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Sample records for adverse social consequences

  1. Adverse consequences of student drinking: the role of sex, social anxiety, drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Melissa M; Olivier, Jake; Alperstein, Dion M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Norton, Alice R

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether biological sex, social anxiety, and drinking motives relate differently to distinct types of alcohol-related consequences using Poisson regression. One hundred eighteen college students completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives and social anxiety and an interview assessing alcohol consumption and consequences. Highly socially anxious women were particularly apt to experience adverse role functioning consequences, while men were particularly apt to experience physical consequences. Although highly socially anxious women reported more personal consequences than did women with low to moderate social anxiety, men with low to moderate social anxiety reported experiencing more social and personal consequences than did women with low to moderate social anxiety. When taking into consideration the above associations, coping motives were statistically associated with social consequences and marginally related to personal consequences, while enhancement motives were significantly associated with physical consequences. Targeting these factors may lead to effective interventions for individuals with co-occurring social anxiety and drinking problems.

  2. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    YAZDKHASTI, Mansureh; POURREZA, Abolghasem; PIRAK, Arezoo; ABDI, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births) imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013). Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation. PMID:26060771

  3. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars.

  4. The health and social consequences of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) across the lifespan: an introduction to prevention and intervention in the community.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Shields, Joseph J; Anda, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the themed issue overviews of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study and discusses prevention and intervention with ACE and their consequences in communities. A commentary by Dr. Robert Anda, an ACE Study Co-Principal Investigator, is incorporated within this introduction. Implications of articles within the issue are addressed, and next steps are explored.

  5. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  6. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  7. Workplace Bullying: A Tale of Adverse Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  8. New Unintended Adverse Consequences of Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Sittig, D F; Wright, A; Ash, J; Singh, H

    2016-11-10

    Although the health information technology industry has made considerable progress in the design, development, implementation, and use of electronic health records (EHRs), the lofty expectations of the early pioneers have not been met. In 2006, the Provider Order Entry Team at Oregon Health & Science University described a set of unintended adverse consequences (UACs), or unpredictable, emergent problems associated with computer-based provider order entry implementation, use, and maintenance. Many of these originally identified UACs have not been completely addressed or alleviated, some have evolved over time, and some new ones have emerged as EHRs became more widely available. The rapid increase in the adoption of EHRs, coupled with the changes in the types and attitudes of clinical users, has led to several new UACs, specifically: complete clinical information unavailable at the point of care; lack of innovations to improve system usability leading to frustrating user experiences; inadvertent disclosure of large amounts of patient-specific information; increased focus on computer-based quality measurement negatively affecting clinical workflows and patient-provider interactions; information overload from marginally useful computer-generated data; and a decline in the development and use of internally-developed EHRs. While each of these new UACs poses significant challenges to EHR developers and users alike, they also offer many opportunities. The challenge for clinical informatics researchers is to continue to refine our current systems while exploring new methods of overcoming these challenges and developing innovations to improve EHR interoperability, usability, security, functionality, clinical quality measurement, and information summarization and display.

  9. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Krugers, Harm J; Arp, J Marit; Xiong, Hui; Kanatsou, Sofia; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Korosi, Aniko; Joels, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life -at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  10. Social Consequences of Teenage Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presser, Harriet B.

    Most research on teenage parenthood is concerned with illegitimacy and its determinants such as attitudes toward sex, contraceptive knowledge and practice, family relationships, and cultural factors. Empirical studies on the consequences of illegitimacy are generally limited to problems of recidivism, school dropouts, and welfare dependency.…

  11. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  12. Hypogonadism secondary to hyperprolactinaemia: successful treatment but adverse consequences.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, R P; Bujawansa, S; Qureshi, Z; Rimmer, M; Heald, A

    2012-05-01

    It is accepted that care must be taken in initiating testosterone replacement in hypogonadal individuals with historically low androgen levels. However less is reported about the influence of restoration of normal endogenous testosterone production on behaviour.Here we report how the adverse sequelae of successful treatment of hypogonadism secondary to hyperprolactinaemia, manifesting as irritability and low threshold to aggression, were managed through a joint approach between psychiatrist and physician.

  13. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  14. Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity: the adverse consequences of altered membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, B P; Briggs, J P; Schnermann, J

    1995-08-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) has been in clinical use for more than 30 yr but has remained the most effective drug for treatment of serious fungal infections. Its use has increased in recent years, as the result of increases in aggressive intensive care support and increased numbers of immunocompromised patients. Nephrotoxic manifestations are common, and this is the major factor limiting the clinical use of the drug. A number of recent studies have contributed to a better understanding of the mechanism by which AmB exerts its nephrotoxic effect. AmB alters cell membrane permeability and probably as a consequence alters tubular and vascular smooth muscle cell function, leading to various tubular transport defects and vasoconstriction. Decreased RBF appears to play a major role in AmB-induced reduction GFR, and recurrent ischemia may be the basis of permanent structural nephrotoxic effects. Salt loading is the only measure proven by controlled prospective study to ameliorate AmB nephrotoxicity in humans. Liposomal AmB and the formulation of an emulsion of AmB in lipid may provide a protective effect based on altering the affinity of AmB for mammalian cell membranes, while preserving high efficacy against fungal cells. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these new AmB formulations.

  15. Increases in Wheelchair Breakdowns, Repairs, and Adverse Consequences for People with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Worobey, Lynn; Oyster, Michelle; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Cooper, Rory; Boninger, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to report the current incidence of wheelchair breakdowns, repairs, and consequences and to compare current data with historical data. Design A convenience sample survey of 723 participants with spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for more than 40 hrs/wk treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems center was conducted. Results Significant increases were found in the number of participants reporting repairs (7.8%) and adverse consequences (23.5%) in a 6-mo period (2006Y2011) compared with historical data (2004Y2006) (P G 0.001). When examining current data, minorities experienced a greater frequency and higher number of reported consequences (P = 0.03). Power wheelchair users reported a higher number of repairs and consequences than did manual wheelchair users (P G 0.001). Wheelchairs equipped with seat functions were associated with a greater frequency of adverse consequences (P = 0.01). Repairs did not vary across funding source, but individuals with wheelchairs provided by Medicare and Medicaid reported a higher frequency of consequences than did the combined group of the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation, Worker’s Compensation, and the Veterans Administration (P = 0.034 and P = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions The incidence and consequences of repairs are increasing from what was already a very high statistic in this United States population. Further investigation into causality is required, and intervention is needed to reverse this potential trend. PMID:22549473

  16. Anticipating the Social Consequences of AIDS: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on the social consequences of the AIDS epidemic, arguing that sociologists have an important contribution to make in planning for the long-range social consequences of AIDS. Concludes with three different commentaries on Berk's article. (Author/BSR)

  17. Overdependence on technology: an unintended adverse consequence of computerized provider order entry.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Emily M; Sittig, Dean F; Guappone, Kenneth P; Dykstra, Richard H; Ash, Joan S

    2007-10-11

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) and other clinical information systems can help reduce medical errors, promote practice standardization, and improve the quality of patient care. However, implementing these systems can result in unintended adverse consequences. Our multidisciplinary team used qualitative methods to gather and analyze data describing unintended adverse consequences related to CPOE adoption and use. Overdependence on technology emerged as one of nine major types we identified. Careful analysis of these data revealed three themes: 1) system downtime can create chaos when there are insufficient backup systems in place, 2) users have false expectations regarding data accuracy and processing, and 3) some clinicians cannot work efficiently without computerized systems. We provide recommendations for mitigating these important issues.

  18. Overdependence on Technology: An Unintended Adverse Consequence of Computerized Provider Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Emily M.; Sittig, Dean F.; Guappone, Kenneth P.; Dykstra, Richard H.; Ash, Joan S.

    Computerized provider order entry(CPOE) and other clinical information systems can help reduce medical errors, promote practice standardization, and improve the quality of patient care. However, implementing these systems can result in unintended adverse consequences. Our multidisciplinary team used qualitative methods to gather and analyze data describing unintended adverse consequences related to CPOE adoption and use. Overdependence on technology emerged as one of nine major types we identified. Careful analysis of these data revealed three themes: 1) system downtime can create chaos when there are insufficient backup systems in place, 2) users have false expectations regarding data accuracy and processing, and 3) some clinicians cannot work efficiently without computerized systems. We provide recommendations for mitigating these important issues. PMID:18693805

  19. Early-life Social Adversity and Developmental Processes in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A; Carp, Sarah B

    2015-01-01

    Most primate species produce offspring that are altricial and highly dependent upon caregivers. As a consequence, a host of developmental trajectories can be dramatically altered by variation in early experiences. We review the impact of early social experiences (in both experimental models and natural contexts) on developmental profiles in three species of nonhuman primates: marmosets, squirrel monkeys, and macaques. Graded exposure to early-life social adversity (ELSA) produces short- to long-term effects on multiple developmental outcomes, including affect, social behavior, cognitive and attentional processes, and in the neural substrates that underlie these sociobehavioral traits. PMID:26858971

  20. Phentermine/topiramate for weight reduction and treatment of adverse metabolic consequences in obesity.

    PubMed

    Bays, H E; Gadde, K M

    2011-12-01

    Phentermine hydrochloride is a noradrenergic sympathetic amine approved for decades by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at doses as high as 37.5 mg/day for the short-term treatment of obesity. Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide marketed since 1996, and approved by the FDA for seizure disorders at doses up to 400 mg/day and for the prevention of migraine headaches at doses up to 100 mg/day. Clinical trial data suggest topiramate promotes weight loss. The prescribing information of neither agent describes adverse drug interactions with the other. The controlled-release formulation of phentermine and topiramate at low, medium and full doses (with full dose containing 15 mg of phentermine hydrochloride and 92 mg of topiramate) promotes weight reduction, with clinical trial data supporting improvement in adiposopathic consequences leading to metabolic diseases. Reported adverse events with this combination agent are as expected, based upon knowledge of the individual components.

