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Sample records for adverse social consequences

  1. Early antiretroviral therapy initiation in west Africa has no adverse social consequences: a 24-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jean, Kévin; Niangoran, Serge; Danel, Christine; Moh, Raoul; Kouamé, Gérard Menan; Badjé, Anani; Gabillard, Delphine; Eholié, Serge; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Desgrées-Du-LoÛ, Annabel

    2016-06-19

    Based on social indicators collected within the TEMPRANO-ANRS12136 trial, we assessed the social consequences of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in west Africa. We did not observe any significant differences in the levels or the time trends of various social indicators, including union status, HIV disclosure and HIV-related discrimination, between early and deferred ART initiation. Early ART does not carry detectable adverse social consequences that could impair its clinical and preventive benefits. PMID:27003034

  2. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    YAZDKHASTI, Mansureh; POURREZA, Abolghasem; PIRAK, Arezoo; ABDI, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births) imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013). Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation. PMID:26060771

  3. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Yazdkhasti, Mansureh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Pirak, Arezoo; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births) imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013). Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation. PMID:26060771

  4. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

  5. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  6. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace. PMID:26754766

  7. Workplace Bullying: A Tale of Adverse Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  8. Workplace bullying: a tale of adverse consequences.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  9. Mechanisms of adverse cardiometabolic consequences of obesity.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Melean, Carlos M; Somers, Virend K; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan Pablo; Singh, Prachi; Sochor, Ondrej; Llano, Ernesto Manuel; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is an epidemic that threatens the health of millions of people worldwide and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. There are multiple and complex mechanisms to explain how obesity can cause cardiovascular disease. In recent years, studies have shown some limitations in the way we currently define obesity and assess adiposity. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity and on the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular comorbidities, and provides a brief review of the latest studies focused on normal weight obesity and the obesity paradox. PMID:24048571

  10. Adverse health consequences of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Cregler, L. L.

    1989-01-01

    Cocaine creates a strong physical addiction and is becoming recognized as one of the most dangerous illicit drugs abused today. The myth is that cocaine is harmless and nonaddictive. An estimated 30 million Americans have used cocaine, but the number may be as high as 40 million. Five to six million individuals are compulsive users. A review of the current literature revealed multiple reports of acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident with a temporal relation to cocaine use. Cocaine has also been associated with acute rupture of the aorta, cardiac arrhythmia, and sudden death. Cocaine has multisystem toxicity involving neurologic, psychiatric, obstetric, pulmonary, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal systems. The dopamine depletion hypothesis may explain why cocaine is repeatedly administered; cocaine produces a transient increase in synaptic dopamine. Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission may be responsible for the development of compulsive use patterns. When cocaine use becomes compulsive, psychosocial dysfunction, deviant behaviors, and a wide spectrum of social, financial, and family problems invariably result. Addiction, major medical complications, and death are true hazards of cocaine use. PMID:2657079

  11. Alcohol-related adverse consequences: cross-cultural variations in attribution process among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Martin A.; Plant, Moira L.; Miller, Patrick; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Social norms around what is culturally accepted in terms of alcohol consumption and drunken comportment appear important regarding the acceptance of alcohol-related adverse consequences; however, investigations often neglect to consider differences in terms of attribution. This study aims at assessing cross-cultural differences in the reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences. It also considers differences across consequences that might explain which type of consequences (mainly acute or mainly chronic) are most affected by an attribution process. Methods: Conditional regression models were estimated based on data from eight European countries participating in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture—An International Study (GENACIS) project. Cases were matched to controls based on usual drinking patterns in order to control for average volume of alcohol and frequency of ‘risky single occasion drinking’ (RSOD). Results: Differences among the patterns of associations between countries and consequences were evident. The distinction between Nordic and other European countries was persistent. A higher variability of associations was observed for some consequences, namely the mainly acute instances. Finally, the Isle of Man and Switzerland showed specific trends with associations across consequences. Conclusion: Reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences seemed strongly affected by cultural norms. The latter may be exemplified by viewing drinking as ‘time-out’ behaviour. Respondents in countries with a stereotypical history of being ‘dry’ or with a stereotyped ‘binge’ drinking culture were more likely to attribute consequences to their alcohol consumption than people in ‘wet’ countries. This was particularly true for consequences that related to episodic ‘time-out’ heavy drinking. PMID:18287104

  12. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts. PMID:26527429

  13. Needle phobia: etiology, adverse consequences, and patient management.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Chester J; Giovannitti, Joseph A; Boynes, Sean G

    2010-10-01

    Needle phobia has profound health, dental, societal, and legal implications, and severe psychological, social, and physiologic consequences. There is genetic evidence for the physiologic response to needle puncture, and a significant familial psychological component, showing evidence of inheritance. Needle phobia is also a learned behavior. The dental practitioner must recognize patients with needle phobia before the administration of local anesthetics to identify patients who are potentially reactive and to prevent untoward sequelae. Needle phobia is highly associated with avoidance behavior, and the dentist must exhibit compassion and respect. To avoid bradycardia, hypotension, unconsciousness, convulsions, and possibly asystole, oral premedication with benzodiazepines or other antianxiety agents must be considered for patients who are needle phobic. Management of needle phobiaeinduced syncope includes perioperative monitoring, oxygen administration, positioning, atropine, and vasopressors. PMID:20831935

  14. Social Causes and Consequences of Rejection Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Bonita; Downey, Geraldine; Bonica, Cheryl; Paltin, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Predictions from the Rejection Sensitivity (RS) model concerning the social causes and consequences of RS were examined in a longitudinal study of 150 middle school students. Peer nominations of rejection, self-report measures of anxious and angry rejection expectations, and social anxiety, social withdrawal, and loneliness were assessed at two…

  15. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  16. Narghile smoking and its adverse health consequences: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Dar-Odeh, N S; Abu-Hammad, O A

    2009-06-13

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world health problem with approximately 50% of patients having a 5-year survival rate. A change in the demographics of the disease is now being recognised, particularly in Europe, where it is increasingly being seen in young males. While a variety of risk factors are important in OSCC, it is tobacco that plays a central part in the pathogenesis of the disease. Narghile is an old form of tobacco use but in the past decade, there has been a resurgence in this form of smoking. The practice is particularly common in young males and females from the Middle East but with the advent of immigration and globalisation, its use is becoming more widespread. It is now not uncommon to see narghile smoking in western countries such as the UK and USA. Studies describing the oral effects of narghile are unfortunately scarce. While adverse effects such as periodontal bone loss and dry socket have been described, its association with OSCC cannot be excluded. Variation in the type of narghile, the type of tobacco and the presence of co-factors such as cigarette smoking may all influence clinical outcome. In the present study, the practice of narghile smoking is reviewed in terms of its effect on health, particularly oral health. The association of narghile smoking and adverse effects on the orofacial region will be outlined, namely, periodontal disease, potentially malignant lesions and oral cancer. PMID:19521371

  17. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  18. Affective and Behavioral Consequences of Social Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria N.; Major, Brenda

    Considerable attention in recent years has focused on the consequences of social comparisons and has suggested that learning that one's outcomes or abilities compare unfavorably to others' is an unpleasant, if not painful experience. Indeed, upward comparisons have been shown to result in negative affect, loss of self-esteem, stress symptoms, and…

  19. Increases in Wheelchair Breakdowns, Repairs, and Adverse Consequences for People with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Worobey, Lynn; Oyster, Michelle; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Cooper, Rory; Boninger, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to report the current incidence of wheelchair breakdowns, repairs, and consequences and to compare current data with historical data. Design A convenience sample survey of 723 participants with spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for more than 40 hrs/wk treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems center was conducted. Results Significant increases were found in the number of participants reporting repairs (7.8%) and adverse consequences (23.5%) in a 6-mo period (2006Y2011) compared with historical data (2004Y2006) (P G 0.001). When examining current data, minorities experienced a greater frequency and higher number of reported consequences (P = 0.03). Power wheelchair users reported a higher number of repairs and consequences than did manual wheelchair users (P G 0.001). Wheelchairs equipped with seat functions were associated with a greater frequency of adverse consequences (P = 0.01). Repairs did not vary across funding source, but individuals with wheelchairs provided by Medicare and Medicaid reported a higher frequency of consequences than did the combined group of the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation, Worker’s Compensation, and the Veterans Administration (P = 0.034 and P = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions The incidence and consequences of repairs are increasing from what was already a very high statistic in this United States population. Further investigation into causality is required, and intervention is needed to reverse this potential trend. PMID:22549473

  20. Anticipating the Social Consequences of AIDS: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on the social consequences of the AIDS epidemic, arguing that sociologists have an important contribution to make in planning for the long-range social consequences of AIDS. Concludes with three different commentaries on Berk's article. (Author/BSR)

  1. Overdependence on Technology: An Unintended Adverse Consequence of Computerized Provider Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Emily M.; Sittig, Dean F.; Guappone, Kenneth P.; Dykstra, Richard H.; Ash, Joan S.

    Computerized provider order entry(CPOE) and other clinical information systems can help reduce medical errors, promote practice standardization, and improve the quality of patient care. However, implementing these systems can result in unintended adverse consequences. Our multidisciplinary team used qualitative methods to gather and analyze data describing unintended adverse consequences related to CPOE adoption and use. Overdependence on technology emerged as one of nine major types we identified. Careful analysis of these data revealed three themes: 1) system downtime can create chaos when there are insufficient backup systems in place, 2) users have false expectations regarding data accuracy and processing, and 3) some clinicians cannot work efficiently without computerized systems. We provide recommendations for mitigating these important issues. PMID:18693805

  2. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  3. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as 'developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)' or 'Barker' hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene-environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10-20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  4. Adverse health consequences of US Government responses to the 2001 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2011-09-01

    In response to the attacks on Sept 11, 2001 (9/11), and the related security concerns, the USA and its coalition partners began a war in Afghanistan and subsequently invaded Iraq. The wars caused many deaths of non-combatant civilians, further damaged the health-supporting infrastructure and the environment (already adversely affected by previous wars), forced many people to migrate, led to violations of human rights, and diverted resources away from important health needs. After 9/11 and the anthrax outbreak shortly afterwards, the USA and other countries have improved emergency preparedness and response capabilities, but these actions have often diverted attention and resources from more urgent health issues. The documentation and dissemination of information about the adverse health effects of these wars and about the diversion of resources could help to mitigate these consequences and prevent their recurrence. PMID:21890059

  5. Adverse Health Consequences of Performance-Enhancing Drugs: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Harrison G.; Wood, Ruth I.; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981

  6. Adverse health consequences of performance-enhancing drugs: an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    PubMed

    Pope, Harrison G; Wood, Ruth I; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981

  7. Psychological Consequences of Multiple Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored consequences of having mulitiple roles. Questioned 500 employed women about self-esteem; satisfaction with careers, partners, and children; perceptions of life stress and pleasure; and number of roles held. Higher self-esteem and greater job satisfaction were associated with holding more roles. Marital and parental satisfaction were not…

  8. Social behaviors as determined by different arrangements of social consequences: diffusion of responsibility effects with competition.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Bernard

    2003-06-01

    According to a recently proposed synthesis, social loafing, social facilitation, and deindividuation can be viewed as different ways of arranging social consequences (B. Guerin, 1999). The effects of such arrangements have been measured in past research as productive output (social loafing and social facilitation) or as antinormative behaviors (deindividuation), but all 3 effects are manipulable by changing individual identifiability, evaluation, social identity, task difficulty, and presence in a group. The synthesis also predicted that these same variables would apply to other measures and other arrangements of social consequences. To this end, in the present 2 experiments, the author varied the arrangements for consequence diffusion in a competition situation by varying small and large competing groups and measured productive output and antinormative behaviors simultaneously. The 2 experiments showed social-consequence effects in competition situations with college students, giving further support for the social-consequence synthesis and the idea that the verbal naming of phenomena in social psychology is arbitrary. PMID:12846515

  9. The Social Consequences of Single Parenthood: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    Loneliness and lack of social support have been described as the more serious social consequences of the single-parent status. Revealed shifts in the household composition of one-parent families over time, a lower level of community participation, and a feeling of powerlessness among single-parent, family heads. (Author)

  10. [Social consequences of birth in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beck, A; Hoffellner, L

    1977-01-01

    234 Austrian women gave birth to a child in the years 1972--74 before the age of 18. 95 of them were invited to an interview and interrogated about changes in their life-situation due to the birth. The general attitude was, if they could choose again the date of the first pregnancy they would prefer after 20 years. No correlation was found between early menarche and early sexual intercourse. For 60 of the women pregnancy was the reason for their marriage. Most of the young women had experience with contraceptives, but did not use them for different reasons. After the birth of the child most of them took the pill, but there are 11 women left without any contraception, exposing themselves to the risk of a repeat pregnancy. Young age at birth has an impact upon pre-vocational training: either through interruption of the training or through total discontinuation of their education. A possible solution of the present unsatisfactory situation for young pregnant women and their social problems are interdisciplinary projects for the guidance of adolescents in some centers in the USA. PMID:595966

  11. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  12. Adverse factors and the mental health of older people: implications for social policy and professional practice.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J

    2005-06-01

    Defining 'older people' as a homogenous group is problematic; it can lead to stereotypical and stigmatizing perceptions of what old age is, attracting consequent negative attitudes to later life. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that some in the older age bracket are subject to particular stressors and physical changes that can adversely affect their mental health. This paper will consider challenges to mental health in older age groups and particularly the phenomenon of dementia. The role and influence of diagnosis, social policy and professional practice will also be addressed and suggestions will be made as to how people could improve their responses to either the predisposition to or the actual occurrence of mental distress in later life. In addition, it is argued that person-centredness is important as the caring/cultural medium through which provisions and policies are mediated: that obtaining appropriate balances between corporate and individual contributions and interventions must constitute the context wherein future developments lie. PMID:15876235

  13. Consequences of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Early Adversity on Behavioral Profile – Pathology or Adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Heiming, Rebecca S.; Sachser, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on how behavioral profile is shaped by early adversity in individuals with varying serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. In a recent study on 5-HTT knockout mice Heiming et al. (2009) simulated a ‘dangerous environment‘ by confronting pregnant and lactating females with odor cues of unfamiliar males, indicating the risk of infant killing. Growing up in a dangerous environment induced increased anxiety-related behavior and decreased exploratory locomotion in the offspring, the effects being most pronounced in mice lacking 5-HTT expression. We argue that these alterations in behavioral profile represent adaptive maternal effects that help the individuals to cope with adversity. In principle, such effects of adversity on behavioral profile should not automatically be regarded as pathological. Rather and in accordance with modern evolutionary theory they may represent adaptations, although individuals with 5-HTT genotype induced susceptibility to adversity may be at risk of developing pathologies. PMID:21151780

  14. Television. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Mary C.; And Others

    This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society (STS) that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological…

  15. Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergh, C; Kühlhorn, E

    1994-09-01

    Social, psychological and physical consequences of pathological gambling reported by 42 pathological gamblers recruited mainly by advertising were compared with data on 63 pathological gamblers identified by case-finding within districts of probation, in- and out-patient psychiatric care and social welfare authorities. The two studies gave similar results. Financial breakdown, impaired relations with family and friends, and psychological problems occurred in about 50% of the pathological gamblers. Physical consequences were perceived to be of minor significance. Gambling became a solitary behavior as illegal behaviors to finance gambling increased. The pathological gamblers frequently abused alcohol. Despite these signs of social decay the pathological gamblers strove not to be a burden in society. PMID:24234924

  16. Childhood adversity and social functioning in psychosis: Exploring clinical and cognitive mediators.

    PubMed

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Berry, Katherine; Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Emsley, Richard; Parker, Sophie; Drake, Richard; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-30

    Childhood adversity may increase risk of impaired social functioning across the continuum of psychosis. However, the pathways by which adversity dictates functional outcome remain underexplored. This study investigated the association between childhood adversity and social functioning, and the clinical and cognitive mediators of this relationship. Fifty-four clinical (20 chronic, 20 first episode, 14 at ultra-high risk) and 120 non-clinical participants completed standardised questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and tests of theory of mind ability. The authors used multiple group structural equation modelling to fit mediation models allowing for differential relationships between the clinical and non-clinical samples. When examining each pathway separately, depression, paranoia and anxious attachment mediated the effect of childhood adversity on social functioning. In a combined model, depression was the only significant mediating variable with greater adversity predicting lower mood across groups. Childhood adversity did not significantly predict theory of mind ability in any of the models. This is the first study to indicate that childhood adversity acts on social functioning by increasing levels of depression, suggesting a common mechanism across the spectrum of psychosis. Clinical interventions should target low mood in order to improve social functioning at all stages of psychotic disorder. PMID:27086207

  17. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  18. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Smoller, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse) were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities. PMID:26068107

  19. Social context and the health consequences of disasters.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro; Hadley, Craig; Rudenstine, Sasha

    2006-01-01

    Disasters have been and will continue to be relatively common events in the human experience, and they make important contributions to variations in population health. There is a need, therefore, for conceptual models that identify the social and ecological factors influencing post-disaster consequences on population health. This article presents one such conceptual model which links the health consequences of natural, technological, and human-made disasters to a set of nested socioecological factors. Specifically, we attempt to link post-disaster consequences to aspects of the global and local environment and to highlight the roles played by social and ecological factors, including the social infrastructure, cultural beliefs, demography, and underlying historical and geographical circumstances. Examples from existing population-based health and disaster research are used to illustrate and amplify connections drawn from the model. From an applied standpoint, the model suggests that the role of multiple contextual determinants in shaping population health is likely to be complex. Practitioners interested in mitigating the consequences of disasters should pursue strategies that improve the underlying determinants of health, as well as practicable population-based interventions that could be implemented rapidly. PMID:18274042

  20. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies. PMID:24188292

  1. Addressing the unintended adverse consequences of first-person consent and donor registries.

    PubMed

    Verble, Margaret; Worth, Judy

    2012-03-01

    One of the most common reasons given for the refusal to donate in both the United States and the United Kingdom is that the potential donor, in his lifetime, said he did not want to be a donor. This objection has not always been given by families refusing to donate and appears to be an unintended consequence of donation strategies based on public education, donor registries, and first-person consents. A history of the objection is given, possible meanings are explored, and strategies for dealing with it are suggested. PMID:22489440

  2. Causes and health consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Martin

    2003-02-01

    Worldwide the greatest effects on the health of individuals and populations results from environmental degradation and social injustice, operating in consort. This paper describes the national and global causes and health consequences of these phenomena. Causes include overpopulation, pollution, deforestation, global warming, unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices, overconsumption, maldistribution of wealth, the rise of the corporation, the Third World debt crisis, and militarization and wars. Consequences include increased poverty, overcrowding, famine, weather extremes, species loss, acute and chronic medical illnesses, war and human rights abuses, and an increasingly unstable global situation that portends Malthusian chaos and disaster. Because of their scientific training, and due to their privileged socioeconomic status, physicians are in a unique position to recognize these phenomena and to act at all levels, from interactions with their patients, to volunteerism, to service and intervention in areas of great need, to direct political activism and involvement. Specific suggestions for action are discussed. PMID:12570975

  3. Social and psychological consequences of abortion in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Glazebrook, Diana; McDonald, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Iran has had replacement fertility since 2000. Upholding a small family size has led some couples to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Abortion is, however, permitted only on medical grounds in Iran. Using data from the Iran Low Fertility Survey, this study assessed sociodemographic correlates of abortion among a random sample of 5526 ever-married women aged 15-54 years, and used in-depth interviews to explore reasons for and psychological consequences of abortion among 40 women who had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Although social and economic concerns were the main reasons cited for seeking abortion, women experienced anxiety and depression when seeking pregnancy termination and thereafter. Social stigmatization arose from a belief that abortion is sinful and that misfortune experienced thereafter is punishment. Inadequate knowledge and misunderstanding of relevant Sharia laws discouraged women from seeking care when they experienced complications. Iran's reproductive health policies should be revised to integrate pre- and postabortion counseling. PMID:22920623

  4. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

    2014-08-01

    Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely

  5. Race, gender, and chains of disadvantage: childhood adversity, social relationships, and health.

    PubMed

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-03-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans' Changing Lives, N = 3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity's enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

  6. Presence of Atrazine in the Biological Samples of Cattle and Its Consequence Adversity in Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Peighambarzadeh, SZ; Safi, S; Shahtaheri, SJ; Javanbakht, M; Rahimi Forushani, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Cattle can be considered as an important source for herbicides through nutrition. Therefore, herbicide residue in animal products is a potential human exposure to herbicides causing public health problems in human life. Triazines are a group of herbicides primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in corn and other feed ingredients and are considered as possible human carcinogens. To evaluate trace residue of these pollutants molecular imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been developed, using biological samples. Methods: Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 45 Holstein cows in 3 commercial dairy farms in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Urine samples were also taken from the cows. Results: The mean ± SD concentrations of atrazine in serum and urine samples of the study group (0.739 ± 0.567 ppm and 1.389 ± 0.633 ppm, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than the concentrations in serum and urine samples of the control group (0.002 ± 0.005 ppm and 0.012 ± 0.026 ppm, respectively). Conclusion: Atrazine in the feed ingredients ingested by cattle could be transferred into the biological samples and consequently can be considered as a potential hazard for the public health. PMID:23113110

  7. The adverse consequences of pyoderma gangrenosum in a 13 year old child

    PubMed Central

    Lambropoulos, Vassilis; Patsatsi, Aikaterini; Tsona, Afroditi; Papakonstantinou, Antonios; Filippopoulos, Antonios; Sotiriadis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon, but serious, non infectious, neutrophilic dermatosis that causes cutaneous necrosis with a characteristically rapid evolution. Presentation of case A 13 year-old girl was admitted with a postoperative infected wound, which was surgically debrided. A new more aggressive lesion on the left upper extremity led the patient to the intensive care unit. Clinical diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum was introduced with a crucial delay. An immediate clinical improvement after immunosuppressive therapy with systemic corticosteroids and cyclosporine was observed. The extensive cutaneous deficits were covered with keratinocyte cultured cells with an aesthetically good outcome. Discussion Diagnosis of PG in young children is very difficult, especially without dermatological evaluation. This deforming ulcerative skin disease is probably a result of altered immunologic reactivity. Its early recognition may prevent unnecessary surgical treatment which leads to dangerous complications. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first case of PG with such a widespread distribution reported in a child, as a consequence of iatrogenic pathergy. PMID:22096733

  8. Social Consequences of Infertility on Families in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Sadeghi, Zakieh; Raei, Mehdi; Jahanitiji, Mohammad Ali; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Social reactions to infertility are one of the concerns infertile people. This study aimed to investigate the social consequences of infertility among urban and rural population of Shahroud in northeast of Iran. Method: This study is a comparative study that was conducted in 2013. In this study, 1,528 women (511 infertile and 1017 fertile ones) were randomly selected. The 36-item questionnaire included 18 items about women’s attitude towards infertility and 18 questions about the consequences of infertility was used. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance and t test. Findings: The prevalence of infertility in rural areas was estimated to be 2.23 percent. 42.2% of the participants were living the city (n= 645) and 57.8 % were living in the village (n=883). 49.2% of the participants had education below high school diploma (n=751), 31.7% had high school diploma (n=484) and 19.2% had university degrees (n=293). 51.9% of the people referred to the infertility problem among distant relatives, 24.9% referred to infertility among the close relatives and 9% reported the infertility among their family members. The mean score of attitude of the fertile was 56.6±7.0 and that of the infertile was 56.8± 6.6 and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). There was a significant association between fertility status and encouraging divorce, encouraging remarriage and encouraging adoption (P=0.001). Conclusion: Infertility causes a negative attitude toward infertile people. But the interference of others leads to further encouragement of divorce and remarriage among the infertile people. PMID:26652089

  9. Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-01-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity’s enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

  10. The cost of being a man: social and health consequences of Igbo masculinity.

    PubMed

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Adedini, Sunday

    2013-01-01

    In the bid to explain reproductive health outcomes in most developing countries, men have often been seen as the cause of the problem. However, no systematic attempt has been made to examine men's perception of their own social and health needs, including how ideologies of masculinity impact men's social and physical health. This study examines the Igbo context and shows how men understand and interpret masculinity and the consequences of this for social and health behaviours. Data from adolescent and adult Igbo men aged 15-75 were collected using both quantitative survey interviews (n = 1372) and qualitative techniques such as focus-group discussion (n = 20), in-depth interviews (n = 10) and key informant interviews (n = 10) in selected areas of south-eastern Nigeria. We collected data on gender role ideologies and sexuality issues and practices. Our analysis shows that there are social and health costs associated with adherence to masculine ideologies and a strong association between masculine ideologies and men's health, risk-taking and health-seeking behaviours in the study population. We conclude that all sexual and reproductive health programmes should include services that address the specific needs of men and those negative aspects of masculinity that tend to expose men to adverse health outcomes. PMID:23210428

  11. ERA: Adverse Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Excellence in Research for Australia has a number of limitations: inputs are counted as outputs, time is wasted, disciplinary research is favoured and public engagement is discouraged. Most importantly, by focusing on measurement and emphasising competition, ERA may actually undermine the cooperation and intrinsic motivation that underpin research…

  12. Human Reproduction: Social and Technological Aspects. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Mary C.; And Others

    This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological innovations in…

  13. SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

  14. Might Depression, Psychosocial Adversity, and Limited Social Assets Explain Vulnerability to and Resistance against Violent Radicalisation?

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Everitt, Brian; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background This study tests whether depression, psychosocial adversity, and limited social assets offer protection or suggest vulnerability to the process of radicalisation. Methods A population sample of 608 men and women of Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin, of Muslim heritage, and aged 18–45 were recruited by quota sampling. Radicalisation was measured by 16 questions asking about sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Cluster analysis of the 16 items generated three groups: most sympathetic (or most vulnerable), most condemning (most resistant), and a large intermediary group that acted as a reference group. Associations were calculated with depression (PHQ9), anxiety (GAD7), poor health, and psychosocial adversity (adverse life events, perceived discrimination, unemployment). We also investigated protective factors such as the number social contacts, social capital (trust, satisfaction, feeling safe), political engagement and religiosity. Results Those showing the most sympathy for violent protest and terrorism were more likely to report depression (PHQ9 score of 5 or more; RR = 5.43, 1.35 to 21.84) and to report religion to be important (less often said religion was fairly rather than very important; RR = 0.08, 0.01 to 0.48). Resistance to radicalisation measured by condemnation of violent protest and terrorism was associated with larger number of social contacts (per contact: RR = 1.52, 1.26 to 1.83), less social capital (RR = 0.63, 0.50 to 0.80), unavailability for work due to housekeeping or disability (RR = 8.81, 1.06 to 37.46), and not being born in the UK (RR = 0.22, 0.08 to 0.65). Conclusions Vulnerability to radicalisation is characterised by depression but resistance to radicalisation shows a different profile of health and psychosocial variables. The paradoxical role of social capital warrants further investigation. PMID:25250577

  15. The nonskeletal consequences of osteoporotic fractures. Psychologic and social outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gold, D T

    2001-02-01

    The prevalence of osteoporosis is rising as the population of the United States and other developed countries ages. These increasing numbers of people have motivated pharmaceutical companies to develop and market several antiresorptive medications that can slow down the bone loss associated with osteoporosis. Although these are not cures for this disease, they are an important first step in a vital ongoing public health effort to prevent osteoporosis in the future and to manage osteoporosis now. We cannot expect to remediate the problems caused by this disease if we attend only to its skeletal implications. Like any other chronic disease, osteoporosis has significant psychologic and social consequences. From anxiety and depression to social withdrawal and isolation, if these problems are left unresolved, they can have a significant negative impact not only on health issues but also on overall quality of life. No quick fixes exist for the numerous ways in which osteoporosis can transform an autonomous person into a dependent and hopeless patient. In part, responsibility for helping this patient rests with the medical community. Referrals to appropriate providers can improve a patient's physical and emotional well-being. Physician specialists can help the patient manage comorbid conditions. Physical and occupational therapists can teach exercises, home safety, and safe movement. Social workers can provide a framework for coping that enables individuals to improve their interpersonal interactions and minimize stress in their lives. Nutritionists, pharmacists, nurses, and other health care professionals can make major contributions to the quality of life of people with osteoporosis and should be encouraged to do so. Unfortunately, managed care has set policies that deprive patients with osteoporosis of the kinds of care that would be most useful to them. As we have advocated for the last 15 years, a multidisciplinary approach offers patients the most positive overall

  16. Effects of maternal exposure to social stress during pregnancy: consequences for mother and offspring.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Paula J

    2013-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment, for example, as a result of maternal stress, can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse 'programming' effects on the offspring. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal social stress on the mother, her pregnancy and the offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. The consequences of social stress exposure depend on when during pregnancy the stress occurs, and many of the effects on the offspring are sex specific. Social stress during early pregnancy tends to result in pregnancy loss, whereas stress exposure later in pregnancy, when the mother has already invested considerable resources in the foetuses, results in programmed offspring of low birth weight: a risk factor for various adulthood diseases. Neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in the offspring are particularly sensitive to foetal programming by prenatal stress, indicated by enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses and increased anxiety behaviour, which result from permanent changes in the offspring's brain. The dysregulation of HPA axis function may also interfere with other systems, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as there is evidence for alterations in steroidogenesis, reproductive potential and impaired reproductive/social behaviours in prenatally stressed offspring. Prenatal social stress also programmes future maternal behaviour, highlighting the potential for negative phenotypes to be transmitted to future generations. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy is transmitted to the foetuses and the foetal brain is programmed by prenatal stress and the potential to overwrite programming of the offspring are discussed. PMID:23901130

  17. Psychological and social consequences after reconstruction of upper extremity trauma: methods of detection and management.

    PubMed

    Galanakos, Spyridon P; Bot, Arjan G J; Zoubos, Aristides B; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2014-03-01

    Upper extremity trauma and resulting disability is a stressful event and can affect a patient's personality. Several studies have shown that this injury type has serious psychological and/or social consequences. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the consequences of disability after a complex trauma (combination of soft tissue, osseous, vascular, and nerve involvement) of the upper extremity. We tried to find out the potential crucial factors that could determine the final hand function. In addition, we considered the challenges that need to be addressed to eliminate the adverse or negative effects that arise from upper limb trauma. In the literature, there is a growing interest to study changes in patients' quality of life and return to work. Psychological morbidity is an important part of patients' perceived general health. These issues could play an important role in the final functional outcome of the therapy. An early identification and treatment of trauma-related distress in patients may prevent progression of psychological pathology and mitigate negative effects on general health status. It may be important to evaluate the amount of psychological distress when caring for patients with hand injuries. PMID:24347334

  18. Gene therapy with iNOS provides long-term protection against myocardial infarction without adverse functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Tan, Wei; Stein, Adam B.; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Wu, Wen-Jian; Zhu, Xiaoping; Lu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xiaoming; Siddiqui, Tariq; Tiwari, Sumit; Bolli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protects against myocardial infarction at 3 days after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of iNOS gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and cardiac function are unknown. To address this issue, we used a recombinant adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector (Av3) with deletions of the E1, E2a, and E3 regions, which enables long-lasting recombinant gene expression for at least 2 mo due to lack of inflammation. Mice received intramyocardial injections in the left ventricular (LV) anterior wall of Av3/LacZ (LacZ group) or Av3/iNOS (iNOS group); 1 or 2 mo later, they were subjected to myocardial infarction (30-min coronary occlusion followed by 4 h of reperfusion). Cardiac iNOS gene expression was confirmed by immunoblotting and activity assays at 1 and 2 mo after gene transfer. In the iNOS group, infarct size (percentage of risk region) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) both at 1 mo (24.2 ± 3.4%, n = 6, vs. 48.0 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group) and at 2 mo (23.4 ± 3.1%, n = 8, vs. 36.6 ± 2.4%, n = 7). The infarct-sparing effects of iNOS gene therapy were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic preconditioning (23.1 ± 3.4%, n = 10). iNOS gene transfer had no effect on LV function or dimensions up to 8 wk later (echocardiography). These data demonstrate that iNOS gene therapy mediated by the Av3 vector affords long-term (2 mo) cardioprotection without inflammation or adverse functional consequences, a finding that provides a rationale for further preclinical testing of this therapy. PMID:16172153

  19. Acute hazardous substance releases resulting in adverse health consequences in children: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Wattigney, Wendy A; Kaye, Wendy E; Orr, Maureen F

    2007-11-01

    Because of their small size and ongoing organ development, children may be more susceptible than adults to the harmful effects of toxic chemicals. The objective of the study reported here was to identify frequent locations, released substances, and factors contributing to short-term chemical exposures associated with adverse health consequences experienced by children. The study examined the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system data from 1996-2003. Eligible events involved the acute release of a hazardous substance associated with at least one child being injured. The study found that injured children were predominantly at school, home, or a recreational center when events took place. School-related events were associated with the accidental release of acids and the release of pepper spray by pranksters. Carbon monoxide poisonings occurring in the home, retail stores, entertainment facilities, and hotels were responsible for about 10 percent of events involving child victims. Chlorine was one of the top chemicals harmful to children, particularly at public swimming pools. Although human error contributed to the majority of releases involving child victims, equipment failure was responsible for most chlorine and ammonia releases. The authors conclude that chemical releases resulting in injury to children occur mostly in schools, homes, and recreational areas. Surveillance of acute hazardous chemical releases helped identify contributing causes and can guide the development of prevention outreach activities. Chemical accidents cannot be entirely prevented, but efforts can be taken to provide safer environments in which children can live, learn, and play. Wide dissemination of safety recommendations and education programs is required to protect children from needless environmental dangers. PMID:18044249

  20. SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING FOR HIGH CONSEQUENCE, LOW PROBABILITY OCCURRENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Part I reviews the two main classes of criteria proposed for social decisions: (1) market mechanisms and cost-benefit analysis and (2) the approaches of Rawls and Buchanan to arrive at a social consensus. The authors propose an eight element criteria for evaluating a social decis...

  1. Social Adversity in the Etiology of Psychosis: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Longden, Eleanor; Read, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence for the role of psychosocial factors in the onset and continuance of psychosis, the experiences involved are still largely considered the result of a biogenetic anomaly for which medication is the first-line treatment response. This review summarizes the extensive literature demonstrating that adverse events involving trauma, loss, stress, and disempowerment have a central etiological role in psychosis. Evidence is further presented to show that many neurological changes traditionally considered indicative of a disease process can in fact be accounted for as secondary effects to the physiology of stress or the residual of long-term neuroleptic prescription. Particular emphasis is given to the traumagenic neurodevelopmental model of psychosis, which illustrates how many of the structural and functional cerebral anomalies observed in adult patients with psychosis (including dopamine dysregulation, atrophy, hippocampal damage, and overactivity of the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis) closely correspond to those in the brains of abused children. Finally, research is discussed that demonstrates how trauma may manifest in characteristic symptoms of psychosis, particularly hallucinations and delusions. It is suggested that if social adversities are of central importance in psychosis, then psychotherapy that addresses the long term sequelae of those adversities should be considered an essential aspect of treatment. PMID:27052604

  2. Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lance E.

