A

    2013-09-01

    Sexual risk behaviors are common among college students, and research examining the environmental context of these behaviors is important for prevention. The presence of college sexual health resources is a potentially important part of that context. In a 2010-2011 survey, 6,318 undergraduates from 28 two- and four-year Minnesota college campuses provided data on their sexual health behaviors. In addition, a specially designed inventory was used to assess the sexual health resources available on each campus. Multilevel regression was used to test the associations of four types of resources with students' condom use, birth control use, STD or HIV testing, and unplanned pregnancy. In models that controlled for students' personal and demographic characteristics, the higher the level of sexual health resources at a college, the lower the likelihood that students had had intercourse without birth control, intercourse without a condom and involvement in unplanned pregnancy. For example, students attending colleges with the maximum number of general clinic resources had a lower predicted probability of reporting nonuse of reliable birth control at last intercourse than students attending colleges with no resources (7% vs. 14%). After college characteristics were adjusted for, most measures of resources remained significant, although associations were reduced; two measures became significant in unexpected directions. Colleges' provision of sexual health resources may be associated with students' sexual health behaviors. Research using quasi-experimental or experimental designs is needed to assess the mechanisms underlying these associations; such work could lead to interventions that might help reduce students' risky behaviors. Copyright © 2013 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. Impact of sexual health course on Malaysian university students.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y

    2004-10-01

    A sexual health course was offered and taught by academic staff from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya during semester II of every year as a university elective course to other university students apart from medical students. The course covered a wide range of topics: adolescent sexuality, family planning and pregnancy, violence against women, alternative sexual behavior, physiology of sex, sex and the disabled, gender bias in sexuality, relationship and marriage, sexual dysfunctions, clarification of sexual attitudes and STDs and AIDS. The Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT-II) was used to measure students' pre- and post-course scores on sexual knowledge and attitudes. Fifty-four students who completed both the pre- and post-course tests showed a significant change in sexual knowledge and their attitudes towards sexual myths and autoeroticism. Sexual knowledge was also positively correlated with age, heterosexual relations, autoeroticism and sexual myths scores. However, sexual knowledge is negatively related to religiosity and the influence of religious beliefs on one's attitudes towards sexual matters. This study showed that the sexual health course offered does have a positive impact in increasing one's knowledge and changing one's attitudes towards sexual issues.

  5. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children.

  6. Insights in public health: The hidden epidemic: sexually transmitted diseases in 2014.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    Diseases caused by sexually transmitted agents are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have serious sequelae including physical pain, emotional distress, adverse reproductive outcomes, and cancer. They also pose an economic burden on society. STDs are challenging to prevent and control due to a general reluctance to address sexual health issues in an open manner. Human papillomavirus infection, chlamydia, and gonorrhea have recently been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their Grand Rounds series reflecting their high-profile status on the national prevention and control agenda. This Insights column will focus on these three STDs.

  7. Sexual Health and Aging: Keep the Passion Alive

    MedlinePlus

    ... as you age. Here's how to keep the flame burning. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sexual health is ... Accessed June 3, 2014. Cunningham GR, et al. Treatment of male sexual dysfunction. http://www.uptodate.com/ ...

  8. The masculine side of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Shepard, B

    1998-01-01

    It is common to imagine only losses for men if women achieve sexual equality, but achieving this goal would actually entail improvements for both sexes. A new perspective can be gained by considering male participation in reproductive health and child care a right instead of a responsibility, and such a perspective may make supportive policies more likely to succeed. A rights emphasis could lead to improved wage/labor and child care policies and would be acceptable to men who consider that they already act in a responsible manner. A rights perspective would also promote equity and mutual respect in sexual relationships and give people "permission" to transgress cultural limits that infringe upon their rights. Traditional cultural models of male behavior are transmitted by parents and peers to make males eschew outward signs of weakness; drink alcoholic beverages together; seek sexual experience; and engage in instinctive, uncontrollable, and aggressive sex behavior. Peruvian studies on sexuality and gender carried out in 1995 indicate that adolescents more rigidly define the male than the female role and that homophobia is used in the social control of males. Thus, any man who openly challenges traditional male roles risks the social marginalization that follows being suspected of homosexuality. This form of socialization causes men to view women and homosexuals as despised beings. Men must be educated to recognize the key roles of homophobia and misogyny in their socialization so that they can have the strength to abandon traditional ideas of masculinity and become empowered.

  9. Sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health among adolescent young women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tornello, Samantha L; Riskind, Rachel G; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2014-02-01

    We studied sexual and reproductive health among self-identified bisexual, lesbian, and heterosexual adolescent young women. Prior research has suggested that bisexual and lesbian young women may be at greater risk for many negative health outcomes, including risky sexual and reproductive health behavior. Using data from the U.S. nationally representative 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we examined sexual and reproductive health among young women 15-20 years of age as a function of sexual orientation. We used logistic regression and ANCOVA to examine differences in sexual and reproductive health across groups while controlling for demographic group differences. Bisexual and lesbian young women reported elevated sexual and reproductive health risks. Bisexual and lesbian participants reported being younger at heterosexual sexual debut, and having more male and female sexual partners, than did heterosexual participants. Further, they were more likely than heterosexual young women to report having been forced to have sex by a male partner. Bisexual young women reported the earliest sexual debut, highest numbers of male partners, greatest use of emergency contraception, and highest frequency of pregnancy termination. Overall, sexual minority young women-especially those who identified as bisexual-were at higher sexual and reproductive risk than their heterosexual peers. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  11. Satisfaction with Previous Sexual Health Education as a Predictor of Intentions to Pursue Further Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, B. J.; Mashinter, Carling; Meaney, Glenn J.; Wood, Eileen; Gentile, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between satisfaction with high school sexual health education and the pursuit of a post-secondary human sexuality course. In an initial study, first-year university students who received high school sexual health education in Ontario completed a questionnaire which assessed their satisfaction…

  12. Satisfaction with Previous Sexual Health Education as a Predictor of Intentions to Pursue Further Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, B. J.; Mashinter, Carling; Meaney, Glenn J.; Wood, Eileen; Gentile, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between satisfaction with high school sexual health education and the pursuit of a post-secondary human sexuality course. In an initial study, first-year university students who received high school sexual health education in Ontario completed a questionnaire which assessed their satisfaction…

  13. Sexual health and sexual trauma in women with severe mental illness: An exploratory survey of Western Australian community mental health services.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thinh; Hauck, Yvonne L; Pedruzzi, Rebecca A; Frayne, Jacqueline; Rock, Daniel; Dragovic, Milan

    2017-03-31

    Australian women attending community mental health services were surveyed to determine the relationship between sexual trauma, sexual activity and sexual health seeking behaviors. Self-reported history of "forced sex" was 58.4% (n = 122 out of 220). Latent class analysis revealed a three class model: 'sexually active and health seeking', 'low sexual activity and health seeking' and 'low sexual activity and not health seeking'. An association with General Practitioner engagement and sexual health seeking behaviors was found. Rates of self-reported sexual trauma reinforce the need for screening and trauma informed care. Groupings may reflect different aspects of recovery associated with sexual health behaviors.

  14. Adverse childhood experiences, health perception, and the role of shared familial factors in adult twins.

    PubMed

    Mostoufi, Sheeva M; Strachan, Eric; Chopko, Laura; Succop, Annemarie; Martinez, Beatrice; Ahumada, Sandra M; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-11-01

    To examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and health perception in adulthood, and to explore the contribution of shared familial factors to these associations. Data were collected from 180 female twins (90 pairs) from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants completed questionnaires including the modified ACE Questionnaire, Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form, and the SF-36. Mixed effects linear regression modeling investigated the effects of ACE on indices of health perception controlling for correlated twin data. Additional models examined the associations while controlling for the experience of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood; within-twin pair models that inherently adjust for familial factors explored shared familial influences. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, more ACE was associated with worse perceptions of general health (p=.01) and vitality (p=.05) on the SF-36. After controlling for childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, the relationship between ACE and general health remained significant (p=.01) while vitality was no longer significant. None of the associations remained significant after accounting for the influence of familial factors. These results support previous findings on the negative link between ACE and perceived health in adulthood. The detrimental effects of ACE on vitality may be accounted for by the experience of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse. Shared familial factors might play a partial role in the relationship between ACE and health perception. Future research should further investigate the genetic and environmental mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research.

  16. Male Involvement: Implications for Reproductive and Sexual Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Lena; Rink, Elizabeth; Zukoski, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The sexual health needs of young males have been largely ignored in the field of reproductive health. Until recently, the health care needs of females have received the vast majority of attention from public health professionals and organizations with services focused on the prevention of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and…

  17. Male Involvement: Implications for Reproductive and Sexual Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Lena; Rink, Elizabeth; Zukoski, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The sexual health needs of young males have been largely ignored in the field of reproductive health. Until recently, the health care needs of females have received the vast majority of attention from public health professionals and organizations with services focused on the prevention of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and…

  18. Love Bugs: promoting sexual health among young people in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Heard, Emma; Auvaa, Leveti; Pickering, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    This project addressed the sexual health and well being of youth in Samoa; a key at-risk group experiencing high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and alienation from sexual health services. Love Bugs included a health promotion event held at the National University of Samoa (NUS), exposing young people to sexual health information and developing personal skills and building self-efficacy around healthy relationships, communication and safer sex. A survey provided insights into participants' knowledge and perceptions of sexual health, STIs and healthy relationships. In response to survey results, six free condom dispensers were installed at NUS. Love Bugs exposed over 500 Samoan youth to positive sexual health information and provided an opportunity for personal skill development with regard to protecting sexual health and well being. Condom dispensers were developed and installed on the university campus for the ongoing access by students without concern of cost or embarrassment. Strong partnerships were built between key community and government stakeholders that encouraged collaborative action towards protecting sexual health and well being of Samoan youth. Love Bugs was a successful initiative which addressed sexual health and well being of young people in Samoa. A comprehensive evaluation should be undertaken. SO WHAT?: Love Bugs highlighted creative and culturally-appropriate ways to address sexual health in the Pacific. Rates of STIs and unplanned pregnancies, particularly for youth, could be reduced through investment in the implementation and evaluation of such initiatives.

  19. Body satisfaction and sexual health in Dutch female university students.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Talens, Jona G; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2013-01-01

    Studies in the field of body image have primarily addressed its negative aspects, such as body dissatisfaction. The present study focused instead on women who are satisfied with their bodies and on how body satisfaction relates to sexual health. A sample of 319 Dutch female university students completed an online survey that included items about body image evaluation, body image investment, overweight preoccupation, body image affect during sexual activity, sexual frequency, sexual functioning, and sexual self-esteem. We found that the level of body dissatisfaction was minimal in our sample. The majority reported neutral or mildly positive body evaluations, and in 30% of the sample these evaluations were clearly positive. Comparisons between women who reported positive versus neutral body evaluations showed that the body-satisfied women had lower body mass indexes (BMIs) and reported less body image investment, less overweight preoccupation, and less body self-consciousness during sexual activity. With regard to sexual health, they reported higher sexual self-esteem and better sexual functioning. Furthermore, we found that body image self-consciousness was negatively associated with sexual functioning, sexual self-esteem, and frequency of sexual activity with a partner. Body satisfaction did not account for a portion of the relationship of body self-consciousness during sexual activity with sexual health.

  20. Health insurance, cost expectations, and adverse job turnover.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To

    2011-01-01

    Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Educational Differences in Adolescents' Sexual Health: A Pervasive Phenomenon in a National Dutch Sample.

    PubMed

    De Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Meijer, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Educational level is strongly associated with age of first intercourse and risk of unintended pregnancies. This study examined these associations in a large representative sample of Dutch adolescents and also included associations of educational level with other sexual health aspects. Adolescents aged 12 to 25 (3,926 boys and 3,915 girls) completed an online questionnaire that included measures of romantic and sexual experience; the evaluation of their sexual debut; the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancy; and sexual attitudes, satisfaction, self-efficacy, knowledge, victimization, and functioning. The results showed that adolescents on a vocational track or who completed fewer years of education were more at risk of several adverse sexual health outcomes than adolescents on an academic track. They had their first sexual experiences at an earlier age; evaluated these experiences less favorably; had less sexual health knowledge and fewer refusal skills; and had a higher risk of unintended pregnancy, STIs, and victimization. Possible explanations for these consistent differences are discussed. Sex education and services should pay specific and targeted attention to less educated young people and tailor their efforts specifically to the needs, characteristics, and realities of this group.

  2. The effects of school poverty on adolescents' sexual health knowledge.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

    2012-06-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sexual health care for women with dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Sung, Su-Ching; Jeng, Cherng-Jye; Lin, Yen-Chin

    2011-09-01

    Female dyspareunia is a serious impairment with a prevalence of up to 39.5%, imposing a significant burden on women's health, relationship, and quality of life. Because the causes of female dyspareunia are associated with multiple biological, medical, psychological, sociocultural, and interpersonal dimensions, all members of the health team should help fill this gap in the total care of the patient. The nurse is an ideal member of the health team to counsel patients in the sensitive and highly charged area of human sexuality. The purpose of this article was to explore the essential components of female dyspareunia from nursing care perspective to help women suffering from dyspareunia. The article provides a set of tools, including description and clinical presentation, obtaining a history and clinical data for the evaluation of dyspareunia, and a counseling tool of the Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, and Intensive Therapy model; suggestions are also provided for health care professionals during the treatment process.

  4. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-12-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual health educators was promoted in six public schools in one state in the Southeast. Students (n = 2,125) in four schools completed an online questionnaire assessing personal risk factors associated with negative sexual health outcomes and use of the text message service. Text message service users (n = 144) were more likely to have had sex, to have been in a relationship, and to come from a lower socioeconomic status background. Users also felt less connected to their schools and were slightly older than nonservice users. When all variables were entered into a logistic regression, only sexual experience was associated with service use. Sexual health text message services are designed to provide information to teens in an effort to prevent negative sexual outcomes. Such services seem to be reaching youth with increased risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. This study provides evidence that teens most likely to benefit are also those most likely to use a sexual health text message service.

  5. Childhood adversities and post-traumatic stress disorder: evidence for stress sensitisation in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Koenen, Karestan C; Bromet, Evelyn J; Karam, Elie G; Liu, Howard; Petukhova, Maria; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Sampson, Nancy A; Stein, Dan J; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Dinolova, Rumyana V; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-09-21

    BackgroundAlthough childhood adversities are known to predict increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic experiences, it is unclear whether this association varies by childhood adversity or traumatic experience types or by age.AimsTo examine variation in associations of childhood adversities with PTSD according to childhood adversity types, traumatic experience types and life-course stage.MethodEpidemiological data were analysed from the World Mental Health Surveys (n = 27 017).ResultsFour childhood adversities (physical and sexual abuse, neglect, parent psychopathology) were associated with similarly increased odds of PTSD following traumatic experiences (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8), whereas the other eight childhood adversities assessed did not predict PTSD. Childhood adversity-PTSD associations did not vary across traumatic experience types, but were stronger in childhood-adolescence and early-middle adulthood than later adulthood.ConclusionsChildhood adversities are differentially associated with PTSD, with the strongest associations in childhood-adolescence and early-middle adulthood. Consistency of associations across traumatic experience types suggests that childhood adversities are associated with generalised vulnerability to PTSD following traumatic experiences. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  6. Measurement of Sexual Health in the U.S.: An Inventory of Nationally Representative Surveys and Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ivankovich, Megan B.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Douglas, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. Methods We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. Results We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Conclusion Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health. PMID:23450886

  7. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  8. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Other Adversities to Adult Health Risks: The Role of Adult Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks – depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions— marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status—mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15–20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  9. The Need to Promote Sexual Health in America: A New Vision for Public Health Action.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jessie V; Ivankovich, Megan B; Douglas, John M; Hook, Edward W; Barclay, Lynn; Elders, Joycelyn; Satcher, David; Coleman, Eli

    2017-10-01

    Sexual health is considered to be a state of wellness with physical, emotional, mental, and social dimensions. Sexual health can contribute to our overall well-being in each of these dimensions. However, despite the intrinsic importance and positive aspects of sexuality in our lives, the United States presently faces significant challenges related to the sexual health of its citizens, including human immunodeficiency virus, other sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, unintended pregnancies, sexual violence, sexual dysfunction, and cancers in reproductive tracts with serious disparities among the populations affected. In particular, high rates of poverty, income inequality, low educational attainment, stigma, racism, sexism, and homophobia can make it more difficult for some individuals and communities to protect their sexual health. Given that many pressing public health issues in the United States are related to sexual health and that sexual health has been increasingly recognized as an important national health priority, now is the time to energize and focus our efforts toward optimal sexual health of the population. In this paper, we outline the rationale for addressing sexual health as a means to better promote overall health and address sexuality related morbidities. In addition, we present a logic model outlining an approach for advancing sexual health in the United States, as well as a range of action steps for consideration by public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers.

  10. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided sociodemographic and diagnostic information, as well as an account of suicide-related thoughts and behaviours. Suicidality or suicidal behaviour were defined as were defined as suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in the total sample, and suicide plans and attempts among ideators. Childhood adversities included physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental death, parental divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical illness and financial adversity. The association between suicidality and childhood adversities was examined using discrete-time survival models. Results More than a third of the respondents with suicidal behaviour experienced at least one childhood adversity, with physical abuse, parental death and parental divorce being the most prevalent adversities. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and parental divorce were identified as significant risk markers for lifetime suicide attempts, while physical abuse and parental divorce were significantly correlated with suicidal ideation. Two or more childhood adversities were associated with a twofold higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts. Sexual abuse (OR 9.3), parental divorce (OR 3.1) and childhood physical abuse (OR 2.2) had the strongest associations with lifetime suicide attempts. The effect of childhood adversities on suicidal tendencies varied over the life course. For example, sexual abuse was significantly associated with suicide attempts during childhood and teen years, but not during young and later adulthood

  11. Seasonal variations in sexual activity and their implications for sexual health promotion.

    PubMed

    Wellings, K; Macdowall, W; Catchpole, M; Goodrich, J

    1999-02-01

    Although seasonal variations in births are observed in all human populations, the links between calendar events and sexual activity have received little attention in relation to health promotion and service provision. We have plotted various relevant data--routinely collected data for births within and outside of marriage, abortions, sexually transmitted infections, human immunodeficiency virus tests and condom sales figures--by calendar period. The trends point consistently to an increase in sexual activity and unsafe sex occurring at or around the Christmas period, and a longer but less pronounced subsidiary period of increased sexual activity and unsafe sex coinciding with the summer vacation. We conclude that seasonal patterns of sexual activity have implications for provision of sexual health services and for the timing and targeting of sexual health promotional interventions.

  12. Vaginal douching and adverse health effects: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Thomas, A G; Leybovich, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The meta-analysis described here reviewed the current literature on adverse health effects of vaginal douching. METHODS: Papers published in English from 1965 through 1995 were potentially eligible. RESULTS: One third of White women and two thirds of Black women of reproductive age reported douching regularly. Analyses indicated that vaginal douching increases the overall risk of pelvic inflammatory disease by 73% and the risk of ectopic pregnancy by 76%. Frequent douching was shown to be highly associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and modestly associated with cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Current literature suggests that frequent douching increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and, possibly, cervical cancer. PMID:9240115

  13. [Progresses on adverse health effects of automobile exhaust].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong; Liu, Yingchun

    2003-09-01

    The progresses on the latest studies at home and abroad on adverse health effects of automobile exhaust were reviewed in this paper. Particulates and poisonous gases from automobile exhaust were considered to be harmful to respiratory system, immune system and reproductive system. It showed that increased prevalence of respiratory disease (e.g. chronic bronchitis and asthma), and decreased lung function, immunity were associated with automobile exhaust. The carcinogenic potential from the exposure to automobile exhausts needs to be further explored because the carcinogenesis is multifactorial.

  14. 'Veiling sexualities': a grounded theory of mental health nurses responses to issues of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Agnes; Barker, Phil; Begley, Cecily M

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to develop a grounded theory explaining how mental health nurses respond to issues of sexuality in clinical practice. The history of sexuality and people with mental health problems has largely been a history shrouded in misunderstanding, stigma, myth and negativity. However, individuals with mental health problems may experience sexuality and relationship difficulties related to their life experiences, mental illness, or its treatment. Grounded theory was the methodology used for the study. Interviews were conducted in 2005-2006 with 27 mental health nurses working an urban area in the Republic of Ireland. Data were analysed using the concurrent processes of constant comparative analysis, data collection, theoretical sampling and memo writing. The core category to emerge from the data was 'veiling sexualities'. This refers to participants' accounts of how they responded to the sexuality dimension of clients' lives. Participants' main concerns about sexuality were related to feelings of personal and professional vulnerability, due to a lack of competence, comfort and confidence in this area. The theory highlights the manner in which nurses perpetuate practices that marginalize, discriminate and socially exclude clients as 'sexual citizens'. The theory of Veiled Sexualities may facilitate acknowledgement of the presence of sexuality in all nurse-client encounters, and promote a discourse on the sexual rights of people experiencing mental distress among mental health nurses and all involved in the delivery of mental health services.

  15. Sexual Violence as a Key Contributor to Poor Mental Health Among Japanese Women Subjected to Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Honda, Tomoko; Wynter, Karen; Yokota, Jinko; Tran, Thach; Ujiie, Yuri; Niwa, Madoka; Nakayama, Michi; Ito, Fumie; Kim, Yoshiharu; Fisher, Jane; Kamo, Toshiko

    2017-09-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health among Japanese women and to explore to what extent sexual IPV is an important contributor to the severity of mental health problems in comparison with physical and psychological IPV. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the medical records of participants during psychiatric consultation at the Institute of Women's Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, including 62 women who experienced IPV without sexual violence and 83 women who experienced IPV with sexual violence. Mental health problems were compared, including anxiety, depression, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociative experiences. The results demonstrated a higher incidence and severity of somatic symptoms, insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression and suicidality, PTSD, and dissociative experiences among women in the sexual IPV group than in the women who experienced IPV without sexual violence. In analyzing the relative contribution of sexual, physical, and psychological violence to the severity of mental health problems of the survivors, results indicated that sexual violence was an independent predictor of both PTSD and dissociative experiences. The present research showed that significant adverse effects on mental health were observed among women who experienced IPV with sexual violence compared with the ones without. These findings provide important implications for considering the specific approaches to meet the needs of those women experiencing sexual IPV and the need for timely and effective interventions, including healthcare, social services, and primary prevention.

  16. Improving Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Systematic Review of Potential Interventions.

    PubMed

    Salam, Rehana A; Faqqah, Anadil; Sajjad, Nida; Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Kaufman, Miriam; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents have special sexual and reproductive health needs (whether or not they are sexually active or married). This review assesses the impact of interventions to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health (including the interventions to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting [FGM/C]) and to prevent intimate violence. Our review findings suggest that sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and contraceptive provision are effective in increasing sexual knowledge, contraceptive use, and decreasing adolescent pregnancy. Among interventions to prevent FGM/C, community mobilization and female empowerment strategies have the potential to raise awareness of the adverse health consequences of FGM/C and reduce its prevalence; however, there is a need to conduct methodologically rigorous intervention evaluations. There was limited and inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to prevent intimate partner violence. Further studies with rigorous designs, longer term follow-up, and standardized and validated measurement instruments are required to maximize comparability of results. Future efforts should be directed toward scaling-up evidence-based interventions to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries, sustain the impacts over time, and ensure equitable outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting Adverse Drug Events from Personal Health Messages

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Brant W.; Berlin, Richard; Schatz, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) remain a large problem in the United States, being the fourth leading cause of death, despite post market drug surveillance. Much post consumer drug surveillance relies on self-reported “spontaneous” patient data. Previous work has performed datamining over the FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) and other spontaneous reporting systems to identify drug interactions and drugs correlated with high rates of serious adverse events. However, safety problems have resulted from the lack of post marketing surveillance information about drugs, with underreporting rates of up to 98% within such systems1,2. We explore the use of online health forums as a source of data to identify drugs for further FDA scrutiny. In this work we aggregate individuals’ opinions and review of drugs similar to crowd intelligence3. We use natural language processing to group drugs discussed in similar ways and are able to successfully identify drugs withdrawn from the market based on messages discussing them before their removal. PMID:22195073

  18. Sexuality and sexual reproductive health of disabled young people in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Tigist Alemu; Luck, Tobias; Birru, Samuel Kinde; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-10-01

    In Ethiopia, young people with disabilities (YPWD) are often marginalized and not recognized as being sexual, and only little is known about their sexual reproductive health (SRH) status. We therefore aimed to assess the SRH status and associated factors among 426 YPWD in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012. Data were collected by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Fifty-two percent of YPWD ever had sexual intercourse. Seventy-five percent started sex between 15 and 19 years. Only 35% had used contraceptive during their first sexual encounter. Fifty-nine percent of the sexually experienced YPWD had multiple lifetime sexual partners; 19%, a casual sexual partner; and 21%, a commercial sexual partner. Only 48% consistently used condoms with their casual or commercial sexual partners. Twenty-four percent of the sexually experienced YPWD had a history of sexually transmitted infections. Our findings indicate that YPWD in Ethiopia are sexually active, but also highly involved in risky sexual practices. There is a need for in-depth research to better understand the determinants of risky sexual behavior and to propose preventive approaches.