  1. Effects of Alcohol-Induced Working Memory Decline on Alcohol Consumption and Adverse Consequences of Use

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, William V.; Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. Objectives The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trails Making Test-B). Method Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3% male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30 day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Results Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. Conclusions It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one’s ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day, and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use. PMID:26407604

  2. Adverse Health Consequences of Performance-Enhancing Drugs: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Harrison G.; Wood, Ruth I.; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981

  3. The Social Consequences of Bad Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Too many researchers have built careers on the quantitative/qualitative research debate. Social scientists have largely abandoned their responsibility for popular education, focusing primarily on schooling's limitations, rather than its potential for furthering social progress. Standard-setting is highly politicized; research is becoming too…

  4. Social and Environmental Consequences of Technology Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, A. Emerson

    1993-01-01

    Tools for studying the social and environmental effects of technology include case studies, community-based studies involving real local problems, role playing, cost-benefit analysis, technology assessment, and lab experiments. (SK)

  5. Obesity and pregnancy: mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Patrick M; Shankar, Kartik

    2017-02-08

    Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies. Metabolically, obese women have increased insulin resistance in early pregnancy, which becomes manifest clinically in late gestation as glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth. At term, the risk of cesarean delivery and wound complications is increased. Postpartum, obese women have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, depression, and difficulty with breast feeding. Because 50-60% of overweight or obese women gain more than recommended by Institute of Medicine gestational weight guidelines, postpartum weight retention increases future cardiometabolic risks and prepregnancy obesity in subsequent pregnancies. Neonates of obese women have increased body fat at birth, which increases the risk of childhood obesity. Although there is no unifying mechanism responsible for the adverse perinatal outcomes associated with maternal obesity, on the basis of the available data, increased prepregnancy maternal insulin resistance and accompanying hyperinsulinemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress seem to contribute to early placental and fetal dysfunction. We will review the pathophysiology underlying these data and try to shed light on the specific underlying mechanisms.

  6. The consequences of early-life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Krugers, H J; Morley-Fletcher, S; Szyf, M; Brunton, P J

    2014-10-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early-life experiences, such as stress exposure or suboptimal maternal care, can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as 'early-life programming' and is associated with an increased risk of disease. Typically, rodents exposed to prenatal stress or postnatal maternal deprivation display enhanced neuroendocrine responses to stress, increased levels of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours, and cognitive impairments. Some of the phenotypes observed in these models of early-life adversity are likely to share common neurobiological mechanisms. For example, there is evidence for impaired glucocorticoid negative-feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, altered glutamate neurotransmission and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in both prenatally stressed rats and rats that experienced deficient maternal care. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy may be transmitted to the offspring are reviewed, with special consideration given to altered maternal behaviour postpartum. We also discuss what is known about the neurobiological and epigenetic mechanisms that underpin early-life programming of the neonatal brain in the first generation and subsequent generations, with a view to abrogating programming effects and potentially identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders and cognitive impairment.

  7. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience (EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience (EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate (NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors (including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments (including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed. PMID:28271667

  8. Collective narcissism and its social consequences.

    PubMed

    de Zavala, Agnieszka Golec; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Eidelson, Roy; Jayawickreme, Nuwan

    2009-12-01

    This article introduces the concept of collective narcissism--an emotional investment in an unrealistic belief about the in group's greatness--aiming to explain how feelings about an ingroup shape a tendency to aggress against outgroups. The results of 5 studies indicate that collective, but not individual, narcissism predicts intergroup aggressiveness. Collective narcissism is related to high private and low public collective self-esteem and low implicit group esteem. It predicts perceived threat from outgroups, unwillingness to forgive outgroups, preference for military aggression over and above social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and blind patriotism. The relationship between collective narcissism and aggressiveness is mediated by perceived threat from outgroups and perceived insult to the ingroup. In sum, the results indicate that collective narcissism is a form of high but ambivalent group esteem related to sensitivity to threats to the ingroup's image and retaliatory aggression.

  9. Adverse consequences of unintended pregnancy for maternal and child health in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Ashish; Thapa, Shyam

    2015-03-01

    In Nepal, 26%-38% of recent births are estimated to be from unintended pregnancies, but little is known whether these pregnancies have adverse consequences for the health of the mother and child. Data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine the hypothesis that unintended pregnancies are associated with negative health outcomes for both mothers and children. When the pregnancy was unintended (compared with when it was intended) mothers were more likely to receive inadequate prenatal care (odds ratio OR = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-1.77). They were also more likely to opt for home births (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.11-1.52). Likewise, the resultant newborns of unintended pregnancies were more likely to receive inadequate immunization (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.00-1.40) and to remain stunted (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.00-1.56). Findings suggest significant associations between unintended pregnancy and negative health outcomes for both mothers and children in Nepal.

  10. Social Involvement Modulates the Response to Novel and Adverse Life Events in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Colnaghi, Luca; Clemenza, Kelly; Groleau, Sarah E.; Weiss, Shira; Snyder, Anna M.; Lopez-Rosas, Mariana; Levine, Amir A.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological findings suggest that social involvement plays a major role in establishing resilience to adversity, however, the neurobiology by which social involvement confers protection is not well understood. Hypothesizing that social involvement confers resilience by changing the way adverse life events are encoded, we designed a series of behavioral tests in mice that utilize the presence or absence of conspecific cage mates in measuring response to novel and adverse events. We found that the presence of cage mates increased movement after exposure to a novel environment, increased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and decreased freezing time after a foot shock as well as expedited fear extinction, therefore significantly changing the response to adversity. This is a first description of a mouse model for the effects of social involvement on adverse life events. Understanding how social involvement provides resilience to adversity may contribute to the future treatment and prevention of mental and physical illness. PMID:27632422

  11. 20 CFR 1002.194 - Can the application of the escalator principle result in adverse consequences when the employee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER THE UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994... lawful adverse job consequences that result from the employee's restoration on the seniority ladder... or lower position, laid off, or even terminated. For example, if an employee's seniority or...

  12. 20 CFR 1002.194 - Can the application of the escalator principle result in adverse consequences when the employee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER THE UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994... lawful adverse job consequences that result from the employee's restoration on the seniority ladder... or lower position, laid off, or even terminated. For example, if an employee's seniority or...

  13. [Social development of twins: the need for intervention to avoid adverse effects of twin language].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chisato; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Chiho; Nishihara, Reiko; Onoi, Miyuki

    2008-10-01

    Social competence is one of the most important accomplishments of human development, and this skill in human relationships is learned through communication. Therefore, it is considered that delays in language development could be a barrier to building human relationships and social competence. Although it is well known that there are delays in language development in twins compared with that of singletons, little is known about how these linguistic delays affect the development of social competence. Because twin language is a language that is unique to each pair of twins and cannot be understood by either their mother or others, it may be assumed that the social competence of twins who have a twin language is less than that of twins who don't have a twin language. Therefore, in this prospective longitudinal study we also investigated the relationship between twin language and social competence. A mailed questionnaire survey was conducted in 958 mothers as a follow-up of a study conducted in 2004. As a result, 522 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used only 256 twins aged 6- 12-years-old (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed. In the second child of twins, a low birth weight, the appearance of twin language and gestosis of the mother were positively related with social unbalance (OR = 1.846, 2.022 and 1.903). On the other hand, with the first child, however, there was no such link. The present results indicate that twin language might influence social competence in school-age children. It has been believed that linguistic intervention is unnecessary, because most twin language disappears spontaneously. However, early intervention, for example linguistic assistance by public health nurses or psychologists and early enrollment in a preschool may be necessary for twins with a twin language, to avoid adverse consequences in social competence at school-age.

  14. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  15. Neurobehavioural sequelae of social deprivation in rodents revisited: Modelling social adversity for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W

    2016-11-01

    The significance of investigating effects of deprivation of social experience in rodents is reviewed in the context of the review by Robbins et al. (1996) in the Journal of Psychopharmacology (10: 39-47). The early development of the paradigm by which rats were reared post-weaning in social isolation is described and compared with other early experience manipulations. The specification of the neural and behavioural phenotype of the isolate is brought up-to-date, focusing on changes in motivation and cognitive function, as well as on contrasting changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in cortical (including hippocampal) structure and function. The relevance of the isolate for animal models of psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia is reviewed, and it is considered that the paradigm best exemplifies a manipulation that can be applied to test effects of certain forms of social adversity during adolescence on brain development and behaviour.

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  17. Investigating epigenetic consequences of early-life adversity: some methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Laura M.; Turecki, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stressful and traumatic events occurring during early childhood have been consistently associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. This relationship may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, which are influenced by the early-life environment. Epigenetic patterns can have lifelong effects on gene expression and on the functioning of biological processes relevant to stress reactivity and psychopathology. Optimization of epigenetic research activity necessitates a discussion surrounding the methodologies used for DNA methylation analysis, selection of tissue sources, and timing of psychological and biological assessments. Recent studies related to early-life adversity and methylation, including both candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies, have drawn from the variety of available techniques to generate interesting data in the field. Further discussion is warranted to address the limitations inherent to this field of research, along with future directions for epigenetic studies of adversity-related psychopathology. Highlights of the article We identified issues regarding sample characteristics in epigenetic studies of early life adversity. We compared methods and technologies used for candidate gene analysis and whole epigenome studies. We discussed future perspectives, including combining multiple forms of large-scale data and newer technologies. PMID:27837582

  18. Capitalizing on Advances in Science to Reduce the Health Consequences of Early Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P

    2016-10-01

    Advances in biology are providing deeper insights into how early experiences are built into the body with lasting effects on learning, behavior, and health. Numerous evaluations of interventions for young children facing adversity have demonstrated multiple, positive effects but they have been highly variable and difficult to sustain or scale. New research on plasticity and critical periods in development, increasing understanding of how gene-environment interaction affects variation in stress susceptibility and resilience, and the emerging availability of measures of toxic stress effects that are sensitive to intervention provide much-needed fuel for science-informed innovation in the early childhood arena. This growing knowledge base suggests 4 shifts in thinking about policy and practice: (1) early experiences affect lifelong health, not just learning; (2) healthy brain development requires protection from toxic stress, not just enrichment; (3) achieving breakthrough outcomes for young children facing adversity requires supporting the adults who care for them to transform their own lives; and (4) more effective interventions are needed in the prenatal period and first 3 years after birth for the most disadvantaged children and families. The time has come to leverage 21st-century science to catalyze the design, testing, and scaling of more powerful approaches for reducing lifelong disease by mitigating the effects of early adversity.