    2013-01-01

    An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

  3. [The creation of the state of adversity. Regulation and social policy in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Bustelo, E S

    1991-01-01

    This work presents some recent information that documents the regressive effects of the external debt, and deals with promoting reflection upon the so called State of Adversity, which by means of political regulation, (and contrary to the classic State of Welfare), is being created in the Region. This work also puts forth some points which seem inevitable in the still open debate regarding the growth-equity relationship in Latin America. Firstly, a revision of the principal social and economic indicators is made beginning with the early years of this decade ('90). Secondly, the inserted patterns of regulation are synthetically introduced, and some of the results and problems are analyzed. Thirdly, and as an effect of successive regulation implementations that have not accomplished the desired macroeconomic equilibrium (nor economic growth), the creation of the State of Adversity is analyzed by means of looking at the disintegration that takes place in the incipient State of Wellbeing that exists in the Region. This disjointed situation brings with it a significant reduction in the quantity and quality of social services in the public sector and the exclusion of an even greater segment of the population (those pertaining to a characteristically subsistence level economy and low productivity). We do not deny the need for regulation, nor do we believe that it should encompass the social sectors, where significant financial allotments geared to combat suffering and poverty, at the same time, have not been unable to avoid their expansion (not to mention the total elimination of same). The problem here lies not in regulation, but in what kind of regulation and for whom. Finally, this work presents some ideas on mixed economy of wellbeing which could recover the potential of the public sector and market by urging a collective macroregulation that would make possible the needed investments to finance a growth with greater social integration. PMID:1887322

  4. Use of the adverse outcome pathway framework to represent cross-species consequences of specific pathway perturbations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework has been developed as a means for assembling scientifically defensible descriptions of how particular molecular perturbations, termed molecular initiating events (MIEs), can evoke a set of predictable responses at different levels of bi...

  5. Social consequences of disability in a nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Debates about the likelihood of conspecific care for disabled individuals in ancestral hominins rely on evidence from extant primates, yet little is known about social treatment (positive, neutral or negative) of physically disabled individuals in nonhuman primates. A group of free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at the Awajishima Monkey Center (AMC) in Japan presents a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between physical impairment and social behavior, in the context of congenital limb malformation in adult nonhuman primates. We collected behavioral data on 23 focal animals, taking 30-minute continuous time samples on disabled and nondisabled adult female Japanese macaques during three consecutive birth seasons (May-August 2005, 2006, and 2007). Disabled females were less social overall compared with nondisabled controls, a pattern that was evident from a variety of measures. Disabled females rested significantly more and socialized significantly less compared with controls, had fewer adult female affiliates, fewer adult female grooming partners, and spent less time engaged in grooming with adult females. Some measures suggested that the social differences were the result of behavioral flexibility on the part of disabled females compensating for their disabilities with lower levels of social involvement and more rest. Disabled females were as successful at groom solicitations as were nondisabled females and the ratio of disabled and nondisabled affiliates was similar among focal animals; there was no strong preference related to the disability status of affiliates. Disabled females were also bitten and chased less frequently. Overall, there was little evidence either for conspecific care or for social selection against disability. In general, there was a socially neutral response to disability, and while neutral social context allows for the possibility of care behaviors, our findings emphasize the self-reliant abilities of these

  6. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Methods Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Results Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Limitation Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Conclusions Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels. PMID:26295806

  7. Early origins of inflammation: an examination of prenatal and childhood social adversity in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Loucks, Eric B.; Appleton, Allison A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Non, Amy L.; Buka, Stephen; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children exposed to social adversity carry a greater risk of poor physical and mental health into adulthood. This increased risk is thought to be due, in part, to inflammatory processes associated with early adversity that contribute to the etiology of many adult illnesses. The current study asks whether aspects of the prenatal social environment are associated with levels of inflammation in adulthood, and whether prenatal and childhood adversity both contribute to adult inflammation. Methods We examined associations of prenatal and childhood adversity assessed through direct interviews of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959–1974 with blood levels of C-reactive protein in 355 offspring interviewed in adulthood (mean age=42.2 years). Linear and quantile regression models were used to estimate the effects of prenatal adversity and childhood adversity on adult inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, and race and other potential confounders. Results In separate linear regression models, high levels of prenatal and childhood adversity were associated with higher CRP in adulthood. When prenatal and childhood adversity were analyzed together, our results support the presence of an effect of prenatal adversity on (log) CRP level in adulthood (β=0.73, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.20) that is independent of childhood adversity and potential confounding factors including maternal health conditions reported during pregnancy. Supplemental analyses revealed similar findings using quantile regression models and logistic regression models that used a clinically-relevant CRP threshold (>3 mg/L). In a fully-adjusted model that included childhood adversity, high prenatal adversity was associated with a 3-fold elevated odds (95% CI: 1.15, 8.02) of having a CRP level in adulthood that indicates high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Social adversity during the prenatal period is a risk factor for elevated inflammation in adulthood independent of

  8. The Americanization of School Sports: Historical and Social Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massengale, John D.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the American system of school athletics from the time of the Puritans to the present day is discussed, and the social ramifications of our contemporary sports culture are considered. (LH)

  9. Can Social Support Protect Bullied Adolescents from Adverse Outcomes? A Prospective Study on the Effects of Bullying on the Educational Achievement and Mental Health of Adolescents at Secondary Schools in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to…

  10. Antecedents and Consequences of the Frequency of Upward and Downward Social Comparisons at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Douglas J.; Ferris, D. Lance; Heller, Daniel; Keeping, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the dispositional and situational antecedents, as well as the attitudinal and behavioral consequences, of the frequency of upward and downward social comparisons. We predicted social comparison frequency would be influenced by uncertainty-related antecedents, and that social comparisons in organizations would be…

  11. Ethics and the Unintended Consequences of Social Research: A Perspective from the Sociology of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Kenneth E.; Chubin, Daryl E.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that "successful" social science requires development of a social ethic or sense of research responsibility, and suggests that an individualistic orientation is ineffective in coping with the unintended consequences of social research. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies…

  12. Redemption and the University: The Social Consequences of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Stephen M.

    1978-01-01

    Higher education is seen as having replaced religion as the system of redemption in mass society, socializing students in the secular religion of production/consumption. Rather than educating and enriching students' lives, higher education is viewed as thwarting needs for autonomy and identity formation, leaving students only with career…

  13. Exploring the Consequences of Gender Segregation on Social Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gender segregation, which emerges in early childhood, on later adolescent and adult relationships. Suggests that communication and power relations in male-female relationships are likely to be influenced by gender differences in social norms. Provides recommendations for parents and teachers interested in encouraging…

  14. Social Sciences and Constitutional Rights--the Consequences of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis of court decisions involving school integration, analyzing the relationship between education, constitutional law, and the social sciences. Concludes that court decisions dealing with the equal protection clause are based on interpretive judgments, rather than on causal judgments drawn from statistical theory. (JG)

  15. Adverse Drug Reaction Identification and Extraction in Social Media: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Bellet, Florelle; Asfari, Hadyl; Souvignet, Julien; Texier, Nathalie; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Burgun, Anita; Bousquet, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Background The underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through traditional reporting channels is a limitation in the efficiency of the current pharmacovigilance system. Patients’ experiences with drugs that they report on social media represent a new source of data that may have some value in postmarketing safety surveillance. Objective A scoping review was undertaken to explore the breadth of evidence about the use of social media as a new source of knowledge for pharmacovigilance. Methods Daubt et al’s recommendations for scoping reviews were followed. The research questions were as follows: How can social media be used as a data source for postmarketing drug surveillance? What are the available methods for extracting data? What are the different ways to use these data? We queried PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to extract relevant articles that were published before June 2014 and with no lower date limit. Two pairs of reviewers independently screened the selected studies and proposed two themes of review: manual ADR identification (theme 1) and automated ADR extraction from social media (theme 2). Descriptive characteristics were collected from the publications to create a database for themes 1 and 2. Results Of the 1032 citations from PubMed and Embase, 11 were relevant to the research question. An additional 13 citations were added after further research on the Internet and in reference lists. Themes 1 and 2 explored 11 and 13 articles, respectively. Ways of approaching the use of social media as a pharmacovigilance data source were identified. Conclusions This scoping review noted multiple methods for identifying target data, extracting them, and evaluating the quality of medical information from social media. It also showed some remaining gaps in the field. Studies related to the identification theme usually failed to accurately assess the completeness, quality, and reliability of the data that were analyzed from social media. Regarding

  16. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Umberto; Crestani, Rosa; Decroo, Tom; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Al-Kourdi, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear) that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended. Methodology The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants) and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed. Results Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how

  17. Finding an apprenticeship: hidden curriculum and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Goastellec, Gaële; Ruiz, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the majority of students are oriented toward professional training after compulsory schooling. At this stage, one of the biggest challenges for them is to find an apprenticeship position. Matching supply and demand is a complex process that not only excludes some students from having direct access to professional training but also forces them to make early choices regarding their future sector of employment. So, how does one find an apprenticeship? And what do the students' descriptions of their search for apprenticeships reveal about the institutional determinants of social inequalities at play in the system? Based on 29 interviews conducted in 2014 with 23 apprentices and 6 recruiters in the Canton of Vaud, this article interrogates how the dimensions of educational and social trajectories combine to affect access to apprenticeships and are accentuated by recruiters using a "hidden curriculum" during the recruitment process. A hidden curriculum consists of knowledge and skills not taught by the educational institution but which appear decisive in obtaining an apprenticeship. By analyzing the contrasting experiences of students in their search for an apprenticeship, we identify four types of trajectories that explain different types of school-to-apprenticeship transitions. We show how these determinants are reinforced by the "hidden curriculum" of recruitment based on the soft skills of feeling, autonomy, anticipation, and reflexivity that are assessed in the context of recruitment interactions. The discussion section debates how the criteria that appear to be used to identify the "right apprentice" tend to (re)produce inequalities between students. This not only depends on their academic results but also on their social and cultural skills, their ability to anticipate their choices and, more widely, their ability to be a subject in their recruitment search. "The Subject is neither the individual, nor the self, but the work through which an

  18. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  19. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  20. Unintended Consequences of Professionalizing Youth Work: Lessons from Teaching and Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Goodstar, Katie; Velure Roholt, Ross

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a comparative historical approach to examine the consequences of professionalization within teaching and social work and to answer the following questions: What are the unintended consequences of professionalization? Has professionalization in these fields supported higher quality practice, increased working…

  1. On some genetic consequences of social structure, mating systems, dispersal, and sampling

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Bárbara R.; Chikhi, Lounès

    2015-01-01

    Many species are spatially and socially organized, with complex social organizations and dispersal patterns that are increasingly documented. Social species typically consist of small age-structured units, where a limited number of individuals monopolize reproduction and exhibit complex mating strategies. Here, we model social groups as age-structured units and investigate the genetic consequences of social structure under distinct mating strategies commonly found in mammals. Our results show that sociality maximizes genotypic diversity, which contradicts the belief that social groups are necessarily subject to strong genetic drift and at high risk of inbreeding depression. Social structure generates an excess of genotypic diversity. This is commonly observed in ecological studies but rarely reported in population genetic studies that ignore social structure. This heterozygosity excess, when detected, is often interpreted as a consequence of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, but we show that it can occur even in the absence of such mechanisms. Many seemly contradictory results from ecology and population genetics can be reconciled by genetic models that include the complexities of social species. We find that such discrepancies can be explained by the intrinsic properties of social groups and by the sampling strategies of real populations. In particular, the number of social groups and the nature of the individuals that compose samples (e.g., nonreproductive and reproductive individuals) are key factors in generating outbreeding signatures. Sociality is an important component of population structure that needs to be revisited by ecologists and population geneticists alike. PMID:26080393

  2. On some genetic consequences of social structure, mating systems, dispersal, and sampling.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Bárbara R; Chikhi, Lounès

    2015-06-30

    Many species are spatially and socially organized, with complex social organizations and dispersal patterns that are increasingly documented. Social species typically consist of small age-structured units, where a limited number of individuals monopolize reproduction and exhibit complex mating strategies. Here, we model social groups as age-structured units and investigate the genetic consequences of social structure under distinct mating strategies commonly found in mammals. Our results show that sociality maximizes genotypic diversity, which contradicts the belief that social groups are necessarily subject to strong genetic drift and at high risk of inbreeding depression. Social structure generates an excess of genotypic diversity. This is commonly observed in ecological studies but rarely reported in population genetic studies that ignore social structure. This heterozygosity excess, when detected, is often interpreted as a consequence of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, but we show that it can occur even in the absence of such mechanisms. Many seemly contradictory results from ecology and population genetics can be reconciled by genetic models that include the complexities of social species. We find that such discrepancies can be explained by the intrinsic properties of social groups and by the sampling strategies of real populations. In particular, the number of social groups and the nature of the individuals that compose samples (e.g., nonreproductive and reproductive individuals) are key factors in generating outbreeding signatures. Sociality is an important component of population structure that needs to be revisited by ecologists and population geneticists alike. PMID:26080393

  3. Finding an apprenticeship: hidden curriculum and social consequences

    PubMed Central

    Goastellec, Gaële; Ruiz, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the majority of students are oriented toward professional training after compulsory schooling. At this stage, one of the biggest challenges for them is to find an apprenticeship position. Matching supply and demand is a complex process that not only excludes some students from having direct access to professional training but also forces them to make early choices regarding their future sector of employment. So, how does one find an apprenticeship? And what do the students’ descriptions of their search for apprenticeships reveal about the institutional determinants of social inequalities at play in the system? Based on 29 interviews conducted in 2014 with 23 apprentices and 6 recruiters in the Canton of Vaud, this article interrogates how the dimensions of educational and social trajectories combine to affect access to apprenticeships and are accentuated by recruiters using a “hidden curriculum” during the recruitment process. A hidden curriculum consists of knowledge and skills not taught by the educational institution but which appear decisive in obtaining an apprenticeship. By analyzing the contrasting experiences of students in their search for an apprenticeship, we identify four types of trajectories that explain different types of school-to-apprenticeship transitions. We show how these determinants are reinforced by the “hidden curriculum” of recruitment based on the soft skills of feeling, autonomy, anticipation, and reflexivity that are assessed in the context of recruitment interactions. The discussion section debates how the criteria that appear to be used to identify the “right apprentice” tend to (re)produce inequalities between students. This not only depends on their academic results but also on their social and cultural skills, their ability to anticipate their choices and, more widely, their ability to be a subject in their recruitment search. “The Subject is neither the individual, nor the self, but the work through

  4. The Unintended Consequences of Targeting: Young People's Lived Experiences of Social and Emotional Learning Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Rhiannon; Scourfield, Jonathan; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In the past twenty years there has been a proliferation of targeted school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. However, the lived experience of young peoples' participation is often elided, while the potential for interventions to confer unintended and even adverse effects remains under-theorised and empirically…

  5. Is there a need to mitigate the social and financial consequences of tuberculosis at the individual and household level?

    PubMed

    Grede, Nils; Claros, Joan M; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin

    2014-10-01

    This paper reviews evidence on social and economic costs of tuberculosis. Key socio-economic consequences include stigma, social isolation, increased out-of-pocket expenditures for medical and non-medical costs and reduced income. Many of the financing methods that households use have long-term negative impacts and the poor are most vulnerable to these costs. Together, these negative consequences adversely affect TB control, in terms of delayed diagnosis, delayed initiation of treatment, suboptimal adherence and failure to complete treatment, as well as the coping and well being of the individual and household. There are two ways to reduce treatment costs for the patient; one can either reduce the direct and indirect costs of seeking a diagnosis and obtaining treatment and/or provide income transfers to offset some of those costs incurred. Social transfers in the form of food, cash or vouchers can mitigate the negative effects by enabling the individual to seek a diagnosis, protecting minimum food expenditures, reducing the need to accumulate debt and reduce productive assets and reducing the negative impacts on other household members, particularly young children and school-age children. PMID:24710958

  6. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  7. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children's memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children's recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with…

  8. Parental Choice, Social Class and Market Forces: The Consequences of Privatization of Public Services in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    This paper is part of a research project into parental choice, social class and market forces carried out by a team in Zaragoza (Spain). The main objective was to evaluate parents' choice of school and the consequences this may produce in terms of social exclusion and inequality. Additionally, our aim was to determine whether certain populations,…

  9. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety. PMID:24177484

  10. Energy, emissions, and social consequences of telecommuting. Technical Report One

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    By reducing transportation use, telecommuting can help reduce some of the social costs of travel (traffic congestion, time lost, emissions, dependence on imported fuels, accident deaths and property damage). These positive direct effects will be both offset and supplemented by indirect effects of telecommuting: improved traffic flow, latent demand (people will start driving more), and increased urban sprawl. The study indicates that the energy and emissions benefits of telecommuting are not likely to be entirely offset by latent travel demand or by the geographical expansion of cities; perhaps half the potential reduction in vehicle-miles traveled will be replaced by new traffic. From a fuel-use perspective, the indirect benefit of lower average emissions and fuel consumption rates appears sufficient to offset impacts from the third indirect effect, additional travel brought about by increased suburbanization. Substantial levels of telecommuting will also reduce the need for highway capacity expansion, saving capital, maintenance, and urban land. Telecommuting and its benefits will be concentrated in the largest, most congested, and most polluted urban areas (20--25% in the NYC and LA areas; 50% in the 10 largest cities; 90% in the 75 largest).Telecommuting may also have a synergistic beneficial effect on other transportation strategies, e.g., congestion pricing, parking fees, taxes discouraging travel during peak periods, etc. Other beneficial effects may include greater presence of adults at home and on residential communities. Effects of improved telecommunications technology on transportation, freight, economy, industrial operations are discussed, including implications of an ``information superhighway.``

  11. The Social Consequences of Infertility among Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Syedeh Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2015-01-01

    Background Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation. Conclusion This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences. PMID:25780523

  12. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  13. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services. PMID:23821904

  14. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  15. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. PMID:25914339

  16. Better Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Could Mitigate the Adverse Consequences of Obesity on Cardiovascular Disease: The SUN Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Eguaras, Sonia; Toledo, Estefanía; Hernández-Hernández, Aitor; Cervantes, Sebastián; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Strong observational evidence supports the association between obesity and cardiovascular events. In elderly high-risk subjects, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was reported to counteract the adverse cardiovascular effects of adiposity. Whether this same attenuation is also present in younger subjects is not known. We prospectively examined the association between obesity and cardiovascular clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) after 10.9 years follow-up in 19,065 middle-aged men and women (average age 38 year) according to their adherence to the MedDiet (<6 points or ≥6 points in the Trichopoulou’s Mediterranean Diet Score). We observed 152 incident cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD). An increased risk of CVD across categories of body mass index (BMI) was apparent if adherence to the MedDiet was low, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs): 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.93–2.25) for ≥25 – <30 kg/m2 of BMI and 2.00 (1.04–3.83) for ≥30 kg/m2 of BMI, compared to a BMI < 25 kg/m2. In contrast, these estimates were 0.77 (0.35–1.67) and 1.15 (0.39–3.43) with good adherence to MedDiet. Better adherence to the MedDiet was associated with reduced CVD events (p for trend = 0.029). Our results suggest that the MedDiet could mitigate the harmful cardiovascular effect of overweight/obesity. PMID:26556370

  17. Better Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Could Mitigate the Adverse Consequences of Obesity on Cardiovascular Disease: The SUN Prospective Cohort.

    PubMed

    Eguaras, Sonia; Toledo, Estefanía; Hernández-Hernández, Aitor; Cervantes, Sebastián; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2015-11-01

    Strong observational evidence supports the association between obesity and cardiovascular events. In elderly high-risk subjects, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was reported to counteract the adverse cardiovascular effects of adiposity. Whether this same attenuation is also present in younger subjects is not known. We prospectively examined the association between obesity and cardiovascular clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) after 10.9 years follow-up in 19,065 middle-aged men and women (average age 38 year) according to their adherence to the MedDiet (<6 points or ≥6 points in the Trichopoulou's Mediterranean Diet Score). We observed 152 incident cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD). An increased risk of CVD across categories of body mass index (BMI) was apparent if adherence to the MedDiet was low, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs): 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.93-2.25) for ≥25 - <30 kg/m² of BMI and 2.00 (1.04-3.83) for ≥30 kg/m² of BMI, compared to a BMI < 25 kg/m². In contrast, these estimates were 0.77 (0.35-1.67) and 1.15 (0.39-3.43) with good adherence to MedDiet. Better adherence to the MedDiet was associated with reduced CVD events (p for trend = 0.029). Our results suggest that the MedDiet could mitigate the harmful cardiovascular effect of overweight/obesity. PMID:26556370

  18. A research framework for pharmacovigilance in health social media: Identification and evaluation of patient adverse drug event reports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun

    2015-12-01

    Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work. PMID:26518315

  19. Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. Method: The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14–20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. Results: The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs. PMID:23036206

  20. Loss of genetic variability in social spiders: genetic and phylogenetic consequences of population subdivision and inbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Agnarsson, I; Avilés, L; Maddison, W P

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of population subdivision and inbreeding have been studied in many organisms, particularly in plants. However, most studies focus on the short-term consequences, such as inbreeding depression. To investigate the consequences of both population fragmentation and inbreeding for genetic variability in the longer term, we here make use of a natural inbreeding experiment in spiders, where sociality and accompanying population subdivision and inbreeding have evolved repeatedly. We use mitochondrial and nuclear data to infer phylogenetic relationships among 170 individuals of Anelosimus spiders representing 23 species. We then compare relative mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability of the inbred social species and their outbred relatives. We focus on four independently derived social species and four subsocial species, including two outbred–inbred sister species pairs. We find that social species have 50% reduced mitochondrial sequence divergence. As inbreeding is not expected to reduce genetic variability in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome, this suggests the loss of variation due to strong population subdivision, founder effects, small effective population sizes (colonies as individuals) and lineage turnover. Social species have < 10% of the nuclear genetic variability of the outbred species, also suggesting the loss of genetic variability through founder effects and/or inbreeding. Inbred sociality hence may result in reduction in variability through various processes. Sociality in most Anelosimus species probably arose relatively recently (0.1–2 mya), with even the oldest social lineages having failed to diversify. This is consistent with the hypothesis that inbred spider sociality represents an evolutionary dead end. Heterosis underlies a species potential to respond to environmental change and/or disease. Inbreeding and loss of genetic variability may thus limit diversification in social Anelosimus lineages and similarly pose

  1. Repeated restraint stress alters sensitivity to the social consequences of ethanol in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Human adolescents consume alcohol largely to enhance social interactions. Adolescent, but not adult rats likewise exhibit ethanol-induced social facilitation under low-stress circumstances. Since the relationship between stress and ethanol sensitivity across ontogeny still has yet to be well explored, the present study sought to characterize possible age-associated differences in the influence of stressor exposure on ethanol-induced changes in social behavior in adolescent [postnatal days (P) 30–36] and adult (P65-71) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were repeatedly restrained (90 min/day) for 5 days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Results revealed typical age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol among controls, with adolescents being uniquely sensitive to low-dose ethanol stimulation of social investigation and play fighting, but less sensitive than adults to the social suppression emerging at higher doses. At both ages, stressor exposure decreased sensitivity to social inhibitory effects of ethanol, while augmenting expression of ethanol’s social facilitatory effects. Ethanol also attenuated the stress-related suppression of social motivation at both ages. These results suggest that repeated stressor exposure diminishes age-related differences in the social consequences of ethanol, with stress enhancing ethanol-induced social facilitation across age. PMID:20478326

  2. Alcohol use, drinking consequences, and sensitivity to social cues among college women.

    PubMed

    Vik, Peter W; Williams, Catherine; Dasher, Nickolas; Van Wyk, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    College students who drink vary in the extent to which they experience drinking consequences, prompting a need to identify factors that differentiate higher-risk drinkers from others. The present study investigated whether difficulty in processing subtle social information is related to negative drinking consequences experienced within the past year. Specifically, poor ability to detect subtle non-verbal sarcasm cues was predicted to contribute to drinking consequences. Participants were 39 women, aged 18 to 27 (M=22), who were enrolled in a public, four-year university. Participants completed a video measure of ability to detect sarcastic comments. After controlling for (high school drinking consequences, maximum drinks in the past 3 months, age), poorer performance in the Simple Sarcasm condition (which provided no cues to others' intentions) explained an additional 10.8% of the variance in recent drinking consequences (ΔF (1, 34)=6.15, p=.018). When predicting risky/hazardous alcohol use consequences (e.g., driving intoxicated, fights, unplanned/unprotected sex), Simple Sarcasm again improved prediction by explaining an additional 8.6% of the variance (ΔF (1, 34)=4.75, p=.036). Sarcasm conditions that provided additional cues to others' meanings were unrelated to alcohol consequences. Findings are discussed within the context of neurological (orbito-frontal-subcortical) pathways that are common to social information and alcohol reinforcement processes. PMID:24656997

  3. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  4. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  5. Computers and Privacy. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.; And Others

    This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological innovations in…

  6. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study designed, developed, and field-tested a series of nine curriculum resource units for a semester program called "Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology (IST)." The units were designed for use by students and teachers in the 11th and 12th grades and at the junior college level: either…

  7. Biomedical Technology. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.; And Others

    This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological innovations in…

  8. The Loss of Personal Privacy and Its Consequences for Social Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbin, Alice

    2001-01-01

    Chronicles public opinion, politics, and law and policy on privacy and confidentiality and their consequences for access by the social research community to government administrative and statistical records. Discusses the political environment, the decennial census long form, media coverage, and fears about the accumulation of personal information…

  9. Measuring Government Effectiveness and Its Consequences for Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…

  10. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. Unanticipated Consequences of Modern Social Control in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.; De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth

    2001-01-01

    Modern organizational changes purportedly intended to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover are actually forms of social control. Analysis of data from 6,000 employees found that an unintended yet beneficial consequence of these changes is reduced sexual harassment. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  11. Sex differences in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol and social drinking during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2015-01-01

    In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75 g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5 g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75 g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75 g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females. PMID:25557799

  12. Sex differences in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol and social drinking during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P

    2015-04-01

    In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females. PMID:25557799

  13. Examining the association between early life social adversity and BMI changes in childhood: a life course trajectory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Northstone, K.; Howe, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background A number of studies have found associations between multiple aspects of social adversity and obesity in childhood, yet this research has largely been limited to cross‐sectional data. Objectives This study aimed to address this limitation by using life course trajectory methods to determine whether multiple aspects of social adversity in early childhood are associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) throughout childhood. Methods Associations between multiple measures of social adversity from birth to 4 years and subsequent BMI trajectories to age 17 were examined in 7021 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Results Higher BMI throughout ages 12–17 were observed for children whose parents had separated, were exposed to frequent residential mobility or who experienced moderate or great household financial difficulty in early childhood. After adjustment for confounding variables, associations were attenuated but remained for both moderate (two moves) and high (≥3 moves) residential mobility (mean % difference in BMI at age 17 for children experiencing moderate and high residential mobility before age 4 compared with those experiencing no moves: 2.3; 95% CI: 0.5–4.2; P = 0.015 and 4.2; 95% CI: 1.4–7.0; P = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Associations between BMI and social adversity in childhood are present but largely explained by background socioeconomic position. However, there remain small but important differences between the BMI of children who are exposed to frequent residential mobility in early childhood after adjustment for socioeconomic and other confounders. PMID:26305573

  14. Sex-dependent consequences of pre-pubertal gonadectomy: Social behavior, stress and ethanol responsivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption can be enhanced or moderated by sensitivity to its aversive and appetitive properties, including positive social outcomes. These differences emerge post-pubertally, suggesting a potential role of gonadal hormones. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in sensitivity to the social impairing and social context-related attenuations in the aversive effects of ethanol, prepubertal male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or sham (SH) operated on postnatal day (P) 25, or left non-manipulated (NM). In adulthood (P70), rats were restrained for 90 min prior to challenge with 0.0 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol and social interaction (SI) testing. At P77, groups of 4 same-sex littermates from the same surgical condition were given access to a supersaccharin (SS) solution (3% sucrose, 0.125% saccharin), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Intakes of SS were examined 24h later for expression of conditioned taste aversions. Acute stress prior to SI testing increased frequency of play fighting in both sexes, whereas there were no GX effects on this measure, social investigation nor contact. GX, however, decreased baseline social preference (a social anxiety-like effect) in males, while inducing anxiolytic-like increases in baseline social preference in females. The social drinking test revealed that females developed ethanol conditioned taste aversions at a lower dose relative to males, regardless of surgical condition. These findings suggest a potential role for gonadal hormones in moderating social-anxiety like behaviors but not sensitivity to the social impairing effects of ethanol or ethanol's aversive consequences in a social context. PMID:26386303

  15. Children's scripts for social emotions: causes and consequences are more central than are facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Widen, Sherri C; Russell, James A

    2010-09-01

    Understanding and recognition of emotions relies on emotion concepts, which are narrative structures (scripts) specifying facial expressions, causes, consequences, label, etc. organized in a temporal and causal order. Scripts and their development are revealed by examining which components better tap which concepts at which ages. This study investigated whether a facial expression or a brief story describing an emotion's cause and consequence was the stronger cue to basic-level and social emotions. Children (N = 120, 4-10 years) freely labelled the emotion implied by faces and, separately, stories for six basic-level emotions (happiness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and contempt) and three social emotions (embarrassment, compassion, and shame). Cause-and-consequence stories were the stronger cue overall, especially for fear, disgust, and social emotions. Faces were the stronger cue only for surprise. Younger children assimilated social emotions into basic-level emotion categories (sadness and anger); older children differentiated them. Differentiation occurred earlier for stories than for faces. PMID:20849034

  16. Social status regulates growth rate: Consequences for life-history strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Hans A.; Benson, Mark E.; Fernald, Russell D.

    1999-01-01

    The life-history strategies of organisms are sculpted over evolutionary time by the relative prospects of present and future reproductive success. As a consequence, animals of many species show flexible behavioral responses to environmental and social change. Here we show that disruption of the habitat of a colony of African cichlid fish, Haplochromis burtoni (Günther) caused males to switch social status more frequently than animals kept in a stable environment. H. burtoni males can be either reproductively active, guarding a territory, or reproductively inactive (nonterritorial). Although on average 25–50% of the males are territorial in both the stable and unstable environments, during the 20-week study, nearly two-thirds of the animals became territorial for at least 1 week. Moreover, many fish changed social status several times. Surprisingly, the induced changes in social status caused changes in somatic growth. Nonterritorial males and animals ascending in social rank showed an increased growth rate whereas territorial males and animals descending in social rank slowed their growth rate or even shrank. Similar behavioral and physiological changes are caused by social change in animals kept in stable environmental conditions, although at a lower rate. This suggests that differential growth, in interaction with environmental conditions, is a central mechanism underlying the changes in social status. Such reversible phenotypic plasticity in a crucial life-history trait may have evolved to enable animals to shift resources from reproduction to growth or vice versa, depending on present and future reproductive prospects. PMID:10570217

  17. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  18. How do people form behavioral intentions when others have the power to determine social consequences?