  19. Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

  20. Sexual health: getting the message across.

    PubMed

    Vieira, N F

    1994-01-01

    The AIDS Educacao and Prevencao (AIDS Education and Prevention) project in Fortaleza, Brazil, is an attempt to find new approaches to working on sexual health education with vulnerable young people. The project aims to develop a learning system focusing on the mental and physical well-being of youths that is appropriate for their age, context, and needs. The project, which was developed by nursing lecturers and students studying for nursing degrees at the Federal University of Ceara, works with young people between ages 11 and 17. The project reaches young people through its biannual workshops where facilitators learn about the problems encountered by young people regarding sex and sexuality, sexual behavior, condom use, unwanted pregnancies, STDs and HIV/AIDS. Facilitators are not counselors, but work with small groups to promote participation and collective learning. Factual information and case studies are introduced gradually to teach participants ways in which they can protect themselves and help them decide what choices are right for them. However, lessons learned from the workshops are not reinforced because teachers and parents are afraid and ignorant of AIDS. As a result, while it continues to target young people, the project now attempts to involve schools and students' families.

  1. Knowledge of Secondary School Pupils regarding Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of secondary school pupils in order to ascertain whether the current government public health and education policies are having any impact on pupils' sexual health. Design: Results obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study. Setting: Nineteen mixed-sex, state secondary…

  2. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  3. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  4. Knowledge of Secondary School Pupils regarding Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of secondary school pupils in order to ascertain whether the current government public health and education policies are having any impact on pupils' sexual health. Design: Results obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study. Setting: Nineteen mixed-sex, state secondary…

  5. Health professionals' responses to disclosure of child sexual abuse history: female child sexual abuse survivors' experiences.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Kim; Jülich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-05-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals.

  6. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375

  7. Images of sexual stereotypes in rap videos and the health of African American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Shani H; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan

    2007-10-01

    This study sought to determine whether perceiving portrayals of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos was associated with adverse health outcomes among African American adolescent females. African American female adolescents (n = 522) were recruited from community venues. Adolescents completed a survey consisting of questions on sociodemographic characteristics, rap music video viewing habits, and a scale that assessed the primary predictor variable, portrayal of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos. Adolescents also completed an interview that assessed the health outcomes and provided urine for a marijuana screen. In logistic regression analyses, adolescents who perceived more portrayals of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos were more likely to engage in binge drinking (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.32-11.04, p = 0.01), test positive for marijuana (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.19-9.85, p = 0.02), have multiple sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.01-3.71, p = 0.04), and have a negative body image (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.02-2.26, p = 0.04). This is one of the first studies quantitatively examining the relationship between cultural images of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos and a spectrum of adverse health outcomes in African American female adolescents. Greater attention to this social issue may improve the health of all adolescent females.

  8. Poverty in childhood and adverse health outcomes in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2011-05-01

    The experience of poverty during childhood is a potent predictor of a variety of adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Children who live in poverty are more likely as adults than their peers to develop and die earlier from a range of diseases. These effects are especially strong for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Most disturbingly, these effects appear in large part to be biologically embedded such that later improved life circumstances have only a modest ameliorative effect. Considering these findings and the relatively high rates of child poverty in nations such as Canada, UK, and USA, those concerned with improving the health of citizens should focus their attention on advocating for public policy that will reduce the incidence of child poverty.

  9. Schools: A Missed Opportunity to Inform African American Sexual and Gender Minority Youth about Sexual Health Education and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are at disproportionate risk for HIV. Schools play an integral role in educating young people about sexual health in addition to providing sexual health services. This qualitative study examined SGM youths' perception of school sexual health education and services. A total of 42 self-identified African…

  10. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  11. Campus Sexual Violence Resources and Emotional Health of College Women Who Have Experienced Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine A; Hannan, Peter J; Porta, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Institutional characteristics may help mitigate trauma associated with sexual assault. This study examines associations between resources on college campuses for sexual violence prevention and the emotional well-being of female students who have experienced sexual assault. There were 495 female college students who have experienced sexual assault who provided survey data in 2010-2011. Sexual violence resource data from 28 college campuses were combined with student survey data in multilevel analysis. Dependent variables include diagnosis with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and PTSD, and models adjust for covariates and clustering of students within colleges. Participants attending colleges with more sexual violence resources had lower rates of mental health conditions than those attending colleges with fewer resources. Colleges are encouraged to expand their array of sexual violence resources to create a supportive environment for victims of sexual assault and to connect affected students with appropriate services.

  12. High Triglycerides Predicts Arteriogenic Erectile Dysfunction and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Subjects With Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Cipriani, Sarah; Rastrelli, Giulia; Sforza, Alessandra; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The atherogenic role of triglycerides (TG) remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to analyze the contribution of TG in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to verify the value of elevated TG in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). An unselected series of 3,990 men attending our outpatient clinic for sexual dysfunction was retrospectively studied. A subset of this sample (n = 1,687) was enrolled in a longitudinal study. Several clinical, biochemical, and instrumental (penile color Doppler ultrasound; PCDU) factors were evaluated. Among the patients studied, after adjustment for confounders, higher TG levels were associated with arteriogenic ED and a higher risk of clinical and biochemical hypogonadism. Conversely, no association between TG and other sexual dysfunctions was observed. When pathological PCDU parameters-including flaccid acceleration (<1.17 m/sec(2)) or dynamic peak systolic velocity (PSV <35 cm/sec)-were considered, the negative association between impaired penile flow and higher TG levels was confirmed, even when subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or those with diabetes were excluded from the analysis (OR = 6.343 [1.243;32.362], P = .026 and 3.576 [1.104;11.578]; P = .34 for impaired acceleration and PSV, respectively). Similarly, when the same adjusted models were applied, TG levels were associated with a higher risk of hypogonadism, independently of the definition criteria (OR = 2.892 [1.643;5.410], P < .0001 and 4.853 [1.965;11.990]; P = .001 for total T <12 and 8 nM, respectively). In the longitudinal study, after adjusting for confounders, elevated TG levels (upper quartile: 162-1686 mg/dL) were independently associated with a higher incidence of MACE (HR = 2.469 [1.019;5.981]; P = .045), when compared to the rest of the sample. Our data suggest an association between elevated TG and arteriogenic ED and its cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification. Whether the use of TG lowering drugs

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Health Outcomes Among Veteran and Non-Veteran Women

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Dichter, Melissa E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women veterans represent a vulnerable population with unique health needs and disparities in access to care. One constellation of exposures related to subsequent poor health includes adverse childhood experiences (ACEs; e.g., physical and sexual child abuse), though research on impacts of ACEs among women veterans is limited. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the 11 states that included the ACE module (n=36,485). Weighted chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence of ACEs among women veterans compared with women non-veterans and differences in the following outcomes, controlling for ACEs: social support, inadequate sleep, life satisfaction, mental distress, smoking, heavy alcohol use, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease symptoms, asthma, and disability. Results: Women veterans (1.6% of the total sample) reported a higher prevalence of 7 out of 11 childhood adversities and higher mean ACE score than women non-veterans. Women veterans were more likely to be current smokers and report a disability, associations which were attenuated when controlling for ACE. Conclusions: Despite women veterans' higher prevalence of ACE, their health outcomes did not differ substantially from non-veterans. Further research is needed to understand the intersections of traumatic experiences and sources of resilience over the lifecourse among women veterans. PMID:26390379

  14. The Sexual Health of Transgender Men: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Riley, Erin; Rogers, Erin; Suarez, Nicolas; Metheny, Nick; Senda, Jonathan; Saylor, Kate M; Bauermeister, José A

    There is a general paucity of research concerning the sexual health of transgender individuals, and most existing research focuses on transgender women. A scoping review concerning the sexual health of transgender men was conducted to identify gaps in the literature and to highlight opportunities for future research and intervention. A comprehensive search of seven databases was conducted. The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual was used as a framework. Some 7,485 articles were initially identified using a search strategy applied to seven online databases: 54 articles were identified as relevant to the research questions and reviewed in detail; of those, 33 were included in the final analysis. Studies were conceptualized into four broad themes: sexual behaviors, sexual identity, sexual pleasure and sexual function, and transactional sex. Besides an overall lack of research, existing studies were often characterized by small convenience samples that do not allow for generalization to the larger population of transgender men. Significant gaps in the literature regarding sexual coercion, sexual and intimate partner violence, and relationship quality and functioning among transgender men exist. There is a need to improve the scope and depth of research examining the sexual health of this population, especially concerning sexual risk behaviors and structural barriers to sexual health care access.

  15. Youth Sexual Health: Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Among Students at a University in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    SARAÇOĞLU, Gamze Varol; ERDEM, İlknur; DOĞAN, Sultan; TOKUÇ, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To determine sexual attitudes, behavior, and knowledge of Namik Kemal University (NKU) students about sexual health and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Method A sample representing 10% of the undergraduate population of NKU in 2009–2010, was studied. Of 1,500 questionnaires distributed, 1,314 (87.6%) were filled out. Results The mean age of the respondents (52.9% male) was 20.07±1.75 years. The rate of students who had received sexual health education was 32.0%, and 15.3% had previously used a sexual health service. Eleven percent of the female students and 50.3% of the male students had had sexual intercourse. The average age of initial sexual intercourse was 16.83±2.07 years. Of the students who had had sexual intercourse, 46.6% reported that they did not use any contraception method. The most preferred method was condoms (37.6%). The rate of contraceptive use was 58.7% in sexually educated students and 43.9% in those not educated (p=.004). The most well-known STI was AIDS (96.5%), with sexually educated students giving higher rates of correct answers about STIs (p<.05) Conclusion The students who had received sexual health education were more knowledgeable about vital consequences of STI’s, even though it is not sufficient, than sexually active students. Awareness of safe sexual practices and changes in behavior, in particular, promoting condom use should be established in higher risk youths. Deficiencies in knowledge could be addressed by adding a sexual healthtraining component to the university curriculum, and unmet requirements could be met by reorganizing medico-social centers in universities.

  16. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  17. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  18. Sexuality and sexual health: constructs and expressions in the extended Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    El-Kak, Faysal

    2013-12-30

    The extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region is the world region with the second youngest population, where globalization, migration, information technology, and political changes are contributing to the shaping of sexuality and sexual behaviors. Understanding the various sociocultural, demographic and public health dimensions of sexual and reproductive health of young people is fundamental to understanding the pattern of sexual behavior and the burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human papillomavirus-related diseases. New norms and forms of marriage have emerged to accommodate the changing trends in sexual behavior of premarital and extra-marital sex, as well as reports of increased prevalence of premarital penetrative and non-penetrative sexual behavior. Despite these trends, the burden of sexual illnesses remains low and is estimated at 7% of the general population being infected with curable STIs. Other STIs, such as herpes simplex virus 2, are also prevalent. The existing policies and health systems remain short of promoting youth reproductive and sexual health. Efforts should address establishing national preventive programmes, such as screening for STIs, primary prevention, comprehensive sexuality education, as well as youth-friendly services. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  19. Women's Sexual Health: Talking about Your Sexual Needs

    MedlinePlus

    ... than just sexual needs. Intimacy also includes emotional, spiritual, physical and recreational needs. If your emotional intimacy ... Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a ...

  20. Measuring Harm in Health Care: Optimizing Adverse Event Review.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kathleen E; Harik, Polina; Mazor, Kathleen M; Perfetto, Deborah; Anatchkova, Milena; Biggins, Colleen; Wagner, Joann; Schoettker, Pamela J; Firneno, Cassandra; Klugman, Robert; Tjia, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify modifiable factors that improve the reliability of ratings of severity of health care-associated harm in clinical practice improvement and research. A diverse group of clinicians rated 8 types of adverse events: blood product, device or medical/surgical supply, fall, health care-associated infection, medication, perinatal, pressure ulcer, surgery. We used a generalizability theory framework to estimate the impact of number of raters, rater experience, and rater provider type on reliability. Pharmacists were slightly more precise and consistent in their ratings than either physicians or nurses. For example, to achieve high reliability of 0.83, 3 physicians could be replaced by 2 pharmacists without loss in precision of measurement. If only 1 rater was available for rating, ∼5% of the reviews for severe harm would have been incorrectly categorized. Reliability was greatly improved with 2 reviewers. We identified factors that influence the reliability of clinician reviews of health care-associated harm. Our novel use of generalizability analyses improved our understanding of how differences affect reliability. This approach was useful in optimizing resource utilization when selecting raters to assess harm and may have similar applications in other settings in health care.

  1. Adversity, Adaptive Calibration, and Health: The Case of Disadvantaged Families

    PubMed Central

    de Baca, Tomás Cabeza; Wahl, Richard A.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologists and medical researchers often employ an allostatic load model that focuses on environmental and lifestyle factors, together with biological vulnerabilities, to explain the deterioration of human physiological systems and chronic degenerative disease. Although this perspective has informed medicine and public health, it is agnostic toward the functional significance of pathophysiology and health deterioration. Drawing on Life History (LH) theory, the current paper reviews the literature on disadvantaged families to serve as a conceptual model of stress-health relationships in which the allocation of reproductive effort is instantiated in the LH strategies of individuals and reflects the bioenergetic and material resource tradeoffs. We propose that researchers interested in health disparities reframe chronic degenerative diseases as outcomes resulting from strategic calibration of physiological systems to best adapt, survive, and reproduce in response to demands of specific developmental contexts. These effects of adversity on later-age degenerative disease are mediated, in part, by socioemotional and cognitive mechanisms expressed in different life history strategies. PMID:27175327

  2. The ecology of sexual health of sexual minorities in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; Simán, Florence M; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2015-12-01

    Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected.

  3. The ecology of sexual health of sexual minorities in Guatemala City

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; Simán, Florence M.; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R.; Bachmann, Laura H.

    2015-01-01

    Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected. PMID:24688113

  4. Multiple violence victimisation associated with sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in Swedish youth.

    PubMed

    Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.

  5. Gender double standards in young people attending sexual health services in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Kane, Roslyn; Wellings, Kaye

    2005-01-01

    Concern about the sexual and reproductive health of young people has been mounting recently in Thailand. Unequal gender relations have a considerable influence on the lives of young people, especially young women, yet few studies have explored the ways in which they have impacted on provision of sexual health care. Drawing upon data from a qualitative study in Northern Thailand, this paper explores the views and experiences of young people in seeking health care, highlighting the kinds of gender double standards and power imbalances that may pose obstacles to their use of sexual and reproductive health services. Findings reveal the vulnerability of sexually active young women in seeking support and care from partners, parents, and service providers. Those who experience adverse outcomes of sexual activity, such as unwanted pregnancy or infection, report facing indifference, victim blaming, or the threat of abandonment by their partners. Because of their fear of disclosure to their parents and communities, of their sexual activity, they opt for clandestine and unsafe abortion and seek the counsel of peers and drugstores rather than parents and providers. At the service provider level, young women report facing threatening and judgemental attitudes, indifferent counselling, and possible violation of confidentiality. This is in marked contrast to the treatment of young men, who generally meet with a more sympathetic and accepting response.

  6. Support for Offering Sexual Health Services through School-Based Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Barr, Elissa; Wilson, Kristina; Griner, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education in the schools. However, there is a dearth of research assessing support for sexual health services offered through school-based health clinics (SBHCs). The purpose of this study was to assess voter support for offering 3 sexual health services (STI/HIV testing, STI/HIV…

  7. University Health Center Providers' Beliefs about Discussing and Recommending Sexual Health Prevention to Women College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined this…

  8. Support for Offering Sexual Health Services through School-Based Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Barr, Elissa; Wilson, Kristina; Griner, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education in the schools. However, there is a dearth of research assessing support for sexual health services offered through school-based health clinics (SBHCs). The purpose of this study was to assess voter support for offering 3 sexual health services (STI/HIV testing, STI/HIV…

  9. Sexual victimization and health-related indicators among sexual minority men

    PubMed Central

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Bimbi, David; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men, and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime STIs, higher sexual compulsivity scores, and greater gay-related stigma scores than men with no histories of sexual victimization. Few differences are found in comparisons of health outcomes based on age at first sexual victimization (childhood vs. adulthood). Furthermore, men with histories of sexual victimization report healthier coping skills than men with no histories of sexual victimization, but no significant group differences are found in social support or stress-related growth. Findings underscore the importance of assessing lifetime sexual victimization among sexual minority men during counseling, with special attention given to the enhancement of protective factors among those at risk for harmful behaviors and subsequent poor health outcomes. PMID:23626503

  10. Sexual victimization and health-related indicators among sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Bimbi, David; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2011-01-01

    This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men, and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime STIs, higher sexual compulsivity scores, and greater gay-related stigma scores than men with no histories of sexual victimization. Few differences are found in comparisons of health outcomes based on age at first sexual victimization (childhood vs. adulthood). Furthermore, men with histories of sexual victimization report healthier coping skills than men with no histories of sexual victimization, but no significant group differences are found in social support or stress-related growth. Findings underscore the importance of assessing lifetime sexual victimization among sexual minority men during counseling, with special attention given to the enhancement of protective factors among those at risk for harmful behaviors and subsequent poor health outcomes.

  11. Sexual orientation and sexual health services utilization among women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agénor, Madina; Muzny, Christina A; Schick, Vanessa; Austin, Erika L; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Although sexual minority women are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical cancer, few nationally representative studies have assessed sexual orientation disparities in sexual health care among women. Using data from the 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth, which provide a national probability sample of U.S. women aged 15-44years (N=11,300), we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between sexual behavior and sexual identity (modeled separately) and STI testing in the past year, Pap test use in the last 3years, lifetime HIV testing, and lifetime human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Women with male and female lifetime sexual partners had higher adjusted odds of being tested for STIs ([odds ratio:] 1.61; [95% confidence interval:] 1.37-1.89), HIV (1.66; 1.29-2.14), and HPV (1.79; 1.41-2.25) and similar adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test (0.98; 0.76-1.27) than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Self-identified bisexual women had higher adjusted odds of obtaining an STI (1.43; 1.10-1.86) and HIV (1.69; 1.24-2.30) test but lower adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test in the last 3years (0.66; 0.47-0.93) than heterosexual-identified women. Women with only female lifetime sexual partners had lower adjusted odds of receiving an STI (0.14; 0.07-0.28) and Pap (0.10; 0.03-0.27) test than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Results comparing self-identified lesbian and heterosexual women were similar. Health care facilities should monitor and address sexual orientation disparities in women's sexual health care and ensure the provision of high-quality sexual health services to all women.

  12. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people’s needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Results Analyzing participants’ perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). Conclusions General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals’ needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran. PMID:27504163

  13. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-06-01

    Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people's needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Analyzing participants' perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals' needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran.

  14. Towards comprehensive and effective strategies to address sexual health.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charmaine; Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha

    2017-08-24

    Sexual health is an important global public health concern. Planning effective strategies to improve sexual health requires a high degree of attention to the local epidemiological trends and cultural context where the strategy is to be implemented. The paper by Chemtob et al. describes the process to develop a plan that aims to reduce the burden of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Israel by 2025. This commentary argues that increased attention to planning and implementation of sexual health policy is required in order to address the real burden of disease. Sexual health should not be merely addressed from a communicable disease control perspective but should comprehensively address health and wellbeing of all population groups through a positive approach in line with the WHO current definition of sexual health. As even traditionally culturally conservative societies are experiencing rapid changes in attitudes and practices towards sexual lifestyles, the challenge is to ensure that sexual health strategies combine evidence-informed measures and good practices with culturally appropriate communication and implementation approaches.

  15. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…

  16. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…

  17. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  18. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  19. New Unintended Adverse Consequences of Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Sittig, D F; Wright, A; Ash, J; Singh, H

    2016-11-10

    Although the health information technology industry has made considerable progress in the design, development, implementation, and use of electronic health records (EHRs), the lofty expectations of the early pioneers have not been met. In 2006, the Provider Order Entry Team at Oregon Health & Science University described a set of unintended adverse consequences (UACs), or unpredictable, emergent problems associated with computer-based provider order entry implementation, use, and maintenance. Many of these originally identified UACs have not been completely addressed or alleviated, some have evolved over time, and some new ones have emerged as EHRs became more widely available. The rapid increase in the adoption of EHRs, coupled with the changes in the types and attitudes of clinical users, has led to several new UACs, specifically: complete clinical information unavailable at the point of care; lack of innovations to improve system usability leading to frustrating user experiences; inadvertent disclosure of large amounts of patient-specific information; increased focus on computer-based quality measurement negatively affecting clinical workflows and patient-provider interactions; information overload from marginally useful computer-generated data; and a decline in the development and use of internally-developed EHRs. While each of these new UACs poses significant challenges to EHR developers and users alike, they also offer many opportunities. The challenge for clinical informatics researchers is to continue to refine our current systems while exploring new methods of overcoming these challenges and developing innovations to improve EHR interoperability, usability, security, functionality, clinical quality measurement, and information summarization and display.

  20. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    PubMed

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Body Dissatisfaction Among Sexual Minority Men: Psychological and Sexual Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Tomassilli, Julia; Biello, Katie; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    Body dissatisfaction is common among sexual minority (i.e., gay and bisexual) men; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychosexual health variables among this population. The data that do exist are exclusively cross-sectional, casting uncertainty regarding temporal associations. Thus, the aims of the current study were to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological and sexual health outcomes. Participants were 131 gay and bisexual men who completed a battery of self-report measures across two time points (baseline and 3-month follow-up), including assessment of body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and sexual health variables (sexual self-efficacy and sexual anxiety). Generalized linear modeling was employed to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and outcomes variables, accounting for non-normal distributions. Body dissatisfaction significantly predicted elevated depressive symptoms (B = .21, p = .01), lower sexual self-efficacy (B = -.22, p = .04), and elevated sexual anxiety (B = .05, p = .03). Elevated body dissatisfaction is prospectively associated with negative psychological and sexual health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of body image concerns in sexual minority men, depression and/or HIV/STI prevention programs may benefit from routinely assessing for body dissatisfaction among this population, and addressing those who report concerns.

  2. Body Dissatisfaction Among Sexual Minority Men: Psychological and Sexual Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tomassilli, Julia; Biello, Katie; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is common among sexual minority (i.e., gay and bisexual) men; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychosexual health variables among this population. The data that do exist are exclusively cross-sectional, casting uncertainty regarding temporal associations. Thus, the aims of the current study were to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological and sexual health outcomes. Participants were 131 gay and bisexual men who completed a battery of self-report measures across two time points (baseline and 3-month follow-up), including assessment of body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and sexual health variables (sexual self-efficacy and sexual anxiety). Generalized linear modeling was employed to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and outcomes variables, accounting for non-normal distributions. Body dissatisfaction significantly predicted elevated depressive symptoms (B = .21, p = .01), lower sexual self-efficacy (B = −.22, p = .04), and elevated sexual anxiety (B = .05, p = .03). Elevated body dissatisfaction is prospectively associated with negative psychological and sexual health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of body image concerns in sexual minority men, depression and/or HIV/STI prevention programs may benefit from routinely assessing for body dissatisfaction among this population, and addressing those who report concerns. PMID:26857379

  3. Effects of Geography on Mental Health Disparities on Sexual Minorities in New York City.

    PubMed

    Felson, Jacob; Adamczyk, Amy

    2017-06-23

    Gay and lesbian individuals have higher rates of psychological distress than do heterosexual individuals. The minority stress hypothesis attributes this disparity to adversity-related stress experienced by sexual minorities. In support of this idea, research in the U.S. has generally found that mental health disparities between sexual minorities and others are narrower in places where tolerance is relatively high. However, few studies have examined disparities between sexual minorities and others in neighborhoods where sexual minorities are most highly concentrated. Likewise, little research attention has been given to disparities for people who move to more tolerant places from less tolerant states and countries. Using data from the New York City Community Health Survey, we found some evidence that disparities between sexual minorities and others were lower in areas with higher concentrations of sexual minorities. However, disparities did not vary by the tolerance level of the state of birth among those born in the U.S. and were actually lower among those born in the least tolerant nations. These results complicate the idea that there is a dose-response relationship between tolerance and psychological distress among sexual minorities.