  19. Systematic review on the prevalence, frequency and comparative value of adverse events data in social media

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Su; Norman, Gill; Loke, Yoon K

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this review was to summarize the prevalence, frequency and comparative value of information on the adverse events of healthcare interventions from user comments and videos in social media. Methods A systematic review of assessments of the prevalence or type of information on adverse events in social media was undertaken. Sixteen databases and two internet search engines were searched in addition to handsearching, reference checking and contacting experts. The results were sifted independently by two researchers. Data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by one researcher and checked by a second. The quality assessment tool was devised in-house and a narrative synthesis of the results followed. Results From 3064 records, 51 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies assessed over 174 social media sites with discussion forums (71%) being the most popular. The overall prevalence of adverse events reports in social media varied from 0.2% to 8% of posts. Twenty-nine studies compared the results from searching social media with using other data sources to identify adverse events. There was general agreement that a higher frequency of adverse events was found in social media and that this was particularly true for ‘symptom’ related and ‘mild’ adverse events. Those adverse events that were under-represented in social media were laboratory-based and serious adverse events. Conclusions Reports of adverse events are identifiable within social media. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the frequency and type of events reported, and the reliability or validity of the data has not been thoroughly evaluated. PMID:26271492

  20. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-01-06

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group.

  1. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3-6-years-old at the study start. Additionally, the effects of moves from kindergarten through Grade 2 on academic and social emotional competence in Grades 3 through 5 were examined. A greater number of early school moves was associated with poorer later social emotional competence and partially mediated the effects of maltreatment and out-of-home placement on social emotional competence. This was only the case for children with poorer early learning skills in kindergarten. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:25906815

  2. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  3. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

    2014-08-01

    Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely

  4. The development and developmental consequences of social essentialism.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Mandalaywala, Tara M

    2017-03-08

    People often view certain ways of classifying people (e.g., by gender, race, or ethnicity) as reflecting real distinctions found in nature. Such categories are viewed as marking meaningful, fundamental, and informative differences between distinct kinds of people. This article examines the development of these essentialist intuitive theories of how the social world is structured, along with the developmental consequences of these beliefs. We first examine the processes that give rise to social essentialism, arguing that essentialism emerges as children actively attempt to make sense of their environment by relying on several basic representational and explanatory biases. These developmental processes give rise to the widespread emergence of social essentialist views in early childhood, but allow for vast variability across development and cultural contexts in the precise nature of these beliefs. We then examine what is known and still to be discovered about the implications of essentialism for stereotyping, inter-group interaction, and the development of social prejudice. We conclude with directions for future research, particularly on the theoretical payoff that could be gained by including more diverse samples of children in future developmental investigations. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. Presence of Atrazine in the Biological Samples of Cattle and Its Consequence Adversity in Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Peighambarzadeh, SZ; Safi, S; Shahtaheri, SJ; Javanbakht, M; Rahimi Forushani, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Cattle can be considered as an important source for herbicides through nutrition. Therefore, herbicide residue in animal products is a potential human exposure to herbicides causing public health problems in human life. Triazines are a group of herbicides primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in corn and other feed ingredients and are considered as possible human carcinogens. To evaluate trace residue of these pollutants molecular imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been developed, using biological samples. Methods: Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 45 Holstein cows in 3 commercial dairy farms in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Urine samples were also taken from the cows. Results: The mean ± SD concentrations of atrazine in serum and urine samples of the study group (0.739 ± 0.567 ppm and 1.389 ± 0.633 ppm, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than the concentrations in serum and urine samples of the control group (0.002 ± 0.005 ppm and 0.012 ± 0.026 ppm, respectively). Conclusion: Atrazine in the feed ingredients ingested by cattle could be transferred into the biological samples and consequently can be considered as a potential hazard for the public health. PMID:23113110

  6. Interactive effects of social adversity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia activity on reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)-related cardiac activity has been linked to aggression. However, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to reactive-proactive aggression. In the current study, 84 male and female college students self-reported reactive and proactive aggression, and were assessed for respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of PNS-related cardiac activity, during rest and when they contemplated an emotion-evoking decision-making task. Regression analyses showed that (a) resting RSA was positively linked to reactive aggression in conditions of high social adversity, and (b) RSA reactivity was positively associated with reactive but negatively associated with proactive aggression, in conditions of low social adversity. Main effects were not found for psychophysiological functioning or psychosocial adversity, suggesting the importance of their interaction. Findings support a biosocial basis for aggression and add additional support for the distinctions between reactive and proactive aggression.

  7. Social Consequences of Infertility on Families in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Sadeghi, Zakieh; Raei, Mehdi; Jahanitiji, Mohammad Ali; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Social reactions to infertility are one of the concerns infertile people. This study aimed to investigate the social consequences of infertility among urban and rural population of Shahroud in northeast of Iran. Method: This study is a comparative study that was conducted in 2013. In this study, 1,528 women (511 infertile and 1017 fertile ones) were randomly selected. The 36-item questionnaire included 18 items about women’s attitude towards infertility and 18 questions about the consequences of infertility was used. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance and t test. Findings: The prevalence of infertility in rural areas was estimated to be 2.23 percent. 42.2% of the participants were living the city (n= 645) and 57.8 % were living in the village (n=883). 49.2% of the participants had education below high school diploma (n=751), 31.7% had high school diploma (n=484) and 19.2% had university degrees (n=293). 51.9% of the people referred to the infertility problem among distant relatives, 24.9% referred to infertility among the close relatives and 9% reported the infertility among their family members. The mean score of attitude of the fertile was 56.6±7.0 and that of the infertile was 56.8± 6.6 and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). There was a significant association between fertility status and encouraging divorce, encouraging remarriage and encouraging adoption (P=0.001). Conclusion: Infertility causes a negative attitude toward infertile people. But the interference of others leads to further encouragement of divorce and remarriage among the infertile people. PMID:26652089

  8. Mental Health Consequences and Social Issues After the Fukushima Disaster.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masaharu; Oe, Misari

    2017-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant accident caused multidimensional and long-term effects on the mental health condition of people living in Fukushima. In this article, focusing on the influence of the nuclear disaster, we present an overview of studies regarding the psychosocial consequences of people in Fukushima. Studies revealed that the experiences of the explosions at the plant as well as the tsunami are deeply embedded in their memory, leading to posttraumatic responses. Chronic physical diseases, worries about livelihood, lost jobs, lost social ties, and concerns about compensation were also associated with posttraumatic responses. Furthermore, the radioactive fallout brought chronic anxiety regarding physical risks of radiation exposure to people, especially young mothers. People often have different opinions about the radiation risk and their own future plans, resulting in a reduction in the resilience that communities and families had before the disaster. In addition, such weakened community resilience may produce a significant increase in disaster-related suicide in Fukushima. Specific social issues, such as "radiation stigma" among the public and self-stigma among evacuees, that are never seen with other natural disasters also increased in Fukushima.

  9. Human Reproduction: Social and Technological Aspects. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Mary C.; And Others

    This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological innovations in…

  10. Adverse consequences of immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The therapeutic uses of immunostimulatory agents are generally in the treatments of infections or cancer. The traditional example of vaccination is one form of immunostimulation used in the prevention of pathogenic infections or cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus vaccine). Recombinant cytokines are increasingly used to stimulate immune system function. For example, interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) and interleukin (IL)-2 have been used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection and metastatic melanoma, respectively. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies are used to target malignant cells for elimination via antibody-dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms or apoptosis, including the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-CD56 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab used in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, and the anti-erb2 receptor antibody trastuzumab used in the treatment of breast cancer. Finally, immunostimulation may develop via modulation of pathways involved in immune system regulation. For example, the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody TGN1412 was developed as an agonist of regulatory T-cells for treatment of T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases or leukemias. A panel was convened to discuss potential toxicities associated with immunostimulation. At the Immunotoxicology IV meeting in 2006, a panel, moderated by Dr. Robert House (Dynport Vaccine Co., Frederick, MD), included Drs. Gary Burleson (Burleson Research Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, NC), Kenneth Hastings (US FDA, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research [CDER], Rockville, MD), Barbara Mounho (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), Rafael Ponce (ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA), Mark Wing (Huntington Life Sciences, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom), Lauren Black (Navigators Consulting, Sparks, NV) and Anne Pilaro (US FDA, CDER, Rockville, MD). This paper reviews the major identified toxicities associated with immunostimulation, including the acute phase response, cell and tissue abnormalities/injury, cytokine release/cytokine storm, tumor lysis syndrome, vascular leak, and autoimmunity that were discussed by this panel.

  11. The cost of being a man: social and health consequences of Igbo masculinity.

    PubMed

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Adedini, Sunday

    2013-01-01

    In the bid to explain reproductive health outcomes in most developing countries, men have often been seen as the cause of the problem. However, no systematic attempt has been made to examine men's perception of their own social and health needs, including how ideologies of masculinity impact men's social and physical health. This study examines the Igbo context and shows how men understand and interpret masculinity and the consequences of this for social and health behaviours. Data from adolescent and adult Igbo men aged 15-75 were collected using both quantitative survey interviews (n = 1372) and qualitative techniques such as focus-group discussion (n = 20), in-depth interviews (n = 10) and key informant interviews (n = 10) in selected areas of south-eastern Nigeria. We collected data on gender role ideologies and sexuality issues and practices. Our analysis shows that there are social and health costs associated with adherence to masculine ideologies and a strong association between masculine ideologies and men's health, risk-taking and health-seeking behaviours in the study population. We conclude that all sexual and reproductive health programmes should include services that address the specific needs of men and those negative aspects of masculinity that tend to expose men to adverse health outcomes.

  12. For neonates undergoing cardiac surgery does thymectomy as opposed to thymic preservation have any adverse immunological consequences?

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed; Raja, Shahzad G; Pennington, Daniel J; Tsang, Victor T

    2010-09-01

    A best evidence topic in congenital cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether neonatal thymectomy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery has any adverse immunological consequences. Altogether 164 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine papers represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses were tabulated. The thymus is the major production site of T cells, whose stocks are built-up during foetal and early postnatal life. However, its function diminishes after the first years of life, and although thymic output is maintained into adulthood, the thymus mostly degenerates into fatty tissue in elderly adults. To date, there has been no general consensus with regard to the importance of this organ during childhood and adulthood. As a consequence, during cardiac surgery in neonates, partial or total thymectomy is routinely performed to enable better access to the heart and great vessels to correct congenital heart defects, suggesting that it may be dispensable during childhood and adulthood. Interestingly, current best available evidence from nine case-control studies suggests that neonatal thymectomy affects peripheral T-cell populations both in the short- as well as long-term and results in premature immunosenescence. However, the impact of these changes on the risk of infectious diseases or malignancy has not been thoroughly evaluated by any of these studies. Maintenance of a registry of patients undergoing neonatal thymectomy and further studies to assess the functional or clinical consequences of this practice would be valuable.