    PubMed

    Trafimow, David; Clayton, Krisstal D; Sheeran, Paschal; Darwish, Abdel-Fattah E; Brown, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Much literature has suggested that people who are discriminated against or are in collectivist cultures are particularly susceptible to the social consequences of society. In the present study, the authors conducted 3 experiments to test how this factor influences attitudinal versus normative control over behaviors. First, they measured males' and females' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions with respect to a large number of behaviors. Although between-participants analyses were mostly uninformative, within-participants analyses uncovered strong evidence that behaviors are more under attitudinal control for females than for males. Similar analyses in a crosscultural experiment involving participants from the United States, the United Kingdom, China, and Mexico support the hypothesis that behaviors are more under attitudinal control for collectivists than for individualists. Finally, experimental data collected in the United States and Saudi Arabia further support this conclusion. Taken together, the findings suggest that although social consequences are both "social" and "consequences", the latter is more important than the former. PMID:20718228

  19. Physiological and health consequences of social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Filby, Amy L; Paull, Gregory C; Bartlett, Emily J; Van Look, Katrien J W; Tyler, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    Social status affects access to food, mates and shelter and has consequences for the physiology of individuals and their health status. In the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an emerging model for studies into animal behavior, the possible consequences of social hierarchy to an individual's physiology and health are unknown. To address this, in this species we assessed the effects of social interaction (for periods of 1-5days) on growth, stress, immune function and reproductive condition. Wide-ranging differences in physiology occurred between the social ranks, some of which were sex-related and time-dependent. In both sexes, dominant fish were larger than subordinates and dominant males had a higher growth rate during the trials. Subordinates had higher plasma cortisol and in males higher telencephalic corticotrophin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide y and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. Splenic cytokine expression suggested differences in immune status between ranks in both sexes and hematocrit was elevated in subordinate males. In both sexes, dominants and subordinates differed in the expression of genes for various gonadal sex steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes and in dominant females the ovary was larger relative to body mass compared with in subordinates. Dominant males had higher plasma 11-ketotestosterone than subordinates and there was an increase in the number of spermatids in their testes over the duration of the study that was not seen in subordinate males. The wide-ranging physiological differences seen between dominant and subordinate zebrafish as a consequence of their social status suggest negative health impacts for subordinates after prolonged durations in those hierarchies. PMID:20851709

  20. Psychopathology and Social Competence during the Transition to Adolescence: The Role of Family Adversity and Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Obradović, Jelena; Hipwell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This study examined developmental processes linking competence and psychopathology in an urban sample of girls during their transition to adolescence. Longitudinal associations among indices of externalizing symptoms, social competence, and internalizing symptoms were also tested within contexts of family adversity and girls' pubertal status. Child, parent, and teacher report were employed to assess core constructs across six annual assessment waves, starting at age 9. Results revealed the significant effect of prior levels of externalizing symptoms on changes in social competence and internalizing symptoms, as well as reciprocal relations between social competence and internalizing symptoms. In addition, girl's maladaptive functioning predicted increases in family adversity exposure over time. Lastly, more mature pubertal status in early assessment waves was linked to an increase in internalizing symptoms; however, this association was reversed by the last assessment, when most girls had reached advance stages of puberty. The timing of these effects reveals important targets for future interventions aimed at promoting the successful adaptation of girls in adolescence. PMID:20576183

  1. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African-Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  2. Consequences of Arizona's immigration policy on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigration status.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group content and interactions revealed that perceived racial profiling was common among mothers and led to fear of family separation. Several described direct experiences with detention and deportation. Although detention and deportation strengthened social ties between mothers and other unauthorized immigrants, these experiences were detrimental to social ties between mothers and members of the mainstream society, including their children's teachers. Finally, immigration policies were perceived to affect parent-child ties negatively, as mothers reported family stress, financial hardship, and decreased parental availability. PMID:24371370

  3. Consequences of Arizona's immigration policy on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigration status

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers’ experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group content and interactions revealed that perceived racial profiling was common among mothers and led to fear of family separation. Several described direct experiences with detention and deportation. Although detention and deportation strengthened social ties between mothers and other unauthorized immigrants, these experiences were detrimental to social ties between mothers and members of the mainstream society, including their children's teachers. Finally, immigration policies were perceived to affect parent-child ties negatively, as mothers reported family stress, financial hardship, and decreased parental availability. PMID:24371370

  4. Pharmacovigilance from social media: mining adverse drug reaction mentions using sequence labeling with word embedding cluster features

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Abeed; O’Connor, Karen; Ginn, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks, particularly for pharmacovigilance, via the use of natural language processing (NLP) techniques. However, the language in social media is highly informal, and user-expressed medical concepts are often nontechnical, descriptive, and challenging to extract. There has been limited progress in addressing these challenges, and thus far, advanced machine learning-based NLP techniques have been underutilized. Our objective is to design a machine learning-based approach to extract mentions of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from highly informal text in social media. Methods We introduce ADRMine, a machine learning-based concept extraction system that uses conditional random fields (CRFs). ADRMine utilizes a variety of features, including a novel feature for modeling words’ semantic similarities. The similarities are modeled by clustering words based on unsupervised, pretrained word representation vectors (embeddings) generated from unlabeled user posts in social media using a deep learning technique. Results ADRMine outperforms several strong baseline systems in the ADR extraction task by achieving an F-measure of 0.82. Feature analysis demonstrates that the proposed word cluster features significantly improve extraction performance. Conclusion It is possible to extract complex medical concepts, with relatively high performance, from informal, user-generated content. Our approach is particularly scalable, suitable for social media mining, as it relies on large volumes of unlabeled data, thus diminishing the need for large, annotated training data sets. PMID:25755127

  5. The Social Pathologies of Self-Realization: A Diagnosis of the Consequences of the Shift in Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammershoj, Lars Geer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inquire into today's social pathologies, i.e. the negative consequences of the developmental processes of society. In a dialogue with Axel Honneth, the article asserts that a shift has occurred in individualization, a shift that implies a fundamental change in social pathologies: Social pathologies no longer derive…

  6. Adolescents' fear of social consequences of academic success as a function of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, F I; Chabassol, D J

    1985-02-01

    The Fear of Success Consequence Scale (FOSC) was used to assess adolescents' fears of potential social consequences of academic success in three dimensions, i.e., negative social reaction, positive peer reaction, and increased pressure and responsibility for continuous success. Subjects were 360 students in early adolescence (grades 7-9) and mid-adolescence (grades 10-12) in three urban British Columbia areas. Two hypotheses were supported: (1) that fear of academic success is higher among early adolescents than among mid-adolescents; (2) that girls generally have higher fear of academic success than do boys. Significant sex differences were found among early adolescents but not among mid-adolescents. While general sex differences were consistent with Horner's prediction, the findings of lower fear of success consequences among older adolescents than among younger ones, and the absence of significant sex difference among mid-adolescents, were contrary to Horner's prediction. Possible explanations for these findings are considered. Suggestions for further research are mentioned. PMID:24301042

  7. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Noack, Julia; Murau, Rita; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behavior in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behavior measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it-at least partially-reduced the aggressive behavior shown by the experimental subjects toward the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odors as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory. PMID:25972782

  8. The biobehavioral consequences of psychogenic stress in a small, social primate (Callithrix jacchus jacchus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, E O; Kamilaris, T C; Carter, C S; Calogero, A E; Gold, P W; Chrousos, G P

    1996-09-01

    The biobehavioral consequences of psychogenic stress were examined using neuroendocrine and ethological methods in a captive colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). Specifically, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity was evaluated as a function of gender and social status in four consecutive social environments [(1) stable heterosexual pairs; (2) isolation; (3) unstable peer groups; and (4) stable peer groups], by measuring both basal plasma cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-endorphin concentrations and responsiveness of these hormones to dexamethasone, ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH), and ACTH1-24. Socially stressful conditions, such as isolation and peer group formation, were associated with increased HPA axis function and behavioral arousal, and individual profiles were related to gender and social status. Hormonal levels prior to group formation predicted subsequent status in peer groups. Basal morning concentrations of plasma cortisol, as well as cortisol responsiveness to dexamethasone suppression, were sensitive indices of HPA axis arousal during periods of social stress. The context-dependent development of hormonal and behavioral profiles, reminiscent of depression and/or anorexia nervosa, suggests that the common marmoset may be a useful model of psychiatric hypercortisolism. PMID:8874833

  9. Developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness. Children who knew of broadly held stereotypes more often explained hypothetical negative interracial encounters between White actors and Black targets as discriminatory. In addition, among African American and Latino children who knew about broadly held stereotypes, diagnostic testing conditions led to stereotype threat effects on a standardized working memory task. Findings are discussed in terms of the contribution to our understanding of children's developing thinking about and response to stereotypes and related phenomena. PMID:19930343

  10. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status. PMID:22483443

  11. Newcomers to Social Categories: Longitudinal Predictors and Consequences of Ingroup Identification.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Ruth; Eisenbeiss, Kerstin Karen; Otten, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    In the present article, we propose a dynamic model of the longitudinal predictors and consequences of ingroup identification among newcomers to a social category. We hypothesize a shift in the relative importance of intragroup affiliation as compared with intergroup differentiation for ingroup identification. Two longitudinal studies confirm the theoretical model assessing cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between ingroup identification and interpersonal attraction, self-prototypicality, and ingroup favoritism at three measurement points during the first 4 months of group membership in two different social categories. Results demonstrate that in the initial phases of group membership, ingroup identification is mainly determined by intragroup affiliation (interpersonal attraction) and that ingroup favoritism starts playing a relevant role later on, when category membership has been established. PMID:27460273

  12. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children’s Memory

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children‘s memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children‘s recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with peers after exposure to the rumor. In both experiments, 3- to 5-year-olds overheard a false rumor about a recently-experienced event and then were interviewed one week later about the event. In Experiment 1, children were more likely to report experiencing rumored-but-nonoccurring information if they were allowed to interact naturally with peers following exposure to the rumor than if they were prevented from peer exchange. In Experiment 2, exposure to the rumor induced greater memory contamination if it was planted among familiar peers than if it was encountered among strangers. PMID:20659735

  13. Investigating social consequences of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Malawi: the role of stigma.

    PubMed

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kachale, Fannie; Awah, Paschal; Kangaude, Godfrey; Mhango, Chisale

    2012-09-01

    Malawian women in all sectors of society are suffering from social implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. Unwanted pregnancies occur among women who have limited access to family planning and safe abortion. A legally restrictive setting for safe abortion services leads many women to unsafe abortion, which has consequences for them and their families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 485 Malawian stakeholders belonging to different political and social structures. Interviewees identified the impact of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion to be the greatest on young women. Premarital and extramarital pregnancies were highly stigmatized; stigma directly related to abortion was also found. Community-level discussions need to focus on reduction of stigma. PMID:22920622

  14. Toward a Social Conflict Evolution Model: Examining the Adverse Power of Conflictual Social Interaction in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Kui; Miller, Nicole C.; Allison, Justin R.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined an authentic online learning phenomenon where social conflict, including harsh critique and negative tone, weaved throughout peer-moderated online discussions in an online class. Opening coding and content analysis were performed on 1306 message units and course artifacts. The results revealed that a model of social…

  15. Adverse influence of social facilitation and learning context in training cattle to avoid eating larkspur.

    PubMed

    Ralphs, M H; Olsen, J D

    1990-07-01

    Through conditioned food aversion learning, livestock can be trained to avoid eating harmful plants. The objectives of this study were to determine whether social facilitation will extinguish an aversion to larkspur (a poisonous plant on mountain rangelands) and to determine whether the aversion can be reinforced to withstand social facilitation in a group-feeding and field-grazing situation. Two groups of heifers offered fresh larkspur were simultaneously infused intraruminally with lithium chloride (LiCl) to create an association between the taste of larkspur and LiCl-induced gastrointestinal distress. A third control group was infused with water. Heifers from one averted group (extinction) were paired with nonaverted controls and offered larkspur. When the extinction group sampled larkspur, and LiCl was not infused, the aversion was extinguished rapidly. Heifers in the other averted group (reinforcement), being infused with LiCl whenever they sampled larkspur, abstained from eating larkspur in the group-feeding situation. Heifers were then taken to larkspur-infested rangeland. After the control heifers began eating larkspur, the averted heifers started to sample it and the aversion was extinguished in three of four heifers. However, the aversion was renewed when the heifers were returned to the pen- and group-feeding situation where the aversion was created. Reinforced aversion was overcome by social facilitation in an unfamiliar field-grazing environment. PMID:2166731

  16. Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children’s Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  17. Early adversity, RSA, and inhibitory control: evidence of children's neurobiological sensitivity to social context.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Teti, Douglas M; Ammerman, Robert T

    2014-07-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children's inhibitory control. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent-child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children's independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  18. Assessing Middle School Students' Knowledge of Conduct and Consequences and Their Behaviors regarding the Use of Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, Stacey L.; Gable, Robert; Filippelli, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Cyberbullying and threats of Internet predators, not to mention the enduring consequences of postings, may lead to dangerous, unspeakable consequences. Cyberbullying and threats of Internet predators through social networking sites and instant messaging programs are initiating numerous problems for parents, school administrators, and law…

  19. Phenotypic and Evolutionary Consequences of Social Behaviours: Interactions among Individuals Affect Direct Genetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Trubenová, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar

    2012-01-01

    Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic effects occur. In this study, we explore the effects of indirect genetic effects on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic effects but can also modify direct genetic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both direct and indirect genetic effects substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of direct versus indirect genetic effects. Our model reveals that both direct and indirect genetic effects can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic effects with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation. PMID:23226195

  20. No place called home: the causes and social consequences of the UK housing 'bubble'.

    PubMed

    Bone, John; O'Reilly, Karen

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the key causes and social consequences of the much debated UK 'housing bubble' and its aftermath from a multidimensional sociological approach, as opposed to the economic perspective of many popular discussions. This is a phenomenon that has affected numerous economies in the first decade of the new millennium. The discussion is based on a comprehensive study that includes exhaustive analysis of secondary data, content and debate in the mass media and academia, primary data gathered from the monitoring of weblogs and forums debating housing issues, and case histories of individuals experiencing housing difficulties during this period. This paper is intended to provide a broad overview of the key findings and preliminary analysis of this ongoing study, and is informed by a perspective which considers secure and affordable housing to be an essential foundation of stable and cohesive societies, with its absence contributing to a range of social ills that negatively impact on both individual and collective well being. Overall, it is argued that we must return to viewing decent, affordable housing as an essential social resource, that provides the bedrock of stable individual, family and community life, while recognizing that its increasing treatment as a purely economic asset is a key contributor to our so-called 'broken society'. PMID:20579053

  1. Social dominance orientation predicts heterosexual men's adverse reactions to romantic rejection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ashleigh J; Dubbs, Shelli L; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-05-01

    We examined the role of social dominance orientation (SDO) as a predictor of men's reactions to romantic rejection and attitudes toward female sexuality. In Study 1 (n = 158), we found that men who scored higher in SDO were more likely to blame women for romantic rejection, and report having responded to women's past rejection with persistence and manipulation (e.g., convincing her to "give him another chance"), as well as with aggression and threats of violence. In Study 2 (n = 398), we replicated these findings, and further found that men higher in SDO were more likely to endorse rape myths (e.g., believing that sometimes a woman's barriers need to be "broken down" in order to attain sex), and to want to lower the legal age of sexual consent in women. Two mediators explained this relationship, hostile sexism and the belief that insubordinate women need to be disciplined. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:25224507

  2. Urinary Incontinence among older Mexican American men: Risk factors and psycho-social consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gerst, K.; Ray, L.A.; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D.V; Markides, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic White and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditionsand men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey. PMID:20811953

  3. [Environmental medicine in public health service--a social responsibility and its consequences].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2001-02-01

    The special committee for "Environmental Medicine" established by the Federal Association of Doctors in the German Public Health Service presents its paper entitled "Environmental Medicine in the Public Health Service--A Social Responsibility and its Consequences: Propositions with regard to the situation, aims, strategies, and opportunities for action". The paper includes core ideas and responsibilities in the public health service. It aims at providing a number of guidelines for implementing "Environment and Health" ("Umwelt und Gesundheit"), an action programme by the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health, as well as "Health 21" ("Gesundheit 21"), the framework concept "Health for all" for the WHO's European Region. The paper also aims at initiating and facilitating steps for joint action by the Public Health Service. These theses were passed on to Mrs. Andrea Fischer, the Federal Minister of Health, during a meeting with the Board of the Association. In Germany, environment-related public health protection is well established in the Public Health Departments and state institutes/departments within the scope of public health provision and disease prevention. Typical responsibilities include environmental hygiene and environment-related medical services which have increased in importance. The range of responsibilities and its current political importance are a result of environment-related public health risks, the social situation of the population, also with regard to health issues, and the scope of responsibilities and competencies by doctors and staff in the public health departments. With the people's demands for health, quality of life and life expectancy, this need for action increases. In this paper, judicial, professional, and personal consequence are presented which arise as public health authorities assume these responsibilities. PMID:11285752

  4. Adverse early life experience and social stress during adulthood interact to increase serotonin transporter mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Katherine L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Plotsky, Paul M.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of serotonergic systems in the brain. To evaluate the effects of early life experience, adverse experiences during adulthood, and potential interactions between these factors on serotonin transporter (slc6a4) mRNA expression, we investigated in rats the effects of maternal separation (180 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS180), neonatal handing (15 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS15), or normal animal facility rearing control conditions (AFR) with or without subsequent exposure to adult social defeat on slc6a4 mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and caudal linear nucleus. At the level of specific subdivisions of the DR, there were no differences in slc6a4 mRNA expression between MS15 and AFR rats. Among rats exposed to a novel cage control condition, increased slc6a4 mRNA expression was observed in the dorsal part of the DR in MS180 rats, relative to AFR control rats. In contrast, MS180 rats exposed to social defeat as adults had increased slc6a4 mRNA expression throughout the DR compared to both MS15 and AFR controls. Social defeat increased slc6a4 mRNA expression, but only in MS180 rats and only in the “lateral wings” of the DR. Overall these data demonstrate that early life experience and stressful experience during adulthood interact to determine slc6a4 mRNA expression. These data support the hypothesis that early life experience and major stressful life events contribute to dysregulation of serotonergic systems in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19781533

  5. [The Spanish economic crisis and its consequences on social spending. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem

    2014-06-01

    This article offers a brief summary of the factors that the author believes should be considered when analyzing the multiple interrelations between the economic crisis and its effects on public finances, social spending, and the health and welfare of Spaniards. For the sake of brevity, a linear argument is followed, with the basic contents of the message, leaving some of the more controversial issues whose interpretation may be heavily influenced by ideology to the discussion. The core of the argument is that, despite the double dip of the Spanish recession, healthcare has survived the consequences of the crisis fairly well. This is particularly the case when the situation is analyzed in terms of the share of public expenditure to GDP and in per capita terms, given the evolution of these ratios, although the final effect is unknown in terms of the actual and potential beneficiaries. This relatively low incidence so far on the health of Spaniards is basically due to family networks, pooling their incomes, and to the acceptance by Spanish health professionals of budget cuts, which have allowed services and their apparent quality to be maintained, contrasting with private employment and public finances. Obviously, this is not a guarantee of sustainability unless economic growth recovers. Even if the Spanish economy and public finances improve, the composition of health care delivery needs to be reevaluated to achieve a new allocation between public and private responsibilities for healthcare in accordance with the social development of the 21st century. PMID:24863990

  6. Energetic consequences and ecological significance of heterothermy and social thermoregulation in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yeen Ten; Larivière, Serge; Messier, François

    2007-01-01

    We assessed patterns and energetic consequences of different overwintering strategies, torpor, and social thermoregulation in the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) under natural ambient temperature and photoperiod. Striped skunks entered spontaneous daily torpor, with the lowest torpid body temperature (T(b)) reaching 26.0 degrees C, the lowest recorded T(b) for a carnivore. Patterns of daily torpor differed between solitary and grouped skunks: all solitary skunks regularly entered daily torpor, but only some individuals in communal dens employed torpor. When they did, it was shallow and infrequent. Solitary skunks entered torpor on average 50 times (in 120 d) compared with 6 times for grouped skunks. During torpor, solitary skunks had average minimum T(b) of 26.8 degrees C and bout duration of 7.8 h, whereas grouped skunks had average minimum T(b) of 30.9 degrees C and bout duration of 5.4 h. Torpor by solitary skunks occurred during their activity phase, but grouped skunks' shallow torpor bouts were restricted to their diurnal resting phase. On average, grouped skunks experienced lower percent daily fat loss, and they emerged in spring with higher percent body fat of 25.5%. In contrast, solitary skunks emerged in spring with only 9.3% body fat. In conclusion, the use of daily torpor and social thermoregulation in northern populations of striped skunks represent two strikingly different mechanisms to minimize energetic costs and increase individual fitness in response to unfavorable environmental conditions. PMID:17160886

  7. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  8. Reforesting "bare hills" in Vietnam: social and environmental consequences of the 5 million hectare reforestation program.

    PubMed

    McElwee, Pamela

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, forestry has been strongly promoted by the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam through large-scale projects to rehabilitate and reforest millions of hectares of land. One project to reforest 5 million hectares has received hundreds of millions of US dollars for implementation. Yet based on a case study in one area of northern Vietnam, this project appears to have had a number of unforeseen consequences. Large areas of land classified as "bare hills" have been targeted for reforestation, despite the fact that these lands already harbor a number of species that were used by local communities. The bare hills were especially economically important to poor households and to women who collected a variety of nontimber forest products there. Because the reforestation project focused most efforts on establishing new plantations rather than supporting natural regeneration, diverse sources of non-timber forest products were being replaced with monocrop exotic tree plantations. A strong inequity in the allocation of private lands for reforestation has characterized the regreening projects to date, and this may have continuing unwelcome social, environmental, and economic impacts into the future, particularly for the poor. PMID:19860156

  9. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus…

  10. The Consequences of Parental Separation and Divorce for the Economic, Social and Emotional Circumstances of Children in Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maundeni, Tapologo

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes children's and mothers' accounts of the economic consequences of divorce for children in Botswana. Notes that most mothers and children reported economic hardship following divorce, although a few reported improvement or no change in economic circumstances. Traces the implications for the social and psychological well-being of children.…

  11. Destalking the Wily Tomato: A Case Study in Social Consequences in California Agricultural Research. Research Monograph No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.; Barton, Amy

    The end of the bracero program after 1965 brought about a major change in the growing, harvesting, and processing of California tomatoes which dramatically influenced the structure of the harvesting labor force. In order to determine the social consequences of the transition from man to mechanized harvesting procedures, the following areas of…

  12. Pre-pubertal gonadectomy and the social consequences of acute ethanol in adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been shown that pre-pubertal or adult gonadectomy (GX) increases ethanol intake in male rats. This study examined whether this sex-selective increase reflects a GX-induced maintenance in males of more adolescent-typical responsiveness to ethanol characterized by enhanced sensitivity to positive (e.g., socially facilitating) and a decreased sensitivity to adverse (e.g., socially inhibitory) effects of ethanol. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-pubertally GX, sham (SH)-operated, or non-manipulated (NM) at postnatal day (P) 25. During the late adolescent transition into adulthood (P48 - baseline day), rats were given a saline injection, placed alone into a familiar test apparatus for 30min and then exposed for 10min to an unfamiliar partner of the same age and sex. On the following day (P49), similar testing occurred after administration of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 or 1.25g/kg ethanol. At baseline, GX males and females displayed higher levels of social activity (especially adolescent-typical play and contact behavior) than SH and NM animals, with GX females displaying greater social activity than GX males. Neither males nor females demonstrated social facilitation at lower ethanol doses, regardless of hormonal status. Whereas the social inhibitory effects of higher doses of ethanol were similar across groups among females, SH males were less sensitive than both GX and NM males to ethanol-induced social inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced ethanol intake in GX males is not related to alterations in sensitivity to ethanol's social inhibitory effects. GX, however, results in retention of adolescent-typical social behaviors, with older GX adolescent rats resembling early adolescents in exhibiting elevated social activity-particularly play and contact behavior. PMID:24816080

  13. [Social consequences of breast cancer in women suffering from the disease].

    PubMed

    Latalski, M; Kulik, T B; Skórzyńska, H; Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, D

    2001-01-01

    The opinion poll was carried out among 350 patients suffering from the breast cancer who had been treated in 1995 in the Autonomous Public Oncological Health Centre in Lublin. Out of this group 155 women filled in their questionnaires correctly and the data included in them underwent the statistic analysis whose aim was to determine the consequences of the breast cancer detection for women and their families as well as to evaluate the influence of the disease on the social situation of the subjects. The average age of the subjects was 56.7 and the largest group consisted of women at the age of 60 to 88 (41.9%). In the majority of cases (85.2%) the detection took place by means of self-examination, 88.4% of the women primarily underwent surgical treatment, the remaining 11.6% had no chance for radical treatment. Metastases were recorded in 13.5% of the cases in the period of 5 years after the application of treatment. The neoplasm triggered serious outcomes in the mental sphere of the women's lives. Feelings of fear (56.8%) and sadness (56.1%) were dominating. The sense of low self-esteem occurred in 19.4% of the subjects. In 41.9% of the women increased irritability and nervous excitability were observed which resulted in a more frequent usage of the tranquilizers (by 32.3% of them). The disease caused changes also in the economical and professional spheres of the women's lives. 57.4% of the women claimed that their family income had become lower which was the result of their retirement and ceasing their professional careers in 49% of the cases. Only 16.1% of the women did not observe any impact of the disease on their professional work. The changes which appeared in their lives in connection with the disease created the need for support and help from the side of the medical staff (47.1%) as well as the need for contacts and exchange of experience with women in a similar situation (40%). At the same time only a small percentage of women (16.8%) had an access to the

  14. Child maltreatment increases sensitivity to adverse social contexts: Neighborhood physical disorder and incident binge drinking in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Goldmann, Emily; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for behavioral disorders in adulthood. One explanation for this life-course association is that child maltreatment increases vulnerability to the effects of subsequent stressors; however, the extent to which maltreatment increases sensitivity to social context has never been examined. We evaluated whether the association between neighborhood physical disorder and binge drinking was modified by child maltreatment exposure. METHODS Data were drawn from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, a prospective representative sample of predominately African Americans in the Detroit population. Neighborhood physical disorder was measured via systematic neighborhood assessment. Child maltreatment indicators included self-reported physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Incident binge drinking was defined as at least one episode of ≥5 drinks (men) or ≥4 drinks (women) in the past 30-day period among those with no binge drinking at baseline (N=1,013). RESULTS Child maltreatment and neighborhood physical disorder interacted to predict incident binge drinking (B=0.16, p=0.02) and maximum number of past 30-day drinks (B=0.15, p=0.04), such that neighborhood physical disorder predicted problematic alcohol use only among individuals with high exposure to child maltreatment. CONCLUSION The results add to the growing literature that African Americans in the U.S. are exposed to an array of stressors that have pernicious consequences for problematic alcohol use. Our results document the need for increased attention to the potential for at-risk alcohol use among populations with a high degree of stress exposure. PMID:21981990

  15. Social Diversity in Humans: Implications and Hidden Consequences for Biological Research

    PubMed Central

    Duster, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Humans are both similar and diverse in such a vast number of dimensions that for human geneticists and social scientists to decide which of these dimensions is a worthy focus of empirical investigation is a formidable challenge. For geneticists, one vital question, of course, revolves around hypothesizing which kind of social diversity might illuminate genetic variation—and vice versa (i.e., what genetic variation illuminates human social diversity). For example, are there health outcomes that can be best explained by genetic variation—or for social scientists, are health outcomes mainly a function of the social diversity of lifestyles and social circumstances of a given population? Indeed, what is a “population,” how is it bounded, and are those boundaries most appropriate or relevant for human genetic research, be they national borders, religious affiliation, ethnic or racial identification, or language group, to name but a few? For social scientists, the matter of what constitutes the relevant borders of a population is equally complex, and the answer is demarcated by the goal of the research project. Although race and caste are categories deployed in both human genetics and social science, the social meaning of race and caste as pathways to employment, health, or education demonstrably overwhelms the analytic and explanatory power of genetic markers of difference between human aggregates. PMID:24789817

  16. Keep going in adversity – using a resilience perspective to understand the narratives of long-term social assistance recipients in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Sweden, means-tested social assistance serves as a temporary, last resort safety net. However, increasing numbers of people are receiving it for longer periods and about a third has assistance for more than a year. The aim of this study was to explore the ways social assistance recipients manage long lasting adversity and their roles as active, rather than passive, agents in this process, using a resilience perspective. Method The study is based on thirteen in-depth interviews with long-term social assistance recipients from diverse areas in Stockholm County. The interviews were guided by narrative inquiry to interpret and construct stories of experiences and are part of a larger qualitative study exploring experiences of living on social assistance in Sweden. Results Experiences of cumulative adversity during many years compounded recipients’ difficulties in finding ways out of hardship. They had different strategies to deal with adversities, and many had underlying “core problems”, including mental health problems, which had not been properly resolved. Recipients’ showed resistance in adverse situations. Some made attempts to find ways out of hardship, whereas others struggled mainly to achieve a sense of mastering life. They received important support from individual professionals in different authorities, but mostly the help from the welfare system was fragmented. Conclusions Social assistance recipients in this study demonstrated agency in ways of managing long lasting difficulties, sometimes caused by “core problems”, which were often accumulated into complex difficulties. Resilience was about keeping going and resisting these difficulties. To find ways out of social assistance required help from different welfare agencies and professionals and was hindered by the fragmentation of services. This study shows that there is a need for more long-term personalised, comprehensive support, including interventions both to increase

  17. Is Self-Esteem a Cause or Consequence of Social Support? A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah L.; Parker, Phillip D.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M[subscript…

  18. The Consequences of Internet Café Use on Turkish College Students' Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koç, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet café use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet café usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafés. Social capital, on the other hand, was…

  19. The Social and Academic Consequences of Birth Order: Real, Artifactual, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…

  20. The Experimental Social Scientific Model in Speech Communication Research: Influences and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    A substantial number of published articles in speech communication research today is experimental/social scientific in nature. It is only in the past decade that scholars have begun to put the history of communication under the lens. Early advocates of the adoption of the method of social scientific inquiry were J. A. Winans, J. M. O'Neill, and C.…

  1. The Consequences of Internet Cafe use on Turkish College Students' Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet cafe use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet cafe usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafes. Social capital, on the other hand, was…

  2. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Workplace Social Capital on the Associations between Adverse Work Characteristics and Psychological Distress among Japanese Workers

    PubMed Central

    OSHIO, Takashi; INOUE, Akiomi; TSUTSUMI, Akizumi

    2014-01-01

    Our current study investigated how workplace social capital (WSC) mediates and moderates the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers. We collected cross-sectional data (N=9,350) from a baseline survey of an occupational Japanese cohort study. We focused on individual WSC and considered job demands/control, effort/reward, and two types (i.e., procedural and interactional) of organizational justice as work-characteristic variables. We defined psychological distress as a score of ≥5 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6 scale). Multivariate logistic regression analyses predicted a binary variable of psychological distress by individual WSC and adverse work characteristics, adjusting for individual-level covariates. Individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress in almost all model specifications. Additionally, individual WSC moderated the associations of psychological distress with high job demands, high effort, and low interactional justice when we used a high WSC cutoff point. In contrast, individual WSC did not moderate such interactions with low job control, reward, or procedural justice. We concluded that individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers while selectively moderating their associations at high levels of WSC. PMID:24705803

  3. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences.

    PubMed

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health. PMID:26323771

  4. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences

    PubMed Central

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health. PMID:26323771

  5. Social and Economic Consequences of Extreme Hydrological Regimes in Relationship to Federal Hydropower Generation on the Missouri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    parrish, M. A.; Otstot, R.; Moradkhani, H.

    2011-12-01

    After suffering from a ten year drought the main-stem Missouri reservoir system has now reached full capacity with flooding across a significant part of the region. Hydropower generation as a secondary purpose to both navigation and flood control is both directly and indirectly effected by these extreme hydrological regimes with sub-optimal generation timing, loss of dependable capacity, decrease in turbine efficiency, and operating in-flexibilities to buffer other renewable resources such as wind power. Hydropower operations under these extreme conditions are expected to continue with the recent SECURE Water Act Report issued by the Bureau of Reclamation predicting that the mean annual basin runoff may increase as much as 9.7% over the next fifty years. This study seeks to map the social and economic consequences of these extreme hydrologic regimes. First, using fifty years of historical generation a cumulative monthly frequency curve for each of the six federal plants on the Missouri River is developed. Then following the scenario analysis technique performed by the Department of Interior's study on the Deepwater Horizon Spill social and economic consequence chains are mapped into quartiles of the monthly frequency curves utilizing guidance from U.S Army Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, and Western area Power Administration. Locating the placement of the monthly generation for periods of extreme hydrological conditions within the frequency curve provides an objective relationship between the extreme event and the social and economic consequences. Using this approach over the fifty year period of record provides a way to analyze the cumulative multi-year effect of drought and flood, while also providing a way to calculate the uncertainty of the consequence associated with the extreme event.

  6. Children's Scripts for Social Emotions: Causes and Consequences Are More Central than Are Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and recognition of emotions relies on emotion concepts, which are narrative structures (scripts) specifying facial expressions, causes, consequences, label, etc. organized in a temporal and causal order. Scripts and their development are revealed by examining which components better tap which concepts at which ages. This study…

  7. Risky Sexual Behavior: A Race-Specific Social Consequence of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…

  8. Alcohol Use and Perceived Social and Emotional Consequences among Perpetrators of General and Sexual Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relation among alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last 3 months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple…

  9. Child and Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury: Academic, Behavioural, and Social Consequences in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Paul B.; Coulter, Gail A.

    2007-01-01

    More than five million children suffer from brain injuries each year. While the majority of these children are treated and released without permanent consequences, many children return to the classroom with lasting effects. Symptoms of brain injury can be misconstrued as common behaviour or academic problems. Therefore, teachers need to recognize…

  10. Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guémené, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Möstl, Erich; Houdelier, Cécilia

    2010-01-01

    Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects. PMID:21124926

  11. On conviction's collective consequences: integrating moral conviction with the social identity model of collective action.

    PubMed

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Postmes, Tom; Spears, Russell

    2012-03-01

    This article examines whether and how moral convictions predict collective action to achieve social change. Because moral convictions - defined as strong and absolute stances on moral issues - tolerate no exceptions, any violation motivates individuals to actively change that situation. We propose that moral convictions have a special relationship with politicized identities and collective action because of the potentially strong normative fit between moral convictions and the action-oriented content of politicized identities. This effectively integrates moral conviction with the Social Identity Model of Collective Action (Van Zomeren, Postmes, & Spears, 2008), which predicts that, on the basis of a relevant social identity, group-based anger and efficacy predict collective action. Results from two studies indeed showed that moral convictions predicted collective action intentions (Study 1-2) and collective action (Study 2) through politicized identification, group-based anger, and group efficacy. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our integrative model. PMID:22435846

  12. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  13. Social knowledge in children with language impairments: examination of strategies, predicted consequences, and goals in peer conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Timler, Geralyn R

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated social knowledge in school-age children, aged 8-12 years, with and without language impairment (LI and TD groups). A hypothetical peer conflict task was administered to examine the relationship among prosocial responses and parent/teacher ratings of children's social behaviours. Stimuli included 12 hypothetical peer conflict vignettes presented in an open-ended and forced choice condition. The LI group generated (open-ended) and selected (forced choice) fewer prosocial strategies. When asked to predict a friend's reaction to a selected conflict resolution strategy, the LI group predicted fewer positive consequences; however, the proportion of prosocial strategies followed by prediction of a positive peer consequence was similar across groups. Both groups identified more self-interest than relationship goals as the rationale for selected strategies. In the LI group, teacher ratings of children's social skills and problems in peer provocation situations were associated with selection of prosocial strategies. Implications for clinical service providers are discussed. PMID:18666020

  14. The Social Patterning of Work-Related Insecurity and Its Health Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Marshall, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between work-related insecurity and health, with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by social location (gender, age and race). Drawing on longitudinal data from a Canadian labour market survey (1999-2004) the findings show that certain groups have a higher prevalence of exposure to certain types of…

  15. Career Goal-Related Social Ties during Two Educational Transitions: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynkkynen, Lotta; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2010-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' career goal-related social ties during the transition from compulsory to post-compulsory education and during transition from post-compulsory education to working-life or further studies. A total of 687 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 were surveyed of whom 654 also participated at the second measurement point one…

  16. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  17. The Antecedents, Objects, and Consequents of User Trust in Location-Based Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Online social networks provide rich opportunities to interact with friends and other online community members. At the same time, the addition of emerging location-sharing technologies--which broadcast a user's location online, including who they are with and what is happening nearby--is creating new dimensions to the types of interactions…

  18. The latent structure of social anxiety disorder: consequences of shifting to a dimensional diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2010-11-01

    Despite longstanding debate over the nature of the boundary between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and less severe social anxiety, no study has tested directly whether the defining features of the disorder correspond to a latent category or dimension. The present study examined this question using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. household population. Indicators representing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for SAD were submitted to taxometric analyses in a subsample of adults (n = 2,166) who reported excessive social fear in their lifetime. Multiple taxometric procedures and consistency tests converged on a dimensional solution, suggesting that SAD is continuous with milder social anxiety. In follow-up analyses, a dimensional SAD diagnosis outperformed the DSM-IV diagnosis in predicting the subsequent onset of a range of clinically important outcomes. Large differences in associations with comorbid mood disorders, suicidality, and treatment seeking in particular favored the prognostic value of dimensional over categorical diagnosis. These findings support the validity and potential utility of a dimensional conceptualization of SAD that may inform efforts to revise the diagnosis for DSM-V. PMID:20853918

  19. Social Capital, Cultural Values, Immigration, and Academic Achievement: The Host Country Context and Contradictory Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankston, Carl L., III

    2004-01-01

    Social-capital explanations of school outcomes, particularly of the school outcomes of immigrant children and children of immigrants, have come into wide use in recent years. These explanations attempt to account for individual or group variations in school performance by viewing the family and community relations that surround children as forms…

  20. Mothers Roles in Traditional and Modern Korean Families: The Consequences for Parental Practices and Adolescent Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye-On; Hoppe-Graff, Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Compares mothers' roles in socializing their children in traditional South Korean families with that of mothers' in modern families. While Confusion influence remains strong, significant changes in South Korean culture often create complex, ambiguous, and emotionally unstable relationships between mothers and their adolescent children. Discusses…

  1. Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…

  2. Thinking in Categories or along a Continuum: Consequences for Children's Social Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Markman, Ellen M.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    Can young children, forming expectations about the social world, capture differences among people without falling into the pitfalls of categorization? Categorization often leads to exaggerating differences between groups and minimizing differences within groups, resulting in stereotyping. Six studies with 4-year-old children (N = 214)…

  3. "Frayed All Over:" the Causes and Consequences of Activist Burnout among Social Justice Education Activists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.; Chen, Cher

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of scholarship on burnout among social justice activists who are working on a variety of issues, from labor rights to queer justice, little attention has been paid to burnout among those whose activism focuses on issues of educational justice. To begin to address this omission and understand what supports might help social…

  4. Characteristics of Operant Learning Games Associated with Optimal Child and Adult Social--Emotional Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy; Gatens, Mary; French, Jennie

    2007-01-01

    Findings from a study investigating the conditions under which contingency learning games were associated with optimal child and adult concomitant and social--emotional behavior benefits are reported. Participants were 41 preschool children with multiple disabilities and profound developmental delays and their parents or teachers. Results showed…

  5. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    PubMed

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined. PMID:15554900

  6. Cars, corporations, and commodities: Consequences for the social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation) and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car) offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest. PMID:18291031

  7. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity: Uncovering the mechanism (social connectedness) and consequence (eudaimonic well-being).