  4. Youth perspectives on sexually transmitted infections and sexual health in Northern Canada and implications for public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    Objective High rates of sexually transmitted infections in the Arctic have been a focus of recent research, and youth are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Little research has focused on understanding youth perspectives on sexual health. The goal of this study was to collect the perspectives of youth in Nunavut on sexual health and relationships with the intent of informing public health practice. Method This qualitative research study was conducted within an Indigenous knowledge framework with a focus on Inuit ways of knowing. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews in three Nunavut communities with 17 youth between the ages of 14 and 19 years. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their experiences talking about sexual health and relationships with their family, peers, teachers or others in the community. Results There are four key findings, which are important for public health: (a) Parents/caregivers are the preferred source of knowledge about sexual health and relationships among youth respondents; (b) youth did not report using the Internet for sexual health information; (c) youth related sexual decision-making to the broader community context and determinants of health, such as poverty; and (d) youth discussed sexual health in terms of desire and love, which is an aspect of sexual health often omitted from the discourse. Implications and contribution The youth in this study articulated perspectives on sexual health, which are largely neglected in current public health practice in the North. The findings from this study underscore the important role of community-led participatory research in contributing to our understanding of the public health challenges in our communities today, and provide direction for future interventions and research. PMID:27938635

  5. Exploring the relationship between childhood adversity and oral health: An anecdotal approach and integrative view.

    PubMed

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Lygre, Henning

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, increasing recognition has been given to a relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Associated systemic conditions include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, low birth weight and preterm births, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, osteoporosis, and, in particular among oral conditions, periodontal disease. Low-grade inflammation is a common denominator linking these disorders. Applying an anecdotal approach and an integrative view, the medical and dental histories of two women document increasing ill health subsequent to incidences of maltreatment and sexual abuse, including oral penetration, at an early age. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was required in both cases. These cases open for medical insight with regard to their implicit patho-physiology, when integrated with current evidence from neuroscience, endocrinology, and immunology, converging in the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. In cases such as those presented in this paper, primary care physicians (family doctors, General Practitioners) and dentists may be the first to identify an etiological pattern. This report underlines the importance of increased and enhanced multidisciplinary research cooperation among health professionals. Our hypothesis is that childhood adversity may affect all aspects of human health, including adult oral health.

  6. The readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Nova; Ahmad, Fatuma

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets. Application of SMOG, FRY and SAM tests to assess the readability and suitability of a selection of sexual health leaflets. SMOG and FRY scores illustrate an average reading level of grade 9. SAM scores indicate that 59% of leaflets are superior in design and 41% are average in design. Leaflets generally perform well in the categories of content, literacy demand, typography and layout. They perform poorly in use of graphics, learning stimulation/motivation and cultural appropriateness. Sexual health leaflets have a reading level that is too high. Leaflets perform well on the suitability scores indicating they are reasonably suitable. There are a number of areas where sexual health leaflets could improve their design. Numerous practical techniques are suggested for improving the readability and suitability of sexual health leaflets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of adolescents' reports of sexual behavior on a survey and sexual health history calendar.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.

  8. [Sexuality in the elderly: The role of the physicians in maintaining sexual health of older men].

    PubMed

    Chakkalakal, D; Weißbach, L

    2015-12-01

    Sexuality in the elderly is still a social taboo. A commitment by medical practices to address the topic of sexuality in later life is essential, given that the sexual health is part of the quality of life. Identification of barriers and discourse of effects in the physician's behavior when dealing with the sexuality of older people. Review and discussion of interdisciplinary literature and social discourse. Compilation of expert opinions. Although the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors led to a removal of taboos concerning erectile dysfunction, the sexuality of older men became narrowed to physiological aspects. The elderly still complain that consultations concerning their sexuality receives too little attention in medical practice. Problems are boundaries of shame and disregard of the sexuality of elderly. Sexuality in old age will have to become more prominent in medical practices, due to demographic changes and changing self-images of the elderly. The social role of physicians enables straightforward discussions about sexuality. Taking a sexual history and choosing an active approach proved to be practicable to discuss sexual problems with older people.

  9. Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women.

  10. Sexually dimorphic effects of unpredictable early life adversity on visceral pain behavior in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2013-03-01

    Visceral pain is the hallmark feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a gastrointestinal disorder, which is more commonly diagnosed in women. Female IBS patients frequently report a history of early life adversity (ELA); however, sex differences in ELA-induced visceral pain and the role of ovarian hormones have yet to be investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that ELA induces visceral hypersensitivity through a sexually dimorphic mechanism mediated via estradiol. As a model of ELA, neonatal rats were exposed to different pairings of an odor and shock to control for trauma predictability. In adulthood, visceral sensitivity was assessed via a visceromotor response to colorectal distension. Following ovariectomy and estradiol replacement in a separate group of rats, the visceral sensitivity was quantified. We found that females that received unpredictable odor-shock developed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood. In contrast, visceral sensitivity was not significantly different following ELA in adult males. Ovariectomy reversed visceral hypersensitivity following unpredictable ELA, whereas estradiol replacement reestablished visceral hypersensitivity in the unpredictable group. This study is the first to show sex-related differences in visceral sensitivity following unpredictable ELA. Our data highlight the activational effect of estradiol as a pivotal mechanism in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity. This article directly implicates a critical role for ovarian hormones in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity following ELA, specifically identifying the activational effect of estradiol as a key modulator of visceral sensitivity. These data suggest that ELA induces persistent functional abdominal pain in female IBS patients through an estrogen-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary mental health care for survivors of collective sexual violence in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Zraly, Maggie; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Betancourt, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the obligation and opportunity to respond to the mental health impacts of collective sexual violence (CSV) among genocide-rape survivors in post-genocide Rwanda. Qualitative data gathered from CSV survivors who were members of Rwandan women's genocide survivor associations are presented to illustrate how they strive to overcome adversity while seeking access to quality mental health care and using informal community mental health services. The results reveal that a system of high quality, holistic health and mental health care is yet needed to meet Rwandan CSV survivors' complex and serious health and mental health needs. Given that a rural health system, modelled on community-based, comprehensive HIV/AIDS care and treatment, is currently being implemented in Rwanda, we recommend enhancements to this model that would contribute to meeting the mental health care needs of CSV survivors while benefiting the health and mental health system as a whole within Rwanda.

  12. Excessive folic acid intake and relation to adverse health outcome.

    PubMed

    Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2016-07-01

    The recent increase in the intake of folic acid by the general public through fortified foods and supplements, has raised safety concern based on early reports of adverse health outcome in elderly with low B12 status who took high doses of folic acid. These safety concerns are contrary to the 2015 WHO statement that "high folic acid intake has not reliably been shown to be associated with negative healeffects". In the folic acid post-fortification era, we have shown that in elderly participants in NHANES 1999-2002, high plasma folate level is associated with exacerbation of both clinical (anemia and cognitive impairment) and biochemical (high MMA and high Hcy plasma levels) signs of vitamin B12 deficiency. Adverse clinical outcomes in association with high folate intake were also seen among elderly with low plasma B12 levels from the Framingham Original Cohort and in a study from Australia which combined three elderly cohorts. Relation between high folate and adverse biochemical outcomes were also seen in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (High Hcy, high MMA and lower TC2) and at an outpatient clinic at Yale University where high folate is associated with higher MMA in the elderly but not in the young. Potential detrimental effects of high folic acid intake may not be limited to the elderly nor to those with B12 deficiency. A study from India linked maternal high RBC folate to increased insulin resistance in offspring. Our study suggested that excessive folic acid intake is associated with lower natural killer cells activity in elderly women. In a recent study we found that the risk for unilateral retinoblastoma in offspring is 4 fold higher in women that are homozygotes for the 19 bp deletion in the DHFR gene and took folic acid supplement during pregnancy. In the elderly this polymorphism is associated with lower memory and executive scores, both being significantly worse in those with high plasma folate. These and other data strongly imply that

  13. The impact of running away on teen girls' sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lacoursiere, Terri; Fontenot, Holly B

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews three recent studies investigating the impact of running away on adolescent females' sexual health. There are between 500,000 and 2.8 million runaway and homeless youth in the U.S. at any point in time, and adolescent females are at increased risk as compared to males. All three studies analyzed data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and each examined a different health risk related to runaways including sexual debut, sexual assault and pregnancy. These studies show how health risks are persistent even after adolescents return home to their primary residence.

  14. Health care provider beliefs concerning the adverse health effects of environmental and ecosystem degradation.

    PubMed

    Truckner, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about health care provider interest, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the health effects of human-induced environmental degradation (HIED). A survey was created and distributed to better characterize health provider beliefs about the adverse health effects of HIED. An invitation to participate in an online 24-question survey was e-mailed to 2177 members of the Wilderness Medical Society to characterize experience with health effects of HIED, types of health effects attributed to HIED, attitudes toward HIED, and educational sources about HIED. Data were analyzed from 665 responses, a response rate of 35%. Results demonstrate that health care providers identify a large number and variety of health effects associated with HIED, although exacerbation of asthma, reactive airways disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were most commonly identified. Over 80% report that HIED has affected the health of a patient they have cared for; 60% report patients have asked about HIED effects on health; and 93% report that they do not distribute information to patients about HIED. Over 75% of respondents believe there is an unfulfilled need for information and education about the adverse health effects of HIED. Respondents report continuing medical education, journal articles, and medical schools/residency programs as the best methods for education and for raising awareness of the health effects of HIED. Results indicate strong health professional belief in health effects of HIED, patient concern related to the health effects of HIED, and a need to educate both health care providers and patients on the adverse health effects of HIED.

  15. Computer-assisted self interviewing in sexual health clinics.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Christopher K; Sze, Jun Kit; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-11-01

    This review describes the published information on what constitutes the elements of a core sexual history and the use of computer-assisted self interviewing (CASI) within sexually transmitted disease clinics. We searched OVID Medline from 1990 to February 2010 using the terms "computer assisted interviewing" and "sex," and to identify published articles on a core sexual history, we used the term "core sexual history." Since 1990, 3 published articles used a combination of expert consensus, formal clinician surveys, and the Delphi technique to decide on what questions form a core sexual health history. Sexual health histories from 4 countries mostly ask about the sex of the partners, the number of partners (although the time period varies), the types of sex (oral, anal, and vaginal) and condom use, pregnancy intent, and contraceptive methods. Five published studies in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom compared CASI with in person interviews in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In general, CASI identified higher risk behavior more commonly than clinician interviews, although there were substantial differences between studies. CASI was found to be highly acceptable and individuals felt it allowed more honest reporting. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine whether CASI results in differences in sexually transmitted infection testing, diagnosis, or treatment or if CASI improves the quality of sexual health care or its efficiency. The potential public health advantages of the widespread use of CASI are discussed.

  16. Masculinity and the male role in sexual health.

    PubMed

    Shephard, B

    1996-01-01

    The program of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development defines reproductive and sexual health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Sexual health therefore involves enhancing the quality of life and personal relations. Programs to promote sexual health must address a broad range of social and personal problems. Reproductive health programs need to abandon their exclusive focus upon women to give attention and services to men, women, and couples. Male rights and duties, targeting men who act responsibly as heads of households, cultural models of masculinity, men's contempt of femininity, and recognition of homophobia and misogyny as the most powerful mechanisms of social repression are discussed. Sexual education programs, violence prevention programs, and education from the gender perspective all need to focus directly upon the themes of gender equality and sexual diversity.

  17. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, P

    2000-03-01

    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  18. Rates of minor adverse events and health resource utilization postcolonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Marquez Azalgara, Vladimir; Sewitch, Maida J; Joseph, Lawrence; Barkun, Alan N

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about minor adverse events (MAEs) following outpatient colonoscopies and associated health care resource utilization. To estimate the rates of incident MAE at two, 14 and 30 days postcolonoscopy, and associated health care resource utilization. A secondary aim was to identify factors associated with cumulative 30-day MAE incidence. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among individuals undergoing an outpatient colonoscopy at the Montreal General Hospital (Montreal, Quebec). Before colonoscopy, consecutive individuals were enrolled and interviewed to obtain data regarding age, sex, comorbidities, use of antiplatelets/anticoagulants and previous symptoms. Endoscopy reports were reviewed for intracolonoscopy procedures (biopsy, polypectomy). Telephone or Internet follow-up was used to obtain data regarding MAEs (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, blood in the stools, rectal or anal pain, headaches, other) and health resource use (visits to emergency department, primary care doctor, gastroenterologist; consults with nurse, pharmacist or telephone hotline). Rates of incident MAEs and health resources utilization were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical modelling to account for patient clustering within physician practices. Of the 705 individuals approached, 420 (59.6%) were enrolled. Incident MAE rates at the two-, 14- and 30-day follow-ups were 17.3% (95% credible interval [CrI] 8.1% to 30%), 10.5% (95% CrI 2.9% to 23.7%) and 3.2% (95% CrI 0.01% to 19.8%), respectively. The 30-day rate of health resources utilization was 1.7%, with 0.95% of participants seeking the services of a physician. No predictors of the cumulative 30-day incidence of MAEs were identified. The incidence of MAEs was highest in the 48 h following colonoscopy and uncommon after two weeks, supporting the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology's recommendation for assessment of late complications at 14 days. Predictors of new onset of MAEs were

  19. Rates of minor adverse events and health resource utilization postcolonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Azalgara, Vladimir Marquez; Sewitch, Maida J; Joseph, Lawrence; Barkun, Alan N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about minor adverse events (MAEs) following outpatient colonoscopies and associated health care resource utilization. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rates of incident MAE at two, 14 and 30 days postcolonoscopy, and associated health care resource utilization. A secondary aim was to identify factors associated with cumulative 30-day MAE incidence. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among individuals undergoing an outpatient colonoscopy at the Montreal General Hospital (Montreal, Quebec). Before colonoscopy, consecutive individuals were enrolled and interviewed to obtain data regarding age, sex, comorbidities, use of antiplatelets/anticoagulants and previous symptoms. Endoscopy reports were reviewed for intracolonoscopy procedures (biopsy, polypectomy). Telephone or Internet follow-up was used to obtain data regarding MAEs (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, blood in the stools, rectal or anal pain, headaches, other) and health resource use (visits to emergency department, primary care doctor, gastroenterologist; consults with nurse, pharmacist or telephone hotline). Rates of incident MAEs and health resources utilization were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical modelling to account for patient clustering within physician practices. RESULTS: Of the 705 individuals approached, 420 (59.6%) were enrolled. Incident MAE rates at the two-, 14- and 30-day follow-ups were 17.3% (95% credible interval [CrI] 8.1% to 30%), 10.5% (95% CrI 2.9% to 23.7%) and 3.2% (95% CrI 0.01% to 19.8%), respectively. The 30-day rate of health resources utilization was 1.7%, with 0.95% of participants seeking the services of a physician. No predictors of the cumulative 30-day incidence of MAEs were identified. DISCUSSION: The incidence of MAEs was highest in the 48 h following colonoscopy and uncommon after two weeks, supporting the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology’s recommendation for assessment of late

  20. Kava for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder RCT: analysis of adverse reactions, liver function, addiction, and sexual effects.

    PubMed

    Sarris, J; Stough, C; Teschke, R; Wahid, Z T; Bousman, C A; Murray, G; Savage, K M; Mouatt, P; Ng, C; Schweitzer, I

    2013-11-01

    Presently, little is known about a number issues concerning kava (Piper methysticum), including (i) whether kava has any withdrawal or addictive effects; (ii) if genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome (CYP) P450 2D6 liver enzyme moderates any potential adverse effects; and (iii) if medicinal application of kava has any negative or beneficial effect on sexual function and experience. The study design was a 6-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial (n = 75) involving chronic administration of kava (one tablet of kava twice per day; 120 mg of kavalactones per day, titrated in non-response to two tablets of kava twice per day; 240 mg of kavalactones) or placebo for participants with generalized anxiety disorder. Results showed no significant differences across groups for liver function tests, nor were there any significant adverse reactions that could be attributed to kava. No differences in withdrawal or addiction were found between groups. Interesting, kava significantly increased female's sexual drive compared to placebo (p = 0.040) on a sub-domain of the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), with no negative effects seen in males. Further, it was found that there was a highly significant correlation between ASEX reduction (improved sexual function and performance) and anxiety reduction in the whole sample.

  1. Sexual health discussions with older adult patients during periodic health exams.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Syme, Maggie L; Perera, Robert A; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

    2014-04-01

    Sexual health is an integral part of overall health across the lifespan. In order to address sexual health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexual functioning, the sexual history of adult patients should be incorporated as a routine part of the medical history throughout life. Physicians and health-care professionals cite many barriers to attending to and assessing the sexual health needs of older adult patients, underscoring the importance of additional research to improve sexual history taking among older patients. The purpose of this article is to explore the content and context of physician-patient sexual health discussions during periodic health exams (PHEs) with adults aged 50-80 years. Patients completed a pre-visit telephone survey and attended a scheduled PHE with their permission to audio-record the exam. Transcribed audio recordings of 483 PHEs were analyzed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. Frequency of sexual history taking components as observed in transcripts of PHEs. Physician characteristics were obtained from health system records and patient characteristics were obtained from the pre-visit survey. Analyses revealed that approximately one-half of the PHEs included some discussion about sexual health, with the majority of those conversations initiated by physicians. A two-level logistic regression model revealed that patient-physician gender concordance, race discordance, and increasing physician age were significantly associated with sexual health discussions. Interventions should focus on increasing physician self-efficacy for assessing sexual health in gender discordant and race/ethnicity concordant patient interactions. Interventions for older adults should increase education about sexual health and sexual risk behaviors, as well as empower individuals to seek information from their health-care providers. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. [The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and mental health in adulthood. A systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    De Venter, M; Demyttenaere, K; Bruffaerts, R

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences are important societal problems and have far-reaching mental and somatic consequences. There is a considerable amount of literature concerning the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and anxiety, depression and substance abuse in adulthood. To integrate systematically all available research data on this relationship. We studied the literature via PubMed and PsycINFO using the search terms ‘ACEs', ‘anxiety', ‘depression', ‘substance abuse', and ‘impact'. 65 publications were included in our study. Child abuse, substance abuse and parents' divorce were found to be very frequent risk factors. On average, the occurrence of emotional, sexual and physical child abuse was the most important risk factor for the development of depression. The greatest risk factors for anxiety disorders were sexual child abuse and family violence. Strong correlations were also found between family violence or physical neglect and substance abuse. Strong correlations were shown to exist between various ACEs and later symptoms or diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders in persons abusing drugs or alcohol. It seems to be mainly child abuse and family violence which have a major impact on the future mental health of victims.

  3. "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tonya N; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Levine, Alexandra M; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E

    2017-05-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and well-being of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n = 50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n = 2052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50-69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women's sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression, and habitual condomless sex with long-term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women.

  4. Raunch or Romance? Framing and Interpreting the Relationship between Sexualized Culture and Young People's Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Clare

    2011-01-01

    The increase in exposure to sexually explicit material has been cited as a significant factor influencing adolescent sexuality and health. Concern about the negative impact of this material is increasingly prominent within policy, professional groups, and the media. Little research, however, has been conducted within this area. This article…

  5. Sexuality Education Goes Viral: What We Know about Online Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrom, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use among young people in the United States is nearly ubiquitous; they are online from home computers, from school computers, and from mobile devices. This offers incredible opportunity for sexual health educators to access individuals who are at a critical time in sexual development over the life course. Currently, the research base on…

  6. Sexuality Education Goes Viral: What We Know about Online Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrom, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use among young people in the United States is nearly ubiquitous; they are online from home computers, from school computers, and from mobile devices. This offers incredible opportunity for sexual health educators to access individuals who are at a critical time in sexual development over the life course. Currently, the research base on…

  7. Raunch or Romance? Framing and Interpreting the Relationship between Sexualized Culture and Young People's Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Clare

    2011-01-01

    The increase in exposure to sexually explicit material has been cited as a significant factor influencing adolescent sexuality and health. Concern about the negative impact of this material is increasingly prominent within policy, professional groups, and the media. Little research, however, has been conducted within this area. This article…

  8. Sexual health in primary health care - a qualitative study of nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Klaeson, Kicki; Hovlin, Lina; Guvå, Hanna; Kjellsdotter, Anna

    2017-06-01

    To illuminate nurses' experiences and opportunities to discuss sexual health with patients in primary health care. Sexual health is a concept associated with many taboos, and research shows that nurses feel uncomfortable talking to patients about sexual health and therefore avoid it. This avoidance forms a barrier between patient and nurse which prevents nurses from giving satisfactory health care to patients. A qualitative descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine nurses in primary health care in Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. During the analysis phase, five subcategories and two main categories were identified. The two main categories were as follows: 'factors that influence nurses' opportunities of talking to patients about sexual health' and 'nurses' experiences of talking to patients about sexual health'. Social norms in society were an obstacle for health professionals' opportunities to feel comfortable and act professionally. The nurses' personal attitude and knowledge were of great significance in determining whether they brought up the topic of sexual health or not. The nurses found it easier to bring up the topic of sexual health with middle-aged men with, for example, diabetes. One reason for this is that they found it easier to talk to male patients. A further reason is the fact that they had received training in discussing matters of sexual health in relation to diabetes and other conditions affecting sexual health. Nurses in primary care express the necessity of additional education and knowledge on the subject of sexual health. The healthcare organisation must be reformed to put focus on sexual health. Guidelines for addressing the topic of sexual health must be implemented to establish conditions that will increase nurse's knowledge and provide them with the necessary tools for discussing sexual health with patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. VA Health Care: Actions Needed to Assess Decrease in Root Cause Analyses of Adverse Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    VA HEALTH CARE Actions Needed to Assess Decrease in Root Cause Analyses of Adverse Events Report to Congressional...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VA Health Care: Actions Needed to Assess Decrease in Root Cause Analyses of Adverse Events 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Analyses of Adverse Events Why GAO Did This Study Adverse events are incidents that pose a risk of injury to a patient as the result of a medical

  10. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  11. Sexual Minority Women's Health Behaviors and Outcomes After Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Ozonoff, Al; Potter, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority women (e.g., lesbians, bisexual women, and women who prefer a female partner) are a known risk population for overweight, obesity, and mental health problems. Our objective is to compare sexual minority women with breast cancer to a control sample of sexual minority women without cancer to identify differences in healthful lifestyle practices, weight, well-being and mental health. This is a cross-sectional study of 85 sexual minority women with a breast cancer history (cases) matched by age and partner status to 85 sexual minority controls without cancer. We compared self-reported physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, weight, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Cases and controls had similar health behaviors, BMI, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Of the weight-related behaviors, meeting the recommended guidelines of physical activity was significantly associated with lower likelihood of being overweight or obese, less depression, and better mental quality of life. Sexual minority women with breast cancer are similar to sexual minority women without cancer with respect to healthful behaviors, body weight, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Lifestyle interventions to reduce the risk of poor outcomes after cancer should be implemented in this population as well as in sexual minority women without cancer.

  12. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Buck, Katherine S; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C

    2013-03-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds.