  13. The nonskeletal consequences of osteoporotic fractures. Psychologic and social outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gold, D T

    2001-02-01

    The prevalence of osteoporosis is rising as the population of the United States and other developed countries ages. These increasing numbers of people have motivated pharmaceutical companies to develop and market several antiresorptive medications that can slow down the bone loss associated with osteoporosis. Although these are not cures for this disease, they are an important first step in a vital ongoing public health effort to prevent osteoporosis in the future and to manage osteoporosis now. We cannot expect to remediate the problems caused by this disease if we attend only to its skeletal implications. Like any other chronic disease, osteoporosis has significant psychologic and social consequences. From anxiety and depression to social withdrawal and isolation, if these problems are left unresolved, they can have a significant negative impact not only on health issues but also on overall quality of life. No quick fixes exist for the numerous ways in which osteoporosis can transform an autonomous person into a dependent and hopeless patient. In part, responsibility for helping this patient rests with the medical community. Referrals to appropriate providers can improve a patient's physical and emotional well-being. Physician specialists can help the patient manage comorbid conditions. Physical and occupational therapists can teach exercises, home safety, and safe movement. Social workers can provide a framework for coping that enables individuals to improve their interpersonal interactions and minimize stress in their lives. Nutritionists, pharmacists, nurses, and other health care professionals can make major contributions to the quality of life of people with osteoporosis and should be encouraged to do so. Unfortunately, managed care has set policies that deprive patients with osteoporosis of the kinds of care that would be most useful to them. As we have advocated for the last 15 years, a multidisciplinary approach offers patients the most positive overall

  14. Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-01-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity’s enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

  15. Can social media data lead to earlier detection of drug‐related adverse events?

    PubMed Central

    Cremieux, Pierre; Audenrode, Marc Van; Vekeman, Francis; Karner, Paul; Zhang, Haimin; Greenberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To compare the patient characteristics and the inter‐temporal reporting patterns of adverse events (AEs) for atorvastatin (Lipitor®) and sibutramine (Meridia®) in social media (AskaPatient.com) versus the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Methods We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports. Results We analyzed 998 and 270 social media postings between 2001 and 2014, 69 003 and 7383 FAERS reports between 1997 and 2014 for atorvastatin and sibutramine, respectively. Social media reporters were younger (atorvastatin: 53.9 vs. 64.0 years, p < 0.001; sibutramine: 36.8 vs. 43.8 years, p < 0.001). Social media reviews contained fewer serious AEs (atorvastatin, pain: 2.5% vs. 38.2%; sibutramine, cardiovascular issues: 7.9% vs. 63.0%; p < 0.001 for both) and concentrated on fewer types of AEs (proportion comprising the top 20 AEs: atorvastatin, 88.7% vs. 55.4%; sibutramine, 86.3% vs. 65.4%) compared with FAERS. While social media sibutramine reviews mentioning cardiac issues helped predict those in FAERS 11 months later (p < 0.001), social media atorvastatin reviews did not help predict FAERS reports. Conclusions Social media AE reporters were younger and focused on less‐serious and fewer types of AEs than FAERS reporters. The potential for social media to provide earlier indications of AEs compared with FAERS is uncertain. Our findings highlight some of the promises and limitations of online social media versus conventional pharmacovigilance sources and the need for careful interpretation of the results. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27601271

  16. Economic adversity and depressive symptoms in mothers: Do marital status and perceived social support matter?

    PubMed

    Kingston, Sharon

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that marriage and perhaps other forms of interpersonal support can buffer the negative effects of poverty. The current study tests the hypothesis that marital status, perceived social support and neighborhood collective efficacy can moderate the effects of economic adversity on depressive symptoms among parents. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to analyze data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Participants were 1,957 mothers of minor children. Analysis of main effects revealed associations between neighborhood SES (β = −0.69, SE (0.15), p < .001), family income (β = −0.11, SE (0.05), p = .02) financial strain (β = 0.51, SE (0.18), p = .004), being single (β = 0.63, SE (0.24), p = .009) and perceived social support (β = −0.22, SE (0.03), p < .001) on depressive symptoms. The hypothesis that interpersonal resources can buffer the effects of economic adversity was not supported. There were no significant interactions between marital status and economic adversity. There was a significant interaction between perceived social support and neighborhood level socioeconomic status (β = −0.07, SE (0.03), p = .04) but the effects of social support were weakest in neighborhoods characterized by low socioeconomic status.

  17. Effects of maternal exposure to social stress during pregnancy: consequences for mother and offspring.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Paula J

    2013-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment, for example, as a result of maternal stress, can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse 'programming' effects on the offspring. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal social stress on the mother, her pregnancy and the offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. The consequences of social stress exposure depend on when during pregnancy the stress occurs, and many of the effects on the offspring are sex specific. Social stress during early pregnancy tends to result in pregnancy loss, whereas stress exposure later in pregnancy, when the mother has already invested considerable resources in the foetuses, results in programmed offspring of low birth weight: a risk factor for various adulthood diseases. Neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in the offspring are particularly sensitive to foetal programming by prenatal stress, indicated by enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses and increased anxiety behaviour, which result from permanent changes in the offspring's brain. The dysregulation of HPA axis function may also interfere with other systems, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as there is evidence for alterations in steroidogenesis, reproductive potential and impaired reproductive/social behaviours in prenatally stressed offspring. Prenatal social stress also programmes future maternal behaviour, highlighting the potential for negative phenotypes to be transmitted to future generations. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy is transmitted to the foetuses and the foetal brain is programmed by prenatal stress and the potential to overwrite programming of the offspring are discussed.

  18. SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

  19. Might Depression, Psychosocial Adversity, and Limited Social Assets Explain Vulnerability to and Resistance against Violent Radicalisation?

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Everitt, Brian; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background This study tests whether depression, psychosocial adversity, and limited social assets offer protection or suggest vulnerability to the process of radicalisation. Methods A population sample of 608 men and women of Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin, of Muslim heritage, and aged 18–45 were recruited by quota sampling. Radicalisation was measured by 16 questions asking about sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Cluster analysis of the 16 items generated three groups: most sympathetic (or most vulnerable), most condemning (most resistant), and a large intermediary group that acted as a reference group. Associations were calculated with depression (PHQ9), anxiety (GAD7), poor health, and psychosocial adversity (adverse life events, perceived discrimination, unemployment). We also investigated protective factors such as the number social contacts, social capital (trust, satisfaction, feeling safe), political engagement and religiosity. Results Those showing the most sympathy for violent protest and terrorism were more likely to report depression (PHQ9 score of 5 or more; RR = 5.43, 1.35 to 21.84) and to report religion to be important (less often said religion was fairly rather than very important; RR = 0.08, 0.01 to 0.48). Resistance to radicalisation measured by condemnation of violent protest and terrorism was associated with larger number of social contacts (per contact: RR = 1.52, 1.26 to 1.83), less social capital (RR = 0.63, 0.50 to 0.80), unavailability for work due to housekeeping or disability (RR = 8.81, 1.06 to 37.46), and not being born in the UK (RR = 0.22, 0.08 to 0.65). Conclusions Vulnerability to radicalisation is characterised by depression but resistance to radicalisation shows a different profile of health and psychosocial variables. The paradoxical role of social capital warrants further investigation. PMID:25250577

  20. Evaluation of Economic and Social Consequences of Cooperative Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Science and Education Administration.

    This report describes the cooperative extension system and evaluates the consequences of its educational programs. An executive summary provides an overview of the contents: background, highlights of findings related to consequences, interpretations, and implications for the future. Following an introduction, chapter 2 discusses extension in terms…

  1. Psychological and social consequences after reconstruction of upper extremity trauma: methods of detection and management.

    PubMed

    Galanakos, Spyridon P; Bot, Arjan G J; Zoubos, Aristides B; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2014-03-01

    Upper extremity trauma and resulting disability is a stressful event and can affect a patient's personality. Several studies have shown that this injury type has serious psychological and/or social consequences. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the consequences of disability after a complex trauma (combination of soft tissue, osseous, vascular, and nerve involvement) of the upper extremity. We tried to find out the potential crucial factors that could determine the final hand function. In addition, we considered the challenges that need to be addressed to eliminate the adverse or negative effects that arise from upper limb trauma. In the literature, there is a growing interest to study changes in patients' quality of life and return to work. Psychological morbidity is an important part of patients' perceived general health. These issues could play an important role in the final functional outcome of the therapy. An early identification and treatment of trauma-related distress in patients may prevent progression of psychological pathology and mitigate negative effects on general health status. It may be important to evaluate the amount of psychological distress when caring for patients with hand injuries.

  2. Social Disadvantage: Cause or Consequence of Impending Psychosis?

    PubMed Central

    Stilo, Simona A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis. Method: We collected information on social disadvantage in childhood and adulthood from 278 cases presenting with their first episode of psychosis to the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and from 226 controls recruited from the local population. Three markers of childhood social disadvantage and 3 markers of disadvantage in adulthood were analyzed. Results: Long term separation from, and death of, a parent before the age of 17 years were both strongly associated with a 2- to 3-fold-increased odds of psychosis. Cases were also significantly more likely to report 2 or more markers of adult social disadvantage than healthy controls (OR = 9.03) at the time of the first presentation with psychosis, independent of a number of confounders. When we repeated these analyses for long-standing adult social disadvantage, we found that the strength of the association decreased but still remained significant for 1 year (OR = 5.67) and 5 years (OR = 2.57) prior to the first contact. Conclusions: Social disadvantage indexes exposure to factors operating prior to onset that increase the risk of psychosis, both during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23091267

  3. Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lance E.

    2013-01-01

    An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

  4. Use of the adverse outcome pathway framework to represent cross-species consequences of specific pathway perturbations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework has been developed as a means for assembling scientifically defensible descriptions of how particular molecular perturbations, termed molecular initiating events (MIEs), can evoke a set of predictable responses at different levels of bi...