    PubMed

    Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vail, Kenneth; Zhou, Xinyue; Brackstone, Kenny; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-06-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, is an emotion that arises from self-relevant and social memories. Nostalgia functions, in part, to foster self-continuity, that is, a sense of connection between one's past and one's present. This article examined, in 6 experiments, how nostalgia fosters self-continuity and the implications of that process for well-being. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity by augmenting social connectedness, that is, a sense of belongingness and acceptance (Experiments 1-4). Nostalgia-induced self-continuity, in turn, confers eudaimonic well-being, operationalized as subjective vitality (i.e., a feeling of aliveness and energy; Experiments 5-6). The findings clarify and expand the benefits of nostalgia for both the self-system and psychological adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751632

  8. The effect of political generation on identity and social change: Age cohort consequences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rohlinger, Deana A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how political generation affects the ways in which diverse individuals come together and change their social and personal identities. Drawing on 52 in-depth interviews with members of the Red Hat Society, we show that women draw on their political generation, and the gains of the women's movement specifically, to oppose cultural constructions of aging. The Red Hat Society provides a "free space" for women to foster a collective identity that both visibly challenges aging norms and provides its members new standards for self-approval. We conclude by highlighting the importance of focusing on political generation to understand collective action over the life course and call for more scholarship on the function of political generation in social change. PMID:26537029

  9. Social and economic antecedents and consequences of adolescent aggressive personality: Predictions from the interactionist model.

    PubMed

    Conger, Rand D; Martin, Monica J; Masarik, April S; Widaman, Keith F; Donnellan, M Brent

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the development of a cohort of 279 early adolescents (52% female) from 1990 to 2005. Guided by the interactionist model of socioeconomic status and human development, we proposed that parent aggressive personality, economic circumstances, interparental conflict, and parenting characteristics would affect the development of adolescent aggressive personality traits. In turn, we hypothesized that adolescent aggressiveness would have a negative influence on adolescent functioning as an adult in terms of economic success, personality development, and close relationships 11 years later. Findings were generally supportive of the interactionist model proposition that social and economic difficulties in the family of origin intensify risk for adolescent aggressive personality (the social causation hypothesis) and that this personality trait impairs successful transition to adult roles (the social selection hypothesis) in a transactional process over time and generations. These results underscore how early development leads to child influences that appear to directly hamper the successful transition to adult roles (statistical main effects) and also amplify the negative impact of dysfunctional family systems on the transition to adulthood (statistical interaction effects). The findings suggest several possible points of intervention that might help to disrupt this negative developmental sequence of events. PMID:26439065

  10. Consequences for hospitals resulting from demographic, social and morbidity changes: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, M; Nagel, F

    1986-01-01

    The last 40 years has been a time of rapid demographic, social and economic change in most countries of the world. In Europe, the ageing of the population, a decrease in household size, and the reduced importance of parasitic and infectious diseases along with an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases are some of the most notable results of industrialization, urbanization and medical progress. These developments lead to changing demands not only for the services of hospitals but upon the health care system at large. Most recently, and in addition, these changes have had to be faced under resource constraints resulting from decreased economic growth. This article focuses on the similarities and differences within and across the health care systems of European countries, and on their efforts to respond to the changes which have taken place and are likely to continue in the near future. In so doing, it relates the various demographic, social and economic changes taking place in these countries to the structural changes noticeable in the hospital sector. The results obtained by statistical analyses of empirical evidence lead us to conclude that demographic and social variables may better explain the differences in hospital use within a given country over longer stretches of time than across countries at a given point in time. In the latter case, economic variables--differences in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita--serve as major explanations of the cross-country differences found. Changes in demographic, social and morbidity factors are also mirrored in the relative importance of hospital departments, at a given point in time and also in changes over time. Major changes have taken place within the health care systems. Hospitals are losing ground to other forms of health care: for instance, to institutions providing pre-hospital and post-hospital treatment. The need for more caring patterns of service, rather than for more curing, accounts for yet another

  11. Droughts, dry spells, low water levels and their environmental-social consequences in late medieval Hungary (and Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Nikolic, Zrinka

    2016-04-01

    Based on medieval, contemporary evidence, in the presentation 14th-15th-century droughts, dry spells and documented low water-level events of large rivers (e.g. Danube, Tisza) and their detected environmental and social consequences are discussed in more detail, with special emphasis on the years of 1361-1364, 1393-1394, 1440, the early 1540s, 1474, 1479-1480 and 1494. The poster presentation is centred around the following topics: - magnitude, intensity and frequency of droughts and dry spells (in comparison with famous 18th-19th-century drought periods); - provide information (and a comparison) on Central European parallels; - other natural hazards combined with drought and dry spells (e.g. convective events); - the relationship of multiannual water-deficits and locust invasions, their intensity and documented further impacts; - the consequences of droughts, dry spells and low water levels on society, with special emphasis on food production (e.g. bad harvests, grazing permissions, high prices, threatening food shortage), transportation problems (esp. salt transportation), military defence (Ottoman Turkish attacks) and their further social effects (e.g. land-ownership debates; royal intervention and export prohibition).

  12. Framing Nicotine Addiction as a “Disease of the Brain”: Social and Ethical Consequences*

    PubMed Central

    Dingel, Molly J.; Karkazis, Katrina; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this article, we seek to better understand how a genomic vision of addiction may influence drug prevention and treatment. Though social influences on substance use and abuse (e.g., peer and family influence, socioeconomic status) are well documented, biomedical intervention is becoming increasingly technoscientific in nature. We wish to elucidate how emphasizing biological influences on substance use may lead to a vision of addiction as a phenomenon isolated within our bodies and neurochemistry, not lived daily within a complex social web of relationships and a particular political economy, including the tobacco industry, which aggressively markets products known to cause harm. Methods We explore the emerging view of addiction as a “disease of the brain” in open-ended interviews with 86 stakeholders from the fields of nicotine research and tobacco control. Interview data were analyzed using standard qualitative techniques. Results Most stakeholders hold a medicalized view of addiction. Though environmental variables are understood to be a primary cause of smoking initiation, the speed and strength with which addiction occurs is understood to be a largely biological process. Though stakeholders believe that an increased focus on addiction as a disease of the brain is not likely to lead to widespread unrealistic expectations for cessation therapies, they remain concerned that it may reinforce teenagers’ expectations that quitting is not difficult. Finally, stakeholder responses indicate that genetic and neuroscientific research is unlikely to increase or decrease stigmatization, but will be used by interest groups to buttress their existing views of the stigma associated with smoking. Conclusion We argue that the main potential harms of focusing on biological etiology stem from a concept of addiction that is disassociated from social context. Focusing on genetic testing and brain scans may lead one to overemphasize pharmaceutical “magic bullet

  13. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramanjit; Wood-Harper, Trevor

    This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical design principles. The results confirm that better role boundary management, self-discipline, work negotiation, and e-mail communication skills may be required for the knowledge workers to manage the demands of nomadic working. Similarly, rewarding nomadic work performance, building employee supervisor trust relations, and designing jobs that enhance work and life balance can be imperative.

  14. Bringing human, social, and natural capital to life: practical consequences and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William P

    2011-01-01

    Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital. PMID:21512213

  15. Stress and Reproductive Hormones in Grizzly Bears Reflect Nutritional Benefits and Social Consequences of a Salmon Foraging Niche

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Smits, Judit E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

  16. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology. PMID:24312230

  17. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised. PMID:18304713

  18. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts. PMID:19482799

  19. Long-term fitness consequences of female extra-pair matings in a socially monogamous passerine.

    PubMed

    Schmoll, Tim; Dietrich, Verena; Winkel, Wolfgang; Epplen, Jörg T; Lubjuhn, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Whether female birds choose extra-pair mating partners to obtain genetic fitness benefits is intensely debated. The most straightforward and crucial test of 'good genes' models of female extra-pair mating is the comparison of naturally 'cross-fostered' maternal half-siblings sharing the same rearing environment as any systematic differences in performance between the two categories of offspring phenotype can be attributed to differential paternal genetic contribution. We analysed local recruitment and first-year reproductive performance of maternal half-siblings in the coal tit (Parus ater), a passerine bird with high levels of extra-pair paternity. We provide a highly comprehensive measure of the long-term fitness consequences of female extra-pair matings based on a large sample of 736 within-pair offspring (WPO) and 368 extra-pair offspring (EPO) from 91 first and 55 second broods, from which 132 breeders recruited into the study population. In contrast to predictions derived from 'good genes' models, we found no differences in local recruitment and seven parameters of first-year reproductive performance when comparing WPO and EPO. These results question the universal validity of findings in other bird species supporting 'good genes' models, particularly as they are based on the best approximation to female fitness obtained so far. PMID:12614574

  20. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  1. Costly hide and seek pays: unexpected consequences of deceit in a social dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-11-01

    Deliberate deceptiveness intended to gain an advantage is commonplace in human and animal societies. In a social dilemma, an individual may only pretend to be a cooperator to elicit cooperation from others, while in reality he is a defector. With this as motivation, we study a simple variant of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game entailing deceitful defectors and conditional cooperators that lifts the veil on the impact of such two-faced behavior. Defectors are able to hide their true intentions at a personal cost, while conditional cooperators are probabilistically successful at identifying defectors and act accordingly. By focusing on the evolutionary outcomes in structured populations, we observe a number of unexpected and counterintuitive phenomena. We show that deceitful behavior may fare better if it is costly, and that a higher success rate of identifying defectors does not necessarily favor cooperative behavior. These results are rooted in the spontaneous emergence of cycling dominance and spatial patterns that give rise to fascinating phase transitions, which in turn reveal the hidden complexity behind the evolution of deception.

  2. Health and social consequences of an alcohol-related admission to critical care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    McPeake, Joanne; Forrest, Ewan; Quasim, Tara; Kinsella, John; O'Neill, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of critical care on future alcohol-related behaviour. Further, it aimed to explore patterns of recovery for patients with and without alcohol use disorders beyond the hospital environment. Design In-depth, semistructured interviews with participants (patients) 3–7 months post intensive care discharge. Setting The setting for this study was a 20-bedded mixed intensive care unit (ICU), in a large teaching hospital in Scotland. On admission, patients were allocated to one of the three alcohol groups: low risk, harmful/hazardous and alcohol dependency. Participants 21 participants who received mechanical ventilation for greater than 3 days were interviewed between March 2013 and June 2014. Interventions None. Measurements and main results Four themes which impacted on recovery from ICU were identified in this patient group: psychological resilience, support for activities of daily living, social support and cohesion and the impact of alcohol use disorders on recovery. Participants also discussed the importance of personalised goal setting and appropriate and timely rehabilitation for alcohol-related behaviours during the critical care recovery period. Conclusions There is a significant interplay between alcohol misuse and recovery from critical illness. This study has demonstrated that at present, there is a haphazard approach to rehabilitation for patients after ICU. A more targeted rehabilitation pathway for patients leaving critical care, with specific emphasis on alcohol misuse if appropriate, requires to be generated. PMID:27048633

  3. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects. PMID:12402090

  4. Predictors and Social Consequences of Online Interactive Self-Disclosure: A Literature Review from 2002 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Desjarlais, Malinda; Gilmour, Jillian; Sinclair, Jasmine; Howell, Kaitlyn B; West, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Computer-mediated communication has become ubiquitous in the lives of today's youth. The current review synthesizes recent findings regarding adolescents' and young adults' online interactive self-disclosure, with a particular emphasis on the direct antecedents and effects. Three broad categories of predictors are discussed, including demographic information and internal states, dispositional factors, as well as contextual factors. In addition, the synthesis of studies exploring consequences of online interactive self-disclosure indicates positive outcomes for social-related constructs. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including the analysis of actual computer-mediated exchanges and longitudinal research that takes into account the dynamic process of self-disclosure over time and across media. PMID:26652672

  5. Antagonistic Pleiotropy at the Human IL6 Promoter Confers Genetic Resilience to the Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Adverse Social Conditions in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Manu, Kavya; Telzer, Eva H.; Kiang, Lisa; Bower, Julienne E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested the evolutionary genetic hypothesis that the functional form of an asymmetrically risky Gene × Environment interaction will differ as a function of age-related antagonistic pleiotropy (i.e., show opposite effects in young vs. old individuals). Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the human IL6 promoter (rs1800795; IL6 –174 G/C) that interacts with adverse socioenvironmental conditions to promote chronic inflammation in older adults (elevated C-reactive protein). This study identifies a protective effect of the same polymorphism in 17- to 19-year-old adolescents confronting socioeconomic adversity. Over 60% of the environmental risk contribution to the IL6 × Socioeconomic Status interaction could be accounted for by interpersonal stress and adult role burden. Thus, the IL6 –174G allele does not represent an undifferentiated risk factor but instead sensitizes inflammatory biology to socioenvironmental conditions, conferring either genetic vulnerability or resilience depending on the developmental “somatic environment” that interacts with social conditions to influence gene expression. PMID:21639625

  6. Bicycle accidents often cause disability--an analysis of medical and social consequences of nonfatal bicycle accidents.

    PubMed

    Olkkonen, S; Lahdenranta, U; Slätis, P; Honkanen, R

    1993-06-01

    Social and medical consequences of 278 children and 264 adults injured in bicycle accidents and seen in two hospitals in Helsinki in 1985-86 were analyzed. Information was collected from patient records, by means of a special questionnaire and by telephone interview. A child outpatient required 1.7 and a child inpatient 3.0 physician visits on an average, while adults required 2.2 and 4.9 visits, respectively. The average duration of hospital stay was 8 days for hospitalized adults and 6 days for children. Rehabilitative care outside the hospital was received by 6% of the adult outpatients and 25% of the inpatients, but none of the injured children. The mean duration of work disability was 82 days among inpatients, 11 days among outpatients, 127 days among the inpatients injured in motor vehicle collisions and 65 days among inpatients injured in other bicycle accidents. Of inpatients 32% and of outpatients 5% reported persistent (> 6 months) disability. Persistent disability was recorded in 11% of children, in 47% of adults and in 67% of elderly inpatients. Most serious consequences were due to intracranial injuries in motor vehicle-bicycle collisions. Of the hospitalized bicyclists 4% suffered from severe cognitive and behavioural changes or sense impairment and of adult inpatients 3% suffered from permanent work disability. The average costs of health and social services were about FIM 1000 per adult outpatient and FIM 13000 per adult inpatient. In prevention high priority should be given to motor vehicle collisions, head injuries and injuries among the elderly bicyclists. PMID:8367689

  7. Conflict and cooperation over sex: the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success in dunnocks.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eduardo S A; Santos, Luana L S; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-11-01

    Conflict and cooperation within and between the sexes are among the driving forces that lead to the evolution of mating systems. Among mating strategies, female genetic polyandry and male reproductive cooperation pose challenging evolutionary questions regarding the maintenance of systems where one sex suffers from reduced fitness. Here, we investigate the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success of females and males in a population of the dunnock, Prunella modularis. We show that female multiple mating ameliorates the negative effects of inbreeding. We, however, found little evidence that females engage in extra-group (pair) mating with less related or more heterozygous males. Breeding in socially polyandrous groups reduced the amount of paternity lost to extra-group males, such that, on average, cobreeding and monogamous males fledged a similar number of young. Importantly, c. 30% of cobreeding male dyads were related, suggesting they could gain indirect fitness benefits. Taken together, cobreeding males achieve equivalent reproductive success to monogamous counterparts under most circumstances. Our study has revealed unexpected complexities in the variable mating system of dunnocks in New Zealand. Our results differ from the well-known Cambridge dunnock study and can help our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of various breeding systems in the animal kingdom. PMID:26257043

  8. The symbiotic lifestyle and its evolutionary consequences: social monogamy and sex allocation in the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata pederseni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, J. Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts female-biased sex allocation for simultaneous hermaphrodites with a monogamous mating system. Mating systems theory predicts that monogamy is advantageous in environments where refuges are discrete, scarce, relatively small, and when predation risk is high outside of these refuges. These predictions were tested with the Caribbean shrimp Lysmata pederseni, a simultaneous hermaphrodite which has an early male phase and lives inside tubes of the sponge Callyspongia vaginalis. This host sponge is a scarce resource that, together with the high predation risk typical of tropical environments, should favor monogamy in the shrimp. Field observations demonstrated that shrimps were frequently encountered as pairs within these tube sponges. Pairs were equally likely to comprise two hermaphrodites or one hermaphrodite and one male. Several of these pairs were observed for long periods of time in the field. Experiments demonstrated that hermaphrodites tolerated other hermaphrodites but not males in their host sponge. These results suggest that pairs of hermaphroditic L. pederseni are socially monogamous; they share the same host individual and might reproduce exclusively with their host partners for long periods of time. Nevertheless, males appeared less likely to establish long-term associations with hermaphrodites as indicated by the rate of their disappearance from their hosts (greater than that of hermaphrodites). Sex allocation was female biased in monogamous hermaphrodites. On average, hermaphrodites invested 34 times more to female than to male reproductive structures. Monogamy and female-biased sex allocation seem to be evolutionary consequences of adopting a symbiotic lifestyle in simultaneous hermaphrodites.

  9. Learning about the history of landscape use for the future: consequences for ecological and social systems in Swedish Bergslagen.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Isacson, Maths; Gavrilov, Dmitri V; Axelsson, Robert; Bäckström, Mattias; Degerman, Erik; Elbakidze, Marine; Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu; Sartz, Lotta; Sädbom, Stefan; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies. PMID:23475652

  10. Social consequences of substance abuse: the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders. A prospective study of a nation-wide sample of treatment-seeking patients.

    PubMed

    Tómasson, K; Vaglum, P

    1998-03-01

    This is both a retrospective and a 16 and 28 months prospective study of the association between psychiatric comorbidity and social consequences (accidents, fights, broken relationships, drunken driving arrest, and reduced employment) related to alcohol in a nation-wide sample (n = 351) of substance abusers seeking inpatient treatment. Psychiatric comorbidity was evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, while drinking history and social consequences were assessed with a structured questionnaire. The social consequences had a high rate of re-occurrence. Controlled for alcohol consumption, polysubstance abuse predicted accidents (OR = 2.9) and fights (OR = 3.9) among men, while among pure alcoholics of both sexes phobia (OR = 4.3) and antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.0) predicted fights. Only level of abuse predicted broken relationships. Antisocials had most drunken driving arrests. Attempts to reduce these social consequences should aim at treating polysubstance abuse, phobia, and antisocial personality disorder. However, the overriding aim should be the promotion of abstinence. PMID:9526766

  11. Gene transfer as a strategy to achieve permanent cardioprotection II: rAAV-mediated gene therapy with heme oxygenase-1 limits infarct size 1 year later without adverse functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Ou, Qinghui; Wu, Wen-Jian; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tan, Wei; Yuan, Fangping; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Luo, Li; Hunt, Gregory N.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts potent cytoprotective effects in response to stress. Previous studies have shown that gene therapy with HO-1 protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury for up to 8 weeks after gene transfer. However, the long-term effects of HO-1 gene therapy on myocardial ischemic injury and function are unknown. To address this issue, we created a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying the HO-1 gene (rAAV/HO-1) that enables long-lasting transgene expression. Mice received injections in the anterior LV wall of rAAV/LacZ (LacZ group) or rAAV/HO-1 (HO-1 group); 1 year later, they were subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion (O) and 4 h of reperfusion (R). Cardiac HO-1 gene expression was confirmed at 1 month and 1 year after gene transfer by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. In the HO-1 group, infarct size (% of risk region) was dramatically reduced at 1 year after gene transfer (11.2 ± 2.1%, n = 12, vs. 44.7 ± 3.6%, n = 8, in the LacZ group; P < 0.05). The infarct-sparing effects of HO-1 gene therapy at 1 year were as powerful as those observed 24 h after ischemic PC (six 4-min O/4-min R cycles) (15.0 ± 1.7%, n = 10). There were no appreciable changes in LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction, or LV end-diastolic or end-systolic diameter at 1 year after HO-1 gene transfer as compared to the age-matched controls or with the LacZ group. Histology showed no inflammation in the myocardium 1 year after rAAV/HO-1-mediated gene transfer. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that rAAV-mediated HO-1 gene transfer confers long-term (1 year), possibly permanent, cardioprotection without adverse functional consequences, providing proof of principle for the concept of achieving prophylactic cardioprotection (i.e., “immunization against infarction”). PMID:21785893

  12. Gene transfer as a strategy to achieve permanent cardioprotection I: rAAV-mediated gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase limits infarct size 1 year later without adverse functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Wu, Wen-Jian; Ou, Qinghui; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tan, Wei; Yuan, Fangping; Chen, Ning; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Luo, Li; O’Brien, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of prophylactic gene therapy is to confer permanent protection against ischemia. Although gene therapy with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to protect against myocardial infarction at 3 days and up to 2 months, the long-term effects on myocardial ischemic injury and function are unknown. To address this issue, we created a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying the iNOS gene (rAAV/iNOS), which enables long-lasting transgene expression. The ability of rAAV/iNOS to direct the expression of functional iNOS protein was confirmed in COS-7 cells before in vivo gene transfer. Mice received injections in the anterior LV wall of rAAV/LacZ or rAAV/iNOS; 1 year later, they underwent a 30-min coronary occlusion (O) and 4 h of reperfusion (R). iNOS gene transfer resulted in elevated iNOS protein expression (+3-fold vs. the LacZ group, n = 6; P < 0.05) and iNOS activity (+4.4-fold vs. the LacZ group, n = 6; P < 0.05) 1 year later. Infarct size (% of risk region) was dramatically reduced at 1 year after iNOS gene transfer (13.5 ± 2.2%, n = 12, vs. 41.7 ± 2.9%, n = 10, in the LacZ group; P < 0.05). The infarct-sparing effect of iNOS gene therapy at 1 year was as powerful as that observed 24 h after ischemic preconditioning (six 4-min O/4-min R cycles) (19.3 ± 2.3%, n = 11; P < 0.05). Importantly, compared with the LacZ group (n = 11), iNOS gene transfer (n = 10) had no effect on LV dimensions or function for up to 1 year (at 1 year: FS 34.5 ± 2.0 vs. 34.6 ± 2.6%, EF 57.0 ± 2.0 vs. 59.7 ± 2.9%, LVEDD 4.3 ± 0.1 vs. 4.2 ± 0.2 mm, LVESD 2.8 ± 0.1 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2 mm) (echocardiography). These data demonstrate, for the first time, that rAAV-mediated iNOS gene transfer affords long-term, probably permanent (1 year), cardioprotection without adverse functional consequences, providing a strong rationale for further preclinical testing of prophylactic gene therapy. PMID:21779912

  13. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  14. Industrialization of Rural Areas: Recent Trends and the Social and Economic Consequences. Staff Paper No. SP-79-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Brady J.

    There is no present consensus regarding long-term consequences of rural industrialization on society. Since 1950, smaller rural communities in the South and Southwestern United States have gained in industrialization due to their generally low-wage non-union labor supply and lower tax structure, both attractive to industry seeking greater profits.…

  15. Smoking: The Health Consequences of Tobacco Use. An Annotated Bibliography with Analytical Introduction. Science and Social Responsibility Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Cecilia M.; Gray, Richard A.

    This volume contains an extensive introduction to the health consequences of tobacco use and extended annotations of the most important English-language monographs and articles to appear on the subject in the 1980s and 1990s arranged in classified order under select headings. The introductory analytical essay by Richard A. Gray covers: early and…

  16. Declining Negative Consequences Related to Alcohol Misuse among Students Exposed to a Social Norms Marketing Intervention on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James; Perkins, H. Wesley; Bauerle, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol-related negative consequences decreased among students exposed to an intervention. Participants: Beginning in 1999, approximately 2,500 randomly selected undergraduates from a 4-year US university annually participated in a Web-based survey over 6 years. Methods: The educational intervention used…

  17. "A world crazier than us": Vanishing social contexts and the consequences for psychiatric practice in contemporary Romania.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jack R

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Communism, mental health care in Romania has increasingly sought to align its practices with idealized models of Western psychiatric practice. Much of this realignment has been made possible by accessing and integrating new pharmaceuticals into psychiatric hospital settings. Less straightforward have been the painful attempts to create a system modeled on international standards for training and certifying psychotherapists. Unfortunately, the political, economic, infrastructural, and epistemological environment of the Romanian mental health care system has prevented many other reforms. This paper examines the ironic trajectory that Romanian psychiatry has taken since the end of state socialism. Specifically, this paper shows how psychiatric practice in most places (outside of university-training hospitals) is increasingly disconnected from a concern with the social conditions that surround mental illness during a period when social upheaval is profoundly impacting the lives of many people who receive mental health care. Thus, as the contribution of social problems to the suffering of those with mental illnesses has increased, some Romanian mental health practitioners have moved away from a concern with these social problems under the guise of aligning their psychiatric practices with (imagined) Western standards of biomedical care. The paper provides a brief history of Romanian psychiatry and explores contemporary challenges and contradictions in many Romanian psychiatric treatment settings through the case study of a 31-year-old Romanian female diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. PMID:26134545

  18. Psychological and social consequences of losing a child in a natural or human-made disaster: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Herrman, Helen; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Fisher, Jane

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to natural and human-made disasters is associated with long-term health consequences, including for mental health. Parents who have lost children, particularly their only children, in any circumstances are also at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence about the psychological and social consequences for parents who had faced these circumstances simultaneously through losing children in a disaster. Systematic searching of the English and Chinese language literatures about the psychological and social functioning of bereaved parents after disasters revealed that a small number of studies met inclusion criteria. The results showed that bereaved parents had more mental health problems than bereaved spouses and non-bereaved parents, and mothers appeared to be more vulnerable to mental health problems than fathers. Potential protective factors for bereaved parents' mental health included having psychological interventions, having adequate social support, seeing their children's bodies and having a subsequent baby. Although the literature was modest and methodologically diverse, there was a consistent finding that parents who have lost children in disasters were at high risk of suffering mental health problems, especially bereaved mothers. As there was little evidence, further studies are needed to understand the best advice and interventions to offer bereaved parents and provide enhanced mental health care of such bereaved populations after disasters. PMID:23857912

  19. The social consequences of conspiracism: Exposure to conspiracy theories decreases intentions to engage in politics and to reduce one's carbon footprint.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    The current studies explored the social consequences of exposure to conspiracy theories. In Study 1, participants were exposed to a range of conspiracy theories concerning government involvement in significant events such as the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to engage in politics, relative to participants who were given information refuting conspiracy theories. This effect was mediated by feelings of political powerlessness. In Study 2, participants were exposed to conspiracy theories concerning the issue of climate change. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting the conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to reduce their carbon footprint, relative to participants who were given refuting information, or those in a control condition. This effect was mediated by powerlessness with respect to climate change, uncertainty, and disillusionment. Exposure to climate change conspiracy theories also influenced political intentions, an effect mediated by political powerlessness. The current findings suggest that conspiracy theories may have potentially significant social consequences, and highlight the need for further research on the social psychology of conspiracism. PMID:24387095

  20. My Friends Right Next to Me: A Laboratory Investigation on Predictors and Consequences of Experiencing Social Closeness on Social Networking Sites.

    PubMed

    Neubaum, German; Krämer, Nicole C

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, research has provided a series of insights into how and why the use of social networking sites (SNSs) can be socially and psychologically beneficial for individuals. The present research extends this evidence by focusing on the concept of social closeness as a feeling experienced when using SNSs. In a laboratory setting, participants (N=60) spent 10 minutes on Facebook, and then reported their experiences during this session. Analyses of participants' usage behavior and their experiences revealed that the more time users spent interacting with other users (e.g., commenting on updates), the closer they felt to other people. Interacting with others also predicted users' positive emotional states after Facebook use; this effect may be explained by the perception of social closeness. This study is one of the first to employ momentary measures, offering a further theoretical link between active SNS use and well-being. PMID:26252929

  1. Overcoming Social Disconnection and Its Consequences for Transition into Adulthood: Case Studies of Adults Who Exited Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taglianetti, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Devastating life experiences continually plague many foster care youth throughout their entire lives on social, emotional, educational, psychological, and physical levels. Oftentimes, the cumulative effect of these events results in large numbers of individuals dropping out of school and becoming increasingly disconnected from people and many…

  2. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: An Example of the Potential Consequence of Negatively Worded Items in Factorial Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Conroy, David E.; Horan, Patrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Used confirmatory factor analysis to examine whether the two-factor solution to the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (E. Hart, M. Leary, and W. Rejeski, 1989) was meaningful. Results for 4 samples of data for college students, high school students, and athletes (n=1,053) from previous studies support the existence of a single substantive factor…

  3. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  4. Social Consequences of Academic Teaming in Middle School: The Influence of Shared Course Taking on Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of academic teaming (i.e., sharing academic classes with the same classmates) on the relationship between social preference and peer victimization among 6th-grade students in middle school. Approximately 1,000 participants were drawn from 5 middle schools that varied in their practice of academic teaming. A novel…

  5. "What Works" in Education and Social Welfare? A Mapping of the "Evidence Discourse" and Reflections upon Consequences for Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about "evidence" for "What Works" in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom-up professional strategy.…

  6. Some Social Consequences of Faith-Based Schooling: A Comparative Study of Denominational Secondary Education in Thanet and Lille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper opens with a discussion of some of the methodological difficulties inherent in comparative educational research, and outlines ways in which systemic inequalities in doing comparative work can be reduced. The social circumstances in Thanet and Lille are delineated, and the paper then considers structural differences in denominational…

  7. Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices.

    PubMed

    Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

    While an adverse event involving a medical device is often ascribed to either user error or device failure, the causes are typically multifactorial. A number of incidents involving medical devices are explored using this approach to investigate the various causes of the incident and the protective barriers that minimised or prevented adverse consequences. User factors, including mistakes, omissions and lack of training, conspired with background factors--device controls and device design, storage conditions, hidden device damage and physical layout of equipment when in use--to cause the adverse events. Protective barriers that prevented or minimised the consequences included staff vigilance, operating procedures and alarms. PMID:12715578

  8. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  9. Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Dauvergne, Peter; Neville, Kate J

    2010-01-01

    The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major biofuel feedstocks - such as sugar, oil palm, and soy - are already entrenched in industrial agricultural and forestry production systems, the authors extrapolate from patterns of production for these crops to bolster their argument that state capacities, the timing of market entry, existing institutions, and historical state-society land tenure relations will particularly affect the potential consequences of further biofuel development. Although the impacts of biofuels vary by region and feedstock, and although some agrarian communities in some countries of the global South are poised to benefit, the analysis suggests that already-vulnerable people and communities will bear a disproportionate share of the costs of biofuel development, particularly for biofuels from crops already embedded in industrial production systems. A core reason, this paper argues, is that the emerging biofuel alliances are reinforcing processes and structures that increase pressures on the ecological integrity of tropical forests and further wrest control of resources from subsistence farmers, indigenous peoples, and people with insecure land rights. Even the development of so-called 'sustainable' biofuels looks set to displace livelihoods and reinforce and extend previous waves of hardship for such marginalised peoples. PMID:20873027

  10. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  11. Drinking patterns and social consequences: a study of middle-class adolescents in two private pediatric practices.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Hayden, G F; Getson, P R; DiPaola, A

    1986-02-01

    One hundred sixty-two adolescents who were seen at two suburban private pediatric practices completed an anonymous, written questionnaire about drinking and drug habits. The respondents' ages ranged from 14 to 17 years; all were white and from middle- or upper middle-class families. The adolescents reported high self-esteem, good general health, and few psychologic problems. The majority (63%) reported having drunk alcohol at some time, and the proportion who professed never to drink alcohol became progressively smaller with age, to only 15% at age 17 years. Overall, one fifth claimed that they had to drink more than six beers before they "got a buzz," and this proportion increased to 43% by age 17 years. Among the 17-year-old respondents, 40% replied that their good friends had used alcohol more than 50 times. Twenty-four percent of respondents said that a good friend had received a citation for driving while intoxicated. Almost one fifth of respondents stated that someone in their family drinks alcohol every day, and that someone close to them has a drinking problem. Social acceptance of drinking, peer pressure, and the ready availability of alcohol have led to an epidemic of alcohol use among teenagers and to social, academic, and health problems in many frequent users. Pediatricians should play a more active role in the identification and management of alcohol abuse by their adolescent patients. PMID:3945526

  12. Social networks of experientially similar others: Formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child’s care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents’ perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child’s care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences. PMID:22999229

  13. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  14. Changes in the Hydrocarbon Proportions of Colony Odor and Their Consequences on Nestmate Recognition in Social Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Costanzi, Elena; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève; Lorenzi, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In social insects, colonies have exclusive memberships and residents promptly detect and reject non-nestmates. Blends of epicuticular hydrocarbons communicate colony affiliation, but the question remains how social insects use the complex information in the blends to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. To test this we altered colony odor by simulating interspecific nest usurpation. We split Polistes dominulus paper-wasp nests into two halves and assigned a half to the original foundress and the other half to a P. nimphus usurper for 4 days. We then removed foundresses and usurpers from nests and investigated whether emerging P. dominulus workers recognized their never-before-encountered mothers, usurpers and non-nestmates of the two species. Behavioral and chemical analyses of wasps and nests indicated that 1) foundresses marked their nests with their cuticular hydrocarbons; 2) usurpers overmarked foundress marks and 3) emerging workers learned colony odor from nests as the odor of the female that was last on nest. However, notwithstanding colony odor was usurper-biased in usurped nests, workers from these nests recognized their mothers, suggesting that there were pre-imaginal and/or genetically encoded components in colony-odor learning. Surprisingly, workers from usurped nests also erroneously tolerated P. nimphus non-nestmates, suggesting they could not tell odor differences between their P. nimphus usurpers and P. nimphus non-nestmates. Usurpers changed the odors of their nests quantitatively, because the two species had cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that differed only quantitatively. Possibly, P. dominulus workers were unable to detect differences between nestmate and non-nestmate P. nimphus because the concentration of some peaks in these wasps was beyond the range of workers' discriminatory abilities (as stated by Weber's law). Indeed, workers displayed the least discrimination abilities in the usurped nests where the relative odor changes due

  15. Antecedent–Consequent Relations of Perceived Control to Health and Social Support: Longitudinal Evidence for Between-Domain Associations Across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Röcke, Christina; Lachman, Margie E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine antecedent–consequent relations of perceived control to health and social support across adulthood and old age. Methods. We applied (multigroup) change score models to two waves of data collected 9 years apart from 6,210 participants of the Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS, 24–75 years at baseline). We used composite measures of perceived control (personal mastery and constraints), health (chronic conditions, acute conditions, and functional limitations), and social support (support and strain associated with spouse/partner, family, and friends). Results. Analyses revealed evidence for direct and independent multidirectional accounts. Greater initial control predicted weaker declines in health and stronger increases in support. In turn, increases in control were predicted by better initial health and more support. Changes in control were also accompanied by concurrent changes in the other two domains, and relations involving control were larger in size than those between health and support. We found only small sociodemographic differences across age, gender, and education group. Discussion. We conclude that perceiving control may serve as both a precursor and an outcome of health and social support across the adult age range and suggest routes for further inquiry. PMID:21041231

  16. Rationale and Consequences of Reclassifying Obesity as an Addictive Disorder: Neurobiology, Food Environment and Social Policy Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Patricia; Batra, Payal; Geiger, Brenda M.; Wommack, Tara; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Pothos, Emmanuel N.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity is a priority for investigators from across numerous disciplines, including biology, nutritional science, and public health and policy. In this paper, we systematically examine the premise that common dietary obesity is an addictive disorder, based on the criteria for addiction described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, version IV, and consider the consequences of such a reclassification of obesity for public policy. Specifically, we discuss evidence from both human and animal studies investigating the effects of various types and amounts of food and the food environment in obese individuals. Neurobiological studies have shown that the hedonic brain pathways activated by palatable food overlap considerably with those activated by drugs of abuse and suffer significant deficits after chronic exposure to high-energy diets. Furthermore, food as a stimulus can induce the sensitization, compulsion and relapse patterns observed in individuals who are addicted to illicit drugs. The current food environment encourages these addictive-like behaviors where increased exposure through advertisements, proximity and increased portion sizes are routine. Taking lessons from the tobacco experience, it is clear that reclassifying common dietary obesity as an addictive disorder would necessitate policy changes (e.g., regulatory efforts, economic strategies, and educational approaches). These policies could be instrumental in addressing the obesity epidemic, by encouraging the food industry and the political leadership to collaborate with the scientific and medical community in establishing new and more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:22583861

  17. The end of print: digitization and its consequence--revolutionary changes in scholarly and social communication and in scientific research.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lloyd A

    2005-01-01

    The transformation from print to digital media for scientific communication, driven in part by the growth of the Internet and the tremendous explosion in the amount of information now available to everybody, is creating fundamental changes in institutions such as publishers, libraries, and universities that primarily exist for the creation, management, and distribution of information and knowledge. Scientific, technological, and medical journals are the first publications to be completely transformed from print to digital format but monographs are beginning to appear in digital format as well and soon all communication and publishing of scientific information will be entirely electronic. In fact, this change is affecting all components of the scientific enterprise, from personal correspondence and laboratory methods to peer reviewing and the quality assessment of scientific research. Along with these radical and rapid changes in information presentation and distribution are coincident changes in the expectations of both the public and other scientists, with both groups demanding ever more rapid, open, and global access to scientific information than has been available in the past. The consequence of this revolution in the mechanics of communications technology is threatening the very existence of a number of highly regarded institutions such as intellectual property, commercial publishers, scientific societies, and academic libraries and might soon begin to threaten even the traditional university. PMID:15981737

  18. Evolutionary and social consequences of introgression of nontransgenic herbicide resistance from rice to weedy rice in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Merotto, Aldo; Goulart, Ives C G R; Nunes, Anderson L; Kalsing, Augusto; Markus, Catarine; Menezes, Valmir G; Wander, Alcido E

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have expressed concerns about the effects of gene flow from transgenic herbicide-resistant crops to their wild relatives, but no major problems have been observed. This review describes a case study in which what has been feared in transgenics regarding gene flow has actually changed biodiversity and people's lives. Nontransgenic imidazolinone-resistant rice (IMI-rice) cultivars increased the rice grain yield by 50% in southern Brazil. This increase was beneficial for life quality of the farmers and also improved the regional economy. However, weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides started to evolve three years after the first use of IMI-rice cultivars. Population genetic studies indicate that the herbicide-resistant weedy rice was mainly originated from gene flow from resistant cultivars and distributed by seed migration. The problems related with herbicide-resistant weedy rice increased the production costs of rice that forced farmers to sell or rent their land. Gene flow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has proven to be a large agricultural, economic, and social constraint in the use of herbicide-resistant technologies in rice. This problem must be taken into account for the development of new transgenic or nontransgenic rice technologies. PMID:27468302

  19. Racial and Social Class Differences in How Parents Respond to Inadequate Achievement: Consequences for Children’s Future Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Keith; Harris, Angel L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite numerous studies on parental involvement in children’s academic schooling, there is a dearth of knowledge on how parents respond specifically to inadequate academic performance. This study examines whether 1) racial differences exist in parenting philosophy for addressing inadequate achievement, 2) social class has implications for parenting philosophy, and 3) parents’ philosophies are consequential for children’s academic achievement. Methods Using data from the Child Development Supplement (N=1041) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we sort parents into two categories—those whose parenting repertoires for addressing poor achievement include punitive responses and those whose repertoires do not. We then determine whether racial differences exist between these categories and how various responses within the aforementioned categories are related to students’ academic achievement. Results The findings show that white and black parents have markedly different philosophies on how to respond to inadequate performance, and these differences appear to impact children’s achievement in dramatically different ways. Conclusion Educators and policy makers should pay particular attention to how parents respond to inadequate achievement as imploring parents of inadequately performing students to be more involved without providing them with some guidance might exacerbate the problem. PMID:24563554

  20. [Social and economic consequences of night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport].