  13. Social Media–Delivered Sexual Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Sheana S.; Levine, Deborah; Black, Sandra R.; Schmiege, Sarah; Santelli, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Youth are using social media regularly and represent a group facing substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although there is evidence that the Internet can be used effectively in supporting healthy sexual behavior, this hasn't yet extended to social networking sites. Purpose To determine whether STI prevention messages delivered via Facebook are efficacious in preventing increases in sexual risk behavior at 2 and 6 months. Design Cluster RCT, October 2010–May 2011. Setting/participants Individuals (seeds) recruited in multiple settings (online, via newspaper ads and face-to-face) were asked to recruit three friends, who in turn recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. Seeds and waves of friends were considered networks and exposed to either the intervention or control condition. Intervention Exposure to Just/Us, a Facebook page developed with youth input, or to control content on 18–24 News, a Facebook page with current events for 2 months. Main outcome measures Condom use at last sex and proportion of sex acts protected by condoms. Repeated measures of nested data were used to model main effects of exposure to Just/Us and time by treatment interaction. Results 1578 participants enrolled, with 14% Latino and 35% African-American; 75% of participants completed at least one study follow-up. Time by treatment effects were observed at 2 months for condom use (intervention 68% vs control 56%, p=0.04) and proportion of sex acts protected by condoms (intervention 63% vs control 57%, p=0.03) where intervention participation reduced the tendency for condom use to decrease over time. No effects were seen at 6 months. Conclusions Social networking sites may be venues for efficacious health education interventions. More work is needed to understand what elements of social media are compelling, how network membership influences effects, and whether linking social media to clinical and social services can be beneficial

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Substance Use among Sexual Minority Girls: Associations with Sexual Victimization and Sexual Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Oshri, Assaf; Handley, Elizabeth D.; Sutton, Tara E.; Wortel, Sanne; Burnette, Mandi L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to examine mechanisms underlying the development of sexual health risk behaviors in sexual minority girls (SMGs) and the relation of these mechanisms and sexual risk behaviors to sexual victimization. Methods Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods cohorts aged 15 and 18 (N = 391; 54 SMGs). Results SMGs reported more sexual victimization and steeper positive trajectories of substance misuse over time than heterosexual girls. Growth in alcohol use during adolescence mediated the link between SMG status and past year number of partners, whereas growth in marijuana use mediated the link between SMG status and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Adding unwanted sexual experiences (UWSE) to the models resulted in reduction of significance in the direct or indirect effects from SMG status on the outcomes. UWSE emerged as a robust predictor, directly and indirectly related to past year number of partners via growth in alcohol use. UWSE also directly predicted STD history. Conclusions The increased risk of SMGs for alcohol and marijuana during adolescence, higher rates of sexual partners, and STD diagnosis may also be linked to their significant risk for sexual victimization. Findings highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting victimization of SMGs. PMID:24534358

  15. Exploring sexual attitudes of students in health professions.

    PubMed

    Papaharitou, Stamatis; Nakopoulou, Evangelia; Moraitou, Martha; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Konstantinidou, Eleni; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios

    2008-06-01

    Patients' sexual concerns are frequently underestimated because of health professionals' reluctance to address sexual health issues. Though it has been documented that sexual attitudes are extremely influential in everyday clinical practice, limited data exist on identifying health professionals' attitudes. To explore sexual attitudes in medical students and students in allied health professions. The Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI)-Attitude Subscale was used to assess sexual attitudes. The sample included 1st and 4th year college students enrolled in the following academic departments/schools of two academic institutions leading to health professions: medical school, psychology, pharmaceutical school, nursing and midwifery. Demographic data were obtained relating to sexual behaviors and information sources on sexual issues. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test and two-way analysis of variance, as well as logistic regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient. A total of 714 students (81.9% females) participated in the study: 48.5% 1st year students and 51.5% seniors with a mean age of 20.17 years (SD = 1.87, range 17-25). Using iterative cluster analysis on DSFI scores, participants were divided in conservative (N = 167), liberal (N = 224), and neutral (N = 323) clusters. A significant gender difference on sexual attitudes was obtained (P < 0.001) with male students being more liberal compared to females (mean = 18.26 and mean = 11.13, respectively). Differences were also revealed for the field but not for the year of study. Analysis also revealed that liberalism in sexual attitudes is more likely to be affected by a liberal stance toward religion (OR: 2.39), receiving information for sexual matters mainly from peers (OR: 1.86), and media influence on students' sexual life (OR: 1.68). Gender, personal values, and experiences influence students' attitudes toward sexual issues. Since negative attitudes can impede effective sexual

  16. Sexual and reproductive health in HIV serodiscordant couples.

    PubMed

    Makwe, Christian C; Giwa-Osagie, Osato F

    2013-12-01

    Serodiscordant couples are a significant source of new HIV infection in sub-Sahara Africa. The prevention of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner should be an integral part of their health care. Serodiscordant couples desire pregnancy, treatment for infertility, effective family planning services, sexual health screening, and so on. This paper reviews the sexual and reproductive health needs of heterosexual serodiscordant couples, based on current evidence and recommendations.

  17. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Young Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-05-01

    During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.

  18. Bisexual Invisibility and the Sexual Health Needs of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze bisexual female youth perspectives on their experiences accessing sexual health information and services provided by a doctor, nurse, or counselor. Specifically, we sought to: (1) understand how youth perceptions of providers' attitudes and behaviors affect their seeking and obtaining sexual health information and services; (2) examine how social stigmas within the family context might be associated with barriers to sexual health information and services; and (3) assess school-based sources of sexual health information. Method: We utilized a mixed-method study design. Data from bisexual female youth were collected through an online questionnaire and asynchronous online focus groups addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health and HIV prevention. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Barriers to sexual healthcare included judgmental attitudes and assumptions of patient heterosexuality among healthcare providers, and missed opportunities for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing. Bisexual stigma within families was associated with restricted youth openness with providers, suggesting fear of disclosure to parent or guardian. School-based sexual health education was limited by a restrictive focus on abstinence and condoms and the exclusion of STI risk information relevant to sex between women. Conclusion: We recommend that practitioners integrate nonjudgmental questions regarding bisexuality into standard contraceptive and sexual health practices involving female youth, including discussion of HIV and STI risk reduction methods. Further support for bisexual health among adolescent girls can come through addressing stigmas of female bisexuality, increasing sensitivity to privacy while engaging parents, and expanding the reach of school-based sexual health education. PMID:27604053

  19. Women on men's sexual health and sexually transmitted infection testing: a gender relations analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Chabot, Cathy; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy; Bungay, Vicky; Shoveller, Jean A

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is typically portrayed as a women's issue amid men's estrangement from healthcare services. While the underreporting of men's STIs has been linked to masculinities, little is known about how women interpret and respond to heterosexual men's sexual health practices. The findings drawn from this qualitative study of 34 young women reveal how femininities can be complicit in sustaining, as well as being critical of and disrupting masculine discourses that affirm sexual pleasure and resistance to health help-seeking as men's patriarchal privileges. Our analysis revealed three patterns: looking after the man's libido refers to women's emphasised femininity whereby the man's preference for unprotected sex and reticence to be tested for STIs was accommodated. Negotiating the stronger sex refers to ambivalent femininities, in which participants strategically resist, cooperate and comply with men's sexual health practices. Rejecting the patriarchal double standard that celebrates men as 'studs' and subordinates women as 'sluts' for embodying similar sexual practices reflects protest femininities. Overall, the findings reveal that conventional heterosexual gender relations, in which hegemonic masculinity is accommodated by women who align to emphasised femininity, continues to direct many participants' expectations around men's sexual health and STI testing.

  20. Early Life Adversity Contributes to Impaired Cognition and Impulsive Behavior: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stressful early life experience may have adverse consequences in adulthood and may contribute to behavioral characteristics that increase vulnerability to alcoholism. We examined early life adverse experience in relation to cognitive deficits and impulsive behaviors with a reference to risk factors for alcoholism. Methods We tested 386 healthy young adults (18 – 30 years of age; 224 women; 171 family history positive for alcoholism) using a composite measure of adverse life experience (low socioeconomic status plus personally experienced adverse events including physical and sexual abuse and separation from parents) as a predictor of performance on the Shipley Institute of Living scale, the Stroop color-word task, and a delay-discounting task assessing preference for smaller immediate rewards in favor of larger delayed rewards. Body mass index was examined as an early indicator of altered health behavior. Results Greater levels of adversity predicted higher Stroop interference scores (F = 3.07, p = .048), faster discounting of delayed rewards (F = 3.79, p = .024), lower Shipley mental age scores (F = 4.01, p = .019), and higher body mass indexes in those with a family history of alcoholism (F = 3.40, p = .035). These effects were not explained by age, sex, race, education, or depression. Conclusion The results indicate a long-term impact of stressful life experience on cognitive function, impulsive behaviors, and early health indicators that may contribute to risk in persons with a family history of alcoholism. PMID:23126641

  1. Communication between Asian American Adolescents and Health Care Providers about Sexual Activity, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…

  2. Communication between Asian American Adolescents and Health Care Providers about Sexual Activity, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…

  3. Sexual intercourse, romantic relationship inauthenticity, and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian; Haynie, Dana L; Kuhlemeier, Alena

    2017-05-01

    Numerous studies indicate sexual intercourse, especially when it occurs early in adolescence, increases youths' risk of mental health problems. However, no research has examined whether the association between sexual intercourse and mental health varies by romantic relationship inauthenticity, or the level of incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within romantic relationships. Using data from a subset of romantically-involved Add Health respondents, we measured sexual involvement in romantic relationships and applied sequence analysis to reports of ideal and actual romantic relationship to measure inauthenticity within adolescent romances. Regressions of depression symptoms indicate that the magnitude of the positive associations between sexual intercourse and girls' mental health is most pronounced in relationships characterized by high levels of relationship inauthenticity and that there is no association between sexual intercourse and girls' depression at low levels of relationship inauthenticity. Having sexual intercourse is positively associated with depression symptoms among boys, but relationship inauthenticity does not alter this association. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on adolescent sexuality and programs aimed at enhancing youth sexuality development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  5. Would You Rather (WYR), with a Sexual Health Twist!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany; McNeill, Elisa Beth; Wilson, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Would You Rather (WYR), with a Sexual Health Twist! teaching technique uses two youth games, "Would you rather…" and Twister®, to actively engage students in developing decision-making skills regarding human sexuality. Utilizing the "Would you rather" choices, the teacher provides a short scenario with two difficult choices.…

  6. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  7. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS.

  8. Assessing the interrelatedness of multiple types of adverse childhood experiences and odds for poor health in South Carolina adults.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Elizabeth; Strompolis, Melissa; Bennett, Kevin J; Morse, Melanie; Radcliff, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to negative health outcomes in adulthood, but little research has been done on the effect of ACEs on the health and well-being of adults in South Carolina (SC). This study analyzed a sample of 9744 respondents who participated in the 2014 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine the relationship among childhood experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as witnessing household violence, on mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood among SC residents. Twenty-two percent of survey respondents reported poor general health (22.1%), and a smaller proportion reported high frequent mental distress in the past month (13.1%). Each category of childhood experiences was associated with an increase in the risk of poor general health. Individuals reporting three or more types of experiences were more likely to report poor health (aOR 2.89; 95% CI 2.86-2.92) than adults without such experiences. Respondents reporting three or more types of childhood adverse experiences were more likely to report frequent mental distress (aOR 3.29; 95% CI 3.26-3.33) compared to adults who did not report three or more types of adversity. Findings from the SC BRFSS highlight a connection between ACEs and negative health outcomes later in life. Given that results of this study also demonstrated that increased exposure to ACEs was associated with greater odds of negative health in adulthood, preventing adverse events such as experiencing abuse or witnessing domestic violence in childhood will have significant effects on later adult health.

  9. Correlates of Sexual Satisfaction Among Sexually Active Postmenopausal Women in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Legault, Claudine; Freund, Karen M.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wenger, Nanette K.; Eaton, Charles B.; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; McNeeley, S. Gene; Bonds, Denise

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Satisfaction with sexual activity is important for health-related quality of life, but little is known about the sexual health of postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE Describe factors associated with sexual satisfaction among sexually active postmenopausal women. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. PARTICIPANTS All members of the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS), ages 50–79, excluding women who did not respond to the sexual satisfaction question or reported no partnered sexual activity in the past year (N = 46,525). MEASUREMENTS Primary outcome: dichotomous response to the question, “How satisfied are you with your sexual activity (satisfied versus unsatisfied)?” Covariates included sociodemographic factors, measures of physical and mental health, and gynecological variables, medications, and health behaviors related to female sexual health. RESULTS Of the cohort, 52% reported sexual activity with a partner in the past year, and 96% of these answered the sexual satisfaction question. Nonmodifiable factors associated with sexual dissatisfaction included age, identification with certain racial or ethnic groups, marital status, parity, and smoking history. Potentially modifiable factors included lower mental health status and use of SSRIs. The final model yielded a c-statistic of 0.613, reflecting only a modest ability to discriminate between the sexually satisfied and dissatisfied. CONCLUSIONS Among postmenopausal women, the variables selected for examination yielded modest ability to discriminate between sexually satisfied and dissatisfied participants. Further study is necessary to better describe the cofactors associated with sexual satisfaction in postmenopausal women. PMID:18839256

  10. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  11. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  12. 75 FR 4655 - National Practitioner Data Bank for Adverse Information on Physicians and Other Health Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Practitioner Data Bank for Adverse Information on Physicians and Other Health Care Practitioners: Reporting on... Information on Physicians and Other Health Care Practitioners: Reporting on Adverse and Negative Actions... rule revises existing regulations under sections 401 through 432 of the Health Care Quality Improvement...

  13. [Meanings of sexuality and reproductive health in adolescents from Bogota].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Sánchez, Carlos Iván; Rincón-Suárez, Liz Johanna; Guevara, Eberto Elías; Latorre-Santos, Catalina; Enríquez-Guerrero, Carolina; Nieto-Olivar, José Miguel

    2007-01-01

    To describe and understand the meanings that adolescents give to sexuality and how they are created and influence adolescents' reproductive health and sexual practices. The research was conducted in three different regions within Bogoá city. Twenty focus groups were selected and 20 life stories of boys and girls between 10 and 14 years old were transcribed. From inductive and deductive categorization of the transcripts of the oral histories, an interpretative analysis was carried out in order to generate concepts and relations that comprise plausible hypotheses about the meanings that circulate in the adolescents' symbolic universe. There are notable differences between the meanings that boys and girls give to sexuality, the ways in which such meanings are created, and the factors that contribute to its configuration. These findings imply dissimilar constructions related with reproductive and sexual health risks. The cultural constructions resulting from sexual differences that is, gender suggest the meanings that are given to sexuality in the groups studied and define ways of interacting with the social environment. Girls relate sexuality with reproduction and they experience it as negative. For boys, the possibility of a positive and pleasant experience of sexuality exists, marked by a context that encourages having sexual relations as a way of maintaining manhood.

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health in Adulthood in a Rural Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Iniguez, Kristen C.; Stankowski, Rachel V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including emotional abuse, substance abuse in the household, separation or divorce, physical abuse, violence between adults, mental illness in the household, sexual abuse, or incarceration of a household member, have the potential to profoundly impact health and well-being in adulthood. To assess whether previously reported relationships between ACEs and health outcomes withstand validation, we conducted a community-based ACE study with the unique capacity to link self-reported ACEs and other survey results to validated health data in an electronic medical record (EMR). Methods Information regarding ACEs and health outcomes was captured from 2013–2014 via a telephone survey of residents of the predominantly rural northern and central regions of Wisconsin and electronic abstraction of EMR data. ACE score was calculated by counting each exposure as one point. We examined the relationship between ACE score, type, and self-reported and validated health outcomes. Results A total of 800 participants completed the telephone survey. Overall, 62% reported at least one ACE and 15% reported experiencing four or more. All self-reported measures of poor health were associated with increased ACE score. EMR data were positively correlated with ACE score for increased body mass index and diagnoses of depression, anxiety, and asthma. In contrast, diagnoses of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, and skin and other cancers were inversely related to ACE score. Emotional abuse was the most common ACE reported followed by substance abuse in the household. ACEs tended to cluster so that people who reported at least one ACE were likely to have experienced multiple ACEs. There was no clear correlation between abuse type (e.g., direct abuse vs. household dysfunction) and health outcomes. Conclusions In the first community-based study to link self-reported ACEs to comprehensive health measures documented in the medical

  15. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. Discussion The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) as a guiding principle to discuss potentials of E-health in providing and accessing sexual health services. There are important issues in relation to utilising and providing online sexual health services. For healthcare providers, e-health can act as an opportunity to enhance their clients’ sexual health care by facilitating communication with full privacy and confidentiality, reducing administrative costs and improving efficiency and flexibility as well as market sexual health services and products. Sexual health is one of the common health topics which both younger and older people explore on the internet and they increasingly prefer sexual health education to be interactive, non-discriminate and anonymous. This commentary presents and discusses the benefits of e-sexual health and provides recommendations towards addressing some of the emerging challenges. Future directions The provision of sexual health services can be enhanced through E-health technology. Doing this can empower consumers to engage with information technology to enhance their sexual health knowledge and quality of life and address some of the stigma associated with diversity in sexualities and sexual health experiences. In addition, e-sexual health may better support and enhance the relationship between consumers and their health care providers across different locations. However, a systematic and focused approach to research and the application of findings in

  16. The relative health benefits of different sexual activities.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2010-04-01

    Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.

  17. The Black church, sexual health, and sexuality: a conceptual framework to promote health through faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Sommers, Marilyn S; Brawner, Bridgette M

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature that documents the unique impact of black churches on social and health-related changes in the black community. Sexual health and sexuality, however, have long been sources of contention within the institution. The purpose of this article was to refine existing theoretical models that undergird sexual health research in faith-based organizations. The proposed conceptual model explores social-level factors (racism, homophobia, and heterosexism) and church organizational-level factors (beliefs, social trust, norms, and social support/influence). We make an argument in favor of illuminating the negative social-level barriers and affirming the internal cultural supports.

  18. The Effect of Education on Sexual Health of Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of women’s life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850

  19. Linking online sexual activities to health outcomes among teens.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2014-01-01

    New digital technologies are highly responsive to many of the developmental needs of adolescents, including their need for intimate connection and social identity. This chapter explores adolescents' use of web-based sexual information, texting and "sexting," online dating sites, role-playing games, and sexually explicit media, and presents new data comparing the interpersonal and intrapersonal health outcomes among youth who engage in online sexual activities to those who do not. Despite the media-stoked concerns surrounding adolescents' participation in online sexual activities, the ubiquity of online activities and close overlap between online and offline activities indicate that this type of behavior should not be pathologized or used as a metric of problem behavior. The chapter concludes with implications for parents, educators, researchers, counselors, and health care providers, a call to challenge our deep discomfort around adolescent sexuality and to harness these technologies in ways that help promote growth and positive development.

  20. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity.

  1. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online Among Runaway and Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.

  2. Sexual Health Education for Children with Visual Impairments: Talking about Sex Is Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupa, Chelsea; Esmail, Shaniff

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated problems that children with visual impairments experience with sexual health education. The participants identified themes that affected their knowledge of sexual health and the need for sexual health education. Strategies that address sexual health issues for individuals with visual impairments are described.

  3. Sexual Health Education for Children with Visual Impairments: Talking about Sex Is Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupa, Chelsea; Esmail, Shaniff

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated problems that children with visual impairments experience with sexual health education. The participants identified themes that affected their knowledge of sexual health and the need for sexual health education. Strategies that address sexual health issues for individuals with visual impairments are described.

  4. Student-Initiated Sexual Health Selective as a Curricular Tool

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katie; Rullo, Jordan; Faubion, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients’ sexual health functioning is important for physicians in all fields of medicine to consider; however, this topic is lacking from almost half of U.S. medical school curricula. Aims This study aims to develop, implement, and assess the feasibility of a preliminary sexual health curriculum for medical students. Methods This Sexual Health Selective (SHS) was developed and implemented by a student and faculty champion for first year medical students. Its design incorporated a number of the guiding principles and recommendations from the 2012 Summit on Medical School Education in Sexual Health. Main Outcome Measures Feasibility was measured by limited-efficacy testing and participant acceptability of the SHS. Limited-efficacy testing was accomplished by conducting descriptive comparisons of responses to a sexual health attitudes and knowledge survey. These responses were compared between (i) participants vs. nonparticipants prior to the SHS, (ii) participants immediately after vs. participants prior to the SHS, (iii) participants 3 months after vs. participants prior to the SHS, and (iv) participants 3 months after vs. participants immediately after the SHS. Participant acceptability was assessed by asking qualitatively and quantitatively whether students enjoyed the SHS, found it beneficial to their learning, and would recommend it to their classmates. Results Immediately after the SHS and 3 months later, participants reported increased comfort and open-mindedness in their attitudes toward sexual health and demonstrated an increase in accurate knowledge about sexual health issues compared with baseline. Objective follow-up also revealed that most participants enjoyed the SHS, found it beneficial to their learning, and would recommend it to their classmates. Conclusions The 1-week SHS was successfully implemented through the teamwork of a medical student and faculty champion. It resulted in more accurate knowledge and more open attitudes toward

  5. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources).

  6. The Relationship Between Sexual Minority Stigma and Sexual Health Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Positive Older Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Emlet, Charles A.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Kim, Hun-Jun; Hoy-Ellis, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how internalized sexual minority stigma and enacted sexual minority stigma in health care settings are associated with sexual health risk behaviors (SRBs) and the mediating role of infrequent routine health care and perceived stress among older gay and bisexual (G/B) men living with HIV disease. Survey responses from 135 sexually active older G/B men living with HIV were analyzed using hierarchical linear regression models. Results indicate that one fifth of G/B older adult men living with HIV are engaged in multiple SRBs. Internalized sexual minority stigma and enacted sexual minority stigma in health care settings are significantly associated with SRBs. The relationship between internalized sexual minority stigma and SRBs are mediated by infrequent routine health care and elevated levels of perceived stress. Improved primary and secondary prevention strategies are needed for the growing number of sexually active older G/B men. PMID:26100507

  7. Sexual orientation and sexual health services utilization among women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Agénor, Madina; Muzny, Christina A.; Schick, Vanessa; Austin, Erika L.; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Although sexual minority women are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical cancer, few nationally representative studies have assessed sexual orientation disparities in sexual health care among women. Using data from the 2011–2013 and 2013–2015 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth, which provide a national probability sample of U.S. women aged 15–44 years (N=11,300), we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between sexual behavior and sexual identity (modeled separately) and STI testing in the past year, Pap test use in the last 3 years, lifetime HIV testing, and lifetime human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Women with male and female lifetime sexual partners had higher adjusted odds of being tested for STIs ([odds ratio:] 1.61; [95% confidence interval:] 1.37–1.89), HIV (1.66; 1.29–2.14), and HPV (1.79; 1.41–2.25) and similar adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test (0.98; 0.76–1.27) than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Self-identified bisexual women had higher adjusted odds of obtaining an STI (1.43; 1.10–1.86) and HIV (1.69; 1.24–2.30) test but lower adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test in the last 3 years (0.66; 0.47–0.93) than heterosexual-identified women. Women with only female lifetime sexual partners had lower adjusted odds of receiving an STI (0.14; 0.07–0.28) and Pap (0.10; 0.03–0.27) test than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Results comparing self-identified lesbian and heterosexual women were similar. Health care facilities should monitor and address sexual orientation disparities in women’s sexual health care and ensure the provision of high-quality sexual health services to all women. PMID:27932056

  8. Surveys on sexual health: recent developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Wellings, K.; Cleland, J.

    2001-01-01

    The increasingly widespread adoption of the term sexual health reflects a move away from the medicalisation of this specialty. The focus has shifted from clinical practice to lifestyle and behaviour; from clinician to client, and from treatment to prevention. This article discusses these themes, identifying their implications for sexual health research. Recent times have seen, for example, a growing number of studies combining biological and behavioural measures conducted by interdisciplinary teams able to combine biomedical measurements of morbidity with insights into the subjective interpretations of symptoms and consequences. Considerable progress has been made, too, in mounting community based studies, and much has been achieved in gaining compliance and refining sampling methods. Integrated sexual health services, encompassing more than contraceptive or prophylactic service provision, have provided the impetus to investigation of the costs and benefits of coordinated family planning and genitourinary medicine services. Despite its broader focus, there remain opportunities for sexual health research to expand its remit. Studies to date may have focused too narrowly on pathological, to the neglect of health enhancing, consequences of sexual behaviour. Key Words: surveys; sexual health PMID:11463921

  9. Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Among US Adults With and Without Jail Experience: Implications for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Parks, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Contact with correctional facilities adversely affects midlife health status and contributes to health disparities in the United States. Sexual health of correctional populations has become a focus for public health research and health promotion programs. Relying on the Health Belief Model, most research has focused almost exclusively on case studies of inmates' disease risk, perceptions of disease susceptibility, and condom use. There is a dearth of research on attitudes and behaviors beyond disease risk perceptions and condom use, particularly within a nationally representative sample of adults. Utilizing social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action, and related theories, this study examines four alternative sexual attitudes and behaviors among a nationally representative sample of adults with and without jail experience. Results show that jail experience is associated with attitudes concerning sexual exclusivity and intimacy, as well as group sex participation and number of partners. Results also demonstrate that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with jail experience and all four outcomes. Findings offer implications for health promotion within correctional populations. Community-based programs focused on correctional populations could be a fruitful line of public health practice, and programs should take into account social contexts, broad attitudes, and risk factors such as substance abuse.

  10. Social Integration and Health: Community Involvement, Stigmatized Identities, and Sexual Risk in Latino Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Campbell, Richard T.; Diaz, Rafael M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved. PMID:20420293

  11. Social integration and health: community involvement, stigmatized identities, and sexual risk in Latino sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Campbell, Richard T; Diaz, Rafael M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved.