  5. Transcriptional modulation of the developing immune system by early life social adversity

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Conti, Gabriella; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Heckman, James J.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    To identify molecular mechanisms by which early life social conditions might influence adult risk of disease in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), we analyze changes in basal leukocyte gene expression profiles in 4-mo-old animals reared under adverse social conditions. Compared with the basal condition of maternal rearing (MR), leukocytes from peer-reared (PR) animals and PR animals provided with an inanimate surrogate mother (surrogate/peer reared, SPR) show enhanced expression of genes involved in inflammation, cytokine signaling, and T-lymphocyte activation, and suppression of genes involved in several innate antimicrobial defenses including type I interferon (IFN) antiviral responses. Promoter-based bioinformatic analyses implicate increased activity of CREB and NF-κB transcription factors and decreased activity of IFN response factors (IRFs) in structuring the observed differences in gene expression. Transcript origin analyses identify monocytes and CD4+ T lymphocytes as primary cellular mediators of transcriptional up-regulation and B lymphocytes as major sources of down-regulated genes. These findings show that adverse social conditions can become embedded within the basal transcriptome of primate immune cells within the first 4 mo of life, and they implicate sympathetic nervous system-linked transcription control pathways as candidate mediators of those effects and potential targets for health-protective intervention. PMID:23184974

  6. Ethics and the Unintended Consequences of Social Research: A Perspective from the Sociology of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Kenneth E.; Chubin, Daryl E.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that "successful" social science requires development of a social ethic or sense of research responsibility, and suggests that an individualistic orientation is ineffective in coping with the unintended consequences of social research. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies…

  7. Militarization in Nigeria: Its Economic and Social Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nzimiro, Ikenna

    1983-01-01

    The arms build-up in Nigeria and its effect on health, education, food production, and the economy are analyzed. "Indigenization" in the context of militarization only means the import of the frenzy and irrationality of the arms race into social structures riddled by hunger, inequality, sickness, and ignorance. (SR)

  8. Social Sciences and Constitutional Rights--the Consequences of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis of court decisions involving school integration, analyzing the relationship between education, constitutional law, and the social sciences. Concludes that court decisions dealing with the equal protection clause are based on interpretive judgments, rather than on causal judgments drawn from statistical theory. (JG)

  9. Social Ambivalence: Interpersonal Consequences of Disclosing a Cancer Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrenberg, Joy L.; And Others

    The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that individuals who engage in high disclosure of a cancer experience invite a significant degree of social rejection. Undergraduate students watched a videotaped interview with a male or female actor who engaged in either high or low disclosure of feelings surrounding an experience with…

  10. Adverse Social Experiences in Adolescent Rats Result in Enduring Effects on Social Competence, Pain Sensitivity and Endocannabinoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Peggy; Bindila, Laura; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Lutz, Beat; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual’s well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a lack of valid animal models. By using a novel animal model for social peer-rejection, which compromises adolescent rats in their ability to appropriately engage in playful activities, here we report on persistent impairments in social behavior and dysregulations in the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. From postnatal day (pd) 21 to pd 50 adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with same-strain partners (control) or within a group of Fischer 344 rats (inadequate social rearing, ISR), previously shown to serve as inadequate play partners for the Wistar strain. Adult ISR animals showed pronounced deficits in social interaction, social memory, processing of socially transmitted information, and decreased pain sensitivity. Molecular analysis revealed increased CB1 receptor (CB1R) protein levels and CP55, 940 stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding activity specifically in the amygdala and thalamus in previously peer-rejected rats. Along with these changes, increased levels of the eCB anandamide (AEA) and a corresponding decrease of its degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were seen in the amygdala. Our data indicate lasting consequences in social behavior and pain sensitivity following peer-rejection in adolescent female rats. These behavioral impairments are accompanied by persistent alterations in CB1R signaling. Finally, we provide a novel translational approach to characterize neurobiological processes underlying social peer-rejection in adolescence. PMID:27812328

  11. Acquisition and functional consequences of social knowledge in macaques

    PubMed Central

    di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Fischer, Julia; Schino, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    To manoeuvre in complex societies, it is beneficial to acquire knowledge about the social relationships existing among group mates, so as to better predict their behaviour. Although such knowledge has been firmly established in a variety of animal taxa, how animals acquire such knowledge, as well as its functional significance, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how primates acquire and use their social knowledge, we studied kin-biased redirected aggression in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) relying on a large database of over 15 000 aggressive episodes. Confirming previous research, macaques redirected aggression preferentially to the kin of their aggressor. An analysis that controlled for the rate of affiliation between aggressors and targets of redirection showed that macaques identified the relatives of group mates on the basis of the frequency of their ongoing associations. By contrast, having observed group mates interact with their mother as infants did not increase the monkeys' success in correctly identifying kin relationships among third parties. Inter-individual variation in the successful identification of the kin of aggressors and in redirecting aggression accordingly translated into differences in the amount of aggression received, highlighting a selective advantage for those individuals that were better able to acquire and use social knowledge. PMID:28386423

  12. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Umberto; Crestani, Rosa; Decroo, Tom; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Al-Kourdi, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear) that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended. Methodology The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants) and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed. Results Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how

  13. Under the influence of Facebook? Excess use of social networking sites and drinking motives, consequences, and attitudes in college students.

    PubMed

    Hormes, Julia M

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., "disordered SNS use") using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between "disordered SNS use" and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for "disordered SNS use" were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic.

  14. Under the influence of Facebook? Excess use of social networking sites and drinking motives, consequences, and attitudes in college students

    PubMed Central

    Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., “disordered SNS use”) using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between “disordered SNS use” and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for “disordered SNS use” were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic. PMID:28092186

  15. Finding an apprenticeship: hidden curriculum and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Goastellec, Gaële; Ruiz, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the majority of students are oriented toward professional training after compulsory schooling. At this stage, one of the biggest challenges for them is to find an apprenticeship position. Matching supply and demand is a complex process that not only excludes some students from having direct access to professional training but also forces them to make early choices regarding their future sector of employment. So, how does one find an apprenticeship? And what do the students' descriptions of their search for apprenticeships reveal about the institutional determinants of social inequalities at play in the system? Based on 29 interviews conducted in 2014 with 23 apprentices and 6 recruiters in the Canton of Vaud, this article interrogates how the dimensions of educational and social trajectories combine to affect access to apprenticeships and are accentuated by recruiters using a "hidden curriculum" during the recruitment process. A hidden curriculum consists of knowledge and skills not taught by the educational institution but which appear decisive in obtaining an apprenticeship. By analyzing the contrasting experiences of students in their search for an apprenticeship, we identify four types of trajectories that explain different types of school-to-apprenticeship transitions. We show how these determinants are reinforced by the "hidden curriculum" of recruitment based on the soft skills of feeling, autonomy, anticipation, and reflexivity that are assessed in the context of recruitment interactions. The discussion section debates how the criteria that appear to be used to identify the "right apprentice" tend to (re)produce inequalities between students. This not only depends on their academic results but also on their social and cultural skills, their ability to anticipate their choices and, more widely, their ability to be a subject in their recruitment search. "The Subject is neither the individual, nor the self, but the work through which an

  16. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  17. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    PubMed

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences.

  18. Can Social Support Protect Bullied Adolescents from Adverse Outcomes? A Prospective Study on the Effects of Bullying on the Educational Achievement and Mental Health of Adolescents at Secondary Schools in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to…

  19. Early origins of inflammation: an examination of prenatal and childhood social adversity in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Loucks, Eric B.; Appleton, Allison A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Non, Amy L.; Buka, Stephen; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children exposed to social adversity carry a greater risk of poor physical and mental health into adulthood. This increased risk is thought to be due, in part, to inflammatory processes associated with early adversity that contribute to the etiology of many adult illnesses. The current study asks whether aspects of the prenatal social environment are associated with levels of inflammation in adulthood, and whether prenatal and childhood adversity both contribute to adult inflammation. Methods We examined associations of prenatal and childhood adversity assessed through direct interviews of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959–1974 with blood levels of C-reactive protein in 355 offspring interviewed in adulthood (mean age=42.2 years). Linear and quantile regression models were used to estimate the effects of prenatal adversity and childhood adversity on adult inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, and race and other potential confounders. Results In separate linear regression models, high levels of prenatal and childhood adversity were associated with higher CRP in adulthood. When prenatal and childhood adversity were analyzed together, our results support the presence of an effect of prenatal adversity on (log) CRP level in adulthood (β=0.73, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.20) that is independent of childhood adversity and potential confounding factors including maternal health conditions reported during pregnancy. Supplemental analyses revealed similar findings using quantile regression models and logistic regression models that used a clinically-relevant CRP threshold (>3 mg/L). In a fully-adjusted model that included childhood adversity, high prenatal adversity was associated with a 3-fold elevated odds (95% CI: 1.15, 8.02) of having a CRP level in adulthood that indicates high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Social adversity during the prenatal period is a risk factor for elevated inflammation in adulthood independent of

  20. Finding an apprenticeship: hidden curriculum and social consequences

    PubMed Central

    Goastellec, Gaële; Ruiz, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the majority of students are oriented toward professional training after compulsory schooling. At this stage, one of the biggest challenges for them is to find an apprenticeship position. Matching supply and demand is a complex process that not only excludes some students from having direct access to professional training but also forces them to make early choices regarding their future sector of employment. So, how does one find an apprenticeship? And what do the students’ descriptions of their search for apprenticeships reveal about the institutional determinants of social inequalities at play in the system? Based on 29 interviews conducted in 2014 with 23 apprentices and 6 recruiters in the Canton of Vaud, this article interrogates how the dimensions of educational and social trajectories combine to affect access to apprenticeships and are accentuated by recruiters using a “hidden curriculum” during the recruitment process. A hidden curriculum consists of knowledge and skills not taught by the educational institution but which appear decisive in obtaining an apprenticeship. By analyzing the contrasting experiences of students in their search for an apprenticeship, we identify four types of trajectories that explain different types of school-to-apprenticeship transitions. We show how these determinants are reinforced by the “hidden curriculum” of recruitment based on the soft skills of feeling, autonomy, anticipation, and reflexivity that are assessed in the context of recruitment interactions. The discussion section debates how the criteria that appear to be used to identify the “right apprentice” tend to (re)produce inequalities between students. This not only depends on their academic results but also on their social and cultural skills, their ability to anticipate their choices and, more widely, their ability to be a subject in their recruitment search. “The Subject is neither the individual, nor the self, but the work through

  1. Unintended Consequences of Professionalizing Youth Work: Lessons from Teaching and Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Goodstar, Katie; Velure Roholt, Ross

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a comparative historical approach to examine the consequences of professionalization within teaching and social work and to answer the following questions: What are the unintended consequences of professionalization? Has professionalization in these fields supported higher quality practice, increased working…