    PubMed

    Greiser, E; Glaeske, G

    2013-03-01

    A prospective calculation of disease-related social and economic costs due to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport was performed for the calendar years 2012-2021. It was based on risk estimates for a variety of diagnostic entities (cardiovascular disease, depression, psychosis, diabetes mellitus, dementia and Alzheimer's disease, all cancers except malignancies of the respiratory system) from a previous case-control study on more than 1 million persons enrolled in compulsory sickness funds in the vicinity of the Cologne-Bonn airport, on disease-related cost estimates performed by the German Federal Statistical Office for the calender years 2002-2008, and calculations of the population exposed to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport (2005 aircraft routes and flight frequencies). Total estimated costs came to more than 1.5 billion € with an excess of 23 400 cases of diseases treated in hospitals and of 3 400 subsequent deaths. PMID:23456959

  1. Cost of care and social consequences of very low birth weight infants without premature- related morbidities in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Maria Caterina; Gugiatti, Attilio; Fattore, Giovanni; Gerzeli, Simone; Barbieri, Dario; Zanini, Rinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to estimate the cost that is borne by the Italian National Health Service, families, and social security due to very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) without prematurity-related morbidities up to the age of 18 months. We followed up on 150 VLBWIs and 145 comparable full-term infants (FTIs) who were born in one of 25 different neonatal intensive care units upon discharge from the hospital and at six and 18 months of age. The average length of the primary hospitalisation of the VLBWIs was 59.7 days (SD 21.6 days), with a total cost of €20,502 (SD €8409), compared with three days (SD 0.4 days) with a total cost of €907 (SD €304) for the FTIs. The total societal cost of the VLBWIs for the first 18 months of life was €58,098 (SD €21,625), while the corresponding figure for FTIs was €24,209 (SD €15,557). Among VLBWIs, both low birth weight and gestational age were correlated with the length of hospitalisation after birth (r(2) = 0.61 and r(2) = 0.57, respectively; p values < 0.0005). Our findings highlight that the existing DRGs and tariffs inadequately reflect the actual costs for Italian National Health Service. PMID:26286526

  2. The economic consequences of smoking in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Robson, L; Single, E; Rehm, J; Paul, J

    1999-03-01

    Smoking causes health and social problems such as sickness, death, fire, injury, pain and suffering. This paper provides an estimate of the economic burden imposed by the adverse health and social consequences of smoking in Ontario in 1992. The cost-of-illness method, in particular, the human-capital approach is used to estimate the prevalence-based economic costs of smoking. The direct and indirect components of smoking-related costs are estimated and the total cost in Ontario is US$2.91 billion. Associated with these economic costs are health-related harms: 69,318 hospital separations; 1,007,647 days stay in hospitals; 11,648 deaths resulting in more than 171,443 person-years lost. PMID:10094843

  3. Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  4. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  5. Mental health consequences of international migration for Vietnamese Americans and the mediating effects of physical health and social networks: results from a natural experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongyun; VanLandingham, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    Although the existing literature on immigrant mental health is extensive, major substantive and methodological gaps remain. Substantively, there is little population-based research that focuses on the mental health consequences of migration for Vietnamese Americans. More generally, although a wide range of mental health problems among immigrants has been identified, the potential causal or mediating mechanisms underlying these problems remain elusive. This latter substantive shortcoming is related to a key methodological challenge involving the potentially confounding effects of selection on migration-related outcomes. This article addresses these challenges by employing a "natural experiment" design, involving comparisons among three population-based samples of Vietnamese immigrants, never-leavers, and returnees (N=709). Data were collected in Ho Chi Minh City and in New Orleans between 2003 and 2005. The study investigates the long-term impact of international migration on Vietnamese mental health, and the potential mediating effects of social networks and physical health on these migration-related outcomes. The results reveal both mental health advantages and disadvantages among Vietnamese immigrants relative to the two groups of Vietnamese nationals. Selection can be ruled out for some of these differences, and both social networks and physical health are found to play important explanatory roles. PMID:22275002

  6. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mashhood A; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%), health (7.01%), and well-being (9.09%), as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  7. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Mashhood A.; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%), health (7.01%), and well-being (9.09%), as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  8. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  9. [The end of discrimination in social security for the elderly? Some remarks on the consequences of the paradigm shift in a life course perspective on gender].

    PubMed

    Fachinger, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    woman's life are important factors to combat the disadvantages of private funded pension systems of which mainly women are affected in building up rights to future benefits. The analysis shows that the paradigm shift primarily brings disadvantages to women. They disproportionally depend on statutory pension system benefits, and therefore also on compensating benefits of the negative consequences of private and occupational pension systems. For the future an increase in poverty of older people - and especially women - can be seen to emerge because of pension privatisation and the reduction of the pension level in the German social security system. PMID:19083046

  10. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  11. Human-Computer Interactions: Are There Adverse Health Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emurian, Henry H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the hypothesis that similarities may exist between laboratory research paradigms evoking elevated blood pressure during task performance by normal subjects and video display terminal (VDT) work done by data clerks and college students. Type A behavior and the development of coronary heart disease are discussed, and further research needs…

  12. Patterns of College Student Drug Use: A Longitudinal Social Learning Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadava, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    A repeated-measures study examined personal and social predictors of patterns of college freshman drug use. Frequency, stage, and self-reported significant adverse consequences of use, were predicated by high social support of use, low expectations for goal attainment, high personal functions of use and high attitudinal tolerance of use.…

  13. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  14. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  15. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  16. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  17. Bereavement: course, consequences, and care.

    PubMed

    Zisook, Sidney; Iglewicz, Alana; Avanzino, Julie; Maglione, Jeanne; Glorioso, Danielle; Zetumer, Samuel; Seay, Kathryn; Vahia, Ipsit; Young, Ilanit; Lebowitz, Barry; Pies, Ronald; Reynolds, Charles; Simon, Naomi; Shear, M Katherine

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses each of several potential consequences of bereavement. First, we describe ordinary grief, followed by a discussion of grief gone awry, or complicated grief (CG). Then, we cover other potential adverse outcomes of bereavement, each of which may contribute to, but are not identical with, CG: general medical comorbidity, mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and substance use. PMID:25135781

  18. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725

  19. Adolescent Fertility--Risks and Consequences. George Washington University, Department of Medical and Public Affairs Population Reports, Series J, Number 10, July 1976. Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, William B., II

    Throughout the world pregnancy and childbearing are occurring at younger ages than in the past, resulting in adverse health, demographic and social consequences. Postponing first births until age 20 or later would significantly reduce maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, slow population growth, and contribute to improvements in the quality…

  20. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  1. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  2. Assessment of surgical adverse events in Rio de Janeiro hospitals.

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria de Lourdes de Oliveira; Mendes, Walter

    2012-09-01

    A study on surgical adverse events (AE) is relevant because of the frequency of these events, because they are in part attributable to deficiencies in health care, because of their considerable impact on patient health and economic consequences on social and health expenditures, and because this study is an assessment tool for quality of care. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and the contributive factors of surgical AE in hospitals of Rio de Janeiro. This retrospective cohort study aimed to perform a descriptive analysis of secondary data obtained from the Adverse Events Computer Program, which was developed for collecting data for the assessment of AE in three teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Incidence of patients with surgical AE was 3.5% (38 of 1,103 patients) (95% CI 2.4 - 4.4) and the proportion of patients submitted to surgery among patients with surgical AE was 5.9% (38 of 643) (95% CI 4.1 - 7.6). The proportion of avoidable surgical AE was 68.3% (28 of 41 events) and the proportion of patients with avoidable surgical AE was 65.8% (25 of 38 patients). One in five patients with surgical AE had a permanent disability or died. Over 60% of the cases were classified as not complex or of low complexity, and with low risk for care-related AE. PMID:23090300

  3. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850228

  4. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  5. Navigating Racialized Contexts: The Influence of School and Family Socialization on African American Students' Racial and Educational Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Shuntay Z.

    2013-01-01

    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…

  6. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    PubMed

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  7. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  8. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  9. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    PubMed

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186

  10. ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

  11. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

  12. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. PMID:25732020

  13. Is HIV/AIDS a consequence or divine judgment? Implications for faith-based social services. A Nigerian faith-based university's study

    PubMed Central

    Olaore, Israel B.; Olaore, Augusta Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A contemporary reading of Romans 1:27 was disguised as a saying by Paul Benjamin, AD 58 and administered to 275 randomly selected members of a private Christian university community in south western Nigeria in West Africa. Participants were asked to respond to a two-item questionnaire on their perception of the cause of HIV/AIDS either as a judgment from God or consequence of individual lifestyle choices. The apparent consensus drifted in the direction of God as the culprit handing down his judgment to perpetrators of evil who engage in the homosexual lifestyle. The goal of this paper was to examine the implications of a judgmental stance on addressing the psychosocial needs of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in religious environments. It also explores how service providers in faith-based environments can work around the Judgment versus Consequence tussle in providing non-discriminatory services to persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. PMID:24820240

  14. Is HIV/AIDS a consequence or divine judgment? Implications for faith-based social services. A Nigerian faith-based university's study.

    PubMed

    Olaore, Israel B; Olaore, Augusta Y

    2014-01-01

    A contemporary reading of Romans 1:27 was disguised as a saying by Paul Benjamin, AD 58 and administered to 275 randomly selected members of a private Christian university community in south western Nigeria in West Africa. Participants were asked to respond to a two-item questionnaire on their perception of the cause of HIV/AIDS either as a judgment from God or consequence of individual lifestyle choices. The apparent consensus drifted in the direction of God as the culprit handing down his judgment to perpetrators of evil who engage in the homosexual lifestyle. The goal of this paper was to examine the implications of a judgmental stance on addressing the psychosocial needs of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in religious environments. It also explores how service providers in faith-based environments can work around the Judgment versus Consequence tussle in providing non-discriminatory services to persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. PMID:24820240

  15. Survey of Opinions on the Primacy of "g" and Social Consequences of Ability Testing: A Comparison of Expert and Non-Expert Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Charles, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the views of experts in the science of mental abilities about the primacy and uniqueness of "g" and the social implications of ability testing, and compares their responses to the views of a group of non-expert psychologists. Results indicate expert consensus that "g" is an important, non-trivial determinant (or at least…

  16. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  17. Adverse antibiotic drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bint, A J; Burtt, I

    1980-07-01

    There is enormous potential for drug interactions in patients who, today, often receive many drugs. Antibiotics are prominent amongst the groups of drugs commonly prescribed. Many interactions take place at the absorption stage. Antacids and antidiarrhoeal preparations, in particular, can delay and reduce the absorption of antibiotics such as tetracyclines and clindamycin, by combining with them in the gastrointestinal tract to form chelates or complexes. Other drugs can affect gastric motility, which in turn often controls the rate at which antibiotics are absorbed. Some broad spectrum antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora of the gut which may be related to malabsorption states. The potentiation of toxic side effects of one drug by another is a common type of interaction. Antibiotics which are implicated in this type of interaction are those which themselves possess some toxicity such as aminoglycosides, some cephalosporins, tetracyclines and colistin. Some of the most important adverse interactions with antibiotics are those which involve other drugs which have a low toxicity/efficacy ratio. These include anticoagulants such as warfarin, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin and phenobarbitone and oral antidiabetic drugs like tolbutamide. Risk of interaction arises when the metabolism of these drugs is inhibited by liver microsomal enzyme inhibitors such as some sulphonamides and chloramphenicol, or is enhanced by enzyme inducers such as rifampicin. PMID:6995091

  18. ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR. PMID:19967009

  19. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  20. School-Based Intervention for Social Skills in Children from Divorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angacian, Sevan; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Byer-Alcorace, Gabriel; Theodore, Lea A.; Cross, Karen; DeBiase, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Divorce is an increasingly prevalent occurrence in society that has the potential to result in many adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and their parents. Social skills, such as those with peers, are one of the problems that may emerge for children of divorce. Despite this growing problem, there is a paucity of research…

  1. [Health, social, societal and organizational political effects of the implementation of the ICF on integrated rehabilitation--a vision of the conversion and its consequences].

    PubMed

    Seger, W; Schian, H-M; Steinke, B; Heipertz, W; Schuntermann, M

    2004-06-01

    Fundamental joint principles on expert opinions according to the social law code no. IX (SGB IX) and their application to a virtual individual case history were published recently in this journal. They are based on the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, WHO 2001). A visionary review of the chances and prospects for the further development of the rehabilitative system is outlined and the necessary steps for their implementation are demonstrated. PMID:15206043

  2. Behavioral Correlates of Depression: Antecedents or Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David A.; Milstead, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Compared Coyne's interpersonal model of depression to Lewinsohn's social skill model of depression in a large sample of nonreferred college students (N=202). Contrary to both Coyne and Lewinsohn, no evidence of a direct relation between social support and depression was found. Results suggest social skills deficits are a consequence, not a cause,…

  3. Social determinants and the health of drug users: socioeconomic status, homelessness, and incarceration.

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the evidence on the adverse health consequences of low socioeconomic status, homelessness, and incarceration among drug users. OBSERVATIONS: Social and economic factors shape risk behavior and the health of drug users. They affect health indirectly by shaping individual drug-use behavior; they affect health directly by affecting the availability of resources, access to social welfare systems, marginalization, and compliance with medication. Minority groups experience a disproportionately high level of the social factors that adversely affect health, factors that contribute to disparities in health among drug users. CONCLUSION: Public health interventions aimed at improving the health of drug users must address the social factors that accompany and exacerbate the health consequences of illicit drug use. PMID:12435837

  4. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1). PMID:25817970

  5. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  6. Undermining patient and public engagement and limiting its impact: the consequences of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 on collective patient and public involvement.

    PubMed

    Tritter, Jonathan Q; Koivusalo, Meri

    2013-06-01

    Patient and public involvement has been at the heart of UK health policy for more than two decades. This commitment to putting patients at the heart of the British National Health Service (NHS) has become a central principle helping to ensure equity, patient safety and effectiveness in the health system. The recent Health and Social Care Act 2012 is the most significant reform of the NHS since its foundation in 1948. More radically, this legislation undermines the principle of patient and public involvement, public accountability and returns the power for prioritisation of health services to an unaccountable medical elite. This legislation marks a sea-change in the approach to patient and public involvement in the UK and signals a shift in the commitment of the UK government to patient-centred care. PMID:23650917

  7. When Rejection by One Fosters Aggression Against Many: Multiple-Victim Aggression as a Consequence of Social Rejection and Perceived Groupness

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Lowell; Iuzzini, Jonathan; O’Mara, Erin M.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that social rejection and perceived groupness function together to produce multiple-victim incidents of aggression. When a rejecter’s group membership is salient during an act of rejection, the rejectee ostensibly associates the rejecter’s group with rejection and retaliates against the group. Both experiments manipulated whether an aggregate of three persons appeared as separate individuals or members of an entity-like group and whether one of those persons rejected the participant. Consistent with the hypothesis, participants who experienced both rejection and perceived groupness behaved more aggressively against the aggregate (Experiment 1) and evidenced less favorable affective associations toward the aggregate (Experiment 2) than did participants who did not experience both rejection and perceived groupness. PMID:19079568

  8. Types of Unintended Consequences Related to Computerized Provider Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Emily M.; Sittig, Dean F.; Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.; Dykstra, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify types of clinical unintended adverse consequences resulting from computerized provider order entry (CPOE) implementation. Design An expert panel provided initial examples of adverse unintended consequences of CPOE. The authors, using qualitative methods, gathered and analyzed additional examples from five successful CPOE sites. Methods Using a card sort method, the authors developed a categorization scheme for the 79 unintended consequences initially identified and then iteratively modified the scheme to categorize 245 additional adverse consequences resulting from fieldwork. Because the focus centered on consequences requiring prevention or remedial action, the authors did not further analyze reported unintended beneficial (positive) consequences. Results Unintended adverse consequences (UACs) fell into nine major categories (in order of decreasing frequency): 1) more/new work for clinicians; 2) unfavorable workflow issues; 3) never ending system demands; 4) problems related to paper persistence; 5) untoward changes in communication patterns and practices; 6) negative emotions; 7) generation of new kinds of errors; 8) unexpected changes in the power structure; and 9) overdependence on the technology. Clinical decision support features introduced many of these unintended consequences. Conclusion Identifying and understanding the types and in some instances the causes of unintended adverse consequences associated with CPOE will enable system developers and implementers to better manage implementation and maintenance of future CPOE projects. PMID:16799128

  9. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000). PMID:21118043

  10. Prevalence, Motivations, and Social, Mental Health and Health Consequences of Cyberbullying Among School-Aged Children and Youth: Protocol of a Longitudinal and Multi-Perspective Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David

    2016-01-01

    Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with

  11. [Photodegradation of chlorpromazine, a drug-related adverse event].

    PubMed

    Chabi, Yossounon; Brahim, Kheira; Da Costa, Maryline; Caffin, Anne-Gaëlle; Camus, Gisèle; Paillet, Michel; Bohand, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of an active substance during treatment is a rare drug-related adverse event which can sometimes have serious consequences. Health professionals must be aware of the specific storage and administration instructions with regard to chlorpromazine and ensure that they are respected. PMID:27085925

  12. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  13. Relationship between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Kathryn L; Maloney, Elizabeth A; Stain, Helen J; Loughland, Carmel M; Carr, Vaughan J

    2012-05-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for a wide range of adult psychiatric disorders, and has significant and sustained negative effects on adult behavioural and social functioning. Elevated rates of childhood adversity have been reported for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to assess rates of retrospectively reported childhood adversity among adults with schizophrenia and to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features. Data were available for 408 schizophrenia participants and 267 healthy control participants recruited through the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB). History of childhood adversity was obtained using the Childhood Adversity Questionnaire (CAQ). A five-factor solution was identified from the CAQ. Schizophrenia participants reported experiencing more childhood adversities than controls. In both groups, those reporting childhood adversity were more likely to be female and older. Among participants with schizophrenia, positive symptom severity and fewer years of education were associated with childhood adversity. Lower IQ scores and personality traits were associated with reporting a greater number of childhood adversities and with adversity sub-types of abusive, neglectful and dysfunctional parenting. The rate of childhood adversity reported in this sample was high which suggests greater exposure to adverse childhood events among participants with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy controls. We identified unique groups amongst CAQ items that provided a salient framework from which to investigate the connection between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features. PMID:22329951

  14. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents (N=357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed. PMID:26998189

  15. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  16. Maternal Psychosocial Adversity and the Longitudinal Development of Infant Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Alison; Halligan, Sarah L.; Murray, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Research has identified associations between indicators of social disadvantage and the presence of child sleep problems. We examined the longitudinal development of infant sleep in families experiencing high (n = 58) or low (n = 64) levels of psychosocial adversity, and the contributions of neonatal self-regulatory capacities and maternal settling…

  17. Biologics in dermatology: adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2015-12-01

    Biologics are a group of drugs that precisely affect certain specific steps in the immune response and are an extremely useful group when used in an appropriate setting. However, their use can often be a double-edged sword. Careful patient selection and thorough knowledge of adverse effects is a key to their successful use in various disorders. The initial enthusiasm has gradually given way to a more cautious approach wherein a balance is sought between clinical usefulness and expected side effects. The adverse effects of the biologics most commonly used in dermatology have been carefully listed for ready reference. The plausible causes of the adverse reactions are succinctly outlined along with their incriminating factor(s). Besides, in brief, the attention has been focused on their management. The content should provide an essential didactic content for educating the practitioner. PMID:26147909

  18. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  19. With a Little Help from My Friends: Psychological, Endocrine and Health Corollaries of Social Support in Parental Caregivers of Children with Autism or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Brian; Moss, Mark; Wetherell, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated psychological distress and concomitant dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated as one pathway that links the stress of caregiving with adverse health outcomes. This study assessed whether perceived social support might mitigate the psychological, endocrine and health consequences of caregiver…

  20. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important…

  1. The Social and Political Consequences of Overeducation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Val

    1983-01-01

    Estimates the extent of overeducation in the labor force by sex, race, age, and class background and examines its impact on workers' attitudes in terms of job satisfaction, political leftism, political alienation, and stratification ideology. Findings fail to support the common prediction of major political repercussions of overeducation. (AOS)

  2. The social consequences of teenage parenthood.

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, F F

    1976-01-01

    The adolescent mothers consistently experienced great difficulty in realizing their life plans, when compared with their classmates who did not become pregnant premaritally in their early teens. Marital instability, school disruption, economic problems, and difficulty in family size regulation and child-rearing were some of the complications brought on by their premature, unscheduled childbearing. PMID:964349

  3. The Social Consequences of Insecure Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Stefani

    2009-01-01

    Forms of insecure employment have been increasing all over Europe in recent decades. These developments have been welcomed by those who argued that these types of flexible employment would not only foster employment but could also help women, in particular, to positively combine work and family life. This vision was questioned by others who argued…

  4. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Gh; Izadi, Z

    2012-01-01

    Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do. Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Iran’s supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual’s characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined. Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance. Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market. PMID:23113209

  5. Adversity and advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Reed, Pamela G

    2008-04-01

    This column reports the theme of adversity addressed in reference to theoretical and metatheoretical considerations for advancing nursing knowledge. The development and content of three classic nursing theories are presented by Neuman representatives, and by theorists King and Roy. Topics for continued dialogue are identified as derived from the interface between philosophy of science issues and these theories. PMID:18378823

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  7. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  8. Adult consequences of growth failure in early childhood123

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, John; Behrman, Jere R; Maluccio, John A; Melgar, Paul; Quisumbing, Agnes R; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D; Yount, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growth failure is associated with adverse consequences, but studies need to control adequately for confounding. Objective: We related height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and stunting at age 24 mo to adult human capital, marriage, fertility, health, and economic outcomes. Design: In 2002–2004, we collected data from 1338 Guatemalan adults (aged 25–42 y) who were studied as children in 1969–1977. We used instrumental variable regression to correct for estimation bias and adjusted for potentially confounding factors. Results: A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with more schooling (0.78 grades) and higher test scores for reading and nonverbal cognitive skills (0.28 and 0.25 SDs, respectively), characteristics of marriage partners (1.39 y older, 1.02 grade more schooling, and 1.01 cm taller) and, for women, a higher age at first birth (0.77 y) and fewer number of pregnancies and children (0.63 and 0.43, respectively). A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with increased household per capita expenditure (21%) and a lower probability of living in poverty (10 percentage points). Conversely, being stunted at 2 y was associated with less schooling, a lower test performance, a lower household per capita expenditure, and an increased probability of living in poverty. For women, stunting was associated with a lower age at first birth and higher number of pregnancies and children. There was little relation between either HAZ or stunting and adult health. Conclusion: Growth failure in early life has profound adverse consequences over the life course on human, social, and economic capital. PMID:24004889

  9. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  10. [The undesirable, psychologically adverse effects of screening].

    PubMed

    Döbrössy, Bence; Kovács, Attila; Budai, András; Cornides, Agnes; Döbrössy, Lajos

    2007-09-01

    The psychological adverse effects might play an important role in the non-compliance with the offered screening examination. The possible sources of them are three-fold: 1. The general human attitude, such as the rejection of health interventions, particularly those aiming at the prevention of eventual future health problems instead of handling existing complaints and symptoms at present; the screening can be seen as a "future-oriented" intervention. 2. The cultural image of cancer and the disbelief of its curability. 3. The subjective experiences in relation to the screening process. The providers have to do their best to eliminate these causes: by means of a) health education addressing people of various ages, social classes and cultural levels, promoting the understanding of the importance of disease prevention, and, changing their negative, defeatist attitude towards cancer; b) minimizing the psychological adverse effects of all kinds. This can be done by proper organisation of the screening process; optimizing the quality of work, and, provision of good quality of information and advice to the screenees before, during and after the screening. PMID:17766222

  11. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  12. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  13. [Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

  14. Childhood adversities and adult-onset asthma: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Korkeila, Jyrki; Lietzen, Raija; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Rautava, Päivi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimäki, Mika; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Childhood adversities may be important determinants of later illnesses and poor health behaviour. However, large-scale prospective studies on the associations between childhood adversities and the onset of asthma in adulthood are lacking. Design Prospective cohort study with 7-year follow-up. Setting Nationally representative study. Data were collected from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) survey and national registers. Participants The participants represent the Finnish population from the following age groups: 20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years at baseline in 1998 (24 057 survey participants formed the final cohort of this study). The occurrence of childhood adversities was assessed at baseline with a six-item survey scale. The analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural health risks and common mental disorders. Primary and secondary outcomes The survey data were linked to data from national health registers on incident asthma during a 7-year follow-up to define new-onset asthma cases with verified diagnoses. Results A total of 12 126 (59%) participants reported that they encountered a childhood adversity. Of them 3677 (18% of all) endured three to six adversities. During a follow-up of 7 years, 593 (2.9%) participants were diagnosed with incident asthma. Those who reported three or more childhood adversities had a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.31 to 2.01) greater risk of asthma compared to those without childhood adversities. This hazard attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67). Conclusions Adults who report having encountered adversities in childhood may have an increased risk of developing asthma. PMID:23069774

  15. [Relapse: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2013-09-01

    Relapse after a first episode of schizophrenia is the recurrence of acute symptoms after a period of partial or complete remission. Due to its variable aspects, there is no operational definition of relapse able to modelise the outcome of schizophrenia and measure how the treatment modifies the disease. Follow-up studies based on proxys such as hospital admission revealed that 7 of 10 patients relapsed after a first episode of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications on relapse prevention has been widely demonstrated. Recent studies claim for the advantages of atypical over first generation antipsychotic medication. Non-adherence to antipsychotic represents with addictions the main causes of relapse long before some non-consensual factors such as premorbid functioning, duration of untreated psychosis and associated personality disorders. The consequences of relapse are multiple, psychological, biological and social. Pharmaco-clinical studies have demonstrated that the treatment response decreases with each relapse. Relapse, even the first one, will contribute to worsen the outcome of the disease and reduce the capacity in general functionning. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role besides patients and their families. The development of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, access to care and the therapeutic alliance should be promoted. Relapse prevention is a major goal of the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. It is based on adherence to the maintenance treatment, identification of prodromes, family active information and patient therapeutical education. PMID:24084426

  16. [Adverse reaction induced by licorice preparations: clinical analysis of 93 cases].

    PubMed

    Mao, Min; Li, Wei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Jin; Chang, Zhang-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Licorice is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in clinic. The products,what contain licorice or licorice extract, has early been involved in the field of cosmetics except for the field of pharmaceuticals and food. Consequently, the reporting on adverse reactions induced by licorice preparations are more frequent. Based on the clinical data of licorice preparations adverse reactions, we described the characteristics of the licorice-related adverse reactions, and proposed specific measures to reduce the incidence of adverse reactions, provided a reference for the rational use of licorice preparations. PMID:24494570

  17. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure. PMID:27030896

  18. 'Skating on thin ice?' Consultant surgeon's contemporary experience of adverse surgical events.

    PubMed

    Skevington, Suzanne M; Langdon, Joanne E; Giddins, Grey

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about patient safety have prompted studies of adverse surgical events (ASEs), but descriptive classification of errors and malpractice claims have overshadowed qualitative investigations into the processes that lead to expert errors and their solutions. We studied consultant surgeon's perspectives on how and why events occurred through semi-structured interviews about general and specific events. The sample contained heterogeneous cross-section of ages, gender and specialists, with >2 years consultant status and working within a 25-mile radius. Overarching findings included (1) pressures to work harder, faster and beyond capability within a blaming culture; (2) optimism bias from over-confidence and complacency; and (3) multiple pressures to 'finish' an operation or list, resulting in completion bias. Seven high order themes were identified on the healthcare system, adverse event types, contributing factors, emotions, cognitive processes, error detection, and strategies, solutions and barriers. The process of classifying event types guided solution selection, and the decision about whether to formally report it. How serious consequences were for patients and their temporal effects, defined an adversity continuum. Minor events arose routinely i.e. technical discrepancies, side-effects. More problematic were sub-optimal outcomes and avoidable events. Despite their expertise, consultants were vulnerable to unavoidable, uncontrollable events which were major concerns. Most serious were near-misses, errors and mistakes. However, major errors did not inevitably lead to a catastrophe and minor errors could be extremely serious. A 'cascade' of minor events exacerbated by negative emotions can precipitate major events, and interception methods need investigation. Consultants felt powerless and helpless to change environmental, organisational and systemic problems; new communication and action channels are desirable. Confidence building in team leadership would

  19. Bringing Back the Social History

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Thompson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The social environment of the child is a key determinant of the child’s current and future health. Factors in the child’s family environment, both protective and harmful, have profound impact on the child’s long-term health, brain development, and mortality. Adverse childhood experiences, and specifically, child maltreatment, are directly linked to increased risk for harm, poor outcomes, ill-health as adults, and even death during childhood or early adulthood. Therefore, it is important to obtain a detailed social history from the first medical visit with the dual goals of identifying strengths to reinforce and weaknesses to address. Screening is paramount in order to foster healthy parenting and help identify areas needing intervention. Occasionally, serious problems are uncovered indicating the child is at significant risk for maltreatment. By addressing these risks openly and directly before serious or permanent harm occurs, child maltreatment and its potentially life-altering consequences (for all) may be prevented. The social history may very well be the best all-around tool available for promoting the child’s future health and well-being. It is a key first step in identifying social needs of the child and family so that they may benefit from intervention. This article focuses on key social history elements known to increase a child’s risk of maltreatment and provides case examples. PMID:25242704

  20. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  1. Detecting Adverse Events Using Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Bates, David W.; Evans, R. Scott; Murff, Harvey; Stetson, Peter D.; Pizziferri, Lisa; Hripcsak, George

    2003-01-01

    Context: Although patient safety is a major problem, most health care organizations rely on spontaneous reporting, which detects only a small minority of adverse events. As a result, problems with safety have remained hidden. Chart review can detect adverse events in research settings, but it is too expensive for routine use. Information technology techniques can detect some adverse events in a timely and cost-effective way, in some cases early enough to prevent patient harm. Objective: To review methodologies of detecting adverse events using information technology, reports of studies that used these techniques to detect adverse events, and study results for specific types of adverse events. Design: Structured review. Methodology: English-language studies that reported using information technology to detect adverse events were identified using standard techniques. Only studies that contained original data were included. Main Outcome Measures: Adverse events, with specific focus on nosocomial infections, adverse drug events, and injurious falls. Results: Tools such as event monitoring and natural language processing can inexpensively detect certain types of adverse events in clinical databases. These approaches already work well for some types of adverse events, including adverse drug events and nosocomial infections, and are in routine use in a few hospitals. In addition, it appears likely that these techniques will be adaptable in ways that allow detection of a broad array of adverse events, especially as more medical information becomes computerized. Conclusion: Computerized detection of adverse events will soon be practical on a widespread basis. PMID:12595401

  2. [Consequences and complications of obesity].