  12. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  13. Mental Health and Substance Use of Sexual Minority College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Davoren, Ann Kearns

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the mental health and substance use of sexual minority collegiate student-athletes in the United States, as compared with heterosexual college students and heterosexual student-athletes. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 196,872) who completed the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment…

  14. Mental Health and Substance Use of Sexual Minority College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Davoren, Ann Kearns

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the mental health and substance use of sexual minority collegiate student-athletes in the United States, as compared with heterosexual college students and heterosexual student-athletes. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 196,872) who completed the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment…

  15. Sex trafficking, sexual risk, sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health among female sex workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; McCauley, Heather L; Phuengsamran, Dusita; Janyam, Surang; Silverman, Jay G

    2011-04-01

    The trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is an internationally recognised form of gender-based violence, and is thought to confer unique sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities. To date, little research has compared sexual risk or health outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) on the basis of experiences of sex trafficking. To compare experiences of sexual risk and sexual and reproductive health outcomes among FSWs on the basis of experiences of trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Data from a national sample of FSWs in Thailand (n=815) was used to assess (a) the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism into sex work and (b) associations of sex trafficking with sexual risk and health outcomes. Approximately 10% of FSWs met criteria for trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Compared with their non-trafficked counterparts, sex-trafficked FSWs were more likely to have experienced sexual violence at initiation to sex work (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 2.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.72), recent workplace violence or mistreatment (ARR 1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.67), recent condom failure (ARR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.80), condom non-use (ARR 3.35, 95% CI 1.49 to 7.52) and abortion (ARR 2.83, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.39). Both the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work and the threats to sexual and reproductive health observed on the basis of trafficking status show the need for comprehensive efforts to identify and support this vulnerable population. Moreover, existing STI/HIV-prevention programming may be stymied by the limited condom-use capacity and high levels of violence observed among those trafficked into sex work.

  16. Application of the sexual health model in the long-term treatment of hypoactive sexual desire and female orgasmic disorder.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Munns, Rosemary A; Weber-Main, Anne M; Lowe, Margaret A; Raymond, Nancy C

    2011-04-01

    Using the Sexual Health Model as a framework, this case study illustrates the treatment of female orgasmic and low desire disorder in a long-term case with numerous complexities and other co-morbid mental health diagnoses. Derived from a sexological approach to education, the Sexual Health Model defines 10 key components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality: talking about sex, culture and sexual identity, sexual anatomy and functioning, sexual health care and safer sex, challenges to sexual health, body image, masturbation and fantasy, positive sexuality, intimacy and relationships, and spirituality. The client was selected because of the commonality of her initial presenting concerns and the etiological and treatment complexity of the case, which necessitated the use of all the sexual health treatment modalities provided at our center-individual, couple, and group therapy, sexual medicine, and psychiatric care. Her case is distinct in that her sexual dysfunctions and negative cognitions, while common, occurred in the context of serious relational, family sexual abuse, depression, and life-threatening medical problems, which necessitated long-term treatment. This case illustrates the multifactoral etiology of complex sexual dysfunctions requiring treatment that deals with varied psychosocial and biological factors.

  17. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  18. Sexual Health as a Survivorship Issue for Female Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Suzin, Daphne; McIlvenna, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    As more and more people are successfully treated for and live longer with cancer, greater attention is being directed toward the survivorship needs of this population. Women treated for cancer often experience issues related to sexual health and intimacy, which are frequently cited as areas of concern, even among long-term survivors. Unfortunately, data suggest that providers infrequently discuss these issues. We reviewed a contemporary understanding of sexual health of women and the impact of treatment on both sexual function and intimacy. We also provide a review of the diagnosis using the newest classification put forth by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, and potential treatments, including both endocrine and nonendocrine treatments that the general oncologist may be asked about when discussing sexual health with his or her patients. PMID:24396051

  19. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  20. Is “Sexual Competence” at First Heterosexual Intercourse Associated With Subsequent Sexual Health Status?

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Melissa J.; Clarke, Lynda; Ploubidis, George B.; Mercer, Catherine H.; Gibson, Lorna J.; Johnson, Anne M.; Copas, Andrew J.; Wellings, Kaye

    2017-01-01

    The timing of first sexual intercourse is often defined in terms of chronological age, with particular focus on “early” first sex. Arguments can be made for a more nuanced concept of readiness and appropriateness of timing of first intercourse. Using data from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), conducted in 2010–2012, this study examined whether a context-based measure of first intercourse—termed sexual competence—was associated with subsequent sexual health in a population-based sample of 17-to 24-year-olds residing in Britain (n = 2,784). Participants were classified as “sexually competent” at first intercourse if they reported the following four criteria: contraceptive protection, autonomy of decision (not due to external influences), that both partners were “equally willing,” and that it happened at the “right time.” A lack of sexual competence at first intercourse was independently associated with testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) at interview; low sexual function in the past year; and among women only, reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis ever; unplanned pregnancy in the past year; and having ever experienced nonvolitional sex. These findings provide empirical support for defining the nature of first intercourse with reference to contextual aspects of the experience, as opposed to a sole focus on chronological age at occurrence. PMID:26891245

  1. Sexual health care in persons with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Servais, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    In the past, preventive health concerning sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities was addressed through surgical sterilization as part of nationwide eugenic programs in many countries. For more than 30 years now, it has come progressively to light in the scientific literature that, besides major ethical and legal problems, these programs also failed to assess many of the individual's needs in sexual health. The fact that an increasing number of people with intellectual disabilities live in the community rather than in institutions has heightened public awareness that these individuals have sexual expectancies, desires, and needs that must be supported through both education and health services. The emergence of AIDS, including descriptions of cases among people with intellectual disabilities, has further demonstrated that surgical sterilization cannot be considered a global option to achieve preventive sexual health. The aim of this paper is to review scientific studies that have assessed the expectancies and support needs of persons with intellectual disabilities in terms of sexual health. These needs vary widely from one individual to another, according to life milieu, level of disability, and potential comorbidity. From this review, it appears that hygiene management, global gynecological care, and prevention of unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and abuse have been frequently identified as areas in which the presence of intellectual disability dictates specific support needs. Different approaches that have been evaluated to address these issues will also be discussed.

  2. Sexual and reproductive health in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Shari; Mulhall, John; Nelson, Christian; Kelvin, Joanne; Dickler, Maura; Carter, Jeanne

    2013-12-01

    As patients live longer after cancer diagnosis and treatment, attention to symptoms and quality of life (QoL) are of increasing importance both during treatment and throughout survivorship. Two complications of multi-modal cancer treatment that can profoundly affect both men and women are sexual dysfunction and infertility. Survivors at highest risk for treatment-related sexual dysfunction are those with tumors that involve the sexual or pelvic organs and those whose treatment affects the hormonal systems mediating sexual function. Sexual dysfunction may not abate without appropriate intervention. Therefore, early identification and treatment strategies are essential. Likewise, multiple factors contribute to the risk of infertility from cancer treatment and many cancer patients of reproductive age would prefer to maintain their fertility, if possible. Fortunately, advances in reproductive technology have created options for young newly diagnosed patients to preserve their ability to have a biologic child. This paper will focus on the sexual and reproductive problems encountered by cancer survivors and discuss some treatment options. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M; Bowen, Deborah J

    2017-04-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to advance what is known about SGM health disparities

  4. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Results: Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Conclusions: This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to

  5. Portrayals of Reproductive and Sexual Health on Primetime Television

    PubMed Central

    Pariera, Katrina L.; Hether, Heather J.; Murphy, Sheila T.; de Castro Buffington, Sandra; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Primetime broadcast television provides health information and establishes norms for millions of people in the United States (Beck, 2004; Brodie, et al., 2001; Murphy & Cody, 2003; Rideout, 2008). To understand what people may be learning about reproductive and sexual health, a content analysis was conducted of storylines from the 10 most popular primetime television programs in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Variables that were measured included the frequency of reproductive and sexual health issues, the level of health information, the type of information portrayed, the gain and loss frames, the presence of stigma, the tone, and the type of role model portrayed. Eighty-seven of the 589 health storylines dealt with reproductive and sexual health, and the most common issues were pre- and post-term pregnancy complications. The majority of these storylines had a moderate or weak level of information and included specifics about treatment and symptoms but not prevention. Just over half of the issues were framed in terms of losses, meaning non-adoption of a behavior change will result in negative outcomes. Twenty-four percent of reproductive and sexual health storylines involved stigma -- usually those related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Most storylines were portrayed as serious and the majority of issues happened to positive role models. The implications of these portrayals for the viewing public are discussed. PMID:24156468

  6. Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Epprecht, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses.

  7. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents’ sexual behavior. Purpose The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods Individual interviews were conducted with 69 teens, ages 15–18 years, from an alternative high school and a juvenile correctional facility to capture adolescents’ early sexual health learning experiences involving family and evaluate their association with teens’ recent sexual behavior. Sexual learning narratives were compared among gender and sexual experience groups. Results Many participants identified family as sexual health information sources. Primary messages recalled: risks of sex, protection, and relationship advice. Many adolescents portrayed learning experiences as negative, cautionary, lacking detail and not always balanced with positive messages. Participants who reported four or more sexual risks were the only group to identify pornography as a sexual health information source. Participants who reported fewer than four sexual risks were most likely to identify family sexual health information sources. Discussion Participants identified family members as sources of sexual health information, with variations by gender. Negative/cautionary messages require teens to seek additional sexual information elsewhere (primarily friends/media). Males, in particular, appear to often lack familial guidance/education. Translation to Health Education Practice Sexual health messages should be tailored to adolescents’ needs for practical and sex-positive guidance regarding mechanics of sex and formation of healthy relationships, and balanced with cautions regarding negative consequences. PMID:27882190

  8. Childhood residential mobility and multiple health risks during adolescence and adulthood: the hidden role of adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F; Felitti, Vincent J; Williamson, David F; Dube, Shanta R; Brown, David W; Giles, Wayne H

    2005-12-01

    Throughout US history, US society has been characterized by its high degree of residential mobility. Previous data suggest a relationship between mobility and increased health risk, but this relationship might be confounded by unmeasured adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). To examine the relationship of childhood residential mobility to health problems during adolescence and adulthood and to determine how much these apparent relationships may result from underlying ACEs. Retrospective cohort study of 8116 adults who completed a survey that included childhood residential mobility, ACEs (childhood abuse, childhood neglect, and household dysfunction), and multiple health problems. Number of childhood residential moves and number of ACEs (ACE score) were assessed for relationships to depressed affect, attempted suicide, alcoholism, smoking, early sexual initiation, and teenaged pregnancy. After adjustment for demographic variables, the risk of high residential mobility during childhood (> or = 8 moves) was 1.7- to 3.1-fold for each ACE, and increased with the number of ACEs. Compared with respondents who never moved, the odds of health risk for respondents with high mobility during childhood ranged from 1.3 (for smoking) to 2.5 (for suicide). However, when the number of ACEs was entered into multivariate models, the relationship between mobility and health problems was greatly reduced. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly associated with frequent residential mobility. Moreover, the apparent relationship between childhood mobility and various health risks is largely explained by ACEs. Thus, previous studies showing a relationship between residential mobility and negative outcomes were likely confounded by unmeasured ACEs.

  9. Adverse Life Events and Mental Health in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    This study's aim was to search for the appropriate functional form of the effect of proximal cumulative contextual risk (PCCR), measured with number of adverse life events experienced in the last 6 months, on adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The study sample was 171 year…

  10. Health policy considerations for our sexual minority patients.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A

    2006-03-01

    Homosexuality and transsexuality are still widely viewed by lay individuals as morally negative and deserving of legal proscription. Peer-reviewed data confirm that experiences of legal discrimination are associated with stress-related health problems, reduced utilization of health care, and financial and legal challenges for individuals and families, especially those with children. In the last 3 years, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and American Psychoanalytic Association have each reviewed the research on sexual orientation and identity, and each has confirmed that sexual orientation and gender identity do not correlate with mental illness or immorality. They have each endorsed laws that confer equality to sexual minorities, including nondiscrimination in employment, medical insurance coverage, adoption, and access to civil marriage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), by virtue of its history of advocacy for women's health, is in a position to promote policy and make similar recommendations, recognizing that sexual minority women's health and their family issues are an integral component of taking care of all women. The College should review the policies of America's premier mental health associations and consider including sexual orientation and gender identity in its own nondiscrimination policy, and ACOG should issue a policy statement in support of laws to provide safety from violence and discrimination, equal employment opportunities, equal health insurance coverage, and equal access to civil marriage.

  11. Sexual health in women with pelvic floor disorders: measuring the sexual activity and function with questionnaires--a summary.

    PubMed

    Espuña Pons, Montserrat

    2009-05-01

    The integration of sexual health into the health care services is important. In women attending urogynecological clinics, the urinary function, anorectal function, and anatomical defects are more often evaluated than those related to sexual activity and function. A group of experts in urogynecology, sexuality, and patient reported outcome development, met in a roundtable with the final objective of reviewing what is currently available and what is needed to accurately evaluate sexual function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. An article was prepared for each of the issued presented during the roundtable and combined into this supplement. This article is a summary of all articles included in this supplement. The pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction as related to pelvic floor disorders has not been well established. Sexuality questionnaires and scales play an integral role in the diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) is the only validated female sexual function questionnaire specifically developed to assess sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse; however, the PISQ does not screen for sexual activity. The effects of treatments for pelvic floor problems on sexual function have received little attention. There is a need for a validated sexual function measure that evaluates not only the impact of pelvic floor dysfunction on sexual function but also the impact on sexual activity.

  12. Mechanisms Underlying the Association Between Early-Life Adversity and Physical Health: Charting a Course for the Future.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nicole R; Lane, Richard D; McLaughlin, Katie A

    Early-life adversities (ELA) are associated with subsequent pervasive alterations across a wide range of neurobiological systems and psychosocial factors that contribute to accelerated onset of health problems and diseases. In this article, we provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in research on ELA, based on the articles published in this Special Issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. We focus on the following: 1) the distinction between specific versus general aspects of ELA with regard to the nature of exposure (e.g., physical and sexual abuse, emotional abuse or neglect, relative socioeconomic deprivation), biological and behavioral correlates of ELA, and differences across diseases; 2) the importance of timing in the critical phases of exposure to ELA; and 3) adaptive versus dysfunctional responses to ELA and their consequences for biological and behavioral risk factors for adverse health outcomes. This article concludes with outlining important new targets for research in this area, including the neurobiology of affect as a mechanism linking ELA to adverse health outcomes, and the need for large-scale longitudinal investigations of multisystem processes relevant to ELA in diverse samples, starting prenatally, continuing to late adolescence, and with long-term follow-up assessments that enable evaluation of incident disease outcomes.

  13. Pregnancy and Sexual Health Among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of prenatal care, and histories of sexual victimization are described. A total of 81 lifetime pregnancies and 26 children were reported. Infrequent and ineffective use of contraception was common. While pregnancy motivated some homeless youth to establish housing, miscarriages and terminations were more frequent among youth who reported being housed. Widespread access to prenatal and medical services was reported during pregnancy, but utilization varied. Many women continued to use substances throughout pregnancy. Several youth reported childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization while homeless. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity to encourage positive health behaviors in a high-risk population seldom seen in a clinical setting. PMID:18692891

  14. Sexuality, sexual and reproductive health: an exploration of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of the Greek-Cypriot adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health in Cyprus. This is the first study in Cyprus that focuses on these issues. During the study, a survey was administered to a random sample of third grade students (N = 697, Mean age = 14 +/- 1 years, 48% males). Descriptive and comparative statistics were primarily used for the data analysis. The results indicated that young Greek-Cypriots have limited knowledge on sexual health issues and that there are gender differences regarding role expectations of sexuality. Thus, in the promotion of healthy sexuality and sexual behaviours among youth, practitioners should include gender and cultural perspectives. Qualitative research is needed to explore in depth how young Greek-Cypriots feel about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health.

  15. Childhood Adversity and Mental Health Correlates of Obesity in a Population at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica; Pohlig, Ryan T.

    2017-01-01

    The staggering prevalence of obesity and obesity-related health conditions takes exorbitant tolls on health care resources. This cross-sectional study with private evaluations of 636 adult inmates in a southern state prison was conducted with regressions comparing obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) to nonobese individuals to define obesity risk factors. Obese individuals more likely were female, were victims of childhood sexual abuse, suffered greater severity of childhood sexual abuse, attempted suicide, reported drug dependency, were non-Caucasian, and were older than non-obese. Psychopathy predicted lower BMI. Though obesity might be expected in victims of childhood physical abuse, traumatic brain injury, or other mental health conditions due to mobility or decision-making deficits, neither were significant. Adjusting for related variables, childhood sexual abuse remained significant. Females attempted suicide more frequently and suffered greater childhood sexual abuse. PMID:27742859

  16. Exclusionary health policy: responding to the risk of poor health among sexual minority youth in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ylioja, Thomas; Craig, Shelley L

    2014-01-01

    Measuring indicators of health status and demographics are essential in the population health approach. In Canada, sexual minority youth face increased risk for poor health outcomes in behavioral and mental health indicators, yet the health policy response has been severely lacking. The current population health approach exacerbates the social exclusion of a vulnerable, at-risk population. The authors examine health status through the social determinants of health to highlight the need for including sexual identity, attraction, and behavior in youth population health surveys. Additional interventions that address the social determinants of health are needed.

  17. Sexuality-related attitudes significantly modulate demographic variation in sexual health literacy in Tasmanian university students.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Steve; Clifford, Christine; Quinn, Michael G; Ross, Kaz; Sefton, Neil; Owen, Louise; Blizzard, Leigh; Turner, Richard

    2017-01-09

    Background: It has previously been shown that there is a significant demographic variation in sexual health literacy (SHL) in university-level students in Tasmania, Australia. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statistical adjustment for sexuality-related attitudes on this demographic variation in SHL. Methods: Iterated principal-factor analysis was used to evaluate latent variable grouping of responses to 21 attitudinal questions regarding sexuality and sexual behaviour. Linear regression was used to evaluate the distribution and determinants of attitudinal patterns and thence the relationship of these patterns to SHL. Results: Three patterns - conservative, anti-persons-living-with-HIV and sexually responsible - were identified as explaining variation in sexual attitudes; the former two being associated with significantly lower SHL and the latter associated with significantly higher SHL. Adjustment for these patterns significantly attenuated much of the differences in SHL by birthplace/ethnicity and religion, including among South and South-East Asian and Protestant, Islamic and Hindu students. However, some differences in SHL persisted, suggesting they are partly or fully independent of the attitudinal questions. Conclusions: As hypothesised, differences in attitude significantly explained much of the demographic differences in SHL found previously. These results suggest that sexual education and orientation efforts need to bear cultural framing in mind to enhance uptake by students.

  18. Sexual rights as human rights: a guide to authoritative sources and principles for applying human rights to sexuality and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alice M; Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia

    2015-11-01

    This Guide seeks to provide insight and resources to actors interested in the development of rights claims around sexuality and sexual health. After engaging with the vexed question of the scope of sexual rights, it explores the rules and principles governing the way in which human rights claims are developed and applied to sexuality and sexual health, and how that development is linked to law and made a matter of state obligation. This understanding is critical to policy and programming in sexual health and rights, as it supports calling on the relevant range of human rights, such as privacy, non-discrimination, health or other universally accepted human rights, as well as demanding the action of states under their international and national law obligations to support sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Introduction to the Culture, Health & Sexuality Virtual Special Issue on sex, sexuality and sex work.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope

    2016-05-18

    This article provides an editorial introduction to a virtual special issue on sex work and prostitution. It offers a brief history of sex work studies as published in the journal Culture, Health & Sexuality; reflects on the breadth and scope of papers the journal has published; considers the contribution of the journal's papers to the wellbeing and sexuality of people who sell sex; and envisions future areas of inquiry for sex work studies. As authors, we identify major themes within the journal's archive, including activism, agency, context, discourse, hazard, health, legalisation, love, place, power, race, relationships, stigma and vulnerabilities. In particular, we reflect on how HIV has created an environment in which issues of culture, health and sexuality have come to be disentangled from the moral agendas of earlier years. As a venue for the dissemination of a reinvigorated scholarship, Culture, Health & Sexuality provides a platform for a community of often like-minded, rigorous thinkers, to provide new and established perspectives, methods and voices and to present important developments in studies of sex, sexuality and sex work.

  20. Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.

    This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…

  1. Childhood adversities and adult-onset chronic pain: Results from the World Mental Health Survey, Japan.

    PubMed

    Stickley, A; Koyanagi, A; Kawakami, N

    2015-11-01

    Childhood adversities (CAs) have been associated with adult-onset chronic pain. However, to date, most single country studies on this association have been undertaken in Western countries. This study examined the association in Japan where information is scarce. Data were drawn from the World Mental Health Survey Japan, a population-based cross-sectional survey undertaken in 11 areas of Japan in 2002-2006. We analyzed data from adults aged ≥20 years who provided information on CAs occurring before age 18 years and chronic pain (n = 1740). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk for different forms of adult-onset chronic pain (arthritis/rheumatism, neck/back pain, headache and any pain) as a function of the presence of 11 different types of CA and the number of CAs. In the adjusted models, significant associations were observed between: physical abuse and neck/back pain (HR 2.55) and any pain (HR 1.88); sexual abuse and any pain (HR 2.84). Significant dose-dependent relationships were also observed between a greater number of CAs and some adult-onset chronic pain conditions (neck/back and any pain). The results of this study suggest that in Japan, some forms of CA may be associated with certain types of adult-onset chronic pain, in particular neck/back pain. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  2. Fiduciary disclosure of medical mistakes: the duty to promptly notify patients of adverse health care events.

    PubMed

    Faunce, T A; Bolsin, S N

    2005-05-01

    Fiduciary obligations are imposed by the common law to ensure that a person occupying a societal role with a high potential for the manipulation of vulnerable persons exercises utmost good faith. Australian law has recognised that the doctor-patient relationship, while not wholly fiduciary, has fiduciary aspects. Amongst such duties are those prohibiting sexual or financial abuse of patients or disclosure without express authority of confidential information. One important consequence of attaching such fiduciary duties to the doctor-patient relationship is that the onus of proof falls not upon the vulnerable party (the patient), but upon the doctor (to disprove the allegation). Another is that consent cannot be pleaded as an absolute defence. In this article the authors advocate that the law should now accept that the fiduciary obligations of the doctor-patient relationship extend to creating a legal duty that any adverse health care event be promptly reported to the patient involved. The reasons for creating such a presumption, as well as its elements and exceptions, are explained.