  2. Energy, emissions, and social consequences of telecommuting. Technical Report One

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    By reducing transportation use, telecommuting can help reduce some of the social costs of travel (traffic congestion, time lost, emissions, dependence on imported fuels, accident deaths and property damage). These positive direct effects will be both offset and supplemented by indirect effects of telecommuting: improved traffic flow, latent demand (people will start driving more), and increased urban sprawl. The study indicates that the energy and emissions benefits of telecommuting are not likely to be entirely offset by latent travel demand or by the geographical expansion of cities; perhaps half the potential reduction in vehicle-miles traveled will be replaced by new traffic. From a fuel-use perspective, the indirect benefit of lower average emissions and fuel consumption rates appears sufficient to offset impacts from the third indirect effect, additional travel brought about by increased suburbanization. Substantial levels of telecommuting will also reduce the need for highway capacity expansion, saving capital, maintenance, and urban land. Telecommuting and its benefits will be concentrated in the largest, most congested, and most polluted urban areas (20--25% in the NYC and LA areas; 50% in the 10 largest cities; 90% in the 75 largest).Telecommuting may also have a synergistic beneficial effect on other transportation strategies, e.g., congestion pricing, parking fees, taxes discouraging travel during peak periods, etc. Other beneficial effects may include greater presence of adults at home and on residential communities. Effects of improved telecommunications technology on transportation, freight, economy, industrial operations are discussed, including implications of an ``information superhighway.``

  3. Adverse Drug Reaction Identification and Extraction in Social Media: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Bellet, Florelle; Asfari, Hadyl; Souvignet, Julien; Texier, Nathalie; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Burgun, Anita; Bousquet, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Background The underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through traditional reporting channels is a limitation in the efficiency of the current pharmacovigilance system. Patients’ experiences with drugs that they report on social media represent a new source of data that may have some value in postmarketing safety surveillance. Objective A scoping review was undertaken to explore the breadth of evidence about the use of social media as a new source of knowledge for pharmacovigilance. Methods Daubt et al’s recommendations for scoping reviews were followed. The research questions were as follows: How can social media be used as a data source for postmarketing drug surveillance? What are the available methods for extracting data? What are the different ways to use these data? We queried PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to extract relevant articles that were published before June 2014 and with no lower date limit. Two pairs of reviewers independently screened the selected studies and proposed two themes of review: manual ADR identification (theme 1) and automated ADR extraction from social media (theme 2). Descriptive characteristics were collected from the publications to create a database for themes 1 and 2. Results Of the 1032 citations from PubMed and Embase, 11 were relevant to the research question. An additional 13 citations were added after further research on the Internet and in reference lists. Themes 1 and 2 explored 11 and 13 articles, respectively. Ways of approaching the use of social media as a pharmacovigilance data source were identified. Conclusions This scoping review noted multiple methods for identifying target data, extracting them, and evaluating the quality of medical information from social media. It also showed some remaining gaps in the field. Studies related to the identification theme usually failed to accurately assess the completeness, quality, and reliability of the data that were analyzed from social media. Regarding

  4. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  5. Parental Choice, Social Class and Market Forces: The Consequences of Privatization of Public Services in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    This paper is part of a research project into parental choice, social class and market forces carried out by a team in Zaragoza (Spain). The main objective was to evaluate parents' choice of school and the consequences this may produce in terms of social exclusion and inequality. Additionally, our aim was to determine whether certain populations,…

  6. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children's memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children's recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with…

  7. Classroom Victimization: Consequences for Social and Academic Adjustment in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuland, Meg M.; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2014-01-01

    Peer victimization is a well-established risk factor for children's adjustment, but it has rarely been studied as a feature of classroom climate. This study examines the consequences of classroom victimization for children's social and academic adjustment. Classroom victimization, social functioning, and academic adjustment were assessed…

  8. The Unintended Consequences of Targeting: Young People's Lived Experiences of Social and Emotional Learning Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Rhiannon; Scourfield, Jonathan; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In the past twenty years there has been a proliferation of targeted school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. However, the lived experience of young peoples' participation is often elided, while the potential for interventions to confer unintended and even adverse effects remains under-theorised and empirically…

  9. Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sarah L; Parker, Phillip D; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M(age) = 13.41 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to test between a self-esteem antecedent model (self-esteem precedes changes in social support), self-esteem consequence model (social support precedes change in self-esteem), and a reciprocal influence model. Self-esteem reliably predicted increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time. In contrast, the consequence model was not supported. The implications of this for helping adolescents to develop higher quality social support structures are discussed.

  10. Alcohol use and perceived social and emotional consequences among perpetrators of general and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relation among alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last 3 months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses for general aggression reveal that heavy alcohol consumption at the time of the aggression and strong alcohol-related aggression expectancies were associated with more frequent social and emotional consequences. For sexual aggression, similar regression analyses found that any alcohol use at the time of the aggression, but not outcome expectancies, was associated with social and emotional consequences. Among individuals who perpetrated general and sexual aggression, consuming alcohol at the time of the aggression was positively associated with perceived negative social and emotional consequences. Results do not support the idea that alcohol is used as an excuse for aggressive behavior.

  11. The Social Consequences of Infertility among Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Syedeh Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2015-01-01

    Background Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation. Conclusion This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences. PMID:25780523

  12. To be spurned no more: The affective and behavioral consequences of social and nonsocial rejection.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Rachel L; Barclay, Pat; Fenske, Mark J

    2017-04-01

    Social pain is often associated with social rejection and shares neural correlates with the bothersome aspect of physical pain, which may also indicate an overlap in function. Pain has been described as a motivational signal to respond to the source of the pain in an adaptive way, such as by altering behavior. We tested whether social pain causes similarly adaptive alterations in behavior. Participants played computerized ball-tossing tasks with putative players-one who passed to and one who excluded the participant from play-in both a social and nonsocial version. We assessed the behavioral consequences of social pain by comparing the number of throws to each stimulus (social rejector vs. nonsocial rejector) over the course of the task. Posttask questionnaires assessed subjective feelings of social pain. A decrease in throws to the rejecting stimulus was only observed in the social version, indicating that rejection that is social in nature leads to change in behavior. Moreover, participants reported more negative feelings toward the rejecting stimulus in the social than in the nonsocial version. These subjective feelings of social pain mediated the effect of version of the game (social vs. nonsocial) on changes in behavior, indicating that social pain from social rejection causes changes in behavior.

  13. SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF ETHANOL: IMPACT OF AGE, STRESS AND PRIOR HISTORY OF ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  14. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  15. Negative consequences from heavy social networking in adolescents: The mediating role of fear of missing out.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Ursula; Wegmann, Elisa; Stodt, Benjamin; Brand, Matthias; Chamarro, Andrés

    2017-02-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are especially attractive for adolescents, but it has also been shown that these users can suffer from negative psychological consequences when using these sites excessively. We analyze the role of fear of missing out (FOMO) and intensity of SNS use for explaining the link between psychopathological symptoms and negative consequences of SNS use via mobile devices. In an online survey, 1468 Spanish-speaking Latin-American social media users between 16 and 18 years old completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Social Networking Intensity scale (SNI), the FOMO scale (FOMOs), and a questionnaire on negative consequences of using SNS via mobile device (CERM). Using structural equation modeling, it was found that both FOMO and SNI mediate the link between psychopathology and CERM, but by different mechanisms. Additionally, for girls, feeling depressed seems to trigger higher SNS involvement. For boys, anxiety triggers higher SNS involvement.

  16. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  17. Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. Method: The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14–20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. Results: The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs. PMID:23036206

  18. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence.

  19. Better Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Could Mitigate the Adverse Consequences of Obesity on Cardiovascular Disease: The SUN Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Eguaras, Sonia; Toledo, Estefanía; Hernández-Hernández, Aitor; Cervantes, Sebastián; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Strong observational evidence supports the association between obesity and cardiovascular events. In elderly high-risk subjects, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was reported to counteract the adverse cardiovascular effects of adiposity. Whether this same attenuation is also present in younger subjects is not known. We prospectively examined the association between obesity and cardiovascular clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) after 10.9 years follow-up in 19,065 middle-aged men and women (average age 38 year) according to their adherence to the MedDiet (<6 points or ≥6 points in the Trichopoulou’s Mediterranean Diet Score). We observed 152 incident cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD). An increased risk of CVD across categories of body mass index (BMI) was apparent if adherence to the MedDiet was low, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs): 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.93–2.25) for ≥25 – <30 kg/m2 of BMI and 2.00 (1.04–3.83) for ≥30 kg/m2 of BMI, compared to a BMI < 25 kg/m2. In contrast, these estimates were 0.77 (0.35–1.67) and 1.15 (0.39–3.43) with good adherence to MedDiet. Better adherence to the MedDiet was associated with reduced CVD events (p for trend = 0.029). Our results suggest that the MedDiet could mitigate the harmful cardiovascular effect of overweight/obesity. PMID:26556370

  20. Loss of genetic variability in social spiders: genetic and phylogenetic consequences of population subdivision and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Agnarsson, I; Avilés, L; Maddison, W P

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of population subdivision and inbreeding have been studied in many organisms, particularly in plants. However, most studies focus on the short-term consequences, such as inbreeding depression. To investigate the consequences of both population fragmentation and inbreeding for genetic variability in the longer term, we here make use of a natural inbreeding experiment in spiders, where sociality and accompanying population subdivision and inbreeding have evolved repeatedly. We use mitochondrial and nuclear data to infer phylogenetic relationships among 170 individuals of Anelosimus spiders representing 23 species. We then compare relative mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability of the inbred social species and their outbred relatives. We focus on four independently derived social species and four subsocial species, including two outbred-inbred sister species pairs. We find that social species have 50% reduced mitochondrial sequence divergence. As inbreeding is not expected to reduce genetic variability in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome, this suggests the loss of variation due to strong population subdivision, founder effects, small effective population sizes (colonies as individuals) and lineage turnover. Social species have < 10% of the nuclear genetic variability of the outbred species, also suggesting the loss of genetic variability through founder effects and/or inbreeding. Inbred sociality hence may result in reduction in variability through various processes. Sociality in most Anelosimus species probably arose relatively recently (0.1-2 mya), with even the oldest social lineages having failed to diversify. This is consistent with the hypothesis that inbred spider sociality represents an evolutionary dead end. Heterosis underlies a species potential to respond to environmental change and/or disease. Inbreeding and loss of genetic variability may thus limit diversification in social Anelosimus lineages and similarly pose a

  1. Loss of genetic variability in social spiders: genetic and phylogenetic consequences of population subdivision and inbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Agnarsson, I; Avilés, L; Maddison, W P