    PubMed

    Simon-Vermot, I; Keller, U

    2000-08-01

    Obesity increases the risk of metabolic complications such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, systemic hypertension and cardiovascular disease. These are mainly responsible for the increased mortality of obese people. Other metabolic consequences of obesity are: gallstones, steatosis of the liver and the polycystic ovary syndrome. Beside the body mass index the distribution of body fat is important. Centralized obesity, as measured by the waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia seem to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this association. Obesity has not only metabolic complications. There is a relationship between obesity and impaired respiratory function. Furthermore is obesity a risk factor for osteoarthrosis of the knee, the hip and even the hand and for pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis. Obesity can also lead to psycho-social problems such as depression, social discrimination and isolation. PMID:11026085

  3. Validity and the Consequences of Test Interpretation and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of measures have, at their core, a purpose of personal and social change. If test developers and users want measures to have personal and social consequences and impact, then it is critical to consider the consequences and side effects of measurement in the validation process itself. The consequential basis of test interpretation…

  4. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. PMID:27357302

  5. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  6. Internet use by the socially fearful: addiction or therapy?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrew J; Cumming, Steven R; Hughes, Ian

    2006-02-01

    The Internet has often been argued to have adverse psychological consequences, such as depression or anxiety symptoms, among "over-users." The present study offers an alternative understanding, suggesting the Internet may be used as a forum for expanding social networks and consequently enhancing the chance of meaningful relationships, self-confidence, social abilities, and social support. An online sample of 188 people was recruited over the Internet, while paper and pencil tests were administered to an offline sample group of 27 undergraduate university students, who were regular Internet users. Subjects completed the Zung Depression Scale (ZDS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire?Revised Short Scale (EPQ-R Short), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scale, Internet Use Questionnaire (IUQ), and an Internet Effects Questionnaire (IEQ). Results suggested that there was no relationship between time spent online and depression, anxiety, or social fearfulness. Those who primarily used the Internet for online chat believed that the Internet is psychologically beneficial to them, but also believed that frequent Internet users are lonely and that the Internet can be addictive. It is argued that "chat" users who are socially fearful may be using the Internet as a form of low-risk social approach and an opportunity to rehearse social behavior and communication skills, which, may help them improve interaction with offline, face-to-face, social environments. PMID:16497120

  7. Adverse drug reactions in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ferner, R E

    2015-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) - that is, unintended and harmful responses to medicines - are important to dermatologists because many present with cutaneous signs and because dermatological treatments can cause serious ADRs. The detection of ADRs to new drugs is often delayed because they have a long latency or are rare or unexpected. This means that ADRs to newer agents emerge only slowly after marketing. ADRs are part of the differential diagnosis of unusual rashes. A good drug history that includes details of drug dose, time-course of the reaction and factors that may make the patient more susceptible, will help. For example, Stevens-Johnson syndrome with abacavir is much commoner in patients with HLA-B*5701, and has a characteristic time course. Newer agents have brought newer reactions; for example, acneiform rashes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors such as erlotinib. Older systemic agents used to treat skin disease, including corticosteroids and methotrexate, cause important ADRs. The adverse effects of newer biological agents used in dermatology are becoming clearer; for example, hypersensitivity reactions or loss of efficacy from antibody formation and progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy due to reactivation of latent JC (John Cunningham) virus infections during efalizumab treatment. Unusual or serious harm from medicines, including ADRs, medication errors and overdose, should be reported. The UK Yellow Card scheme is online, and patients can report their own ADRs. PMID:25622648

  8. [Recipients adverse reactions: guidance supports].

    PubMed

    Bazin, A

    2010-12-01

    Since 1994, adverse effects of transfusion transmitted to the French haemovigilance network are registered on "e-fit", the database of the French agency for the safety of health products (Afssaps). In order to improve their analysis, guidance supports have been made by Afssaps working groups. Each support deals with a blood transfusion side effect and is composed of five parts including pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, management recommendations, etiologic investigations and rules of filing the notification form on e-fit. The major characteristics of sheets published or soon-to-be published are presented: transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection, non-haemolytic febrile reaction, allergic reaction, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, hypotensive transfusion reaction, alloimmunization, erythrocyte incompatibility reaction and hemosiderosis. These new supports give relevant guidelines allowing a better analysis and evaluation of recipients' adverse reactions, particularly their diagnosis, gravity and accountability. They could also initiate studies in European and international haemovigilance and transfusion networks. PMID:21051267

  9. Adverse effects of plasma transfusion.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N

    2012-05-01

    Plasma utilization has increased over the past two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions after infusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: 1) transfusion-related acute lung injury, 2) transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and 3) allergic and/or anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include 1) transmission of infections, 2) febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, 3) red blood cell alloimmunization, and 4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The effects of pathogen inactivation or reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

  10. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  11. The Economic Consequences of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    ) for patients with narcolepsy and €1430 for control subjects (p < 0.001), corresponding to an annual mean excess health-related cost of €10,223 for each patient with narcolepsy. In addition, the patients with narcolepsy received an annual social transfer income of €2588. Conclusion: The study confirms that narcolepsy has major socioeconomic consequences for the individual patient and for society. Early diagnosis and treatment could potentially reduce disease burden, which would have a significant socioeconomic impact. Citation: Jennum P; Knudsen S; Kjellberg J. The economic consequences of narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):240–245. PMID:19960645

  12. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship—as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)—with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary–adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a ‘lonely’ phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. PMID:25870400

  13. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

  14. Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-03-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques. PMID:23312432

  15. Adverse effects of IgG therapy.

    PubMed

    Berger, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    IgG is widely used for patients with immune deficiencies and in a broad range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Up to 40% of intravenous infusions of IgG may be associated with adverse effects (AEs), which are mostly uncomfortable or unpleasant but often are not serious. The most common infusion-related AE is headache. More serious reactions, including true anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, occur less frequently. Most reactions are related to the rate of infusion and can be prevented or treated just by slowing the infusion rate. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, or corticosteroids also may be helpful in preventing or treating these common AEs. IgA deficiency with the potential of IgG or IgE antibodies against IgA increases the risk of some AEs but should not be viewed as a contraindication if IgG therapy is needed. Potentially serious AEs include renal dysfunction and/or failure, thromboembolic events, and acute hemolysis. These events usually are multifactorial, related to combinations of constituents in the IgG product as well as risk factors for the recipient. Awareness of these factors should allow minimization of the risks and consequences of these AEs. Subcutaneous IgG is absorbed more slowly into the circulation and has a lower incidence of AEs, but awareness and diligence are necessary whenever IgG is administered. PMID:24565701

  16. Migraine treatment: a chain of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Tiago Sousa; Cambão, Mariana Seixas

    2015-01-01

    This clinical vignette presents a 14 years old female, with a past medical history relevant only for migraine with typical aura of less than monthly frequency, complaining of a severe unilateral headache with rising intensity for the previous 4 h, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. This episode of migraine with aura in a patient with recurrent migraine was complicated by side effects of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (extrapyramidal symptoms, delirium, post-lumbar puncture headache, hospital admission) all of which could have been prevented-quaternary prevention. This case illustrates several important messages in migraine management: (1) use of acetaminophen is not based in high-quality evidence and better options exist; (2) among youngsters, domperidone should be preferred over metoclopramide because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier; (3) moderate to severe migraine crisis can be managed with triptans in teenagers over 12 years old; (4) it is important to recognize adverse drug effects; (5) harmful consequences of medical interventions do occur; (6) the school community must be informed about chronic diseases of the young. PMID:26266080

  17. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations.

  18. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  19. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  20. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  1. Adverse events in childhood and chronic widespread pain in adult life: Results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth T; Power, Chris; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2009-05-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common and frequently disabling condition. Several studies have shown that early life adversity is associated with CWP in later life; however, the majority are retrospective and suffer from potential recall bias. Using data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study, the aim of the current study was to examine, prospectively, the relationship between childhood physical and psychological adversity and CWP in adulthood. At 7 yrs data were collected, by parental report, on physically traumatic events (hospitalisation following a road traffic accident, or for surgery); and factors indicating poor social and psychological environment (periods in local authority care, death of a parent; or parental divorce, alcoholism, or financial hardship). CWP was assessed at 45 yrs using self-completion questionnaires. The relationship between childhood events and CWP was examined using Poisson regression. 7571 individuals provided pain data at 45 yrs (71.5%). There was no association between childhood surgery and CWP in adulthood (relative risk: 1.0; 95%CI: 0.9-1.1). However, children who had been hospitalised following a road traffic accident experienced a significant increase in the risk of future CWP (1.5; 1.05-2.1). Children who had resided in institutional care also experienced an increase in the risk of CWP (1.7; 1.3-2.4) as did those who experienced maternal death (2.0; 1.08-3.7) and familial financial hardship (1.6; 1.3-1.9). Further these associations were not explained by adult psychological distress or social class. To prevent long-term consequences of adverse childhood events, future research should study the mechanisms, in particular the biological mechanisms, underlying these relationships. PMID:19304391

  2. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety. PMID:25078411

  3. "Diabetes Has Instant Consequences..."

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Diabetes has instant consequences…" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... you want to chuck it all. But Diabetes has instant consequences. You learn to be responsible pretty ...

  4. Thyroid-Disrupting Chemicals: Interpreting Upstream Biomarkers of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Rice, Deborah C.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence in humans and in experimental animals for a relationship between exposure to specific environmental chemicals and perturbations in levels of critically important thyroid hormones (THs). Identification and proper interpretation of these relationships are required for accurate assessment of risk to public health. Objectives We review the role of TH in nervous system development and specific outcomes in adults, the impact of xenobiotics on thyroid signaling, the relationship between adverse outcomes of thyroid disruption and upstream causal biomarkers, and the societal implications of perturbations in thyroid signaling by xenobiotic chemicals. Data sources We drew on an extensive body of epidemiologic, toxicologic, and mechanistic studies. Data synthesis THs are critical for normal nervous system development, and decreased maternal TH levels are associated with adverse neuropsychological development in children. In adult humans, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with increased blood pressure and poorer blood lipid profiles, both risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. These effects of thyroid suppression are observed even within the “normal” range for the population. Environmental chemicals may affect thyroid homeostasis by a number of mechanisms, and multiple chemicals have been identified that interfere with thyroid function by each of the identified mechanisms. Conclusions Individuals are potentially vulnerable to adverse effects as a consequence of exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals. Any degree of thyroid disruption that affects TH levels on a population basis should be considered a biomarker of adverse outcomes, which may have important societal outcomes. PMID:19654909

  5. The incidence of adverse events in Swedish hospitals: a retrospective medical record review study

    PubMed Central

    Soop, Michael; Fryksmark, Ulla; Köster, Max; Haglund, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence, nature and consequences of adverse events and preventable adverse events in Swedish hospitals. Design A three-stage structured retrospective medical record review based on the use of 18 screening criteria. Setting Twenty-eight Swedish hospitals. Population A representative sample (n = 1967) of the 1.2 million Swedish hospital admissions between October 2003 and September 2004. Main Outcome Measures Proportion of admissions with adverse events, the proportion of preventable adverse events and the types and consequences of adverse events. Results In total, 12.3% (n = 241) of the 1967 admissions had adverse events (95% CI, 10.8–13.7), of which 70% (n = 169) were preventable. Fifty-five percent of the preventable events led to impairment or disability, which was resolved during the admission or within 1 month from discharge, another 33% were resolved within 1 year, 9% of the preventable events led to permanent disability and 3% of the adverse events contributed to patient death. Preventable adverse events led to a mean increased length of stay of 6 days. Ten of the 18 screening criteria were sufficient to detect 90% of the preventable adverse events. When extrapolated to the 1.2 million annual admissions, the results correspond to 105 000 preventable adverse events (95% CI, 90 000–120 000) and 630 000 days of hospitalization (95% CI, 430 000–830 000). Conclusions This study confirms that preventable adverse events were common, and that they caused extensive human suffering and consumed a significant amount of the available hospital resources. PMID:19556405

  6. Unintended consequences of health care legislation.

    PubMed

    Thrall, James H

    2011-10-01

    Unintended consequences of health care legislation threaten the financial and social well-being of the United States. Examples of major legislation resulting in unintended and unforeseen consequences include the Social Security Amendments Acts of 1989 and 1993 (the Stark laws), the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, and the Social Security Amendments Act of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid). Each of these has had unintended financial and social outcomes. Spending for Medicare and Medicaid now equals an unsustainable 23% of the federal budget. Major reasons for unintended consequences include failure to appreciate the complexity of the issues, the open-ended nature of medical advances with attendant increases in costs, the inducement of change in behaviors in response to legislation, and the moral hazard of people spending other people's money. Actions that should be considered to avoid unintended consequences include more involvement of health professionals in the design of legislation, the inclusion of triggers to target review of legislatively defined programs, and the setting of time limits for sun-setting legislation. The ACR has played an important advocacy role and should continue to offer input to legislators, federal policymakers, and other stakeholders. Many opportunities exist to address the current financial situation by reducing the amount of unnecessary care delivered. Both major US political parties need to find the political will to compromise to chart the way forward. Some level of sacrifice is likely to be necessary from patients and providers and other stakeholders. PMID:21962782

  7. Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Karl L.; Entwisle, Doris R.; Olson, Linda Steffel

    2007-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that summer learning rooted in family and community influences widens the achievement gap across social lines, while schooling offsets those family and community influences. In this article, we examine the long-term educational consequences of summer learning differences by family socioeconomic level. Using data…

  8. Lifetime consequences of abnormal fetal pancreatic development

    PubMed Central

    Holemans, K; Aerts, L; Van Assche, F A

    2003-01-01

    There is ample evidence that an adverse intrauterine environment has harmful consequences for health in later life. Maternal diabetes and experimentally induced hyperglycaemia result in asymmetric overgrowth, which is associated with an increased insulin secretion and hyperplasia of the insulin-producing B-cells in the fetuses. In adult life, a reduced insulin secretion is found. In contrast, intrauterine growth restriction is associated with low insulin secretion and a delayed development of the insulin-producing B-cells. These perinatal alterations may induce a deficient adaptation of the endocrine pancreas and insulin resistance in later life. Intrauterine growth restriction in human pregnancy is mainly due to a reduced uteroplacental blood flow or to maternal undernutrition or malnutrition. However, intrauterine growth restriction can be present in severe diabetes complicated by vasculopathy and nephropathy. In animal models, intrauterine growth retardation can be obtained through pharmacological (streptozotocin), dietary (semi-starvation, low protein diet) or surgical (intrauterine artery ligation) manipulation of the maternal animal. The endocrine pancreas and more specifically the insulin-producing B-cells play an important role in the adaptation to an adverse intrauterine milieu and the consequences in later life. The long-term consequences of an unfavourable intrauterine environment are of major importance worldwide. Concerted efforts are needed to explore how these long-term effects can be prevented. This review will consist of two parts. In the first part, we discuss the long-term consequences in relation to the development of the fetal endocrine pancreas and fetal growth in the human; in the second part, we focus on animal models with disturbed fetal and pancreatic development and the consequences for later life. PMID:12562919

  9. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  10. The NAS Perchlorate Review: Adverse Effects?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Richard; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    ), a dose of 9.2 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks had no effect on thyroid function. In occupational studies, doses as high as 0.5 mg/kg per day were not associated with adverse effects on thyroid function in workers. In epidemiologic studies, there were no abnormalities in growth or thyroid function in children exposed life-long to 100 to 120 mg of perchlorate per liter of drinking water, or in pregnant women and newborn infants similarly exposed. Given the choice of a non-adverse effect (inhibition of iodide uptake by the thyroid) as the point of departure and the multiple studies in which doses of perchlorate much larger than 0.007 mg/kg per day had no effect on any aspect of thyroid function, the committee did not apply a database uncertainty factor. Finally, Ginsberg and Rice argue that inhibition of thyroid iodide uptake is adverse. That conclusion assumes that any acute inhibition would be sustained, so that thyroid hormone production would fall. That is not the case. There is remarkable compensation for even substantial reductions in thyroid iodide uptake – and thyroid hormone production. As noted above, subjects given 0.04 mg/kg per day for 6 months and 9.2 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks-doses that certainly would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake for a few weeks-had no fall in serum thyroid hormone or rise in serum thyrotropin concentrations (the hallmark of even minor systemic thyroid deficiency). Short-term inhibition of thyroid iodide uptake is not an adverse effect; it has no adverse consequences, because there is rapid compensation mediated by several independent processes. One is upregulation of the thyroid sodium-iodide transport system, as a result of intrathyroidal iodide deficiency. The second, should there be even a very small fall in thyroid hormone production, is an increase in thyrotropin secretion, resulting in overall stimulation of the thyroid gland.

  11. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  12. Antidepressants and cardiovascular adverse events: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Vojdanparast, Mohammad; Nezafati, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Major depression or deterioration of previous mood disorders is a common adverse consequence of coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiac revascularization procedures. Therefore, treatment of depression is expected to result in improvement of mood condition in these patients. Despite demonstrated effects of anti-depressive treatment in heart disease patients, the use of some antidepressants have shown to be associated with some adverse cardiac and non-cardiac events. In this narrative review, the authors aimed to first assess the findings of published studies on beneficial and also harmful effects of different types of antidepressants used in patients with heart diseases. Finally, a new categorization for selecting antidepressants according to their cardiovascular effects was described. METHODS Using PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Index Copernicus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database, we identified studies designed to evaluate the effects of depression and also using antidepressants on cardiovascular outcome. A 40 studies were finally assessed systematically. Among those eligible studies, 14 were cohort or historical cohort studies, 15 were randomized clinical trial, 4 were retrospective were case-control studies, 3 were meta-analyses and 2 animal studies, and 2 case studies. RESULTS According to the current review, we recommend to divide antidepressants into three categories based on the severity of cardiovascular adverse consequences including (1) the safest drugs including those drugs with cardio-protective effects on ventricular function, as well as cardiac conductive system including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, (2) neutralized drugs with no evidenced effects on cardiovascular system including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and (3) harmful drugs with adverse effects on cardiac function, hemodynamic stability, and heart rate variability including tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors

  13. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516

  14. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    PubMed

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516

  15. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25961743

  16. Severe Adverse Events Related to Tattooing: An Retrospective Analysis of 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of tattoos has been increased markedly during the last 20 years. Aims: To analyze the patient files for severe adverse medical reactions related to tattooing. Settings: Academic Teaching Hospital in South-East Germany. Materials and Methods: Retrospective investigation from March 2001 to May 2012. Results: The incidence of severe adverse medical reactions has been estimated as 0.02%. Infectious and non-infectious severe reactions have been observed. The consequences were medical drug therapies and surgery. Conclusions: Tattooing may be associated with severe adverse medical reactions with significant morbidity. Regulations, education and at least hygienic controls are tools to increase consumer safety. PMID:23248361

  17. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Hung; Wang, Chuang-Wei; Dao, Ro-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The clinical manifestations of drug eruptions can range from mild maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) which are rare but occasionally fatal. Some pathogens may induce skin reactions mimicking SCAR. There are several models to explain the interaction of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), drug and T-cell receptor (TCR): (i) the "hapten/prohapten" theory; (ii) the "p-i concept"; (iii) the "altered peptide repertoire"; and (iv) the "altered TCR repertoire". The checkpoints of molecular mechanisms of SCAR include specific drug antigens interacting with the specific HLA loci (e.g. HLA-B*15:02 for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN and HLA-B*58:01 for allopurinol-induced SCAR), involvement of specific TCR, induction of T-cell-mediated responses (e.g. granulysin, Fas ligand, perforin/granzyme B and T-helper 1/2-associated cytokines) and cell death mechanism (e.g. miR-18a-5p-induced apoptosis; annexin A1 and formyl peptide receptor 1-induced necroptosis in keratinocytes). In addition to immune mechanism, metabolism has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of SCAR, such as recent findings of strong association of CYP2C9*3 with phenytoin-induced SCAR and impaired renal function with allopurinol SCAR. With a better understanding of the mechanisms, effective therapeutics and prevention for SCAR can be improved. PMID:27154258

  18. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population. PMID:26925182

  19. [ Preventing adverse drug events using clinical decision support systems].

    PubMed

    Salili, Ali Reza; Hammann, Felix; Taegtmeyer, Anne B

    2015-12-01

    Adverse drug events pose a great risk to patients, are an everyday clinical problem and can have potential/ega/ consequences. Computerized physician order entry or computerized provider order entry (CPOE} in combination with clinical decision support systems {CDSS) are popular and aim to reduce prescribing errors as well as identifying potentially harmful drug drug interactions. The quantifiable benejit these systems bring to patients, has however, yet to be definitively proven. This article focusses on the current standpoint of CPOE-/CDSS, their risks and benefits, the potential for improvement and their perspectives for the future. PMID:26654813

  20. Consequences of gynecological cancer in patients and their partners from the sexual and psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Iżycki, Dariusz; Woźniak, Katarzyna; Iżycka, Natalia

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis of gynecological cancer and the following consequences of the treatment radically change the lives of cancer patients and their partners. Women experience negative consequences in terms of sexual, psychological and social functioning. Surgical treatment may result in a decrease in sexual pleasure and pain during intercourse. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause a loss of libido and negatively affect the capacity to experience pleasure or orgasm. Treatment-related changes may include the occurrence of body image disorders, decreased quality of life as well as depressive and anxiety disorders among patients. Furthermore, a negative influence on the relationship between the affected women and their partners, as well as an adverse effect on the social activity, can be observed. Cancer is not an individual experience. It also affects partners of the sick women in terms of psychological and sexual functioning. This article depicts possible problems encountered by cancer patients and their partners from the psychological and sexual perspective. The emphasis is put on understanding sexuality not only in the context of sexual performance, but also in a wider perspective. PMID:27582686

  1. Consequences of gynecological cancer in patients and their partners from the sexual and psychological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Katarzyna; Iżycka, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of gynecological cancer and the following consequences of the treatment radically change the lives of cancer patients and their partners. Women experience negative consequences in terms of sexual, psychological and social functioning. Surgical treatment may result in a decrease in sexual pleasure and pain during intercourse. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause a loss of libido and negatively affect the capacity to experience pleasure or orgasm. Treatment-related changes may include the occurrence of body image disorders, decreased quality of life as well as depressive and anxiety disorders among patients. Furthermore, a negative influence on the relationship between the affected women and their partners, as well as an adverse effect on the social activity, can be observed. Cancer is not an individual experience. It also affects partners of the sick women in terms of psychological and sexual functioning. This article depicts possible problems encountered by cancer patients and their partners from the psychological and sexual perspective. The emphasis is put on understanding sexuality not only in the context of sexual performance, but also in a wider perspective. PMID:27582686

  2. Using Negative Consequences Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen H.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of dealing with students' inappropriate behavior, noncompliance, and conflict can be implemented at different levels within the school. Schoolwide interventions include expulsion, suspension, and physical punishment. Classroom interventions include time out, verbal reprimands and commands, logical consequences, and surface management…

  3. Institutional Capacity Building in Mozambique to Mitigate the Adverse Consequences of Extreme Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freires L£cio, F. D.

    2001-05-01

    During Feb. - March 2000, floods resulting from the cyclones, Elaine, Felicia, and Gloria, devastated an area of about 100,000 km2 in southern Mozambique. About 700 people died, and more than a million people have been rendered homeless and destitute. This catastrophe drew attention to the urgent need of strengthening the infrastructure of Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INAM) to enable it to provide advance information about tropical cyclones, torrential rains, droughts, etc. so that their impact can be minimized locally. This can take the form of emergency preparedness systems to alert the communities at risk, structural and vegetational controls for the mitigation of floods and droughts, groundwater recharge of flood waters, protection from water-borne and mosquito-borne diseases, emergency shelters, educating the people how to cope, and micro-enterprises for the mitigation of floods and drought and for economic reconstruction, etc. Institutional capacity building involves the installation/upgrading of physical facilities, training of personnel and establishment of databases and networks in INAM, for (i) collection and collation of meteorological data from within the country, (ii) downloading and collation of meteorological data from external sources, and (iii) uploading of meteorological information to the concerned agencies in the government, and regional and international agencies.

  4. The Potential Adverse Health Consequences of Exposure to Electronic Cigarettes and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Tobacco continues to be the leading cause of preventable death and illness in the United States and the world (World Health Organization, 2011). In addition, tobacco is responsible for one in three cancer deaths in the United States (American Cancer Society, 2015). Prevention of tobacco-related disease, disability, and death could be achieved by promoting tobacco control (i.e., preventing uptake, helping smokers quit, and protecting against exposure to secondhand smoke). PMID:26302273

  5. Unintended adverse consequences of electronic health record introduction to a mature universal HIV screening program.

    PubMed

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Yang, Katharine; Pasalar, Siavash; Pillow, M Tyson; Miertschin, Nancy P; Peacock, William F; Giordano, Thomas P; Hoxhaj, Shkelzen

    2016-05-01

    Early HIV detection and treatment decreases morbidity and mortality and reduces high-risk behaviors. Many Emergency Departments (EDs) have HIV screening programs as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recent federal legislation includes incentives for electronic health record (EHR) adoption. Our objective was to analyze the impact of conversion to EHR on a mature ED-based HIV screening program. A retrospective pre- and post-EHR implementation cohort study was conducted in a large urban, academic ED. Medical records were reviewed for HIV screening rates from August 2008 through October 2013. On 1 November 2010, a comprehensive EHR system was implemented throughout the hospital. Before EHR implementation, labs were requested by providers by paper orders with HIV-1/2 automatically pre-selected on every form. This universal ordering protocol was not duplicated in the new EHR; rather it required a provider to manually enter the order. Using a chi-squared test, we compared HIV testing in the 6 months before and after EHR implementation; 55,054 patients presented before, and 50,576 after EHR implementation. Age, sex, race, acuity of presenting condition, and HIV seropositivity rates were similar pre- and post-EHR, and there were no major patient or provider changes during this period. Average HIV testing rate was 37.7% of all ED patients pre-, and 22.3% post-EHR, a 41% decline (p < 0.0001), leading to 167 missed new diagnoses after EHR. The rate of HIV screening in the ED decreased after EHR implementation, and could have been improved with more thoughtful inclusion of existing human processes in its design. PMID:26729258

  6. [Acute adverse effects of dialysis].

    PubMed

    Opatrný, K

    2003-02-01

    Adverse reactions to dialyzers are a not very frequent, but because of the serious, sometimes fatal course, a dreaded complication of haemodialysis treatment. Most important among these reactions are hypersensitive reactions (anaphylactoid, reaction type A to dialyzer), which develop as a rule within the 10th minute of the procedure, and the reaction caused by the action of perfluorohydrocarbon which develop hours after onset or even completion of haemodialysis. Explanation of the development of hypersensitive reactions (HSR) by complement activation and formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a during contact of blood with the bioincompatible dialysis membrane has been abandoned. Evidence of the etiological role of ethylene oxide (ETO) in the development of HSR influenced the selection of materials for the production of dialyzers and sterilization during manufacture, it emphasized the importance of rinsing of the dialyzer in the dialysis centre and led to the wide application of alternative methods of sterilization by gamma radiation and steam. HSR may be also caused by overproduction of bradykinin and inhibition of its degradation or degradation of its metabolites. Excessive bradykinin production caused by dialysis membranes with a negative charge is potentiated e.g. by a lower pH and increased plasma dilution in the initial stage of haemodialysis. Inhibition of bradykinin degradation develops during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). In prevention of HSR associated with bradykinin in addition to elimination of a combination of a negatively charged dialysis membrane and ACEI treatment a part is played also by rinsing of the dialyzer before haemodialysis with a bicarbonate solution and the modification of the membrane surface (implemented by the manufacturer) which reduces its negative charge. The first reaction to the dialyzer in conjunction with perfluorohydrocarbon (PF-5070), used in production of some dialyzers for testing the

  7. High Social Anxiety and Poor Quality of Life in Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kibrisli, Erkan; Bez, Yasin; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Aslanhan, Hamza; Taylan, Mahsuk; Kaya, Halide; Tanrikulu, Abdullah Cetin; Abakay, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) has been previously related with various psychosocial adverse consequences including stigmatization and social isolation. Social anxiety is a psychiatric condition that may be associated with social isolation and fear of social exclusion. To date no study has investigated social anxiety and its impact on quality of life (QoL) among patients with PT. Therefore, we aimed to determine the severity of social anxiety in a group of patients with PT. Among patients who were recently discharged from hospital with the diagnosis of PT 94 patients and 99 healthy control subjects who had similar demographical features have been included in the study. A psychiatrist interviewed all participants and a semistructured interview form, which was prepared by the authors, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and Short Form-36 were administered to them. Patients with PT showed higher levels of performance avoidance and social avoidance than healthy control subjects. They reported lower QoL scores across all dimensions. Among patients women showed higher levels of LSAS subscale scores and total score. Fear of social exclusion was predicted by perceived illness severity and emotional role difficulty. On the other hand, perceived illness severity was predicted by fear of exclusion and sedimentation level. PT patients seem to experience higher levels of social anxiety and associated fear of social exclusion that add to their worse QoL during the earlier months of their disease. Among them fear of social exclusion is related with perceived illness severity. PMID:25621689

  8. Prenatal Adversities and Latino Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Trajectories from 6 Months to 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G.; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers’ adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13–14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father’s absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers’ prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring’s parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring’s heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring’s sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p = .05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the

  9. [Chinese medicine adverse reactions' literature statistical analysis in recent five years].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved. PMID:22242443

  10. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  11. Adverse Drug Reactions in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions may occur with any of the medications prescribed or administered in dental practice. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are less common and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review the most common adverse reactions that are unrelated to drug allergy. PMID:24697823

  12. Nurses must report adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    There is renewed determination throughout the European Union (EU) to reduce the economic cost and high death rate associated with adverse drug reactions through better pharmacovigilance. Timely reporting and sharing of information concerning adverse drug reactions is vital to the success of this initiative. In the UK, the reporting of serious adverse drug reactions is facilitated by the Yellow Card Scheme, yet despite being well placed to monitor the effect of medicines on patients, nurses do not make full use of the scheme. This article sets out the impact of adverse drug reactions in the EU and argues that it is essential that nurses must be at the vanguard of adverse reaction reporting if the EU's pharmacovigilance initiative is to be a success. PMID:23905231

  13. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  14. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  15. The interplay between structure and agency in shaping the mental health consequences of job loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job loss is a discrete life event, with multiple adverse consequences for physical and mental health and implications for agency. Our research explores the consequences of job loss for retrenched workers’ mental health by examining the interplay between their agency and the structures shaping their job loss experiences. Methods We conducted two waves of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a sample of 33 of the more than 1000 workers who lost their jobs at Mitsubishi Motors in South Australia during 2004 and 2005 as a result of industry restructuring. Interviews capturing the mental health consequences of job loss were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed to determine the health consequences of the job loss and the impact of structural factors. Results Main themes that emerged from the qualitative exploration of the psychological distress of job loss included stress, changes to perceived control, loss of self-esteem, shame and loss of status, experiencing a grieving process, and financial strain. Drawing on two models of agency we identified the different ways workers employed their agency, and how their agency was enabled, but mainly constrained, when dealing with job loss consequences. Conclusions Respondents’ accounts support the literature on the moderating effects of economic resources such as redundancy packages. The results suggest the need for policies to put more focus on social, emotional and financial investment to mediate the structural constraints of job loss. Our study also suggests that human agency must be understood within an individual’s whole of life circumstances, including structural and material constraints, and the personal or interior factors that shape these circumstances. PMID:23384322

  16. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.

  17. Adverse events to monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently registered and approved for the treatment of a range of different cancers. These mAbs are specific for a limited number of targets (9 in all). Four of these molecules are indeed directed against the B-lymphocyte antigen CD20; 3 against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ErbB2), 2 against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and 1 each against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD30, CD52, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 11 (TNFSF11, best known as RANKL), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4). Collectively, the mAbs provoke a wide variety of systemic and cutaneous adverse events including the full range of true hypersensitivities: Type I immediate reactions (anaphylaxis, urticaria); Type II reactions (immune thrombocytopenia, neutopenia, hemolytic anemia); Type III responses (vasculitis, serum sickness; some pulmonary adverse events); and Type IV delayed mucocutaneous reactions as well as infusion reactions/cytokine release syndrome (IRs/CRS), tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and cardiac events. Although the term “hypersensitivity” is widely used, no common definition has been adopted within and between disciplines and the requirement of an immunological basis for a true hypersensitivity reaction is sometimes overlooked. Consequently, some drug-induced adverse events are sometimes incorrectly described as “hypersensitivities” while others that should be described are not. PMID:24251081

  18. Adverse events during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients: incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transport of critically ill patients for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures is at risk of complications. Adverse events during transport are common and may have significant consequences for the patient. The objective of the study was to collect prospectively adverse events that occurred during intrahospital transports of critically ill patients and to determine their risk factors. Methods This prospective, observational study of intrahospital transport of consecutively admitted patients with mechanical ventilation was conducted in a 38-bed intensive care unit in a university hospital from May 2009 to March 2010. Results Of 262 transports observed (184 patients), 120 (45.8%) were associated with adverse events. Risk factors were ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure >6 cmH2O, sedation before transport, and fluid loading for intrahospital transports. Within these intrahospital transports with adverse events, 68 (26% of all intrahospital transports) were associated with an adverse event affecting the patient. Identified risk factors were: positive end-expiratory pressure >6 cmH2O, and treatment modification before transport. In 44 cases (16.8% of all intrahospital transports), adverse event was considered serious for the patient. In our study, adverse events did not statistically increase ventilator-associated pneumonia, time spent on mechanical ventilation, or length of stay in the intensive care unit. Conclusions This study confirms that the intrahospital transports of critically ill patients leads to a significant number of adverse events. Although in our study adverse events have not had major consequences on the patient stay, efforts should be made to decrease their incidence. PMID:23587445

  19. College Students' Drinking and Posting About Alcohol: Forwarding a Model of Motivations, Behaviors, and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey K

    2016-06-01

    College drinking continues to remain a public health problem that has been exacerbated by alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNSs). Although existing research has linked alcohol consumption, alcohol posts, and adverse consequences to one another, comprehensive explanations for these associations have been largely unexplored. Thus, we reasoned that students' personal motivations (i.e., espousing an alcohol identity, needing entertainment, and adhering to social norms) influence their behaviors (i.e., alcohol consumption and alcohol-related posting on SNSs), which can lead to alcohol problems. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 364 undergraduate students and found general support for our model. In particular, espousing an alcohol identity predicted alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting, needing entertainment predicted alcohol consumption but not alcohol-related SNS posting, and adhering to social norms predicted alcohol-related SNS posting but not alcohol consumption. In turn, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting predicted alcohol problems. It is surprising that alcohol-related SNS posting was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems than alcohol consumption. We discuss the findings within their applied applications for college student health. PMID:27186824

  20. Adverse event recording post hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Doody, K; Mohamed, K M S; Butler, A; Street, J; Lenehan, B

    2013-01-01

    Accurate recording of adverse events post hip fracture surgery is vital for planning and allocating resources. The purpose of this study was to compare adverse events recorded prospectively at point of care with adverse recorded by the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) System. The study examined a two month period from August to September 2011 at University Hospital Limerick. Out of a sample size of 39, there were 7 males (17.9%) and 32 females (82.1%) with an age range of between 53 and 98 years. The mean age was 80.5 years. 55 adverse events were recorded, in contrast to the HIPE record of 13 (23.6%) adverse events. The most common complications included constipation 10 (18.2%), anaemia 8 (14.5%), urinary retention 8 (14.50%), pneumonia 5 (9.1%) and delirium 5 (9.1%). Of the female cohort, 24 (68.8%) suffered an adverse event, while only 4 (57%) males suffered an adverse event. PMID:24579408

  1. Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christopher; Majolo, Bonaventura; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In humans and obligatory social animals, individuals with weak social ties experience negative health and fitness consequences. The social buffering hypothesis conceptualizes one possible mediating mechanism: During stressful situations the presence of close social partners buffers against the adverse effects of increased physiological stress levels. We tested this hypothesis using data on social (rate of aggression received) and environmental (low temperatures) stressors in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Morocco. These males form strong, enduring, and equitable affiliative relationships similar to human friendships. We tested the effect of the strength of a male’s top three social bonds on his fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels as a function of the stressors’ intensity. The attenuating effect of stronger social bonds on physiological stress increased both with increasing rates of aggression received and with decreasing minimum daily temperature. Ruling out thermoregulatory and immediate effects of social interactions on fGCM levels, our results indicate that male Barbary macaques employ a tend-and-befriend coping strategy in the face of increased environmental as well as social day-to-day stressors. This evidence of a stress-ameliorating effect of social bonding among males under natural conditions and beyond the mother–offspring, kin or pair bond broadens the generality of the social buffering hypothesis. PMID:25489097

  2. Tennessee's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Christian

    2010-01-01

    High school dropouts adversely impact the state of Tennessee each year--financially and socially. Dropouts' lower incomes, high unemployment rates, increased need for medical care, and higher propensity for incarceration create a virtual vortex that consumes Tennesseans' tax dollars at a vicious rate. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on…

  3. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  4. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  5. USE OF CASE REPORTS IN ASSESSING ADVERSE OUTCOMES OF HUMAN PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURES: AN APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of case reports for assessing the developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure is limited by the inability to determine the incidence of adverse outcomes and by the high likelihood for bias. Yet, because it is impossible to conduct clinical trials for the assessme...