  3. Maternal Adverse Childhood Experience and Infant Health: Biomedical and Psychosocial Risks as Intermediary Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Maguire, Jonathon L; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the mechanisms accounting for the transfer of risk from one generation to the next, especially as they relate to maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical and emotional health outcomes. Participants were 501 community mother-infant dyads recruited shortly after the birth and followed up at 18 months. Mothers retrospectively reported on their adverse childhood experiences. The main outcome measures were parent-reported infant physical health and emotional problems. Potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission included cumulative biomedical risk (eg, prenatal and perinatal complications) and postnatal psychosocial risk (eg, maternal depression, single parenthood, marital conflict). Four or more adverse childhood experiences were related to a 2- and 5-fold increased risk of experiencing any biomedical or psychosocial risk, respectively. There was a linear association between number of adverse childhood experiences and extent of biomedical and psychosocial risk. Path analysis revealed that the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical health operated specifically through cumulative biomedical risk, while the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and infant emotional health operated specifically through cumulative psychosocial risk. This pattern was not explained by maternal childhood disadvantage or current neighborhood poverty. Maternal adverse childhood experiences confer vulnerability to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal psychosocial health. The association between adverse childhood experiences and offspring physical and emotional health operates through discrete intermediary mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adverse Oral Health and Cognitive Decline: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert; Weyant, Robert J.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Periodontal disease has been associated with poorer cross-sectional cognitive function and is correlated with adverse vascular outcomes, but has received little prospective investigation in relation to cognitive decline. Design Analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study Participants and measurements We examined the prospective association between a range of oral health parameters and cognitive function using data on 1053 participants who were administered the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) at year 1 (baseline) and year 3, and had participated in a comprehensive periodontal examination at year 2. We investigated 3MS decline from year 3 to 5 in 947 (89.9%) participants. Covariates included age, sex, education, race, cardiovascular disease/risk and depressive symptoms. Results Most indicators of adverse oral health at year 2 were associated with cognitive impairment based on averaged 3MS scores <80 for years 1 and 3, but these associations were substantially confounded by education and race. Higher gingival index, a measure of gingival inflammation, at year 2 remained independently associated with this definition of cognitive impairment and, in fully adjusted analyses, was also an independent predictor of a 5+ point cognitive decline from years 3 to 5. Conclusion Periodontitis may be a risk factor for cognitive decline. Gingivitis is reversible and periodontitis to some degree is preventable and controllable when manifest. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify potential underlying mechanisms and oral health interventions that potentially might ameliorate cognitive decline. PMID:23405916

  5. Access to and use of sexual health care services among young Canadians with and without a history of sexual coercion

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Lucia F.; Sandra Byers, E.; Brotto, Lori A.; Majerovich, Jo Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine access to and use of sexual health care services among adolescents and young adults with and without a history of sexual coercion, and to examine whether a history of sexual coercion was a barrier to using sexual health care services. Design Online survey. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 405 adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 21. Main outcome measures Participants’ sexual histories, sexual coercion histories, current psychological functioning, and perceptions and use of health care services. Results A history of sexual coercion was reported by 29.6% of participants; more female participants reported a history of sexual coercion than male participants did, and female participants reported more related distress than male participants did. Those with a history of sexual coercion reported more sexual health–related visits than those without a history of sexual coercion did. Among participants with and without sexual coercion histories, there were no differences in difficulty accessing care, perceived quality of care, or rates of unmet health needs. Among those who reported a history of sexual coercion, the odds of having a sexual health–related visit increased for those who had had a routine checkup in the previous year (odds ratio = 8.29) and those who believed it was not difficult to access care (odds ratio = 1.74). Conclusion Having a history of sexual coercion was not a barrier to the use of health care services among adolescents and young adults. In fact, rates of health care service use were higher among those with a history of sexual coercion than those without such a history. PMID:26759846

  6. Sexual Health Promotion Programme: Participants' Perspectives on Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Brian; Daly, Louise; Sharek, Danika; De Vries, Jan; McCann, Edward; Higgins, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a Health Service Executive (HSE) Foundation Programme in Sexual Health Promotion (FPSHP) with a specific emphasis on capacity building. Design: A mixed-method design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect the data. Setting: The FPSHP was delivered to staff working in…

  7. The Veterans Health Administration and Military Sexual Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kimerling, Rachel; Gima, Kristian; Smith, Mark W.; Street, Amy; Frayne, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the utility of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) universal screening program for military sexual violence. Methods. We analyzed VHA administrative data for 185 880 women and 4139888 men who were veteran outpatients and were treated in VHA health care settings nationwide during 2003. Results. Screening was completed for 70% of patients. Positive screens were associated with greater odds of virtually all categories of mental health comorbidities, including posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=8.83; 99% confidence interval [CI] = 8.34, 9.35 for women; AOR = 3.00; 99% CI = 2.89, 3.12 for men). Associations with medical comorbidities (e.g., chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, and for women, weight conditions) were also observed. Significant gender differences emerged. Conclusions. The VHA policies regarding military sexual trauma represent a uniquely comprehensive health care response to sexual trauma. Results attest to the feasibility of universal screening, which yields clinically significant information with particular relevance to mental health and behavioral health treatment. Women’s health literature regarding sexual trauma will be particularly important to inform health care services for both male and female veterans. PMID:17971558

  8. The Veterans Health Administration and military sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Kimerling, Rachel; Gima, Kristian; Smith, Mark W; Street, Amy; Frayne, Susan

    2007-12-01

    We examined the utility of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) universal screening program for military sexual violence. We analyzed VHA administrative data for 185,880 women and 4139888 men who were veteran outpatients and were treated in VHA health care settings nationwide during 2003. Screening was completed for 70% of patients. Positive screens were associated with greater odds of virtually all categories of mental health comorbidities, including posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=8.83; 99% confidence interval [CI] = 8.34, 9.35 for women; AOR = 3.00; 99% CI = 2.89, 3.12 for men). Associations with medical comorbidities (e.g., chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, and for women, weight conditions) were also observed. Significant gender differences emerged. The VHA policies regarding military sexual trauma represent a uniquely comprehensive health care response to sexual trauma. Results attest to the feasibility of universal screening, which yields clinically significant information with particular relevance to mental health and behavioral health treatment. Women's health literature regarding sexual trauma will be particularly important to inform health care services for both male and female veterans.

  9. School Health Education about Human Sexuality. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Beverly J.; Mancuso, Patty; Cagginello, Joan B.; Board, Connie; Clark, Sandra; Harvel, Robin; Kelts, Susan

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that age-appropriate health education about human sexuality should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students in schools. NASN recognizes the role of parents and families as the primary source of education about…

  10. Sexual Health Promotion Programme: Participants' Perspectives on Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Brian; Daly, Louise; Sharek, Danika; De Vries, Jan; McCann, Edward; Higgins, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a Health Service Executive (HSE) Foundation Programme in Sexual Health Promotion (FPSHP) with a specific emphasis on capacity building. Design: A mixed-method design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect the data. Setting: The FPSHP was delivered to staff working in…

  11. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  12. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  13. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population. PMID:26925182

  14. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-12-22

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players' unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.

  15. The Association Between Sexual Health and Physical, Mental, and Social Health in Adolescent Women.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Devon J; Nance, Jennifer; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-10-01

    Developmental models link sexual well-being to physical, mental/emotional, and social well-being, yet little empirical literature evaluates these relationships in adolescents. Better understanding of how and when sexuality complements other aspects of health may yield important points to enhance existing health education and prevention efforts. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships and sexual behavior among adolescent women (N = 387; 14-17 years at enrollment). Sexual health data were drawn from quarterly partner-specific interviews and were linked to physical, mental/emotional, and social health information in annual questionnaires. Random intercept, mixed effects linear, ordinal logistic, or binary logistic regression were used to estimate the influence of sexual health on health and well-being outcomes (Stata, v.23, StataCorp, College Station, TX). All models controlled for participant age and race/ethnicity. Higher sexual health was significantly associated with less frequent nicotine and substance use, lower self-reported depression, lower thrill seeking, higher self-esteem, having fewer friends who use substances, higher religiosity, better social integration, lower frequency of delinquent behavior and crime, and more frequent community group membership. Sexual health was not associated with the number of friends who used cigarettes. Positive sexually related experiences in romantic relationships during adolescence may complement physical, mental/emotional, and social health. Addressing specific aspects of healthy sexual development during clinical encounters could dually help primary prevention and health education address other common adolescent health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual Orientation Differences in Adolescent Health Care Access and Health-Promoting Physician Advice.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2017-08-19

    Physician screening and advice on health-related behaviors are an integral part of adolescent health care. Sexual minority adolescents encounter more barriers to health services; yet, no prior research has examined whether they also experience disparity in physician screening and advice. We examined possible sexual orientation disparities in health care access, physician screening, and advice on six health-related behaviors. Data were from a national sample of U.S. adolescents who participated in wave 2 of the NEXT Generation Health Study (n = 2023). Poisson regressions were conducted separately for males and females to estimate sexual orientation differences in health care access and health-related screening and advice. Compared with heterosexual males, sexual minority males were more likely to report unmet medical needs in the past year (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 2.23) but did not differ with respect to receiving physician advice concerning health-related behaviors. Compared with heterosexual females, sexual minority females were more likely to report no routine physical checkup in the past year (ARR = 1.67) but were more likely to receive physician advice to reduce or stop drinking, smoking, drug use, increase physical activity, and improve diet (ARRs = 1.56-1.99), even after controlling for corresponding health-related behaviors. Sexual minority females were also more likely to receive advice about risk associated with sexual behavior (ARR = 1.35) and advice to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (ARR = 1.49). Both sexual minority males and females experienced disparities in some aspects of health care access. Improved health-promoting advice would better serve sexual minority males. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Sexual health status of women who have regular sexual relations with men who have sex with men in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiufang; Zhang, Beichuan; Wang, Juan; Li, Yang; Li, Xianhong; Yu, Peiheng; Liu, Minghua; Liu, Xinqiao

    2017-02-06

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a high-risk group for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In China, the vast majority of MSM feel forced to marry or plan to marry women, according to traditional Chinese culture. Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM, called tongqi in mainland China, live with a high risk of STDs or HIV infection, but these risks are often ignored. Our investigation of this group of the women is a preliminary study that aims to understand the sexual health problems of tongqi and related factors. This study relied on website mobilization and was funded by tongqi. Participants were limited to women who had sex with MSM to whom they were married (in-GWs), whom they had divorced (ex-GWs), or with whom they were friends (GGFs). The data were collected using questionnaire software. A total 144 valid surveys were returned from 100 in-GWs, 33 ex-GWs, and 11 GGFs. Average respondent age was 32.8 ± 6.4 years (range 22 to 58 years). Among in-GWs and ex-GWs, over 95% learned that their husbands were MSM after marriage. More than half of respondents had had sex before marriage, and one-third of those women had sex partners other than their husbands. In addition, 35.3% of tongqi had STDs symptoms. About 50% participants had had oral sex with sex partners of MSM and 10% had had passive anal sex, with low condom use during both oral (9.7%) and anal sex (23.1%). Most tongqi had misunderstandings about STDs and HIV and less than 30% had undergone HIV screening. Among participants tested, 5.6% were HIV positive. A total 93.5% of respondents believed that laws should be established to protect the sexual rights of women. Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM face adverse sexual health issues and are susceptible to STDs and HIV infection. Measures must be taken to protect the rights and interests of tongqi in mainland China.

  18. SIECUS: 25 years of commitment to sexual health and education.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D W

    1989-03-01

    The Sex Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) opened its first office on July 1, 1964. Its mission is to affirm that sexuality is a natural and healthy part of living and to advocate the right of individuals to make responsible sexual choices. SIECUS develops, collects, and disseminates information, and promotes comprehensive education about sexuality. Haffner outlines the history of SIECUS and its battles with those fringe groups that oppose the SIECUS mission. Sexual rights continued to expand until the late 1970s despite the work of these groups. Then, dramatic changes took place. The Moral Majority was founded in 1979, and with Ronald Reagan's election to office in 1980 and 1984, attacks on sexual rights became commonplace. Under the Reagan administration, there were numerous attempts to restrict sexual rights--to restrict the right to abortion, to limit poor women's access to reproductive health services, and to restrict adolescents' rights to contraception. SIECUS continued to develop new projects and efforts during the 1980s and became involved with AIDS education in 1982. The last few years have seen a renewed interest in sexuality education as a result of the critical need for AIDS information and education. SIECUS has continued to develop new programs and initiatives during the last few years. The SIECUS library is open 44 hours a week. The library is now computerized and offers an online database of over 10,000 records. In addition, SIECUS began offering computer-based sexuality education and information through CompuServe, Learning Link, and Source. During the 1st quarter of 1989, SIECUS membership increased by 25% and foundation support doubled. SIECUS is preparing to improve membership services, expand its library collection, issue several new publications, and provide nationwide workshops and keynote speeches on the sexuality aspect of the AIDS epidemic. SIECUS will convene a national colloquium on the future of sexuality

  19. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7-5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality experienced students. Targeted interventions that integrate mental

  20. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W.; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Background Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. Objective To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. Design In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Results Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7–5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1–4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7–3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9–5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1–8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6–7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality

  1. [Ethic evaluation of sexual health programs on adolescence].

    PubMed

    Jara Rascón, José; Alonso Sandoica, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    In public health services, the interest in sexuality seems to turning from traditional topics such as potential treatments for male erectile dysfunction, psychosomatic disorders, the control of premature ejaculation and contraception. Instead, an increasingly prominent role is being given to prevention strategies carried out by means of campaigns or through sexual health programme sin schools. The different teaching strategies that underlie these programmes, which in many cases lack social consensus but are often promoted by international organizations such as WHO or UNESCO, reveal not only divergent ethical conceptions and worldviews on the meaning of sexuality, but also conflicting starting points, means and goals, focusing either on barrier-contraceptive methods or on sexual abstinence and personal responsibility. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the scientific evidence underlying each educational approach and the ethical postulates of each pedagogical proposal. This paper presents an outline of a six-point adolescent sexuality education program, which is respectful of individuals' ethical convictions. Given that few works on preventive medicine issues include an ethical evaluation of the steps followed in their development, this article also proposes a systematic evaluation of strategies for sexual health in the community that is developed through four steps verifying the following aspects: 1) the accuracy of information, 2) the level of evidence, 3) efficiency and 4) non-maleficence about the target population of each health program. The methodology used in these sexual health programs is another aspect that will verify their ethical consistence or, conversely, their absence of ethical values. We emphasize the duty of designers of programme for children not to carry then out against the will of their parents or tutors, and not conceal sensitive and relevant information.

  2. Hispanic Women's Expectations of Campus-Based Health Clinics Addressing Sexual Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the number of Hispanic women attending postsecondary institutions has significantly increased in the past decade, knowledge about their use of campus health services to address sexuality-related issues remains low. Increased information about this population is crucial given that sexual health indicators have shown Hispanic women in…

  3. Hispanic Women's Expectations of Campus-Based Health Clinics Addressing Sexual Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the number of Hispanic women attending postsecondary institutions has significantly increased in the past decade, knowledge about their use of campus health services to address sexuality-related issues remains low. Increased information about this population is crucial given that sexual health indicators have shown Hispanic women in…

  4. Relations Between Self-Reported Adverse Events in Childhood and Hypersexuality in Adult Male Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Drew A; Graham, Franklyn J; Knight, Raymond A

    2017-04-01

    Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression. Physical, psychological, and sexual abuse experiences were estimated using several scales of early development. Psychological abuse in childhood and adolescence, especially by a father, was found to be the most prominent predictor of subsequent hypersexual thoughts and behaviors. The accumulation of abuse types, however, was also associated with a monotonic increase in the latent trait of hypersexuality. The consequences of these results for conceptualizations of the construct are discussed.

  5. Childhood adversity and traumatic exposures during deployment as predictors of mental health in Australian military veterans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wu Yi; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Waller, Michael; McGuire, Annabel C; Treloar, Susan A; Dobson, Annette J

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether the relationship between traumatic exposure on deployment and poor mental health varies by the reported level of childhood adversity experienced in Australian military veterans deployed to the Bougainville or East Timor military operations. Cross-sectional self-reported survey data were collected in 2008 from 3,564 Australian military veterans who deployed to East Timor or Bougainville on their deployment experiences, health and recall of childhood events. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between childhood adversity, deployment exposures and mental health. The most common childhood adversity reported was 'not having a special teacher, youth worker or family friend who looked out for them while growing up'. On average, responders reported experiencing 3.5 adverse childhood experiences (SD 2.7) and averaged 5.3 (SD 4.9) traumatic exposures on deployment. Both childhood adversity and traumatic exposures on deployment were associated with higher odds of poorer mental health. However, there was no evidence that level of childhood adversity modified the association between traumatic exposure and mental health. These findings suggest that military personnel who recalled a higher level of childhood adversity may need to be monitored for poor mental health and, if required, provided with appropriate support. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. It's Your Game-Tech: Toward Sexual Health in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Shegog, Ross; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Karny, Efrat; Addy, Robert C; Johnson, Kimberly A; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent sexually transmitted infection (STI) and birth rates indicate a need for effective middle school HIV/STI, and pregnancy prevention curricula to delay, or mitigate consequences of, early sexual activity. Individual and organizational barriers to adoption, implementation, and maintenance, however, can hamper dissemination of evidence-based sexual health curricula, adversely impacting fidelity and reach. Internet-based approaches may help mitigate these barriers. This paper describes the development and feasibility testing of It's Your Game (IYG)-Tech, a stand-alone 13-lesson Internet-based sexual health life-skills curriculum adapted from an existing effective sexual health curriculum-It's Your Game… Keep it Real (IYG). IYG-Tech development adaptation steps were to: 1) Select a suitable effective program and gather the original program materials; 2) Develop "proof of concept" lessons and test usability and impact; 3) Develop the program design document describing the core content, scope, and methods and strategies; and 4) produce the new program. Lab- and school-based tests with middle school students demonstrated high ratings on usability parameters and immediate impact on selected psychosocial factors related to sexual behavior-perceptions of friends' beliefs, reasons for not having sex, condom use self-efficacy, abstinence intentions, negotiating with others to protect personal rules, and improved knowledge about what constitutes healthy relationships (all p < .05). Youth rated IYG-Tech is favorably compared to other learning channels (>76.2% agreement) and rated the lessons as helpful in making healthy choices, selecting personal rules, detecting challenges to those rules, and protecting personal rules through negotiation and refusal skills (89.5% - 100%). Further efficacy testing is indicated for IYG-Tech as a potential strategy to deliver effective HIV/STI, and pregnancy prevention to middle school youth.

  7. Stigma and Health-Related Quality of Life in Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn; Gordon, Allegra R; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Charlton, Brittany M; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Samnaliev, Mihail

    2017-10-01

    Stigma against sexual minorities is well documented, but its long-term consequences for health-related quality of life (HRQL) are unknown. This study examined stigma-related predictors of sexual orientation disparities in HRQL and their contribution to young adult HRQL disparities. In 2013, participants (N=7,304, aged 18-31 years) reported sexual orientation (completely heterosexual [CH], mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian/gay). The EQ5D-5L, preference weighted for the U.S. population, was used to assess HRQL (range, -0.109 [worse than dead] to 1 [full health]). In prior waves conducted during adolescence, participants reported past-year bullying victimization (range, 1 [never] to 5 [several times/week]) and subjective social status (SSS) in their school (range, 1 [top] to 10 [bottom]). Analyses conducted in 2016 used longitudinal, multivariable linear and logistic regression to assess the contribution of bullying victimization and SSS in adolescence to sexual orientation disparities in HRQL in young adulthood, controlling for confounders and stratified by gender. Compared with CHs, both female and male sexual minorities reported more bullying victimization and lower SSS in adolescence and lower HRQL in young adulthood (HRQL score among women: mostly heterosexual, 0.878; bisexual, 0.839; lesbian, 0.848; CH, 0.913; HRQL score among men: mostly heterosexual, 0.877; bisexual, 0.882; gay, 0.890; CH, 0.925; all p-values <0.05). When bullying and SSS were added into multivariable models, orientation group effect estimates were attenuated substantially, suggesting bullying and lower SSS in adolescence partly explained HRQL disparities in young adulthood. Stigma-related experiences in adolescence may have lasting adverse effects on sexual minority health in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. It’s Your Game-Tech: Toward Sexual Health in the Digital Age

    PubMed Central

    Shegog, Ross; Peskin, Melissa F.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Karny, Efrat; Addy, Robert C.; Johnson, Kimberly A.; Tortolero, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent sexually transmitted infection (STI) and birth rates indicate a need for effective middle school HIV/STI, and pregnancy prevention curricula to delay, or mitigate consequences of, early sexual activity. Individual and organizational barriers to adoption, implementation, and maintenance, however, can hamper dissemination of evidence-based sexual health curricula, adversely impacting fidelity and reach. Internet-based approaches may help mitigate these barriers. This paper describes the development and feasibility testing of It’s Your Game (IYG)-Tech, a stand-alone 13-lesson Internet-based sexual health life-skills curriculum adapted from an existing effective sexual health curriculum—It’s Your Game… Keep it Real (IYG). IYG-Tech development adaptation steps were to: 1) Select a suitable effective program and gather the original program materials; 2) Develop “proof of concept” lessons and test usability and impact; 3) Develop the program design document describing the core content, scope, and methods and strategies; and 4) produce the new program. Lab- and school-based tests with middle school students demonstrated high ratings on usability parameters and immediate impact on selected psychosocial factors related to sexual behavior—perceptions of friends’ beliefs, reasons for not having sex, condom use self-efficacy, abstinence intentions, negotiating with others to protect personal rules, and improved knowledge about what constitutes healthy relationships (all p < .05). Youth rated IYG-Tech is favorably compared to other learning channels (>76.2% agreement) and rated the lessons as helpful in making healthy choices, selecting personal rules, detecting challenges to those rules, and protecting personal rules through negotiation and refusal skills (89.5% – 100%). Further efficacy testing is indicated for IYG-Tech as a potential strategy to deliver effective HIV/STI, and pregnancy prevention to middle school youth. PMID:25705561

  9. Sexual function in F-111 maintenance workers: the study of health outcomes in aircraft maintenance personnel.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anthony; Gibson, Richard; Tavener, Meredith; Guest, Maya; D'Este, Catherine; Byles, Julie; Attia, John; Horsley, Keith; Harrex, Warren; Ross, James

    2009-06-01

    In Australia, four formal F-111 fuel tank deseal/reseal (DSRS) repair programs were implemented over more than two decades, each involving different processes and using a range of hazardous substances. However, health concerns were raised by a number of workers. The "Study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel" was commissioned by the Australian Department of Defence to investigate potential adverse health outcomes as a result of being involved in the deseal/reseal processes. To compare measures of sexual function in F-111 aircraft fuel tank DSRS maintenance workers, against two appropriate comparison groups. Exposed and comparison participants completed a postal questionnaire which included general questions of health and health behavior, and two specific questions on sexual functioning. They also completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to explore exposure status and outcome while adjusting for potential confounders. The three outcomes of interest for this study were the proportion of participants with erectile dysfunction (ED) according to the IIEF, the proportion with self-reported loss of interest in sex, and the proportion with self-reported problems with sexual functioning. Compared with each of the comparison groups, a larger proportion of the exposed group reported sexual problems and were classified as having ED according to the IIEF. In logistic regression, the odds of all three outcomes were higher for exposed participants relative to each comparison group and after adjustment for potentially confounding variables including anxiety and depression. There was a consistent problem with sexual functioning in the exposed group that is not explained by anxiety and depression, and it appears related to DSRS activities.

  10. Mental Health and Substance Use Factors Associated with Unwanted Sexual Contact among U.S. Active Duty Service Women

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B.; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M.

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. military women are exposed to unwanted sexual contact during military service, which can have important implications for mental health. Using data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors, we employed multiple logistic regression methods to examine whether unwanted sexual contact was associated with stress, screening positive for mental disorders, or substance use, among active duty service women. The sample included 7,415 female military personnel, of whom 13.4% reported unwanted sexual contact (including any touching of genitals) since entering the military. After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, factors independently associated with unwanted sexual contact included military-related stress (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.44), family/personal life-related stress (AOR = 1.78), and gender-related stress (AOR = 1.98) in the past 12 months. In addition, screening positive for depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation or attempt were associated with unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.57–2.11). For drug/alcohol use, only misuse of tranquilizers/muscle relaxers (past 12 months) was associated with report of unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.35). Given the prevalence of unwanted sexual contact and corresponding adverse health outcomes in this sample of active duty women, strategies to create military structural/cultural changes and reduce gender-related stress and sexism are needed. PMID:25976935

  11. Prospective associations of psychosocial adversity in childhood with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emma L; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-07

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. We aimed to assess associations of various forms of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. Participants were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Childhood psychosocial risk factors were reported prospectively by parents from 1950-1957, and retrospectively by participants at mean age 43 years in 1989. CVD risk factors were assessed at mean age 60-64 years in 2006-2011. Associations of a summary score of total psychosocial adversity and CVD risk in adulthood were assessed. There was no consistent evidence that cumulative psychosocial adversity, nor any specific form of psychosocial adversity in childhood, was associated with CVD risk factors in late adulthood. There was some evidence that parental death in the first 15 years was associated with higher SBP (Beta: 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.40, P=0.01) and DBP (Beta: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.01 to 0.32, P=0.07). We found no evidence that exposure to greater psychosocial adversity, or specific forms of psychosocial adversity during childhood is associated with adult CVD risk factors. Further large population studies are needed to clarify whether parental death is associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  12. Talk with Tiff: teen's inquiries to a sexual health website.

    PubMed

    Buzi, Ruth S; Smith, Peggy B; Barrera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Because of its availability, anonymity, and low cost of access, the Internet is an increasingly common way for adolescents to find information about sensitive issues. Sexual health website question portals are an important way for adolescents to seek personalized information tailored to their individualized needs. Few studies have examined the content within anonymous e-mails sent to these question portals. The purpose of this qualitative evaluation was to analyze thematic content of anonymous e-mails sent through a question portal on a comprehensive sexual health clinic website for an adolescent family planning clinic in a large city in the southwest United States. Between August 2009 and June 2012, the e-mail server received questions from 484 individuals who were seeking sexual health-related information. The authors used a content analysis to identify recurrent themes in the questions submitted. The most common questions regarded the cost of the clinic's services and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. The questions revealed that adolescents lack basic sexual health knowledge and hold many misconceptions. The findings support the usefulness of online question portals as effective venues for teenagers to quickly and anonymously obtain accurate information on sensitive issues.