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of population subdivision and inbreeding have been studied in many organisms, particularly in plants. However, most studies focus on the short-term consequences, such as inbreeding depression. To investigate the consequences of both population fragmentation and inbreeding for genetic variability in the longer term, we here make use of a natural inbreeding experiment in spiders, where sociality and accompanying population subdivision and inbreeding have evolved repeatedly. We use mitochondrial and nuclear data to infer phylogenetic relationships among 170 individuals of Anelosimus spiders representing 23 species. We then compare relative mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability of the inbred social species and their outbred relatives. We focus on four independently derived social species and four subsocial species, including two outbred–inbred sister species pairs. We find that social species have 50% reduced mitochondrial sequence divergence. As inbreeding is not expected to reduce genetic variability in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome, this suggests the loss of variation due to strong population subdivision, founder effects, small effective population sizes (colonies as individuals) and lineage turnover. Social species have < 10% of the nuclear genetic variability of the outbred species, also suggesting the loss of genetic variability through founder effects and/or inbreeding. Inbred sociality hence may result in reduction in variability through various processes. Sociality in most Anelosimus species probably arose relatively recently (0.1–2 mya), with even the oldest social lineages having failed to diversify. This is consistent with the hypothesis that inbred spider sociality represents an evolutionary dead end. Heterosis underlies a species potential to respond to environmental change and/or disease. Inbreeding and loss of genetic variability may thus limit diversification in social Anelosimus lineages and similarly pose

  2. Alcohol use, drinking consequences, and sensitivity to social cues among college women.

    PubMed

    Vik, Peter W; Williams, Catherine; Dasher, Nickolas; Van Wyk, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    College students who drink vary in the extent to which they experience drinking consequences, prompting a need to identify factors that differentiate higher-risk drinkers from others. The present study investigated whether difficulty in processing subtle social information is related to negative drinking consequences experienced within the past year. Specifically, poor ability to detect subtle non-verbal sarcasm cues was predicted to contribute to drinking consequences. Participants were 39 women, aged 18 to 27 (M=22), who were enrolled in a public, four-year university. Participants completed a video measure of ability to detect sarcastic comments. After controlling for (high school drinking consequences, maximum drinks in the past 3 months, age), poorer performance in the Simple Sarcasm condition (which provided no cues to others' intentions) explained an additional 10.8% of the variance in recent drinking consequences (ΔF (1, 34)=6.15, p=.018). When predicting risky/hazardous alcohol use consequences (e.g., driving intoxicated, fights, unplanned/unprotected sex), Simple Sarcasm again improved prediction by explaining an additional 8.6% of the variance (ΔF (1, 34)=4.75, p=.036). Sarcasm conditions that provided additional cues to others' meanings were unrelated to alcohol consequences. Findings are discussed within the context of neurological (orbito-frontal-subcortical) pathways that are common to social information and alcohol reinforcement processes.

  3. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  4. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  5. Biomedical Technology. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.; And Others

    This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological innovations in…

  6. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  7. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study designed, developed, and field-tested a series of nine curriculum resource units for a semester program called "Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology (IST)." The units were designed for use by students and teachers in the 11th and 12th grades and at the junior college…

  8. Measuring Government Effectiveness and Its Consequences for Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…

  9. From ultrasocial to antisocial: a role for oxytocin in the acute reinforcing effects and long-term adverse consequences of drug use?

    PubMed

    McGregor, I S; Callaghan, P D; Hunt, G E

    2008-05-01

    Addictive drugs can profoundly affect social behaviour both acutely and in the long-term. Effects range from the artificial sociability imbued by various intoxicating agents to the depressed and socially withdrawn state frequently observed in chronic drug users. Understanding such effects is of great potential significance in addiction neurobiology. In this review we focus on the 'social neuropeptide' oxytocin and its possible role in acute and long-term effects of commonly used drugs. Oxytocin regulates social affiliation and social recognition in many species and modulates anxiety, mood and aggression. Recent evidence suggests that popular party drugs such as MDMA and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) may preferentially activate brain oxytocin systems to produce their characteristic prosocial and prosexual effects. Oxytocin interacts with the mesolimbic dopamine system to facilitate sexual and social behaviour, and this oxytocin-dopamine interaction may also influence the acquisition and expression of drug-seeking behaviour. An increasing body of evidence from animal models suggests that even brief exposure to drugs such as MDMA, cannabinoids, methamphetamine and phencyclidine can cause long lasting deficits in social behaviour. We discuss preliminary evidence that these adverse effects may reflect long-term neuroadaptations in brain oxytocin systems. Laboratory studies and preliminary clinical studies also indicate that raising brain oxytocin levels may ameliorate acute drug withdrawal symptoms. It is concluded that oxytocin may play an important, yet largely unexplored, role in drug addiction. Greater understanding of this role may ultimately lead to novel therapeutics for addiction that can improve mood and facilitate the recovery of persons with drug use disorders.

  10. Macro-Level Social Forces and Micro-Level Consequences: Poverty, Alternate Occupations, and Drug Dealing

    PubMed Central

    DUNLAP, ELOISE; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; KOTARBA, JOSEPH A.; FACKLER, JENNIFER L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of the ways in which macro-level social forces have had micro-level consequences in the New Orleans drug market. The article illustrates a clear connection between poverty and entrance into the drug market, as mitigated by race, lack of societal opportunity, lack of social capital, distressed families, and closed neighborhoods. Specifically, the research illustrates the mechanisms by which macro-level social forces intersect to legitimize drug dealing as a viable alternative method of acquiring money and social capital. These intersecting macro-level social forces, such as poverty, race, family structure, and neighborhood characteristics, ultimately constrain the life chances of those living in the inner city irrespective of personal traits, individual motivations, or private achievements. PMID:20509085

  11. Sex differences in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol and social drinking during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P

    2015-04-01

    In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females.

  12. Sex differences in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol and social drinking during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2015-01-01

    In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75 g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5 g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75 g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75 g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females. PMID:25557799

  13. Immigrant and refugee social networks: determinants and consequences of social support among women newcomers to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hynie, Michaela; Crooks, Valorie A; Barragan, Jackeline

    2011-12-01

    Recent immigrants and refugees (newcomers) vary on many dimensions but do share similar challenges. Newcomers must rebuild social networks to obtain needed social support but often face social exclusion because of their race, language, religion, or immigrant status. In addition, most have limited access to personal, social, and community resources. Effects of situational and personal variables on the benefits and limitations associated with the social networks of female newcomers were explored through interviews and focus groups with 87 women from 7 communities. Using thematic analysis, the authors identify 5 sources of informal support across all 7 communities, which were almost exclusively limited to co-ethnic relationships, and the types of support, limitations, and reciprocity within each. Perceived support was strongest from family and close friends and, when support from close relationships was unavailable, from primary care providers. The results suggest that co-ethnic peer support networks may be overwhelmed in newcomer communities because of their limited size and resources.

  14. A research framework for pharmacovigilance in health social media: Identification and evaluation of patient adverse drug event reports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun

    2015-12-01

    Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work.

  15. Social consequences of infected haemophilia cases in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, A M; Eshghi, P; Abolghasemi, H

    2011-06-01

    The unintentional contamination of haemophilia patients with HIV in the early 1980s raised serious questions about the safety of blood product supplies worldwide. The events initiated a cascade of consequences for both infected patients and the national health systems of many countries, including the Islamic Republic of Iran. Lawsuits have been filed in the courts mostly in developed countries, leading to the establishment of some kind of reimbursement programme for haemophilia patients who acquired viral infections. In the late 1990s the courts ordered the Iranian Ministry of Health, in addition to providing free care with the latest treatments to pay compensation to the haemophilia patients. The adverse consequences of these events on the equitable distribution of resources in the Iranian health care system are discussed in this paper.

  16. Sex-dependent consequences of pre-pubertal gonadectomy: Social behavior, stress and ethanol responsivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption can be enhanced or moderated by sensitivity to its aversive and appetitive properties, including positive social outcomes. These differences emerge post-pubertally, suggesting a potential role of gonadal hormones. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in sensitivity to the social impairing and social context-related attenuations in the aversive effects of ethanol, prepubertal male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or sham (SH) operated on postnatal day (P) 25, or left non-manipulated (NM). In adulthood (P70), rats were restrained for 90 min prior to challenge with 0.0 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol and social interaction (SI) testing. At P77, groups of 4 same-sex littermates from the same surgical condition were given access to a supersaccharin (SS) solution (3% sucrose, 0.125% saccharin), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Intakes of SS were examined 24h later for expression of conditioned taste aversions. Acute stress prior to SI testing increased frequency of play fighting in both sexes, whereas there were no GX effects on this measure, social investigation nor contact. GX, however, decreased baseline social preference (a social anxiety-like effect) in males, while inducing anxiolytic-like increases in baseline social preference in females. The social drinking test revealed that females developed ethanol conditioned taste aversions at a lower dose relative to males, regardless of surgical condition. These findings suggest a potential role for gonadal hormones in moderating social-anxiety like behaviors but not sensitivity to the social impairing effects of ethanol or ethanol's aversive consequences in a social context.