  6. The mediating effect of parental neglect on adolescent and young adult anti-sociality: a longitudinal study of twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Lindon J; Prom, Elizabeth C; Silberg, Judy L

    2010-07-01

    The causes of correlation between parental treatment and offspring behavior are ambiguous since genetic and social factors are correlated in typical family studies. The problem is complicated by the need to characterize the effects of genes and environment on both juvenile and adult behavioral outcomes. A model is developed for the resemblance between juvenile and adult twins and their parents that allows some of these effects to be resolved. Data on childhood adversity, parental anti-social behavior, and longitudinal adult and juvenile anti-social behavior were obtained from 1,412 families of adolescent and young adult twins. A structural model is fitted that allows for the effects of genetic and social transmission of information from parents to children. Environmental effects of parents may be mediated through measured features of the home environment. Parameters were estimated by diagonal weighted least squares applied to the 33 distinct polychoric correlations between relatives and between variables within and between ages. Sub-hypotheses were tested. Results confirmed that effects of genes and environment were both highly significant. Genetic effects were large in juveniles and largely age and sex-specific. Approximately 30% of the variation due to the shared environment was due to the effect of childhood adversity. The remaining shared environmental effects are unexplained. Adversity is affected significantly by maternal anti-social behavior. The correlation between paternal ASP and adversity may be explained by antisocial fathers selecting (or creating) antisocial mothers. All significant environmental effects of parental ASP are mediated through the measure of adversity. Though transmission of ASP is both genetic and social, passive genotype-environment correlation is very small. Assortative mating for ASP has barely detectable consequence for the genetic correlation between siblings. The longitudinal study of twins and their parents makes it possible to

  7. Renal consequences of obesity.

    PubMed

    Naumnik, Beata; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2010-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders has risen dramatically within the past 2 decades. Our objective is to review the mechanisms that link obesity with altered kidney function. Current evidence suggests that excess weight gain may be responsible for 65-75% of the risk for arterial hypertension. Impaired renal pressure natriuresis, initially due to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, is a key factor linking obesity with hypertension. Obesity increases renal sodium reabsorption by activating the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems, and by altering intrarenal physical forces. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, secreting hormones/cytokines (e.g., leptin) which may trigger sodium retention and hypertension. Additionally, excess visceral adipose tissue may physically compress the kidneys, increasing intrarenal pressures and tubular reabsorption. Eventually, sustained obesity via hyperinsulinemia, due to resistance to insulin, causes hyperfiltration, resulting in structural changes in the kidneys--glomerular hyperthrophy and occasionally focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The consequences of kidney injury are continuous loss of glomerular filtration rate, further increase of arterial pressure and escalation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is a growing awareness of the renal consequences of obesity, and considerable progress is being made in understanding its pathophysiology. Weight reduction results in lowered proteinuria. Aside from low sodium diet and exercises, more widespread use of renoprotective therapy (e.g., ACE inhibitors and statins) in treatment of hypertension in obese subjects should be advocated. Renal protection should result in reducing the cardiovascular complications of obesity. PMID:20671624

  8. Economic Consequences Of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlávik, János; Füle, Miklós

    2009-07-01

    Even though the climate conflict resulting from green houses gases (GHG) emissions was evident by the Nineties and the well-known agreements made, their enforcement is more difficult than that of other environmental agreements. That is because measures to reduce GHG emissions interfere with the heart of the economy and the market: energy (in a broader sense than the energy sector as defined by statistics) and economical growth. Analyzing the environmental policy responses to climate change the conclusion is that GHG emission reduction can only be achieved through intensive environmental policy. While extensive environmental protection complements production horizontally, intensive environmental protection integrates into production and the environment vertically. The latter eliminates the source of the pollution, preventing damage. It utilizes the biochemical processes and self-purification of the natural environment as well as technical development which not only aims to produce state-of-the-art goods, but to make production more environmentally friendly, securing a desired environmental state. While in extensive environmental protection the intervention comes from the outside for creating environmental balance, in intensive environmental protection the system recreates this balance itself. Instead of dealing with the consequences and the polluter pays principle, the emphasis is on prevention. It is important to emphasize that climate strategy decisions have complex effects regarding the aspects of sustainability (economical, social, ecological). Therefore, all decisions are political. At present, and in the near future, market economy decisions have little to do with sustainability values under normal circumstances. Taking social and ecological interests into consideration can only be successful through strategic political aims.

  9. Physical activity to overcome the adversity of widowhood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Lee, June Han; Chang, Ly-yun; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chan, Yan-Lan; Wen, Christopher; Chiu, Mu-Lin; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows. A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008. Each individual provided detailed health history, and extensive lab tests results. The number of widows increased with time trend. Every other woman above age 65 was a widow (44%). Widows were less active, more obese, and smoked and drank more, had sleep problems, were more depressed with taking sedatives or psychoactive drugs, leading to more suicides. In the global development of health policies by World Health Organization (WHO), physical activity is one of the main factors to reverse poor health. The poor health of inactive widow was mitigated when becoming fully active in this study. Exercise not only reduced the observed 18% increase in all-cause mortality, but also gained 4 years and as much as 14% mortality advantage over the married but inactive. More importantly, becoming physically active energized their mental status, improved sleep quality and quantity, reduced depressions and the need for psychoactive drugs, and increased socialization circles. Widows, a rapidly growing and socially stigmatized group, suffered from social and financial inequality and tended to develop poorer health. Sustained physical activity could be one of the ways for them to overcome and reverse some of the physical and mental adversities of widowhood, and improve their quality and quantity of life. PMID:27512856

  10. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  11. Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Hoetzenecker, W; Nägeli, M; Mehra, E T; Jensen, A N; Saulite, I; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Guenova, E; Cozzio, A; French, L E

    2016-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous drug reactions are recognized as being major health problems worldwide causing considerable costs for health care systems. Most adverse cutaneous drug reactions follow a benign course; however, up to 2% of all adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are severe and life-threatening. These include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Physicians should be aware of specific red flags to rapidly identify these severe cutaneous drug eruptions and initiate appropriate treatment. Besides significant progress in clinical classification and treatment, recent studies have greatly enhanced our understanding in the pathophysiology of adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Genetic susceptibilities to certain drugs have been identified in SJS/TEN patients, viral reactivation in DRESS has been elucidated, and the discovery of tissue resident memory T cells helps to better understand the recurrent site-specific inflammation in patients with fixed drug eruption. PMID:26553194

  12. Childhood adversities and psychosis: evidence, challenges, implications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Gayer‐Anderson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities – particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat – do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. PMID:27265690

  13. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacky T.

    2016-01-01

    Alarming rates of burnout, compassion fatigue, and turnover in the social work profession have focused attention on factors influencing risk and resilience among professional social workers and, more recently, social work students. This article explores the prevalence and relevance of early trauma among social work students and describes a…

  15. Late childbearing and changing risks of adverse birth outcomes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngtae; Hummer, Robert A; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Jung, Sung Won

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether the relative importance of maternal age as a correlate of adverse birth outcomes has changed and to investigate if social inequalities in birth outcomes have widened during the past decade when the marriage and fertility related social environment has undergone tremendous change in Korea. Probabilities of adverse birth outcomes (prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation [IUGR]) were estimated with multinomial logistic regression models, utilizing the Korean birth registration data of 1995 and 2005. The main effects of maternal age and parental socioeconomic characteristics were compared between two study years, net of infant sex, birth order, and plurality. The association between maternal age and adverse birth outcomes, relative to the maternal and parental social characteristics, has clearly diminished between 1995 and 2005. During this period, differences in prematurity and IUGR by maternal age have also diminished, while those by parental social characteristics, particularly maternal education, have substantially widened. The intensified overall socioeconomic polarization since the economic crisis of the late 1990s is most likely responsible for the increased social inequality in adverse birth outcomes in Korea. A massive structural change in macro-economic conditions and culture during the study period may have modified the relationship between maternal age and birth outcomes. PMID:20432060

  16. Consequences of Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Drent, Marjolein; Strookappe, Bert; Hoitsma, Elske; De Vries, Jolanda

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown cause(s). Less specific disabling symptoms, including fatigue and physical impairments, may have a major influence on the daily activities and the social and professional lives of the patients, resulting in a reduced quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach focusing on somatic and psychosocial aspects is recommended. Patients self-perceived knowledge about the importance of exercise and lifestyle should be improved. Developing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for sarcoidosis requires careful consideration of the possible impact of fatigue, small fiber neuropathy related symptoms, pain, cognitive functioning, and coping strategies. Personalized medicine and appropriate communication are beneficial. PMID:26593145

  17. Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Hartgens, Fred

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone. Illegally, these drugs are regularly self-administered by body builders and power lifters to enhance their sportive performance. Adverse side effects of AAS include sexual dysfunction, alterations of the cardiovascular system, psyche and behavior, and liver toxicity. However, severe side effects appear only following prolonged use of AAS at high dose and their occurrence is limited. Occasionally, AAS abuse may be linked to certain social and psychological traits of the user, like low self-esteem, low self-confidence, suffered hostility, childhood conduct disorder, and tendency to high-risk behavior. The overwhelming stereotype about AAS is that these compounds cause aggressive behavior in males. However, the underlying personality traits of a specific subgroup of the AAS abusers, who show aggression and hostility, may be relevant, as well. Use of AAS in combination with alcohol largely increases the risk of violence and aggression. The dependence liability of AAS is very low, and withdrawal effects are relatively mild. Based on the scores for acute and chronic adverse health effects, the prevalence of use, social harm and criminality, AAS were ranked among 19 illicit drugs as a group of drugs with a relatively low harm. PMID:20153798

  18. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI) predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI), this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL). Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI) with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life. PMID:26246968

  19. Suicide in the Global Chinese Aging Population: A Review of Risk and Protective Factors, Consequences, and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Zeng, Ping; Simon, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    As one of the leading causes of death around the world, suicide is a global public health threat. In the Chinese population, suicides constitute one-fifth of all recorded suicides in the world. Despite the factual data on suicide rates, the understanding of various causal factors behind suicide, including risk and protective factors and adverse health care, remained incomplete among the global Chinese aging population. To fill in the knowledge void, this paper reviews the epidemiology of suicide among Chinese older adults globally as well as explores the existing intervention strategies. Using the PRISMA statement, we performed a systematic review of exiting research on the topic, including studies describing suicide among Chinese older adults in communities outside of Asia. A literature search was conducted online by using both medical and social science data-bases. Our findings highlighted that elderly suicide in Chinese populations is significantly affected by the social, cultural, and familial contexts within which the individual lived prior to committing suicide. Reviewing such research indicated that while reducing risk factors may contribute to lowering suicides amongst Chinese older adults, measures to improve protective factors are also critical. Support through ongoing family and community care relationships is necessary to improve resilience in older adults and positive aging. Future longitudinal studies on the risk factors and protective factors, and adverse health consequences are called for to devise culturally and linguistically appropriate prevention and intervention programs in global Chinese aging populations. PMID:25821640

  20. Why are children born to teen mothers at risk for adverse outcomes in young adulthood? Results from a 20-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, S; Caspi, A; Moffitt, T E; Belsky, J; Silva, P

    2001-01-01

    This 20-year longitudinal study showed that the young adult offspring of teen mothers are at risk for a range of adverse outcomes including early school leaving, unemployment, early parenthood, and violent offending. We tested how much the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes could be accounted for by social selection (in which a woman's characteristics that make her an inadequate parent also make her likely to bear children in her teens) versus social influence (in which the consequences of becoming a teen mother also bring harm to her children, apart from any characteristics of her own). The results provided support for both mechanisms. Across outcomes, maternal characteristics and family circumstances together accounted for approximately 39% of the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes. Consistent with a social-selection hypothesis, maternal characteristics accounted for approximately 18% of the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes; consistent with a social-influence hypothesis, family circumstances accounted for 21% of the teen childbearing effect after controlling for maternal characteristics. These results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but at supporting individual at-risk mothers and their children. PMID:11393652

  1. Susceptibility to social pressure following ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Rusch, Michelle L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-11-01

    Social pressure influences human behavior including risk taking, but the psychological and neural underpinnings of this process are not well understood. We used the human lesion method to probe the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in resisting adverse social pressure in the presence of risk. Thirty-seven participants (11 with vmPFC damage, 12 with brain damage outside the vmPFC and 14 without brain damage) were tested in driving simulator scenarios requiring left-turn decisions across oncoming traffic with varying time gaps between the oncoming vehicles. Social pressure was applied by a virtual driver who honked aggressively from behind. Participants with vmPFC damage were more likely to select smaller and potentially unsafe gaps under social pressure, while gap selection by the comparison groups did not change under social pressure. Participants with vmPFC damage also showed prolonged elevated skin conductance responses (SCR) under social pressure. Comparison groups showed similar initial elevated SCR, which then declined prior to making left-turn decisions. The findings suggest that the vmPFC plays an important role in resisting explicit and immediately present social pressure with potentially negative consequences. The vmPFC appears to contribute to the regulation of emotional responses and the modulation of decision making to optimize long-term outcomes. PMID:25816815

  2. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    PubMed

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion. PMID:12340335

  3. Children, torture and psychological consequences.

    PubMed

    Alayarian, Aida

    2009-01-01

    Torture is a strategic means of limiting, controlling, and repressing basic human rights of individuals and communities that is often covert and denied by authorities. Deliberate infliction of pain and suffering or intimidation or coercion on children to obtain a confession or information, for punishment of real or perceived offences on the basis of discrimination about race, ethnic or political affiliation, is practiced in many places around the world. Impact of torture on children may vary depending on the child's coping strategies, cultural and social circumstances. We at Refugee Therapy Centre provide psychotherapy and associated treatments to people who have been tortured, giving priority to children. While our main objective is provision of clinical services, our focus is also to influence policy and practice by searching for evidence and demonstrating solutions to improve the lives, homes and communities of children disadvantaged by torture and the services that support them. We seek to provide some remedies to children of refugees who are suffering the consequence of trauma that they experienced and demonstrate good practice. In this paper I will give a brief introduction of our work at the RTC. I then discuss and reflect on children and torture. I will present a vignette and some examples of clinical intervention. PMID:19920332

  4. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Borges, Guilherme; Santana, Geilson Lima; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies. Method This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata. Results Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1). Among adults 20–29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation. Conclusion Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently. PMID:27192171

  5. The Consequences of Hunger and Food Insecurity for Children: Evidence from Recent Scientific Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA. Center on Hunger and Poverty.

    Asserting that 13 million U.S. children live in households with limited or uncertain access to sufficient food, this report highlights recent findings showing the adverse consequences of hunger and food insecurity for children. The findings are grouped into three broad areas: health consequences, psychosocial and behavioral impacts, and learning…

  6. Adversity before conception will affect adult progeny in rats.

    PubMed

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress (PCS0) or 2 weeks after the stress ended (PCS2). Their offspring were raised undisturbed until tested in adulthood. PCS offspring showed reduced social interaction; in the acoustic startle test, PCS males were less fearful, whereas PCS females were more fearful; in the shuttle task, PCS0 males avoided shock better; and in the elevated maze, PCS0 females were more active and anxious. The 2-week interval between stress and mating assuaged the effects on offspring activity and shock avoidance but not the changes in social behavior and fear in male and female offspring. Hence, PCS to the dam, even well before pregnancy, influences affective and social behavior in her adult offspring, depending on how long before conception it occurred, the behavior tested, and sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19209986

  7. Depression among Black Bisexual Men with Early and Later Life Adversities

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Hector F.; Williams, John K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a six-session health intervention, and at baseline reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination (R2 = .25, F3, 112 = 12.67, p < .001) and chronic stress (R2 = .17, F3, 112 = 7.41, p < .001). Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination (b = −.154, t(111) = −2.82, p < .01) and chronic stress (b = −.019, t(111) = −3.759, p < .01). Men’s early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW’s early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. PMID:24099486

  8. Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

  9. Cultural consequences of miscarriages of justice.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2009-01-01

    Social science scholarship has tended to focus more on the causes than the consequences of miscarriages of justice. Within the literature on consequences, the overwhelming emphasis has been on individual consequences: psychological and material impacts on the wrongly convicted individual and, in some cases, other indirectly impacted individuals such as family members of the wrongly convicted and victims of the true perpetrator's future crimes. Some attention has been devoted to social harms, the impact of miscarriages of justice on the broader society within which they are situated, such as the undermining of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. This paper focuses on what are called here cultural consequences of miscarriages of justice: the way in which some high-profile miscarriages of justice can shape the public's beliefs about some of the most basic "facts" about crime, such as the nature, prevalence, or even existence of certain categories of crime and the types of individual who tend to perpetrate particular types of crime. In this way, the paper argues, miscarriages of justice may have hitherto underexplored consequences: reshaping, based on false premises, the public's belief about the very nature of crime itself. This paper discusses three cases studies of miscarriages of justice that for varying periods of time created widespread false beliefs about the nature of crime in large segments of the public. The paper concludes by noting that the "righting" of these false beliefs was in most cases fortuitous. This suggests that unexposed miscarriages of justice may still be shaping popular beliefs about the nature of crime, and aspects of the public's current conception of crime may yet be based on false premises. PMID:19402029

  10. Adversity and inflammation among adolescents: a possible pathway to long-term health risk.

    PubMed

    Marsland, Anna L

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that childhood adversity programs an inflammatory phenotype characterized by higher levels of systemic inflammation and increased health risk in later life. If this is the case, one might expect associations of early childhood adversity with elevated levels of circulating inflammatory molecules in adolescence. To date, evidence for this association is mixed. This issue of Psychosomatic Medicine includes two studies by Pietras and Goodman and Low et al. that extend the existing literature and provide initial evidence that coping styles and perceived social standing may buffer against the impact of adversity on inflammation among adolescents. The current commentary considers these interesting findings in the context of the existing literature and discusses a critical need for longitudinal studies examining whether individual risk and resilience factors moderate the long-term health effects of childhood adversity, possibly via early programming of inflammatory pathways. PMID:23723363

  11. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  12. Adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, A; Alain, L; Pless, R; Robert, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of severe adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines administered as part of a mass vaccination program. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of events reported to a passive provincial surveillance system. SETTING: The province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: The 1,198,751 individuals aged 6 months to 20 years who were vaccinated against meningococcal disease between Dec. 27, 1992, and Mar. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Total numbers and rates of severe adverse events, including allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions, neurological events (other than abnormal crying and screaming) and other serious or unusual events. RESULTS: A total of 118 reports of severe adverse events were selected from the surveillance system. The most frequent were allergic reactions (9.2 per 100,000 doses). Few anaphylactic or neurologic reactions were reported (0.1 and 0.5 per 100,000 doses respectively). There were no reports of sequelae or of encephalopathy, meningitis or encephalitis. CONCLUSION: Meningococcal vaccines seem to be associated with fewer adverse events than have previously been reported. Existing surveillance programs are useful for determining the incidence of adverse events temporally associated with vaccines. PMID:8630839

  13. Consequences of genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    Female genital mutilation is associated with immediate, long-term, pregnancy-related, and psychosexual complications. Immediate complications can cause death and include severe pain, shock, hemorrhage, tetanus or sepsis, urine retention, ulceration of the genital region, and injury to adjacent tissues. Long-term complications include formation of cysts, abscesses, and keloid scars, damage to the urethra resulting in incontinence, painful sexual intercourse, sexual dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infections, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. During child birth, survivors of female genital mutilation may require Cesarean section or suffer obstructed labor leading to fetal death and/or vesico-vaginal fistulae and large perineal tears. The psychological consequences of female genital mutilation may involve loss of trust and confidence in care-givers, feelings of incompleteness, anxiety, depression, chronic irritability, and sexual problems. In many women, flashbacks of the infibulation process are triggered by touch. Deinfibulation must be accompanied by adequate pain relief, but the use of local or epidural anesthesia is not appropriate. PMID:12222523

  14. Eusociality: Origin and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Edward O.; Hölldobler, Bert

    2005-01-01

    In this new assessment of the empirical evidence, an alternative to the standard model is proposed: group selection is the strong binding force in eusocial evolution; individual selection, the strong dissolutive force; and kin selection (narrowly defined), either a weak binding or weak dissolutive force, according to circumstance. Close kinship may be more a consequence of eusociality than a factor promoting its origin. A point of no return to the solitary state exists, as a rule when workers become anatomically differentiated. Eusociality has been rare in evolution, evidently due to the scarcity of environmental pressures adequate to tip the balance among countervailing forces in favor of group selection. Eusociality in ants and termites in the irreversible stage is the key to their ecological dominance and has (at least in ants) shaped some features of internal phylogeny. Their colonies are consistently superior to solitary and preeusocial competitors, due to the altruistic behavior among nestmates and their ability to organize coordinated action by pheromonal communication. PMID:16157878

  15. [Rodenticide resistance and consequences].

    PubMed

    Esther, A; Endepols, S; Freise, J; Klemann, N; Runge, M; Pelz, H-J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, such as warfarin was first described in 1958. Polymorphisms in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene and respective substitutions of amino acids in the VKOR enzyme are the major cause for rodenticide resistance. Resistant Norway rats in Germany are characterized by the Tyr139Cys genotype, which is spread throughout the northwest of the country. Resistant house mice with the VKOR variants Tyr139Cys, Leu128Ser and Arg12Trp/Ala26Ser/Ala48Thr/Arg61Leu (spretus type) are distributed over a number of locations in Germany. Resistance can reduce management attempts with consequences for stored product protection, hygiene and animal health. Anticoagulants of the first generation (warfarin, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl) as well as bromadiolone and difenacoum are not an option for the control of resistant Norway rats. The same applies for house mice whereby the tolerance to compounds can be different between local incidences. Due to the higher toxicity and tendency to persist, the most potent anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone should be applied but only where resistance is known. In other cases less toxic anticoagulants should be preferred for rodent management in order to mitigate environmental risks. Resistance effects of further VKOR polymorphisms and their combinations, the spread of resistant rats and conditions supporting and reducing resistance should be investigated in order to improve resistance management strategies. PMID:24781908

  16. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.

  17. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) ofmore » nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.« less

  18. An allergy to local anesthetics? The consequences of a misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, K A; Goepferd, S J

    1989-01-01

    In this case, inappropriately labeling the child as "allergic to local anesthetics", resulted in her inability to receive appropriate dental care. It was a major disservice to her and led to the potentially serious consequences of neglecting the dental disease present. The small caries lesions that would have required amalgam restorations at five years of age progressed to painful toothaches requiring stainless steel crowns and pulpal treatment. Although adverse reactions to local anesthetics are uncommon, most dentists can anticipate encountering a patient who will have an adverse reaction to a local anesthetic. This case ilustrates the need for dentists to be knowledgeable regarding the signs and symptoms of the potential adverse reactions and their appropriate management. Most importantly, prevention is based upon knowledge of anatomy, dose determination, and the use of proper armamentarium and technique, which are key factors in making a safe and effective drug even safer. PMID:2723199

  19. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Anania, Caterina; Osborn, John F; Ferraro, Flavia; Chiesa, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the human stomach for many decades without adverse consequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia, and poor growth. There is evidence of the role of H. pylori in childhood iron deficiency anemia, but the results are not conclusive. The possibility of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, as well as childhood asthma, remains a controversial question. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae. PMID:21049552

  20. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.   Results Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than < 30 years and weighing < 70 kg were significantly associated with VVR, hyperventilation, and nausea (p < 0.005). Undergraduates and Urdu speaking donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p < 0.05).   Conclusion The prevalence of adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions. PMID:27168923

  1. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

  2. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning

    PubMed Central

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events. PMID:24955289

  3. Standardizing drug adverse event reporting data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Normalizing data in the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), an FDA database, would improve the mining capacity of AERS for drug safety signal detection. In this study, we aim to normalize AERS and build a publicly available normalized Adverse drug events (ADE) data source.he drug information in AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Adverse drug events (ADE) are aggregated through mapping with the PT (Preferred Term) and SOC (System Organ Class) codes of MedDRA. Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). The AERS-DM could provide more perspectives to mine AERS database for drug safety signal detection and could be used by research community in the data mining field. PMID:23920875

  4. A revised inventory of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    This study examines whether the items from the original Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale can be improved in their prediction of health outcomes by adding some additional widely recognized childhood adversities. The analyses come from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence 2014, a telephone survey conducted from August 2013 through April 2014 with a nationally representative sample of 1,949 children and adolescents aged 10-17 and their caregivers who were asked about adversities, physical health conditions and mental health symptoms. The addition of measures of peer victimization, peer isolation/rejection, and community violence exposure added significantly to the prediction of mental health symptoms, and the addition of a measure of low socioeconomic status (SES) added significantly to the prediction of physical health problems. A revised version of the ACES scale is proposed. PMID:26259971

  5. Adverse events related to blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided. PMID:25535415

  6. The physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences of Internet use in college students.

    PubMed

    Clark, Deborah J; Frith, Karen H; Demi, Alice S

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences of Internet use in undergraduate college students; and to evaluate whether time, social norms, and adopter category predict the consequences of Internet use. Rogers' model for studying consequences of innovation was adapted for this study. A descriptive, correlational design was used. Convenience sampling yielded 293 undergraduate students who answered the online survey. Consequences of Internet use were assessed with the researcher-developed instrument, the Internet Consequences Scale (ICONS). Mean scores on the behavioral and psychosocial subscales of the ICONS indicated positive consequences of Internet use, while the physical consequences subscale revealed negative consequences. Multiple regression analyses revealed a small, but significant, amount of variance in consequences of Internet use that could be explained by time, social norms, and adopter category, thus supporting the adapted model for the study of consequences of Internet use in college students. PMID:15520585

  7. The immune consequences of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jacqueline M.; Moss, Timothy J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth. The immune systems of preterm infants have a smaller pool of monocytes and neutrophils, impaired ability of these cells to kill pathogens, and lower production of cytokines which limits T cell activation and reduces the ability to fight bacteria and detect viruses in cells, compared to term infants. Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth, and causes premature immune activation and cytokine production. This can induce immune tolerance leading to reduced newborn immune function. Intrauterine inflammation is associated with an increased risk of early-onset sepsis and likely has long-term adverse immune consequences. Requisite medical interventions further impact on immune development and function. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment to prevent newborn respiratory disease is routine but may be immunosuppressive, and has been associated with febrile responses, reductions in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and increased risk of infection. Invasive medical procedures result in an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. Respiratory support can cause chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity. Colonization of the infant by microorganisms at birth is a significant contributor to the establishment of the microbiome. Caesarean section affects infant colonization, potentially contributing to lifelong immune function and well-being. Several factors associated with preterm birth alter immune function. A better understanding of perinatal modification of the preterm immune system will allow for the refinement of care to minimize lifelong adverse immune consequences. PMID:23734091

  8. Consequences of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the history of research and the results of recent studies on the effects of sleep deprivation in animals and humans. Humans can bear several days of continuous sleeplessness, experiencing deterioration in wellbeing and effectiveness; however, also a shorter reduction in the sleep time may lead to deteriorated functioning. Sleeplessness accounts for impaired perception, difficulties in keeping concentration, vision disturbances, slower reactions, as well as the appearance of microepisodes of sleep during wakefulness which lead to lower capabilities and efficiency of task performance and to increased number of errors. Sleep deprivation results in poor memorizing, schematic thinking, which yields wrong decisions, and emotional disturbances such as deteriorated interpersonal responses and increased aggressiveness. The symptoms are accompanied by brain tissue hypometabolism, particularly in the thalamus, prefrontal, frontal and occipital cortex and motor speech centres. Sleep deficiency intensifies muscle tonus and coexisting tremor, speech performance becomes monotonous and unclear, and sensitivity to pain is higher. Sleeplessness also relates to the changes in the immune response and the pattern of hormonal secretion, of the growth hormone in particular. The risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease increases. The impairment of performance which is caused by 20-25 hours of sleeplessness is comparable to that after ethanol intoxication at the level of 0.10% blood alcohol concentration. The consequences of chronic sleep reduction or a shallow sleep repeated for several days tend to accumulate and resemble the effects of acute sleep deprivation lasting several dozen hours. At work, such effects hinder proper performance of many essential tasks and in extreme situations (machine operation or vehicle driving), sleep loss may be hazardous to the worker and his/her environment. PMID:20442067

  9. Adverse Drug Reactions of the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Adigun, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a common cause of dermatologic consultation, involving 2 to 3 per 100 medical inpatients in the United States. Female patients are 1.3 to 1.5 times more likely to develop ADRs, except in children less than 3 years of age, among whom boys are more often affected. Certain drugs are more frequent causes, including aminopenicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Chemotherapeutic agents commonly cause adverse reactions to the skin and nails, with certain agents causing particular patterns of reactions. ADRs can involve any area of the skin; the appendages, including hair and nails; as well as mucosa. PMID:27215159

  10. Are PRO discharge screens associated with postdischarge adverse outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, F.; Mark, D.; Hartz, A.; Campbell, C.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We evaluate whether patient outcomes may be affected by possible errors in care at discharge as assessed by Peer Review Organizations (PROs). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. The three data sources for the study were (1) the generic screen results of a 3 percent random sample of Medicare beneficiaries age 65 years or older who were admitted to California hospitals between 1 July 1987 and 30 June 1988 (n = 20,136 patients); (2) the 1987 and 1988 California Medicare Provided Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) data files; and (3) the American Hospital Association (AHA) 1988 Annual Survey of Hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the results of generic discharge administered by the PROs and two patient outcomes: mortality and readmission within 30 days. The analysis was adjusted for other patient characteristics recorded on the uniform discharge abstract. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Four discharge screens indicated an increased risk of an adverse outcome-absence of documentation of discharge planning, elevated temperature, abnormal pulse, and unaddressed abnormal test results at discharge. The other three discharge screens examined-abnormal blood pressure, IV fluids or drugs, and wound drainage before discharge-were unrelated to postdischarge adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Generic discharge screens based on inadequate discharge planning, abnormal pulse, increased temperature, or unaddressed abnormal tests may be important indicators of substandard care. Other discharge screens apparently do not detect errors in care associated with major consequences for patients. PMID:7649753

  11. Adverse effects of drugs on the immature kidney.

    PubMed

    Guignard, J P; Gouyon, J B

    1988-01-01

    The immature kidney may be adversely affected by a variety of vasoactive or diuretic drugs, either administered to the mother during pregnancy, or to the neonate. Inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme administered to the hypertensive pregnant woman can severely and sometimes definitely impair renal function in the fetus, leading to postnatal anuria. Pathogenesis involves interference with the renin-angiotensin system and the prostaglandins. Beta-adrenergic agents administered during labor depress glomerular filtration rate transiently. Tolazoline, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent useful in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate induces intense renal vasoconstriction with consequent hypoperfusion. Indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor used for the pharmacological closure of a patent ductus arteriosus, also increases renal vascular resistance, and decreases urine output. Furosemide, the drug most often used in oliguric neonates, may also adversely affect the newborn infant. Its use has been associated with an increase in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism. These observations demonstrate that the proper use of drugs requires that the therapeutic endpoint be clearly defined and the predictable side effects be anticipated. PMID:2901276

  12. Adversity in childhood and depression: linked through SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, L; Visco-Comandini, F; Valzania, A; Viscomi, M T; Coviello, M; Giampà, A; Roscini, L; Bisicchia, E; Siracusano, A; Troisi, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Carola, V

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing an adverse childhood and parental neglect is a risk factor for depression in the adult population. Patients with a history of traumatic childhood develop a subtype of depression that is characterized by earlier onset, poor treatment response and more severe symptoms. The long-lasting molecular mechanisms that are engaged during early traumatic events and determine the risk for depression are poorly understood. In this study, we altered adult depression-like behavior in mice by applying juvenile isolation stress. We found that this behavioral phenotype was associated with a reduction in the levels of the deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) in the brain and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Notably, peripheral blood mRNA expression of SIRT1 predicted the extent of behavioral despair only when depression-like behavior was induced by juvenile--but not adult--stress, implicating SIRT1 in the regulation of adult behavior at early ages. Consistent with this hypothesis, pharmacological modulation of SIRT1 during juvenile age altered the depression-like behavior in naive mice. We also performed a pilot study in humans, in which the blood levels of SIRT1 correlated significantly with the severity of symptoms in major depression patients, especially in those who received less parental care during childhood. On the basis of these novel findings, we propose the involvement of SIRT1 in the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences. PMID:26327687

  13. Adverse drug reactions in special populations - the elderly.

    PubMed

    Davies, E A; O'Mahony, M S

    2015-10-01

    The International Conference on Harmonization considers older people a 'special population', as they differ from younger adults in terms of comorbidity, polypharmacy, pharmacokinetics and greater vulnerability to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Medical practice is often based on single disease guidelines derived from clinical trials that have not included frail older people or those with multiple morbidities. This presents a challenge caring for older people, as drug doses in trials may not be achievable in real world patients and risks of ADRs are underestimated in clinical trial populations. The majority of ADRs in older people are Type A, potentially avoidable and associated with commonly prescribed medications. Several ADRs are particularly associated with major adverse consequences in the elderly and their reduction is therefore a clinical priority. Falls are strongly associated with benzodiazepines, neuroleptics, antidepressants and antihypertensives. There is good evidence for medication review as part of a multifactorial intervention to reduce falls risk in community dwelling elderly. Multiple medications also contribute to delirium, another multifactorial syndrome resulting in excess mortality particularly in frail older people. Clostridium difficile associated with use of broad spectrum antibiotics mainly affects frail older people and results in prolonged hospital stay with substantial morbidity and mortality. Antipsychotics increase the risk of stroke by more than three-fold in patients with dementia. Inappropriate prescribing can be reduced by adherence to prescribing guidelines, suitable monitoring and regular medication review. Given the heterogeneity within the older population, providing individualized care is pivotal to preventing ADRs. PMID:25619317

  14. Depicting adverse events in cardiac theatre: the preliminary conception of the RECORD model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human error is a byproduct of the human activity and may results in random unintended events; they may have major consequences when it comes to delivery of medicine. Furthermore the causes of error in surgical practice are multifaceted and complex. This article aims to raise awareness for safety measures in the cardiac surgical room and briefly “touch upon” the human factors that could lead to adverse outcomes. Finally, we describe a model that would enable us to depict and study adverse events in the operating theatre. PMID:23510398

  15. Data and safety monitoring in social behavioral intervention trials: the REACH II experience

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J; Schulz, Richard; Belle, Steven H; Burgio, Louis D; Armstrong, Nell; Gitlin, Laura N; Coon, David W; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Klinger, Julie; Stahl, Sidney M

    2006-01-01

    Background Psychosocial and behavioral interventions trials targeting a broad range of complex social and behavioral problems such as smoking, obesity and family caregiving have proliferated in the past 30 years. At the same time the use of Data and Safety Monitoring Boards (DSMBs) to monitor the progress and quality of intervention trials and the safety of study participants has increased substantially. Most of the existing literature and guidelines for safety monitoring and reporting of adverse events focuses on medical interventions. Consequently, there is little guidance for investigators conducting social and behavior trials. Purpose This paper summarizes how issues associated with safety monitoring and adverse event reporting were handled in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health (REACH II) program, a multisite randomized clinical trial, funded by the National Institutes on Aging (NIA) and the National Institutes of Nursing Research (NINR), that tested the efficacy of a multicomponent social/behavioral intervention for caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods A task force was formed to define adverse events for the trial and protocols for reporting and resolving events that occurred. The task force conducted a review of existing polices and protocols for data and safety monitoring and adverse event reporting and identified potential risks particular to the study population. An informal survey regarding data and safety monitoring procedures with investigators on psychosocial intervention trials was also conducted. Results Two categories of events were defined for both caregivers and patients; adverse events and safety alerts. A distinction was also made between events detected at baseline assessment and those detected post-randomization. Standardized protocols were also developed for the reporting and resolution of events that occurred and training of study personnel. Results from the informal survey indicated wide

  16. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  17. The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

  18. Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Medications on Sleep.