  13. How to evaluate sexual health in cancer patients: development of the EORTC sexual health questionnaire for cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Den Oudsten, Brenda; Greimel, Elfriede

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to describe the development of a comprehensive European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire to assess sexual health of female and male cancer patients and for cancer survivors. Methods According to the EORTC guidelines, the development of an EORTC sexual health questionnaire is typically organised in four phases. The first phases comprise a literature search following interviews with patient and health care professionals (HCPs) (phase 1) and the operationalization into items (phase 2). The translation process is formally conducted according to the EORTC QLG Translation guidelines with a rigorous forward-backward procedure supported by native speakers. Results Studies on sexuality in oncology patients which were identified by a literature search predominantly focused on issues of activity, experiences of sexual dysfunction, and satisfaction with sexual functioning. The literature review identified themes beyond these aspects. In total 53 potentially relevant issues were presented to 107 patients and 83 HCPs, different evaluations were found. Conclusions A questionnaire that includes physical, psychological, and social aspects of sexuality of cancer survivors will be needed. Pre-testing and validation of the questionnaire will be done in future (phases 3 and 4). Divergent ratings of patients and professionals should be further investigated. PMID:26816816

  14. How to evaluate sexual health in cancer patients: development of the EORTC sexual health questionnaire for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nagele, Eva; Den Oudsten, Brenda; Greimel, Elfriede

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the development of a comprehensive European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire to assess sexual health of female and male cancer patients and for cancer survivors. According to the EORTC guidelines, the development of an EORTC sexual health questionnaire is typically organised in four phases. The first phases comprise a literature search following interviews with patient and health care professionals (HCPs) (phase 1) and the operationalization into items (phase 2). The translation process is formally conducted according to the EORTC QLG Translation guidelines with a rigorous forward-backward procedure supported by native speakers. Studies on sexuality in oncology patients which were identified by a literature search predominantly focused on issues of activity, experiences of sexual dysfunction, and satisfaction with sexual functioning. The literature review identified themes beyond these aspects. In total 53 potentially relevant issues were presented to 107 patients and 83 HCPs, different evaluations were found. A questionnaire that includes physical, psychological, and social aspects of sexuality of cancer survivors will be needed. Pre-testing and validation of the questionnaire will be done in future (phases 3 and 4). Divergent ratings of patients and professionals should be further investigated.

  15. SMS for Sexual Health: A Comparison of Service Types and Recommendations for Sexual Health Text Message Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Muldrow, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Text message-based interventions may provide sexual health information to young people through a number of service types, from sending information on a regularly scheduled timeline, to providing an automated menu, to allowing young people to connect directly with health educators. While such service types exist, it is not clear which…

  16. SMS for Sexual Health: A Comparison of Service Types and Recommendations for Sexual Health Text Message Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Muldrow, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Text message-based interventions may provide sexual health information to young people through a number of service types, from sending information on a regularly scheduled timeline, to providing an automated menu, to allowing young people to connect directly with health educators. While such service types exist, it is not clear which…

  17. Alcohol and cannabis: Comparing their adverse health effects and regulatory regimes.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne

    2016-11-28

    The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use. Third, it speculates about how the adverse health effects of cannabis may change after legalisation. Fourth, it questions the assumption that alcohol provides the best regulatory model for a legal cannabis market. Fifth, it outlines the major challenges in regulating cannabis under the liberal alcohol-like regulatory regimes now being introduced.

  18. Lifespan adversity and later adulthood telomere length in the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Gemmill, Alison; Weir, David; Adler, Nancy E.; Prather, Aric A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress over the lifespan is thought to promote accelerated aging and early disease. Telomere length is a marker of cell aging that appears to be one mediator of this relationship. Telomere length is associated with early adversity and with chronic stressors in adulthood in many studies. Although cumulative lifespan adversity should have bigger impacts than single events, it is also possible that adversity in childhood has larger effects on later life health than adult stressors, as suggested by models of biological embedding in early life. No studies have examined the individual vs. cumulative effects of childhood and adulthood adversities on adult telomere length. Here, we examined the relationship between cumulative childhood and adulthood adversity, adding up a range of severe financial, traumatic, and social exposures, as well as comparing them to each other, in relation to salivary telomere length. We examined 4,598 men and women from the US Health and Retirement Study. Single adversities tended to have nonsignificant relations with telomere length. In adjusted models, lifetime cumulative adversity predicted 6% greater odds of shorter telomere length. This result was mainly due to childhood adversity. In adjusted models for cumulative childhood adversity, the occurrence of each additional childhood event predicted 11% increased odds of having short telomeres. This result appeared mainly because of social/traumatic exposures rather than financial exposures. This study suggests that the shadow of childhood adversity may reach far into later adulthood in part through cellular aging. PMID:27698131

  19. Sexual Health Behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) Users

    PubMed Central

    Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. Objective We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Methods Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18–64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N=1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Results Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs. 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs. 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs. 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Conclusion Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower-income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. PMID:26242551

  20. Sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18-64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N = 1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV risk and sexual health among female migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Chen, Lin; Song, Dandan; Wang, Jun; Tao, Haidong; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2016-09-01

    Sexual behavior is the dominant mode of HIV transmission in China, and young female migrants are among the populations at highest risk. This article examines how HIV-related risk behaviors among female migrants might vary according to workplace settings. Participants were young female migrants recruited from three workplace settings-factories, restaurants and entertainment venues. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed 457 participants' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, condom use knowledge, sexual behaviors, condom use behavior and reproductive health factors. Participants working in entertainment venues were significantly more likely than those working in factories and restaurants to report sexual behavior, unprotected sex, multiple pregnancy terminations and sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, participants working in factories and restaurants reported significantly lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use knowledge, condom use self-efficacy and history of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing. Independent correlates of unprotected sex included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history and sexual self-efficacy. Independent correlates of STI or genitourinary tract infection included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history, recent migration and recent unprotected sex. These findings indicate a need for sexual and reproductive health interventions prioritizing young female migrants, and call for programs that can be incorporated into different workplace settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a healthy life Mental health for men Sexual health for men Male infertility Prostate health Sexual problems ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Men's Health > Sexual health for men Men's Health This information in Spanish ( ...

  3. Sexuality beliefs among Cambodians: implications for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J C

    1994-01-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted among 53 Cambodian women and men to generate information about the sexuality beliefs of this group. Major themes included the relationship between women's sexuality and family honor, the acceptance of pregnancy as inevitable, and the limited discussion of sexuality among intimate friends and family members. During the war, sexuality was controlled by the Khmer Rouge when family life was restructured. Personnel in the refugee camps introduced the concept of family planning to Cambodians, exposing them not only to new information, but also to discussion of an intimate topic with strangers. The resettlement experience continues this trend while rumors about family planning methods continue and premarital pregnancies occur. Health care professionals who work with Cambodians need to do so in collaboration and conjunction with the community.

  4. Between Pregnancy and Motherhood: Identifying Unmet Mental Health Needs in Pregnant Women with Lifetime Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Angela J.; Thomas, Melanie; Nau, Melissa; Rivera, Luisa M.; Harris, William W.; Bernstein, Rosemary E.; Castro, Gloria; Lieberman, Alicia F.; Gantt, Tahnee

    2017-01-01

    The prenatal period represents an opportunity to buffer the intergenerational transmission of adversity through integrated, comprehensive perinatal health services for women experiencing high levels of adversity and clinical symptoms. This article presents preliminary descriptive data, drawn from an ongoing clinical research study, on prenatal…

  5. Pregnancy intentions and happiness among pregnant black women at high risk for adverse infant health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blake, Susan M; Kiely, Michele; Gard, Charlotte C; El-Mohandes, Ayman A E; El-Khorazaty, M Nabil

    2007-12-01

    Unintended pregnancy is associated with risk behaviors and increased morbidity or mortality for mothers and infants, but a woman's feelings about pregnancy may be more predictive of risk and health outcomes than her intentions. A sample of 1,044 black women who were at increased risk were enrolled at prenatal care clinics in the District of Columbia in 2001-2003. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed associations between pregnancy intentions or level of happiness about being pregnant and multiple psychosocial and behavioral risk factors, and identified correlates of happiness to be pregnant. Pregnancy intentions and happiness were strongly associated, but happiness was the better predictor of risk. Unhappy women had higher odds than happy women of smoking, being depressed, experiencing intimate partner violence, drinking and using illicit drugs (odds ratios, 1.7-2.6). The odds of being happy were reduced among women who had other children or a child younger than two, who were single or did not have a current partner, who had had more than one sexual partner in the past year and who reported that the baby's father did not want the pregnancy (0.3-0.6). In contrast, the odds of being happy were elevated among women who had better coping strategies (1.03), who had not used birth control at conception (1.6) and who had 1-2 household members, rather than five or more (2.1). Additional psychosocial screening for happiness about being pregnant and for partner characteristics, particularly the father's desire to have this child, may help improve prenatal care services and prevent adverse health outcomes.

  6. Adverse Health Problems Among Municipality Workers in Alexandria (Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W.; Eassa, Safaa M.; Lotfi, Sameh E.; El Masry, Sanaa A.; Shatat, Hanan Z.; Kotkat, Amira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Solid waste management has emerged as an important human and environmental health issue. Municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) are potentially exposed to a variety of occupational biohazards and safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe health practices and safety measures adopted by workers in the main municipal company in Alexandria (Egypt) as well as the pattern of the encountered work related ill health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013. We interviewed and evaluated 346 workers serving in about 15 different solid waste management activities regarding personal hygiene, the practice of security and health care measures and the impact of solid waste management. Results: Poor personal hygiene and self-care, inadequate protective and safety measures for potentially hazardous exposure were described. Impact of solid waste management on health of MSWWs entailed high prevalence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and musculoskeletal morbidities. Occurrence of accidents and needle stick injuries amounted to 46.5% and 32.7% respectively. The risk of work related health disorders was notably higher among workers directly exposed to solid waste when compared by a group of low exposure potential particularly for diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.8), vomiting (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6), abdominal colic (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2), dysentery (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10), dyspepsia (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3), low back/sciatic pain (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.8-7), tinnitus (OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 0.3-122) and needle stick injury (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.1-5.5). Conclusions: Workers exposed to solid waste exhibit significant increase in risk of ill health. Physician role and health education could be the key to assure the MSWWs health safety. PMID:24932385

  7. Pilot Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Sexual Health Service Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…

  8. Pilot Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Sexual Health Service Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…

  9. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  10. Sexual Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... and conditions Caregiving Wellness Staying active Mental health Sexual health Sexual difficulties Protecting yourself Safety and abuse Falls ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging Sexual difficulties Learn more about men's ...

  11. Revisualising 'porn': how young adults' consumption of sexually explicit Internet movies can inform approaches to Canadian sexual health promotion.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kathleen A; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Jackson, Lois; Steenbeek, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The Internet offers an invaluable opportunity to re-imagine ideas, constructs and disciplines to create innovative sexual health promotion interventions. To gain insight into what young adults (aged 19-28) may be seeking in online sexual resources and approaches, this study explored how young people perceived their sexual health to be influenced by their consumption of the highly utilised sexual medium of Sexually Explicit Internet Movies [SEIM]. Employing an exploratory, qualitative methodology, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 urban, heterosexual young adults, who self-identified as having consumed SEIM for a period of at least one year. All interviews were audiotaped with permission, transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed to identify emergent thematic concepts. Participants described utilising SEIM as an all-inclusive sexual forum to learn more about the positive aspects of sexual health, in a context that they viewed as being devoid of alternatives. Young adults' perceptions of the utility of SEIM suggest that it would be beneficial to create novel, sex-positive online sexual health interventions. Further exploration is clearly warranted on how Internet resources that are related to sexual health, such as SEIM, can be utilised to facilitate innovative approaches to online sexual health promotion.

  12. The social context of sexual health and sexual risk for urban adolescent girls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bohinski, Julia M; Boente, Alyssa

    2009-07-01

    Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health.

  13. The Social Context of Sexual Health and Sexual Risk for Urban Adolescent Girls in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bohinski, Julia M.; Boente, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health. PMID:19544131

  14. Young Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Post HPV Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Murithi, Lydia Karuta

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the authors sought to explore, in greater depth, the impact that HPV vaccination has on college-aged women's reproductive and sexual health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 HPV-vaccinated, college women and analyzed for reoccurring themes. Although findings revealed that women's HPV-related knowledge was suboptimal, most women correctly believed that they were still at risk for HPV after having received the vaccination. Women indicated that having the HPV vaccine made them more aware of sexually transmitted infections and prompted them to continue to take care of their sexual health. Women reported that having the HPV vaccine did not influence their condom use or birth control choices, and they believed that obtaining Pap smears was still important. These results help us to understand the impact of HPV vaccination on women's reproductive and sexual health. These findings are promising and reinforce the importance of educating women about behaviors that will help them maintain reproductive and sexually healthy lives.

  15. Vaginal Microbiome and Its Relationship to Behavior, Sexual Health, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Felicia M T; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-04-01

    The vaginal microbiota has great significance in maintaining vaginal health and protecting the host from disease. Recent advances in molecular techniques and informatics allow researchers to explore microbial composition in detail and to compare the structure of vaginal microbial communities with behavior and health outcomes, particularly acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and poor birth outcomes. Vaginal flora have been found to cluster into a limited number of communities, although community structure is dynamic. Certain community types are more associated with poor reproductive outcomes and STDs; communities dominated by Lactobacillus species, particularly Lactobacillus crispatus, are most associated with vaginal health. Modifiable and nonmodifiable factors are strongly associated with community composition, including behavior, race or ethnicity, and hygiene. In this review, we describe the state of the science on the vaginal microbiome and its relationship to behavior, sexual health, and STDs, including determinants of the microbiome that go beyond an individual level.

  16. Sexual health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth in England.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Ayla R F; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2017-01-23

    Transgender youth often face difficulties when accessing sexual health services. However, few studies investigate health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth, and fewer focus on sexual health. To fill this gap, our study draws on social representations theory to examine sexual health service providers' perceptions of transgender youth and how this influences the provision of health services for this marginalised population in England. A thematic analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews with service providers, conducted between March and June 2014, resulted in five main themes centred on: binary representations of transgender; transgender as homosexuality; uncertain bodies; unstable mental states; and too young to know. Of the service providers interviewed, many understood transgender within a male/female binary, and perceived being transgender to be synonymous with being gay. There was confusion among service providers regarding transgender youths' sexual organs, and most of those interviewed saw transgender youth as mentally unstable and confused. Finally, many service providers perceived that transgender youth are too young to know that they are transgender and make decisions about their body. Some of these representations were potentially stigmatising and many conflicted with transgender youths' representations of themselves. Training by transgender people is recommended to help address these misunderstandings.

  17. The application of a feminist poststructural framework in nursing practice for addressing young women's sexual health.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Christine; Goldberg, Lisa; Aston, Megan

    2016-08-01

    Using a feminist poststructuralist framework, this paper examines the conflicting discourses of young women who experience power struggles with regard to their sexuality and sexual health practices. It aims to provide nurses with a pragmatic framework for exploring, interrogating and potentially transforming health care situations when caring for young women in a sexual health setting. Sexuality and sexual health are important components of health and well-being. Young men and women are continually perpetuated with societal ideals of sexuality and sexual health practices. Young women specifically, receive societal and peer pressure to conform to certain sexual health practices that can lead to both positive and negative health outcomes. Nurses and other health care providers may care for young women in a public or acute care setting that are living with these conflicting sexual health discourses. A review of the literature on young women's sexuality and sexual health was conducted and analysed using a feminist poststructuralist framework. A review of the sexual health literature on young women was conducted. Issues identified from the review, as they relate to sexual discourse were power, language, subjectivity and agency. Nursing strategies to address these issues in practice were identified using a feminist poststructuralist framework. The feminist poststructural framework highlights the conflicting discourses related to young women's sexuality and sexual health practices. This paper provides a pragmatic example of how to incorporate theory to improve nurses' understanding of an individual or group's health. Examples of how a feminist poststructural framework can be used to enhance sexual health nursing practice are discussed, such as helping nurses to challenge the status quo and question the sexual health norms among young women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Childhood Adverse Events and Health Outcomes among Methamphetamine-Dependent Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Nena P.; Marinelli-Casey, Patricia; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ang, Alfonso; Hunter, Jeremy; Rawson, Richard

    2008-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of childhood adverse events (CAEs) among methamphetamine-dependent men and women, and assess the relationship of cumulative CAEs to health problems. Data for 236 men and 351 women were analyzed assessing CAEs. Dependent variables included 14 self-reported health problems or psychiatric symptom domains. Mental health was…

  19. Childhood Adverse Events and Health Outcomes among Methamphetamine-Dependent Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Nena P.; Marinelli-Casey, Patricia; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ang, Alfonso; Hunter, Jeremy; Rawson, Richard

    2008-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of childhood adverse events (CAEs) among methamphetamine-dependent men and women, and assess the relationship of cumulative CAEs to health problems. Data for 236 men and 351 women were analyzed assessing CAEs. Dependent variables included 14 self-reported health problems or psychiatric symptom domains. Mental health was…

  20. Assessment and documentation of sexual health issues of recent combat veterans seeking VHA care.

    PubMed

    Helmer, Drew A; Beaulieu, Gregory R; Houlette, Cheryl; Latini, David; Goltz, Heather H; Etienne, Samuel; Kauth, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sexual health is an important aspect of human existence associated with disease and overall health. Despite these associations and the existence of medical treatments to improve sexual function, sexual health is often overlooked in health care. Recent combat veterans may be particularly vulnerable to sexual health issues due to their deployment-related health issues such as mental health conditions, prescription medications use, and psychosocial challenges. This study assesses the sexual health issues of recent combat veterans seeking care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) documented in the primary care and mental health notes from the first 6 months of care. Documentation of sexual health issues in the progress notes (coded into categories), primary care vs. mental health care visit note, initial vs. follow-up visit notes, and templated vs. non-templated text. This is a retrospective chart review of the first 158 consecutive patients seen for an initial assessment in the VAMC post-deployment clinic. Medical records were reviewed and text of sexual health issues and relevant patient and care characteristics were abstracted and coded into variables. Almost 25% of patients had documented sexual health issues in the first 6 months of care. We coded 52 separate sexual health issues into 13 distinct categories. Overall, most sexual health issues were documented in mental health care notes, in non-templated text, and at follow-up visits. The use of templated text appeared to drive the documentation of low libido (the most common sexual health issue) in mental health care notes. Sexual health issues are prevalent in recent combat veterans seeking care at a VAMC, but patterns of documentation suggest that they may be under-reported or incompletely addressed. A more systematic and provider-initiated approach to assessment of sexual health may promote fuller discussion of sexual health issues and optimize management. © 2013 International Society for Sexual

  1. Young Males' Sexual Education and Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Marion; Davis, Jackie; Evans-Ray, Donnie; Mitchell, Marie; Apomah, Marian

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the basis for one hospital’s decision to restructure its teen family planning clinical services. We examined results of surveys conducted from 1998 to 2003 with more than 2000 mostly African American eighth-grade boys. Most young males wanted to postpone sexual intercourse, but an even greater percentage were willing to use a method of protection. The hospital determined that it needed to give the same in-hospital clinical and counseling support to young males as it gives to young females. PMID:15284038

  2. Sexually transmitted infections and use of sexual health services among young Australian women: women's health Australia study.

    PubMed

    Schofield, M J; Minichiello, V; Mishra, G D; Plummer, D; Savage, J

    2000-05-01

    Our objective was to examine associations between self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sociodemographic, lifestyle, health status, health service use and quality of life factors among young Australian women; and their use of family planning and sexual health clinics and associations with health, demographic and psychosocial factors. The study sample comprised 14,762 women aged 18-23 years who participated in the mailed baseline survey for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, conducted in 1996. The main outcome measures are self report of ever being diagnosed by a doctor with an STI, including chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts or other STIs, and use of family planning and sexual health clinics. The self-reported incidence of STI was 1.7% for chlamydia, 1.1% genital herpes, 3.1% genital warts, and 2.1% other STIs. There was a large number of demographic, health behaviour, psychosocial and health service use factors significantly and independently associated with reports of having had each STI. Factors independently associated with use of family planning clinic included unemployment, current smoking, having had a Pap smear less than 2 years ago, not having ancillary health insurance, having consulted a hospital doctor and having higher stress and life events score. Factors independently associated with use of a sexual health clinic included younger age, lower occupation status, being a current or ex-smoker, being a binge drinker, having had a Pap smear, having consulted a hospital doctor, having poorer mental health and having higher life events score. This study reports interesting correlates of having an STI among young Australian women aged 18-23. The longitudinal nature of this study provides the opportunity to explore the long-term health and gynaecological outcomes of having STIs during young adulthood.

  3. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue.

  4. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  5. Adverse mental health outcomes associated with emotional abuse in young rural South African women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical and/or sexual abuse) and adverse health outcomes. Between 2002 and 2003, young women from 70 villages were recruited to participate in the cluster randomized controlled trial of an HIV behavioural intervention, Stepping Stones. Data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire at baseline. Of the 1293 women who had ever been partnered, 189 (14.6%) had experienced only emotional abuse in their lifetimes. Three hundred and sixty-six women (28.3%) experienced emotional abuse with physical and/or sexual abuse in their lifetimes, and one hundred and forty-four women (11.1%) experienced physical and/or sexual abuse without emotional abuse. Hazardous drinking was associated with the experience of physical and/or sexual abuse, with (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.0 – 36.6) and without emotional abuse (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.1 – 29.4). Illicit drug use (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.4 – 12.6), having depressive symptoms (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 – 4.2), having psychological distress (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 – 2.6), and suicidality (OR 79.0, 95% CI 17.3 – 359.6) was associated with the experience of emotional abuse with physical and/or sexual abuse. Suicidality was also strongly associated with having experienced emotional abuse alone (OR 79.5, 95% CI 16.7 – 377.4). This study showed that emotionally abused young women had a greater risk of suicidality than those experiencing no abuse and that the combined experience of emotional with physical and/or sexual abuse was strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes. PMID:21987516

  6. Adverse health effects of ethylene oxide and occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, K

    1984-01-01

    The proposed revision of the US standard for occupational exposure to ethylene oxide has recently been topical and controversial. Most of the recent experimental and epidemiological evidence of health effects, which provoked lowering the permissible exposure limit, appears to be unreliable and insufficient for risk assessment.

  7. Will it help? Identifying socialization discourses that promote sexual risk and sexual health among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kyla Day; Ward, L Monique; Thomas, Khia; Foust, Monica; Levin, Dana; Trinh, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Because much of the existing research examining sexual communication to African American youth focuses on demographic and parental factors predicting sexual risk behaviors, less is known about factors predicting sexual health, and little is understood about the contributions of peer communications. The current study aimed to expand existing approaches by assessing which socialization discourses communicated by parents and peers contribute to sexual risk and health outcomes (sexual assertiveness, positive sexual affect, and condom self-efficacy). Participants were 631 African American undergraduates (73% female) who indicated the extent to which they had received from their parents and peers each of 28 messages representing four cultural discourses: abstinence, relational sex, sex positive, and gendered sexual roles. As expected, parents were perceived to emphasize relational sex and abstinence messages more than peers, and peers were perceived to communicate sex-positive and gendered sex role messages more than parents. Greater exposure to abstinence messages predicted lower levels of sexual experimentation, whereas exposure to sex-positive messages predicted higher levels. In addition, exposure to relational sex and sex-positive messages predicted higher levels of sexual assertiveness and positive sexual affect. Implications are discussed concerning sexual communications that could help Black youth develop healthy sexual perspectives.

  8. Sexual and physical health after sex reassignment surgery.

    PubMed

    De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy; Beerten, Ruth; Selvaggi, Gennaro; De Sutter, Petra; Hoebeke, Piet; Monstrey, Stan; Vansteenwegen, Alfons; Rubens, Robert

    2005-12-01

    A long-term follow-up study of 55 transsexual patients (32 male-to-female and 23 female-to-male) post-sex reassignment surgery (SRS) was carried out to evaluate sexual and general health outcome. Relatively few and minor morbidities were observed in our group of patients, and they were mostly reversible with appropriate treatment. A trend toward more general health problems in male-to-females was seen, possibly explained by older age and smoking habits. Although all male-to-females, treated with estrogens continuously, had total testosterone levels within the normal female range because of estrogen effects on sex hormone binding globulin, only 32.1% reached normal free testosterone levels. After SRS, the transsexual person's expectations were met at an emotional and social level, but less so at the physical and sexual level even though a large number of transsexuals (80%) reported improvement of their sexuality. The female-to-males masturbated significantly more frequently than the male-to-females, and a trend to more sexual satisfaction, more sexual excitement, and more easily reaching orgasm was seen in the female-to-male group. The majority of participants reported a change in orgasmic feeling, toward more powerful and shorter for female-to-males and more intense, smoother, and longer in male-to-females. Over two-thirds of male-to-females reported the secretion of a vaginal fluid during sexual excitation, originating from the Cowper's glands, left in place during surgery. In female-to-males with erection prosthesis, sexual expectations were more realized (compared to those without), but pain during intercourse was more often reported.