    PubMed

    Doghramji, Karl; Jangro, William C

    2016-09-01

    Psychotropic medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and benzodiazepines are widely prescribed. Most of these medications are thought to exert their effects through modulation of various monoamines as well as interactions with receptors such as histamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Through these interactions, psychotropics can also have a significant impact on sleep physiology, resulting in both beneficial and adverse effects on sleep. PMID:27514301

  19. Resilience in the Face of Adversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    "Resilience" is the capacity for moving ahead under adverse circumstances. School superintendents are advised to stay upbeat and mindful of "both-and" opportunities; stay focused on what they care about; remain flexible and tolerant of ambiguity; be proactive, not reactive; and apply resilience-conserving strategies during tough times. (MLH)

  20. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  1. Helping Student Teachers Avoid Adverse Legal Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five areas of the school environment lending themselves to the possibility of teacher and student teacher liability: negligence, malpractice, rights to privacy, field trips, and search of students and school property. Suggests specific guidelines for decreasing the possibility of adverse legal action. (NEC)

  2. Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

  3. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues. PMID:27040337

  4. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development and evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway provides a construct for assembling mechanistic information at different levels of biological organization in a form designed to support regulatory decision making. In particular, it frames the link between molecular and cellular events that can be mea...

  5. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  6. Aspects of abuse: consequences of childhood victimization.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is unfortunately a common occurrence in the United States, affecting 1 in 8 children annually.(1) The consequences of maltreatment can be considerable, and exact a heavy toll on the individual, family, and society. Child abuse and neglect can cause permanent, heritable changes in the body׳s response to stress, which in turn inflicts profound changes in the developing brain. While these changes allow a child to contend with a neglectful, chaotic, or possibly violent environment, they strongly influence an individual׳s behavioral, educational, physical, and mental functioning and well-being throughout his/her lifetime, long after the maltreatment has ended. As the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) studies clearly demonstrate, adult survivors of maltreatment experience significant health harms that can cause significant morbidity and contribute to early death. Further, the lifetime economic cost to society of childhood maltreatment is estimated to be $124 billion dollars.(2) The study of resilient individuals who appear to suffer fewer negative consequences of their maltreatment offers insights into possible interventions for clinical practice as well as advocacy and public policy opportunities that would begin to lessen the significant burdens of childhood maltreatment. PMID:25834940

  7. Some adverse effects of antipsychotics: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lader, M

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic medication causes a wide range of adverse effects, which can be serious and may further imperil both the physical and psychological health of schizophrenic patients. The range of side effects patients commonly encounter includes weight gain, endocrine disturbances, sedation, anticholinergic effects, hypotension, seizures, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Less common and unpredictable reactions are blood dyscrasias, cardiotoxicity, sudden death, and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic drugs differ significantly regarding their propensity to cause these reactions. Patients should undergo comprehensive health checks before an antipsychotic is prescribed, and drug therapy should be individualized to take account of any preexisting symptoms. Side effects and the wider implications of drug treatment, such as effects on occupational and social functioning, should be discussed with the patient before initiating therapy. Patients should be regularly monitored for side effects during treatment and switched to alternative therapy if side effects are serious and/or persistent. PMID:10372605

  8. The Consequence of Consequence: Motivation, Anxiety, and Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lisa F.; Smith, Jeffrey K.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships of test consequence, motivation, anxiety, and performance were studied with 158 undergraduates taking a child development course. Results indicated that test consequence (grade or no grade) had a strong influence on motivation and a modest influence on performance. Motivation and anxiety had opposite effects on performance. (SLD)

  9. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  10. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  11. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  12. Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

  13. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  14. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  15. Baby on board: do responses to stress in the maternal brain mediate adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    Stress and adverse environmental surroundings result in suboptimal conditions in a pregnant mother such that she may experience poor pregnancy outcome including complete pregnancy failure and preterm labor. Furthermore her developing baby is at risk of adverse programming, which confers susceptibility to long term ill health. While some mechanisms at the feto-maternal interface underlying these conditions are understood, the underlying cause for their adverse adaptation is often not clear. Progesterone plays a key role at many levels, including control of neuroendocrine responses to stress, procuring the required immune balance and controlling placental and decidual function, and lack of progesterone can explain many of the unwanted consequences of stress. How stress that is perceived by the mother inhibits progesterone secretion and action is beginning to be investigated. This overview of maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress throughout pregnancy analyses how they interact to compromise progesterone secretion and precipitate undesirable effects in mother and offspring. PMID:20546772

  16. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  17. The Effects of Prices on Alcohol Use and its Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, economists and others have devoted considerable effort to assessing the impact of alcoholic-beverage taxes and prices on alcohol consumption and its related adverse consequences. Federal and State excise taxes have increased only rarely and, when adjusted for inflation, have declined significantly over the years, as have overall prices for alcoholic beverages. Yet studies examining the effects of increases of monetary prices (e.g., through raising taxes) on alcohol consumption and a wide range of related behavioral and health problems have demonstrated that price increases for alcoholic beverages lead to reduced alcohol consumption, both in the general population and in certain high-risk populations, such as heavier drinkers or adolescents and young adults. These effects seem to be more pronounced in the long run than in the short run. Likewise, price increases can help reduce the risk for adverse consequences of alcohol consumption and abuse, including drinking and driving, alcohol-involved crimes, liver cirrhosis and other alcohol-related mortality, risky sexual behavior and its consequences, and poor school performance among youth. All of these findings indicate that increases in alcoholic-beverage taxes could be a highly effective option for reducing alcohol abuse and its consequences. PMID:22330223

  18. Glaucoma eye drops adverse skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Ambrifi, Marina; Frascani, Federica; Fazia, Gilda; Paolino, Giovanni; Lisi, Roberto; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open-angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

  19. Anaphylactoid and adverse reactions to radiocontrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hagan, John B

    2004-08-01

    Over the past 75 years, radiocontrast agents have provided numerous diagnostic and therapeutic advances. The benefits of these agents must be weighed against the potential risks for each individual undergoing radiologic tests. This summary is intended to be a guide for the allergy and immunology specialist to direct him or her to the current literature regarding adverse reactions to traditional and less commonly used radiologic contrast agents. PMID:15242724

  20. An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

  1. Institutional Consequences of Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joao Rosa, Maria; Tavares, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the opinions of Portuguese university rectors and academics on the quality assessment system and its consequences at the institutional level. The results obtained show that university staff (rectors and academics, with more of the former than the latter) held optimistic views of the positive consequences of quality assessment…

  2. Adverse effects of human immunoglobulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-07-01

    Human immunoglobulin (IG) is used for IgG replacement therapy in primary and secondary immunodeficiency, for prevention and treatment of certain infections, and as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. IG has a wide spectrum of antibodies to microbial and human antigens. Several high-titered IGs are also available enriched in antibodies to specific viruses or bacterial toxins. IG can be given intravenously (IGIV), intramuscularly (IGIM) or by subcutaneous infusions (SCIG). Local adverse reactions such as persistent pain, bruising, swelling and erythema are rare with IGIV infusions but common (75%) with SCIG infusions. By contrast, adverse systemic reactions are rare with SCIG infusions but common with IGIV infusions, occurring as often as 20% to 50% of patients and 5% to 15% of all IGIV infusions. Systemic adverse reactions can be immediate (60% of reactions) occurring within 6 hours of an infusion, delayed (40% of reactions) occurring 6 hours-1 week after an infusion, and late (less than 1% of reactions), occurring weeks and months after an infusion. Immediate systemic reactions such as head and body aches, chills and fever are usually mild and readily treatable. Immediate anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are uncommon. The most common delayed systemic reaction is persistent headache. Less common but more serious delayed reactions include aseptic meningitis, renal failure, thromboembolism, and hemolytic reactions. Late reactions are uncommon but often severe, and include lung disease, enteritis, dermatologic disorders and infectious diseases. The types, incidence, causes, prevention, and management of these reactions are discussed. PMID:23835249

  3. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors. PMID:26070758

  4. Perceived Social Support and Stress among Pregnant Women at Health Centers of Iran- Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Iranzad, Ilnaz; Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women's perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS) that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6), and 11.5 (5.5), respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women's stress. PMID:25709981

  5. Roll-up of vorticity in adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Durbin, P. A.; Leib, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how the unsteady, nonlinear critical-layer equation determines the evolution of instability waves in a weak adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Numerical solutions show that the nonlinearity halts the growth of these inviscidly unstable waves. The stabilizing effect of nonlinearity, in the present case, can be described as a consequence of either the increase (toward zero) of the phase jump across the critical layer or the roll-up of the critical-layer disturbance vorticity.

  6. Developmentally Sensitive Assessment of Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Tracy L.; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Henin, Aude; Storch, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Social anxiety affects children across the developmental spectrum. Early-onset social phobia may be particularly impairing because of its disruptive effects on social and academic functioning during a child's formative years and because of the elevated risks of childhood adversity in anxious individuals. Unfortunately, little attention has been…

  7. Gender Differences in the Physical and Psychological Manifestation of Childhood Trauma and/or Adversity in People with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Shah, Sonal S.; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n = 391, 42% male) were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health, and health service utilization. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma, and victimization/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a de facto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed. PMID:26635676

  8. The Unintended Consequences of Computerized Provider Order Entry: Findings From a Mixed Methods Exploration*

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Sittig, Dean F.; Dykstra, Richard; Campbell, Emily; Guappone, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the foci, activities, methods, and results of a four-year research project identifying the unintended consequences of computerized provider order entry (CPOE). Methods Using a mixed methods approach, we identified and categorized into nine types 380 examples of the unintended consequences of CPOE gleaned from fieldwork data and a conference of experts. We then conducted a national survey in the U.S.A. to discover how hospitals with varying levels of infusion, a measure of CPOE sophistication, recognize and deal with unintended consequences. The research team, with assistance from experts, identified strategies for managing the nine types of unintended adverse consequences and developed and disseminated tools for CPOE implementers to help in addressing these consequences. Results Hospitals reported that levels of infusion are quite high and that these types of unintended consequences are common. Strategies for avoiding or managing the unintended consequences are similar to best practices for CPOE success published in the literature. Conclusion Development of a taxonomy of types of unintended adverse consequences of CPOE using qualitative methods allowed us to craft a national survey and discover how widespread these consequences are. Using mixed methods, we were able to structure an approach for addressing the skillful management of unintended consequences as well. PMID:18786852

  9. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students

    PubMed Central

    NASUI, Bogdana Adriana; POPA, Monica; POPESCU, Codruta Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. Results The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Conclusion Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students’ alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour.

  10. New thoughts on the "forgotten" aspect of antimicrobial stewardship: adverse event reporting.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Charles; Khadem, Tina; Schweighardt, Anne; Brown, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is an activity that optimizes patient care through selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial stewardship programs strive to enhance patient care and reduce preventable consequences of antimicrobial use. They are also vital in monitoring for the development of adverse events occurring as a result of antimicrobial therapy, although literature reviews of this activity are scarce. Although randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard to study the efficacy of a medication, these trials are not designed to test safety end points and often are only able to identify the most commonly occurring and acute adverse events. In addition, prior to a drug going to market, it is difficult to detect rare adverse events because the associated costs are economically untenable given the limited pipeline of novel agents. These limitations in some ways may be resolved with the use of postmarketing surveillance and spontaneous reporting systems such as the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. The focus of this commentary is to highlight the importance of adverse event reporting by antimicrobial stewardship programs to spontaneous reporting systems as a means to improve patient care. PMID:25615401

  11. Systematic Review: Adverse Events of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiqiang; Cao, Xiaocang; Piao, Meiyu; Khan, Samiullah; Yan, Fang; Cao, Hailong; Wang, Bangmao

    2016-01-01

    Background Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a microbiota-based therapy that shows therapeutic potential in recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infections and other intestinal or extra-intestinal disorders. Nonetheless, adverse events (AEs) remain a major challenge in the application of FMT. Aim To review the AEs of FMT and to address the concerns of safety during the procedure. Methods Publications were retrieved in the databases of Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. AEs were classified according to their causality with FMT or their severity. Results A total of 7562 original articles about FMT were identified in this study, 50 of them fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Totally 78 kinds of AEs were revealed enrolled in these 50 selected publications. The total incidence rate of AEs was 28.5%. Among the 42 publications, 5 kinds were definitely and 38 kinds were probably related to FMT. The commonest FMT-attributable AE was abdominal discomfort, which was reported in 19 publications. For upper gastrointestinal routes of FMT, 43.6% (89/204) patients were compromised by FMT-attributable AE, while the incidence dropped to 17.7% (76/430) for lower gastrointestinal routes. In contrast, the incidences of serious adverse events (SAEs) were 2.0% (4/196) and 6.1% (40/659) for upper and lower gastrointestinal routes, respectively. A total of 44 kinds of SAEs occurred in 9.2% patients, including death (3.5%, 38/1089), infection (2.5%, 27/1089), relapse of inflammatory bowel diseases (0.6%, 7/1089) and Clostridium difficile infection (0.9%, 10/1089). Conclusion Consequently, both AEs and SAEs are not rare and should be carefully monitored throughout FMT. However, high quality randomized controlled trials are still needed for the more definite incidence of AEs of FMT. PMID:27529553

  12. The impact of social support on mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Ganster, D C; Victor, B

    1988-03-01

    Early research on life-stress grappled with the question of whether significant life-events bring about changes in health status. The emphasis has now shifted to the identification of factors that explain why some people seem to be so severely affected by life's adversities and others are not. From a class of what might be called 'vulnerability variables' (Kessler, 1979), support from one's social network has emerged as a significant factor that can account for at least some of the vulnerability differences between groups of stressed individuals. Since Cassel's (1974) review of the evidence linking social upheavals to adverse health consequences for both humans and animals, hundreds of empirical studies have been completed that assess the direct and indirect effects of social support on mental and physical health. This literature is so voluminous as to require several books devoted to reviews of various aspects of it (e.g. Cohen & Syme, 1985; Gottlieb, 1981; and Gottlieb, 1983). In this paper we will distil these as well as highlight some of the recent empirical developments, particularly in those areas that have received less attention in prior reviews. Social support has been defined as the presence of others, or the resources provided by them, prior to, during, and following a stressful event. While there is no general agreement on a single definition, the variety has spawned a number of typologies attempting to organize the literature (e.g. Cohen & Syme, 1985; Cohen & Wills, 1985; Gottlieb, 1983; House & Kahn, 1985). Most of these typologies initially distinguish between functional and structural operationalizations of social support. PMID:3282536

  13. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  15. Pharmacogenetics of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of well-characterized samples from patients with such reactions. This is now beginning to be solved through the formation of international consortia, including developing novel ways of identifying and recruiting patients affected by these reactions, both prospectively and retrospectively. This has been led by the research on abacavir hypersensitivity - its association with HLA-B*5701 forms the gold standard of how we need to identify associations and implement them in clinical practice. Strong genetic predisposing factors have also been identified for hypersensitivity reactions such as are associated with carbamazepine, allopurinol, flucloxacillin, and statin-induced myopathy. However, for most other idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, the genetic effect sizes have been low to moderate, although this may partly be due to the fact that only small numbers have been investigated and limited genotyping strategies have been utilized. It may also indicate that genetic predisposition will be dependent on multiple genes, with complex interactions with environmental factors. Irrespective of the strength of the genetic associations identified with individual idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, it is important to undertake functional investigations to provide insights into the mechanism(s) of how the drug interacts with the gene variant to lead to a phenotype, which can take a multitude of clinical forms with variable severity. Such investigations will be essential in preventing the burden caused by idiosyncratic reactions, both in healthcare and in industry

  16. Determinants of Adverse Events in Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; McDonald, Kathryn; Morton, John; Dalman, Ron L; Bech, Fritz R

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety is a national priority. Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) monitor potential adverse events during hospital stays. Surgical specialty PSI benchmarks do not exist, which are needed to account for differences in the range of procedures performed, reasons for the procedure, and differences in patient characteristics. A comprehensive profile of adverse events in vascular surgery was created. Study Design The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for 8 vascular procedures using ICD-9-CM codes from 2005–2009. Factors associated with PSI development were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 1,412,703 patients underwent a vascular procedure and 5.2% developed a PSI. PSIs were more frequent in female, non-white patients with public payers (p<.01). Patients at mid and low volume hospitals had greater odds of developing a PSI (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.10–1.23 and OR, 1.69; CI, 1.53–1.87). Amputations had highest PSI risk-adjusted rate (RAR) and carotid endarterectomy and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair had lower RAR (p<.0001). PSI RAR increased linearly by severity of patient indication: claudicants (OR, 0.40, CI, 0.35–0.46), rest pain patients (OR, 0.78, CI 0.69–0.90), ulcer (OR: 1.20, CI: 1.07–1.34) and gangrene patients (OR:1.85, CI: 1.66–2.06). Conclusions Patient safety events in vascular surgery were high and varied by procedure, with amputations and open AAA having substantially more potential adverse events. PSIs were associated with black race, public payer, and procedure indication. It is important to note the overall higher rates of PSIs occurring in vascular patients and appropriately adjust benchmarks for this surgical specialty. PMID:22425449

  17. Adverse blood transfusion outcomes: establishing causation.

    PubMed

    Isbister, James P; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Erhard, Jochen; Farmer, Shannon L; Hofmann, Axel

    2011-04-01

    The transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) and other blood components is ingrained in modern medical practice. The rationale for administering transfusions is based on key assumptions that efficacy is established and risks are acceptable and minimized. Despite the cliché that, "the blood supply is safer than ever," data about risks and lack of efficacy of RBC transfusions in several clinical settings have steadily accumulated. Frequentist statisticians and clinicians demand evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs); however, causation for the recognized serious hazards of allogeneic transfusion has never been established in this manner. On the other hand, the preponderance of evidence implicating RBC transfusions in adverse clinical outcomes related to immunomodulation and the storage lesion comes from observational studies, and a broad and critical analysis to evaluate causation is overdue. It is suggested in several circumstances that this cannot wait for the design, execution, and conduct of rigorous RCTs. We begin by examining the nature and definition of causation with relevant examples from transfusion medicine. Deductive deterministic methods may be applied to most of the well-accepted and understood serious hazards of transfusion, with modified Koch's postulates being fulfilled in most circumstances. On the other hand, when several possible interacting risk factors exist and RBC transfusions are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, establishing causation requires inferential probabilistic methodology. In the latter circumstances, the case for RBC transfusions being causal for adverse clinical outcomes can be strengthened by applying modified Bradford Hill criteria to the plethora of existing observational studies. This being the case, a greater precautionary approach to RBC transfusion is necessary and equipoise that justifying RCTs may become problematic. PMID:21345639

  18. Standardizing adverse drug event reporting data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an FDA database providing rich information on voluntary reports of adverse drug events (ADEs). Normalizing data in the AERS would improve the mining capacity of the AERS for drug safety signal detection and promote semantic interoperability between the AERS and other data sources. In this study, we normalize the AERS and build a publicly available normalized ADE data source. The drug information in the AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication, using a natural language processing medication extraction tool, MedEx. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) using a greedy algorithm. Adverse events are aggregated through mapping with the Preferred Term (PT) and System Organ Class (SOC) codes of Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). The performance of MedEx-based annotation was evaluated and case studies were performed to demonstrate the usefulness of our approaches. Results Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). In total, the AERS-DM contains 37,029,228 Drug-ADE records. Seventy-one percent (10,221/14,490) of normalized drug concepts in the AERS were classified to 9 classes in NDF-RT. The number of unique pairs is 4,639,613 between RxNorm concepts and MedDRA Preferred Term (PT) codes and 205,725 between RxNorm concepts and SOC codes after ADE aggregation. Conclusions We have built an open-source Drug-ADE knowledge resource with data being normalized and aggregated using standard biomedical ontologies. The data resource has the potential to assist the mining of ADE from AERS for the data mining research community. PMID:25157320

  19. Software Systems: Consequence versus Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Ray; Winter, Victor L.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this panel is to present different perspectives and opinions regarding the issues surrounding why software should or shouldn't be entrusted with critical (high consequence) functionality.

  20. [Haematological adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    PubMed

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2008-01-01

    Almost all clases of psychiatric drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines) have been reported as possible causes of haematological toxicity. This is a review of the literature in which different clinical situations involving red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and impaired coagulation are detailed and the drugs more frequently involved are listed. The haematological adverse reactions detailed here include: aplastic anemia, haemolitic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, disordered platelet function and impaired coagulation. The haematologic toxicity profile of the drugs more frequently involved: lithium, clozapine, carbamazepine, valproic acid and SSRI antidepressants is mentioned. PMID:19424521

  1. [Adverse drug effects in the community pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Arnet, Isabelle; Seidling, Hanna M; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2015-12-01

    Community pharmacists represent an important pillar for the identification and the reporting of adverse drug effects (ADE}. Thanks to their broad view on the pharmacotherapy, over-the-counter medication included, they contribute greatly to the improvement of drug safety. In principle, the community pharmacy will face three groups of ADE which require specific attention. This article deals with these specific ADE groups and presents some illustrative examples from daily practice. Furthermore, we suggest some solutions to identify potential relevant interactions - including herbal-drug interactions - and give tips for daily practice, along with some often overseen cutaneous ADE. PMID:26654812

  2. [Injectable fillers: adverse reactions and their management].

    PubMed

    Rzany, B; Bachmann, F; Nast, A

    2013-02-01

    Injectable fillers are one of the corner stones of aesthetic medicine. In general they are safe to use. However, adverse reactions may occur. These reactions may be acute, subacute or delayed, e.g. after decades. It is important to know these reactions and to be prepared so that they can be adequately treated, in view of the clinical symptoms, the injected material and if applicable other diseases/treatments that might trigger these reactions. Last but not least, all reactions should be reported either to specialized registries or regulatory agencies. Only then we are able to learn more about these reactions and their best possible treatment. PMID:23407758

  3. Environmental Perchlorate Exposure: Potential Adverse Thyroid Effects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Recent findings Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant IQ in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recent proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. Summary The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants. PMID:25106002

  4. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Following Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Poole, Charles; Casteel, Carri; Menard, M. Kathryn; Weiss, Harold B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of serious trauma during pregnancy, but little is known about their relationships with pregnancy outcomes. Purpose To estimate the association between motor vehicle crashes and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 878,546 pregnant women, aged 16–46 years, who delivered a singleton infant in North Carolina (NC) from 2001 to 2008. Pregnant drivers in crashes were identified by probabilistic linkage of vital records and crash reports. Poisson regression modeled the association among crashes, vehicle safety features, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In 2001–2008, 2.9% of pregnant NC women were drivers in one or more crashes. After a single crash, compared to not being in a crash, pregnant drivers had slightly elevated rates of preterm birth (adjusted rate ratio, aRR=1.23, 95% CI=1.19, 1.28); placental abruption (aRR=1.34, 95% CI=1.15, 1.56); and premature rupture of the membranes (PROM; aRR=1.32, 95% CI=1.21, 1.43). Following a second or subsequent crash, pregnant drivers had more highly elevated rates of preterm birth (aRR=1.54, 95% CI=1.24, 1.90); stillbirth (aRR=4.82, 95% CI=2.85, 8.14); placental abruption (aRR=2.97, 95% CI=1.60, 5.53); and PROM (aRR=1.95, 95% CI=1.27, 2.99). Stillbirth rates were elevated following crashes involving unbelted pregnant drivers (aRR=2.77, 95% CI=1.22, 6.28) compared to belted pregnant drivers. Conclusions Crashes while driving during pregnancy were associated with elevated rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and multiple crashes were associated with even higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crashes were especially harmful if drivers were unbelted. PMID:24139777

  5. Enduring Consequences of Right-Wing Extremism: Klan Mobilization and Homicides in Southern Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Rory; Cunningham, David

    2012-01-01

    Research on the consequences of social movements typically aims to identify determinants of success or to draw attention to ways that social movements are able to secure new benefits for constituents by gaining concessions from political authorities. Yet social movements, even those that are ultimately defeated, may have an enduring impact on the…

  6. Handling continuous renal replacement therapy-related adverse effects in intensive care unit patients: the dialytrauma concept.

    PubMed

    Maynar Moliner, J; Honore, P M; Sánchez-Izquierdo Riera, J A; Herrera Gutiérrez, M; Spapen, H D

    2012-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasingly used for the management of critically ill patients. As a consequence, the incidence of complications that accompany CRRT is also rising. However, a standardized approach for preventing or minimizing these adverse events is lacking. Dialytrauma is a newly proposed concept that encompasses all harmful adverse events related to CRRT while providing a framework for prevention or, at the least, early recognition of these events in order to attenuate the consequences. A mainstay of this approach is the utilization of a dedicated checklist for improving CRRT quality and patient safety. In this context, we discuss the most important adverse effects of CRRT and review current strategies to minimize them. PMID:23095418

  7. Montana's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences. State Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuit, David A.; Springer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the economic and social costs of the high school dropout problem in Montana from the perspective of a state taxpayer. The majority of the authors' analysis considers the consequences of this problem in terms of labor market, tax revenue, and public service costs. In quantifying these costs, the authors seek to inform public…

  8. California's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuit, David A.; Springer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the economic and social costs of the high school dropout problem in California from the perspective of a state taxpayer. The authors' analysis considers the consequences of this problem in terms of labor market, tax revenue, public health, and incarceration costs. The authors' quantification of these costs reveals the sizeable…

  9. World without Work. Causes and Consequences of Black Male Joblessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Social Policy, Washington, DC.

    This document examines the causes and consequences of Black male joblessness. First, key insights and recommendations of a 1993 policy roundtable on labor force participation and family formation are summarized. Discussed next are the following issues related to the economic and social alienation of Black men: joblessness and absence from the…

  10. Childhood adversity and youth depression: influence of gender and pubertal status.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Flynn, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This research examined three possible models to explain how childhood social adversity and recent stress interact to predict depression in youth: stress sensitization, stress amplification, and stress inoculation. Drawing from a stress-sensitization theory of depression, we hypothesized that exposure to childhood adversity, in the form of disruptions in critical interpersonal relationships, would lower youths' threshold for depressive reactions to recent interpersonal stress. We expected that this pattern of stress sensitization would be most salient for girls negotiating the pubertal transition. These hypotheses were examined in two studies: a longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of 399 youth (M = 11.66 years) and a concurrent, interview-based investigation of 147 youth (M = 12.39 years). Findings supported the role of stress-sensitization processes in pubertal girls and prepubertal boys, and stress-amplification processes in prepubertal girls. Childhood social adversity specifically predicted sensitization to recent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal, stress. These findings build on prior theory and research by suggesting that early adversity exerts context-specific effects that vary across gender and development. Future research will need to identify the specific mechanisms underlying this stress-sensitization process. PMID:17459181

  11. Adverse Effects of Common Drugs: Adults.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Peter R; Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Felix, Todd Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Although drugs can be an essential and lifesaving component of the care of adult patients, their use frequently is accompanied by adverse effects and life-threatening adverse drug reactions that can result in significant disability and mortality. The potential for drug-related severe morbidity and mortality is compounded during periods of hospitalization, when high-risk drugs such as anticoagulants or insulin are used, and when care in an intensive care unit is required. Patient factors in adults that can increase the risk of drug harms include immunosuppression, cognitive impairment, depression, alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders, chronic kidney disease, hepatic dysfunction, coagulopathies, limited English proficiency, institutional/nursing home care, and underinsurance or lack of insurance. Physician factors that can increase the risk of drug harms include inappropriate prescribing of drugs (including to pregnant and breastfeeding women), failure to appropriately discontinue/deprescribe drugs, insufficient drug reconciliation, failure to coordinate care among multiple prescribing clinicians, and failure to elicit and incorporate into health histories and clinical decision-making the widespread use of nonprescription drugs, herbal products, and dietary supplements. PMID:26375995

  12. Fingolimod-Associated Peripheral Vascular Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Russo, Margherita; Guarneri, Claudio; Mazzon, Emanuela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The drug is usually well tolerated, and common adverse effects include bradycardia, headache, influenza, diarrhea, back pain, increased liver enzyme levels, and cough. Fingolimod is thought to provide therapeutic benefit by preventing normal lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thus reducing the infiltration of autoaggressive lymphocytes into the central nervous system. However, because the drug acts on different sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, it may induce several biological effects by influencing endothelial cell-cell adhesion, angiogenesis, vascular development, and cardiovascular function. We describe a patient with multiple sclerosis who, after 3 weeks of fingolimod administration, developed purplish blotches over the dorsal surface of the distal phalanges of the second and fifth digits and the middle phalanx of the fourth ray, itching, and edema on his left hand, without other evident clinical manifestations. When fingolimod therapy was discontinued, the clinical picture regressed within a few days but reappeared after a rechallenge test. Physicians should be aware of unexpected peripheral vascular adverse effects due to fingolimod use, and patients with vascular-based acropathies should be carefully screened and monitored when taking this drug. PMID:26349949

  13. Adverse Effects of Common Drugs: General Concepts.

    PubMed

    Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Lewis, Peter R; Felix, Todd Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality and add to rising health care costs. Many ADRs are preventable with appropriate prescribing and monitoring because they often occur as an extension of a drug's mechanism of action or known drug interactions. Patients at higher risk of ADRs include those at the extremes of age, those with multiple comorbidities, those taking multiple drugs, and patients admitted to intensive care units or experiencing transitions of care. Because the risk of ADRs becomes greater as the number of drugs and dietary supplements taken increases, it is imperative that prescribers be vigilant about the prescribing cascade and take steps to discontinue drugs that are likely to be more harmful than helpful. Pharmacists serve as important partners in clinical care environments by conducting comprehensive drug reviews, aiding in drug/dosage selection, and developing therapeutic monitoring plans. Although the potential exists for clinicians to use electronic health record systems to aid in clinical decision making through drug safety decision support tools, computer systems should never replace clinical judgment. Clinicians also are encouraged to report ADRs to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. PMID:26375993

  14. Adverse Outcome Pathway Development II: Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Organization of existing and emerging toxicological knowledge into adverse outcome pathway (AOP) descriptions can facilitate greater application of mechanistic data, including those derived through high-throughput in vitro, high content omics and imaging, and biomarker approaches, in risk-based decision making. The previously ad hoc process of AOP development is being formalized through development of internationally harmonized guidance and principles. The goal of this article was to outline the information content desired for formal AOP description and some rules of thumb and best practices intended to facilitate reuse and connectivity of elements of an AOP description in a knowledgebase and network context. For example, key events (KEs) are measurements of change in biological state that are indicative of progression of a perturbation toward a specified adverse outcome. Best practices for KE description suggest that each KE should be defined as an independent measurement made at a particular level of biological organization. The concept of “functional equivalence” can help guide both decisions about how many KEs to include in an AOP and the specificity with which they are defined. Likewise, in describing both KEs and evidence that supports a causal linkage or statistical association between them (ie, a key event relationship; KER), best practice is to build from and contribute to existing KE or KER descriptions in the AOP knowledgebase rather than creating redundant descriptions. The best practices proposed address many of the challenges and uncertainties related to AOP development and help promote a consistent and reliable, yet flexible approach. PMID:25466379

  15. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making. PMID:25800813

  16. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Franklin J

    2010-08-15

    Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

  17. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization

    PubMed Central

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (P <0.001), most commonly for children aged less than 7 years. Consumer reports were 5% more likely to describe serious AEFI than HCP (P = 0.018) and 10% more likely to result in specialist clinic attendance (P <0.001). Although online reporting increased to 32% of all report since its introduction in 2010, 85% of consumers continued to report by phone. Consumer reporting of AEFI is a valuable component of vaccine safety surveillance in addition to HCP reporting. Changes are required to AEFI reporting systems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity. PMID:25483686

  18. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  19. 19 CFR 181.116 - Petition regarding adverse marking decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for NAFTA Review of Adverse Marking Decision” and shall be signed by the exporter, producer or his... other than the principal. (c) Content. The Petition for NAFTA Review of Adverse Marking Decision...

  20. Adverse Outcome Pathways – Tailoring Development to Support Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) represent an ideal framework for connecting high-throughput screening (HTS) data and other toxicity testing results to adverse outcomes of regulatory importance. The AOP Knowledgebase (AOP-KB) captures AOP information to facilitate the development,...