  9. Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Derrick D; Blosnich, John R; Farmer, Grant W; Adams, Brian J

    2014-03-01

    Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as "not sure" also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations.

  10. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  11. Increasing access by priority populations to Australian sexual health clinics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; O'Connor, Catherine C; Grulich, Andrew E; McNulty, Anna; Ryder, Nathan; Hellard, Margaret E; Guy, Rebecca J

    2013-10-01

    Data from a network of 35 Australian sexual health clinics, in geographically diverse locations, showed that the number and proportion of patients from priority populations (ie, young people, men who have sex with men, indigenous people, and female sex workers) increased significantly between 2004 and 2011.

  12. Sex Squad: Engaging Humour to Reinvigorate Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Robert; Gere, David

    2016-01-01

    The Sex Squad is a collective of US-based college students, who create and perform monologues, scenes and musical parodies for ninth graders (ranging in age from 13 to 15). The Sex Squad is the central element in the "AMP!" programme for adolescent sexual health, developed at the University of California-Los Angeles in collaboration with…

  13. Risk and Teenage Parenthood: An Early Sexual Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally; Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young people who may be at risk of teenage pregnancy or parenthood. Its aim was to enable practitioners to carry out an assessment using a screening tool, and to use educational…

  14. Sexual Victimization and Physical Health: An Examination of Explanatory Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Kathleen M.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of research illustrating a significant relationship between a history of sexual victimization and the development of physical health problems; however, few researchers have examined variables that mediate this relationship. The present study examined two potential mediating variables: experiential avoidance and current…

  15. Sex Squad: Engaging Humour to Reinvigorate Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Robert; Gere, David

    2016-01-01

    The Sex Squad is a collective of US-based college students, who create and perform monologues, scenes and musical parodies for ninth graders (ranging in age from 13 to 15). The Sex Squad is the central element in the "AMP!" programme for adolescent sexual health, developed at the University of California-Los Angeles in collaboration with…

  16. Benefits of inclusive continence assessments for sexual health.

    PubMed

    Britton, Sally

    Urinary incontinence can affect every aspect of a person's life, including her/his sexual health. It is more common in women than in men, and is defined as an involuntary leakage of urine (Abrams et al, 2002). Stress urinary incontinence and urge incontinence are the most common forms of incontinence in women.

  17. Sexual Health Care in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servais, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    In the past, preventive health concerning sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities was addressed through surgical sterilization as part of nationwide eugenic programs in many countries. For more than 30 years now, it has come progressively to light in the scientific literature that, besides major ethical and legal problems, these…

  18. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  19. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Impact on a Community's Mental Health Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathryn D.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the mental health status of the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area. A history of CSA was found to significantly increase an individual's odds of developing eight psychiatric disorders in adulthood. CSA's effect on the community level was also found to be substantial.…

  1. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  2. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  3. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  4. Sexual Health Care in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servais, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    In the past, preventive health concerning sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities was addressed through surgical sterilization as part of nationwide eugenic programs in many countries. For more than 30 years now, it has come progressively to light in the scientific literature that, besides major ethical and legal problems, these…

  5. [Development of a position on sexuality in health care providers].

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Juan; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    two attitudes were considered about sexual practice; one is centered in the reproduction, attaching to as a natural thing and intolerance to different expressions of sexuality. The other view according to prevent damage and sexual practices without guilt, bashful attitudes and intolerance. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention, upon the development of the position on sexuality in health care providers. study of comparative intervention. Two experimental groups and one control group with initial and final measurements were used. To compare two groups we used the U tests of Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis. the initial median of the experimental group 1 (GE1) and the witness (GT) were equal and significantly different from the experimental group 2 (GE2); in this one, only 31% of its members initiated without position, as opposed to the 100% of the GE1, and of 93 % of the GT. a high proportion of health care providers had no posture on sexuality. A position was not reached with the accumulating information; it develops through the questioning of their experience, the educational perspective being an essential factor to achieving it.

  6. Screening for Child Sexual Exploitation in Online Sexual Health Services: An Exploratory Study of Expert Views

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Hughes, Victoria; Syred, Jonathan; Allison, Alison; Holdsworth, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Background Sexual health services routinely screen for child sexual exploitation (CSE). Although sexual health services are increasingly provided online, there has been no research on the translation of the safeguarding function to online services. We studied expert practitioner views on safeguarding in this context. Objective The aim was to document expert practitioner views on safeguarding in the context of an online sexual health service. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with lead professionals purposively sampled from local, regional, or national organizations with a direct influence over CSE protocols, child protection policies, and sexual health services. Interviews were analyzed by three researchers using a matrix-based analytic method. Results Our respondents described two different approaches to safeguarding. The “information-providing” approach considers that young people experiencing CSE will ask for help when they are ready from someone they trust. The primary function of the service is to provide information, provoke reflection, generate trust, and respond reliably to disclosure. The approach values online services as an anonymous space to test out disclosure without commitment. The “information-gathering” approach considers that young people may withhold information about exploitation. Therefore, services should seek out information to assess risk and initiate disclosure. This approach values face-to-face opportunities for individualized questioning and immediate referral. Conclusions The information-providing approach is associated with confidential telephone support lines and the information-gathering approach with clinical services. The approach adopted online will depend on ethos and the range of services provided. Effective transition from online to clinic services after disclosure is an essential element of this process and further research is needed to understand and support this transition. PMID:28196790

  7. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141

  8. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Braxton, Nikia D; Crosby, Richard A; Brown, Larry K; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R

    2012-07-01

    Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13-18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.2, P=0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR=2.9, P=0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR=1.7, P=0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR=2.4, P=0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR=0.40, P=0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR=2.60, P=0.001) and have a STI (AOR=9.1, P=0.0001) than their male counterparts. Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  10. Summit on medical school education in sexual health: report of an expert consultation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Eli; Elders, Joycelyn; Satcher, David; Shindel, Alan; Parish, Sharon; Kenagy, Gretchen; Bayer, Carey Roth; Knudson, Gail; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Clayton, Anita; Lunn, Mitchell R; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Tsai, Perry; Light, Alexis

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: Medical education in sexual health in the United States and Canada is lacking. Medical students and practicing physicians report being underprepared to adequately address their patients' sexual health needs. Recent studies have shown little instruction on sexual health in medical schools and little consensus around the type of material medical students should learn. To address and manage sexual health issues, medical students need improved education and training. AIM.: This meeting report aims to present findings from a summit on the current state of medical school education in sexual health and provides recommended strategies to better train physicians to address sexual health. METHODS.: To catalyze improvements in sexual health education in medical schools, the summit brought together key U.S. and Canadian medical school educators, sexual health educators, and other experts. Attendees reviewed and discussed relevant data and potential recommendations in plenary sessions and then developed key recommendations in smaller breakout groups. RESULTS.: Findings presented at the summit demonstrate that the United States and Canada have high rates of poor sexual health outcomes and that sexual health education in medical schools is variable and in some settings diminished. To address these issues, government, professional, and student organizations are working on efforts to promote sexual health. Several universities already have sexual health curricula in place. Evaluation mechanisms will be essential for developing and refining sexual health education. CONCLUSIONS.: To be effective, sexual health curricula need to be integrated longitudinally throughout medical training. Identifying faculty champions and supporting student efforts are strategies to increase sexual health education. Sexual health requires a multidisciplinary approach, and cross-sector interaction between various public and private entities can help facilitate change. Areas important to

  11. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001–10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991–2000. Years 1971–80 and 1981–90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951–1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential. PMID:20386622

  12. Sexual harassment at work: issues and answers for health care administrators.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R K; Franklin, G M; Fink, R L

    1993-01-01

    Sexual harassment is not new to the health care industry. What is new is that recent media attention has heightened awareness that sexual harassment is illegal. This fact, coupled with the substantial liability that employers may incur if they fail to control sexual harassment, mandates the need for outlining the major issues relative to sexual harassment in today's health care setting. This article gives particular emphasis to the fact that sexual harassment can be prevented by taking a proactive stance.

  13. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  14. Ethical Issues in Adolescents' Sexual and Reproductive Health Research in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Haire, Bridget; Harrison, Abigail; Odetoyingbo, Morolake; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Brown, Brandon

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the need to address the ethical dilemmas related to the engagement of adolescents in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research. Research projects, including those that address issues related to STIs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence, and mental health, must be designed and implemented to address the needs of adolescents. Decisions on when an individual has adequate capacity to give consent for research most commonly use age as a surrogate rather than directly assessing capacity to understand the issues and make an informed decision on whether to participate in research or not. There is a perception that adolescents participating in research are more likely to be coerced and may therefore not fully comprehend the risk they may be taking when engaging in research. This paper examines the various ethical issues that may impact stakeholders' decision making when considering engaging adolescents in SRH research in Nigeria. It makes a case for lowering the age of consent for adolescents. While some experts believe it is possible to extrapolate relevant information from adult research, studies on ethical aspects of adolescents' participation in research are still needed, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health where there are often differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices compared to adults. The particular challenges of applying the fundamental principles of research ethics to adolescent research, especially research about sex and sexuality, will only become clear if more studies are conducted.

  15. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Sexual Violence Among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs on the United States–Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, Lotus; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Vera, Alicia; Sirotin, Nicole; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Raj, Anita

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of miscarriage/stillbirth among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and measures its associations with physical and sexual violence. Baseline data from 582 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an HIV intervention study in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico were used for current analyses. 30% of participants had experienced at least one miscarriage/stillbirth, 51% had experienced sexual violence, and 49% had experienced physical violence. History of miscarriage/stillbirth was associated with sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.7, p = .02) but not physical violence. Additional reproductive risks associated with miscarriage/stillbirth included high numbers of male clients in the previous month (aOR = 1.1 per 30 clients, p = 0.04), history of abortion (aOR = 3.7, p < .001), and higher number of pregnancies (aOR = 1.4 per additional pregnancy, p < .001). Programs and research with this population should integrate reproductive health and consider gender-based violence. PMID:23862312

  16. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and sexual violence among female sex workers who inject drugs on the United States-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    McDougal, Lotus; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Vera, Alicia; Sirotin, Nicole; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Raj, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of miscarriage/stillbirth among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and measures its associations with physical and sexual violence. Baseline data from 582 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an HIV intervention study in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico were used for current analyses. 30% of participants had experienced at least one miscarriage/stillbirth, 51% had experienced sexual violence, and 49% had experienced physical violence. History of miscarriage/stillbirth was associated with sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.7, p = .02) but not physical violence. Additional reproductive risks associated with miscarriage/stillbirth included high numbers of male clients in the previous month (aOR = 1.1 per 30 clients, p = 0.04), history of abortion (aOR = 3.7, p < .001), and higher number of pregnancies (aOR = 1.4 per additional pregnancy, p < .001). Programs and research with this population should integrate reproductive health and consider gender-based violence.

  17. Communicating with School Nurses about Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health.…

  18. Communicating with School Nurses about Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health.…

  19. Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-01-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity’s enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

  20. Health promotion in sexual health 2: how to put theory into practice and empower clients.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jayne

    This is the second in a two-part unit on health promotion in sexual health. Part 1 outlined various theories and models on the issue. This part examines the factors that contribute towards successful health promotion, such as an effective communication style. It outlines how nurses can put health-promotion theory, competencies and guidance into practice.

  1. Feasibility of a Sexual Health Clinic Within Cancer Care: A Pilot Study Using Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Myrna; McDivitt, Karmen; Ryan, Maureen; Tomlinson, Jamie; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    As cancer survival rates increase, so does the imperative for a satisfying quality of life, including a fulfilling sexual life. The feasibility and effectiveness of a newly formed Sexual Health Clinic were determined using a nurse-led format, which provided support to survivors in a cancer care setting. Twenty-one cancer survivors received assessment, education, and tailored sexual health support by an oncology nurse with specialized skills in sexual health. Two months later, semistructured interviews focused on patients' personal experiences. Questionnaires were also administered to healthcare providers involved in providing the follow-up care. Participants presented with sexual concerns that were psychological, physical, and/or relational. Scores on validated measures of sexual functioning were in the range comparable to those with a sexual dysfunction. Participants were open to being asked about sexual health and wanted professionals available who were skilled in dealing with sexual health services. Most participants experienced an improvement in their well-being and/or sexual life following participation. Some noted more confidence when speaking with their partner about sexual concerns. Our pilot Sexual Health Clinic was feasible, and evidence for its effectiveness was based on qualitative feedback. Participants and providers identified a strong need for the inclusion of sexual health services in cancer care. Oncology nurses are in a key position to initiate discussions surrounding sexual health issues related to cancer treatment. Self-awareness, sensitivity, and a nonjudgmental approach are required to address this dimension of holistic cancer care.

  2. Identification by families of pediatric adverse events and near misses overlooked by health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Jeremy P.; Hunc, Kate; Cochrane, D. Douglas; Carr, Roxane; Shaw, Nicola T.; Taylor, Annemarie; Heathcote, Susan; Brant, Rollin; Lim, Joanne; Ansermino, J. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background: Identifying adverse events and near misses is essential to improving safety in the health care system. Patients are capable of reliably identifying and reporting adverse events. The effect of a patient safety reporting system used by families of pediatric inpatients on reporting of adverse events by health care providers has not previously been investigated. Methods: Between Nov. 1, 2008, and Nov. 30, 2009, families of children discharged from a single ward of British Columbia’s Children’s Hospital were asked to respond to a questionnaire about adverse events and near misses during the hospital stay. Rates of reporting by health care providers for this period were compared with rates for the previous year. Family reports for specific incidents were matched with reports by health care providers to determine overlap. Results: A total of 544 familes responded to the questionnaire. The estimated absolute increase in reports by health care providers per 100 admissions was 0.5% (95% confidence interval −1.8% to 2.7%). A total of 321 events were identified in 201 of the 544 family reports. Of these, 153 (48%) were determined to represent legitimate patient safety concerns. Only 8 (2.5%) of the adverse events reported by families were also reported by health care providers. Interpretation: The introduction of a family-based system for reporting adverse events involving pediatric inpatients, administered at the time of discharge, did not change rates of reporting of adverse events and near misses by health care providers. Most reports submitted by families were not duplicated in the reporting system for health care providers, which suggests that families and staff members view safety-related events differently. However, almost half of the family reports represented legitimate patient safety concerns. Families appeared capable of providing valuable information for improving the safety of pediatric inpatients. PMID:22105750

  3. Adverse Effects of Methylmercury: Environmental Health Research Implications

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Eto, Komyo

    2010-01-01

    Background The scientific discoveries of health risks resulting from methylmercury exposure began in 1865 describing ataxia, dysarthria, constriction of visual fields, impaired hearing, and sensory disturbance as symptoms of fatal methylmercury poisoning. Objective Our aim was to examine how knowledge and consensus on methylmercury toxicity have developed in order to identify problems of wider concern in research. Data sources and extraction We tracked key publications that reflected new insights into human methylmercury toxicity. From this evidence, we identified possible caveats of potential significance for environmental health research in general. Synthesis At first, methylmercury research was impaired by inappropriate attention to narrow case definitions and uncertain chemical speciation. It also ignored the link between ecotoxicity and human toxicity. As a result, serious delays affected the recognition of methylmercury as a cause of serious human poisonings in Minamata, Japan. Developmental neurotoxicity was first reported in 1952, but despite accumulating evidence, the vulnerability of the developing nervous system was not taken into account in risk assessment internationally until approximately 50 years later. Imprecision in exposure assessment and other forms of uncertainty tended to cause an underestimation of methylmercury toxicity and repeatedly led to calls for more research rather than prevention. Conclusions Coupled with legal and political rigidity that demanded convincing documentation before considering prevention and compensation, types of uncertainty that are common in environmental research delayed the scientific consensus and were used as an excuse for deferring corrective action. Symptoms of methylmercury toxicity, such as tunnel vision, forgetfulness, and lack of coordination, also seemed to affect environmental health research and its interpretation. PMID:20529764

  4. The State of Sexual Health Education in U.S. Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criniti, S.; Andelloux, M.; Woodland, M. B.; Montgomery, O. C.; Hartmann, S. Urdaneta

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have shown that patients want to receive sexual health services from their physicians, doctors often lack the knowledge and skills to discuss sexual health with their patients. There is little consistency among medical schools and residency programs in the United States regarding comprehensiveness of education on sexual health.…

  5. Examining the Concept of Choice in Sexual Health Interventions for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Grace; Doull, Marion; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of choice are often drawn upon within sexual health promotion discourses to encourage young people to take "responsibility" for and promote their own sexual health and reproductive control. A systematic literature search using predefined inclusion criteria identified peer-reviewed articles focusing on sexual health interventions…

  6. The State of Sexual Health Education in U.S. Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criniti, S.; Andelloux, M.; Woodland, M. B.; Montgomery, O. C.; Hartmann, S. Urdaneta

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have shown that patients want to receive sexual health services from their physicians, doctors often lack the knowledge and skills to discuss sexual health with their patients. There is little consistency among medical schools and residency programs in the United States regarding comprehensiveness of education on sexual health.…

  7. Examining the Concept of Choice in Sexual Health Interventions for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Grace; Doull, Marion; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of choice are often drawn upon within sexual health promotion discourses to encourage young people to take "responsibility" for and promote their own sexual health and reproductive control. A systematic literature search using predefined inclusion criteria identified peer-reviewed articles focusing on sexual health interventions…

  8. Nurses on the Front Lines: Improving Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Across Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Diane; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Derouin, Anne; Villarruel, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    : Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents. Collectively, nurses can use their unique combination of knowledge and skills to make a positive impact on adolescent sexual and reproductive outcomes. Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to disseminate information about sexual and reproductive health to adolescents and their parents in communities, schools, public health clinics, and acute care settings. This article discusses the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine's goals and recommendations, which address adolescent sexual and reproductive health as both a health care and a human rights issue.

  9. Nurses on the Front Lines: Improving Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Across Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Diane Santa; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Derouin, Anne; Villarruel, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents. Collectively, nurses can use their unique combination of knowledge and skills to make a positive impact on adolescent sexual and reproductive outcomes. Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to disseminate information about sexual and reproductive health to adolescents and their parents in communities, schools, public health clinics, and acute care settings. This article discusses the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine’s goals and recommendations, which address adolescent sexual and reproductive health as both a health care and a human rights issue. PMID:28030408

  10. Childhood Adversities and Educational Attainment in Young Adulthood: The Role of Mental Health Problems in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Karin; Bültmann, Ute; Almansa, Josue; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment in young adulthood can be explained by mental health problems in adolescence and whether associations and pathways differ for boys and girls. Data were used of 2,230 participants from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a Dutch prospective cohort study with a 9-year follow-up. Childhood adversities were measured at age 11 years, mental health problems (i.e., externalizing, internalizing and attention problems with Youth Self-Report) at age 16 years, and educational attainment at age 19 years. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data, overall and stratified by gender. Only among boys, childhood adversities were associated with low educational attainment in young adulthood. Externalizing problems in adolescence explained 5% of the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment. Furthermore, for both boys and girls, externalizing problems in adolescence had a direct effect on educational attainment in young adulthood. Among boys, childhood adversities are associated with poorer educational outcomes of young adults. A part of this association runs via adolescent externalizing problems. The results suggest that boys, compared with girls, are less capable to cope with childhood adversities. Monitoring of exposed boys to childhood adversities is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Teaching medical students how to take a sexual history and discuss sexual health issues.

    PubMed

    Ng, C J; McCarthy, S A

    2002-12-01

    Taking a sexual history and discussing sexual health issues with patients form an important part of a medical consultation. These specific communication skills can be acquired through various teaching methods. This paper describes the communication skill workshops conducted for undergraduate medical students on how to talk to patients about sex. 198 medical students participated in a series of workshops conducted in the University of Malaya in 2001-2002. Pre- and post-workshop evaluations of the programme were carried out to find out the students' difficulties and to assess the usefulness of the workshop. The workshop consisted of a short lecture, role-plays and discussion. Only 34% of the participants had received some informal training during their clinical years. The main barriers encountered were gender and age differences, language and choice of words, patients and doctors feeling shy, and cultural differences. The workshop was felt to be useful (mean score 4.38, maximum 5.0), most students felt comfortable during the workshop (mean score 4.10, maximum 5.0) and there was significant improvement in the "comfort level" when talking to patients about sex after attending the workshop (P < 0.001). Gender, language and cultural differences were the main barriers in taking a sexual history and discussing sexual health issues among the medical students. Communication workshop was felt to be a useful and comfortable method of learning these specific.

  12. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  13. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  14. Sexual and reproductive health of migrants: does the EU care?

    PubMed

    Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore; Ooms, Gorik; Vettenburg, Nicole; Temmerman, Marleen; Roelens, Kristien

    2014-02-01

    The European Union (EU) refers to health as a human right in many internal and external communications, policies and agreements, defending its universality. In parallel, specific health needs of migrants originating from outside the EU have been acknowledged. Yet, their right to health and in particular sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is currently not ensured throughout the EU. This paper reflects on the results of a comprehensive literature review on migrants' SRH in the EU applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis review method. We highlight the discrepancy between a proclaimed rights-based approach to health and actual obstacles to migrants' attainment of good SRH. Uncertainties on entitlements of diverse migrant groups are fuelled by unclear legal provisions, creating significant barriers to access health systems in general and SRH services in particular. Furthermore, the rare strategies addressing migrants' health fail to address sexual health and are generally limited to perinatal care and HIV screening. Thus, future European public health policy-making should not only strongly encourage its Member States to ensure equal access to health care for migrants as for EU citizens, but also promote migrants' SRH effectively through a holistic and inclusive approach in SRH policies, prevention and care.

  15. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    PubMed

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality.

  17. A Comparison of Sexual Health History and Practices among Monogamous and Consensually Nonmonogamous Sexual Partners.

    PubMed

    Lehmiller, Justin J

    2015-10-01

    Although consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships are presumed to be far riskier for partners' sexual health compared with monogamous relationships, the disparity between them may be smaller than assumed. A growing body of research finds that many partners who have made monogamy agreements cheat, and when they do, they are less likely to practice safe sex than CNM partners. Extant comparisons of monogamous and CNM relationships are rare and have yet to establish whether rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STI testing differ between these groups. The present research compared self-reported STI history, lifetime number of sex partners, and condom use practices among monogamous and CNM partners. Participants (N = 556) were recruited for an online survey of "attitudes toward sexual relationships." Approximately two-thirds of the sample reported current involvement in a monogamous relationship, with the remainder indicating involvement in a CNM relationship. All participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of condom use practices with primary and extra-pair partners, as well as their STI history. CNM partners reported more lifetime sexual partners than individuals in monogamous relationships. In addition, compared with monogamous partners, CNM partners were more likely to (i) report using condoms during intercourse with their primary partner; (ii) report using condoms during intercourse with extradyadic partners; and (iii) report having been tested for STIs. Approximately one-quarter of monogamous partners reported sex outside of their primary relationship, most of whom indicated that their primary partner did not know about their infidelity. The percentage of participants reporting previous STI diagnoses did not differ across relationship type. CNM partners reported taking more precautions than those in monogamous relationships in terms of greater condom use during intercourse with all partners and a higher likelihood of STI

  18. Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Anita

    2003-01-01

    Genetically modified crops have the potential to eliminate hunger and starvation in millions of people, especially in developing countries because the genetic modification can produce large amounts of foods that are more nutritious. Large quantities are produced because genetically modified crops are more resistant to pests and drought. They also contain greater amounts of nutrients, such as proteins and vitamins. However, there are concerns about the safety of genetically modified crops. The concerns are that they may contain allergenic substances due to introduction of new genes into crops. Another concern is that genetic engineering often involves the use of antibiotic-resistance genes as "selectable markers" and this could lead to production of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that are resistant to available antibiotics. This would create a serious public health problem. The genetically modified crops might contain other toxic substances (such as enhanced amounts of heavy metals) and the crops might not be "substantially equivalent" in genome, proteome, and metabolome compared with unmodified crops. Another concern is that genetically modified crops may be less nutritious; for example, they might contain lower amounts of phytoestroge