  17. Adolescent social stress does not necessarily lead to a compromised adaptive capacity during adulthood: a study on the consequences of social stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Buwalda, B; Stubbendorff, C; Zickert, N; Koolhaas, J M

    2013-09-26

    Childhood bullying or social stress in adolescent humans is generally considered to increase the risk of developing behavioral disorders like depression in adulthood. Juveniles are hypothesized to be particularly sensitive to stressors in their environment due to the relatively late maturation of brain areas that are targeted by stress such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. In our study male adolescent rats were subjected to repeated social defeat on postnatal day (PND) 28, 31 and 34 (experiment 1) or to daily social defeats between PND 35 and 42 (experiment 2). Adolescent rats in experiment 1 were socially housed in pairs with a male of similar age during and after the social defeat. In experiment 2 adolescents were housed either alone or with an age-mate for 7 days (PND 35-42) next to either a highly aggressive or a non-aggressive adult male neighbor with whom a repeated physical interaction was allowed. In experiment 1 the adolescent defeats affected subsequent play behavior with the cage mate. Socially stressed rats more frequently initiated play behavior but also adopted more frequently submissive postures during the play fights. As adults, they seemed to cope behaviorally and physiologically better with a similar exposure to a residential aggressive male rat than unstressed controls. In experiment 2 acute effects of adolescent social stress were studied on neuroplasticity markers like hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis as well as hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. The 2nd experiment also studied long-term effects of the adolescent stress in the response to an adult social defeat. A few acute but minor changes in brain plasticity markers and behavior were observed but these were transient and no behavioral or physiological effects persisted into adulthood. The results from both experiments support the theory developed in the so-called "match-mismatch hypothesis" which claims that the final consequence of childhood

  18. Social status regulates growth rate: consequences for life-history strategies.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, H A; Benson, M E; Fernald, R D

    1999-11-23

    The life-history strategies of organisms are sculpted over evolutionary time by the relative prospects of present and future reproductive success. As a consequence, animals of many species show flexible behavioral responses to environmental and social change. Here we show that disruption of the habitat of a colony of African cichlid fish, Haplochromis burtoni (Günther) caused males to switch social status more frequently than animals kept in a stable environment. H. burtoni males can be either reproductively active, guarding a territory, or reproductively inactive (nonterritorial). Although on average 25-50% of the males are territorial in both the stable and unstable environments, during the 20-week study, nearly two-thirds of the animals became territorial for at least 1 week. Moreover, many fish changed social status several times. Surprisingly, the induced changes in social status caused changes in somatic growth. Nonterritorial males and animals ascending in social rank showed an increased growth rate whereas territorial males and animals descending in social rank slowed their growth rate or even shrank. Similar behavioral and physiological changes are caused by social change in animals kept in stable environmental conditions, although at a lower rate. This suggests that differential growth, in interaction with environmental conditions, is a central mechanism underlying the changes in social status. Such reversible phenotypic plasticity in a crucial life-history trait may have evolved to enable animals to shift resources from reproduction to growth or vice versa, depending on present and future reproductive prospects.

  19. Oxytocin protects against negative behavioral and autonomic consequences of long-term social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.; Trahanas, Diane M.; Zimmerman, Robert R.; Porges, Stephen W.; Carter, C. Sue

    2009-01-01

    Summary Positive social interactions and social support may protect against various forms of mental and physical illness, although the mechanisms for these effects are not well identified. The socially monogamous prairie vole, which – like humans – forms social bonds and displays high levels of parasympathetic activity, has provided a useful model for investigating neurobiological systems that mediate the consequences of sociality. In the present study, adult female prairie voles were exposed to social isolation or continued pairing with a female sibling (control conditions) for 4 weeks. During weeks 3 and 4 of this period, animals were administered oxytocin (20µg/50µl, SC) or saline vehicle (50µl, SC) daily for a total of 14 days. In Experiment 1 autonomic parameters were recorded during and following isolation or pairing. Isolation (vs. pairing) significantly increased basal heart rate (HR) and reduced HR variability and vagal regulation of the heart; these changes in isolated animals were prevented with oxytocin administration. In Experiment 2 behaviors relevant to depression [sucrose intake and swimming in the forced swim test (FST)] were measured as a function of isolation. Isolation reduced sucrose intake and increased immobility in the FST; these behaviors also were prevented by oxytocin. Administration of oxytocin did not significantly alter cardiac, autonomic or behavioral responses of paired animals. These findings support the hypothesis that oxytocinergic mechanisms can protect against behavioral and cardiac dysfunction in response to chronic social stressors, and can provide insight into social influences on behavior and autonomic function in humans. PMID:19553027

  20. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  1. Hot Shots and Cool Reception? An Expanded View of Social Consequences for High Performers.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Elizabeth M; Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Zhou, Jing; Dong, Yuntao

    2017-02-13

    While high performers contribute substantially to their workgroups and organizations, research has indicated that they incur social costs from peers. Drawing from theories of social comparison and conservation of resources, we advance a rational perspective to explain why high performers draw both intentional positive and negative reactions from peers and consider how cooperative work contexts moderate these effects. A multisource field study of 936 relationships among 350 stylists within 105 salons offered support for our model and an experiment with 204 management students constructively replicated our findings and ruled out alternative explanations. Results indicated that peers offered more support and also perpetrated more undermining to high performers. Paradoxical cognitive processes partly explain these behaviors, and cooperative contexts proved socially disadvantageous for high performers. Findings offer a more comprehensive view of the social consequences of high performance and highlight how peer behaviors toward high performers may be calculated and strategic rather than simply reactionary. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    PubMed Central

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  3. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks.

    PubMed

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T; Cross, Paul C; Hudson, Peter J; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-04-03

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  4. Losing our humanity: the self-dehumanizing consequences of social ostracism.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Brock; Jetten, Jolanda; Chen, Hannah; Radke, Helena R M; Harding, Jessica F; Fasoli, Fabio

    2013-02-01

    People not only dehumanize others, they also dehumanize the self in response to their own harmful behavior. We examine this self-dehumanization effect across four studies. Studies 1 and 2 show that when participants are perpetrators of social ostracism, they view themselves as less human compared with when they engage in nonaversive interpersonal interactions. Perceived immorality of their behavior mediated this effect. Studies 3 and 4 highlight the behavioral consequences of self-dehumanization. The extent to which participants saw themselves as less human after perpetrating social ostracism predicted subsequent prosocial behavior. Studies 2 to 4 also demonstrate that consequences of self-dehumanization occur independently of any effects of self-esteem or mood. The findings are discussed in relation to previous work on dehumanization and self-perception. We conclude that in the context of immoral actions (self) dehumanization may be functional.

  5. Cytogeneticists' stories around the ethics and social consequences of their work: a New Zealand case study.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Susanna; Fitzgerald, Ruth; Legge, Mike

    2004-06-01

    This paper is based on anthropological research in three New Zealand cytogenetics laboratories involving participant observation carried out over three months and interviews with sixteen cytogeneticists in order to elucidate the distinctive characteristics of their views on the social consequences of their work in prenatal genetic testing. The discourses employed by cytogeneticists to describe their work are placed against other discourses in the contemporary debate surrounding prenatal genetic testing, i.e. clinical, ethical, feminist, social science and disability rights. In general, cytogeneticists frame their moral responsibilities in terms of the need to carry out what we have termed 'distanced care' of both the mothers being tested and the foetal cells which they cultivate in the laboratories. Certain paradoxes arise in these accounts of their work however, such as the idea of distanced care versus their demonstrated personalisation of the foetal cells with which they work and also between their burdensome awareness of the consequences for individual women of their karyotyping and their repeated references to the ethical and social consequences of their work as being determined by society not by their own actions.

  6. Physiological and health consequences of social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Filby, Amy L; Paull, Gregory C; Bartlett, Emily J; Van Look, Katrien J W; Tyler, Charles R

    2010-12-02

    Social status affects access to food, mates and shelter and has consequences for the physiology of individuals and their health status. In the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an emerging model for studies into animal behavior, the possible consequences of social hierarchy to an individual's physiology and health are unknown. To address this, in this species we assessed the effects of social interaction (for periods of 1-5days) on growth, stress, immune function and reproductive condition. Wide-ranging differences in physiology occurred between the social ranks, some of which were sex-related and time-dependent. In both sexes, dominant fish were larger than subordinates and dominant males had a higher growth rate during the trials. Subordinates had higher plasma cortisol and in males higher telencephalic corticotrophin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide y and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. Splenic cytokine expression suggested differences in immune status between ranks in both sexes and hematocrit was elevated in subordinate males. In both sexes, dominants and subordinates differed in the expression of genes for various gonadal sex steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes and in dominant females the ovary was larger relative to body mass compared with in subordinates. Dominant males had higher plasma 11-ketotestosterone than subordinates and there was an increase in the number of spermatids in their testes over the duration of the study that was not seen in subordinate males. The wide-ranging physiological differences seen between dominant and subordinate zebrafish as a consequence of their social status suggest negative health impacts for subordinates after prolonged durations in those hierarchies.

  7. Consequences of Arizona's immigration policy on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigration status

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers’ experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group content and interactions revealed that perceived racial profiling was common among mothers and led to fear of family separation. Several described direct experiences with detention and deportation. Although detention and deportation strengthened social ties between mothers and other unauthorized immigrants, these experiences were detrimental to social ties between mothers and members of the mainstream society, including their children's teachers. Finally, immigration policies were perceived to affect parent-child ties negatively, as mothers reported family stress, financial hardship, and decreased parental availability. PMID:24371370

  8. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  9. The Social Pathologies of Self-Realization: A Diagnosis of the Consequences of the Shift in Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammershoj, Lars Geer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inquire into today's social pathologies, i.e. the negative consequences of the developmental processes of society. In a dialogue with Axel Honneth, the article asserts that a shift has occurred in individualization, a shift that implies a fundamental change in social pathologies: Social pathologies no longer derive…

  10. Predictors and social consequences of daily pain expectancy among adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Mun, Chung Jung; Thummala, Kirti; Davis, Mary C; Karoly, Paul; Tennen, Howard; Zautra, Alex J

    2017-03-21

    Previous research suggests that for people living with chronic pain, pain expectancy can undermine access to adaptive resources and functioning. We tested and replicated the unique effect of pain expectancy on subsequent pain through 2 daily diary studies. We also extended previous findings by examining cognitive and affective antecedents of pain expectancy and the consequences of pain expectancy for daily social enjoyment and stress. In study 1, 231 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis completed 30 end-of-day diaries. Results of multilevel structural equation model showed that controlling for today's pain, pain expectancy predicted next day pain. In study 2, diary assessments of affective, cognitive, and social factors were collected during the morning, afternoon, and evening for 21 days from a sample of 220 individuals with fibromyalgia. Results showed that both positive affect and the extent to which pain interfered with daily activities in the afternoon predicted evening pain expectancy in the expected direction. However, negative affect and pain coping efficacy were not associated with pain expectancy. Consistent with study 1, more than usual evening pain expectancy was related to greater next morning pain. We also found that next morning pain predicted next afternoon social enjoyment but not social stress. The findings of these 2 studies point to the importance of promoting positive affect and reducing pain expectancy as a way of decreasing the detrimental effect of chronic pain on enjoyable social experiences.

  11. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Julia; Murau, Rita; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behavior in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behavior measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it—at least partially—reduced the aggressive behavior shown by the experimental subjects toward the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odors as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory. PMID:25972782

  12. Social brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-02-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is that neural development underlies commonly observed adolescent phenomena such as susceptibility to peer influence and sensitivity to peer rejection. Experimental behavioural evidence of rejection sensitivity in adolescence is currently sparse. Here, we describe a study that directly compared the affective consequences of an experimental ostracism manipulation (Cyberball) in female adolescents and adults. The ostracism condition led to significantly greater affective consequences in the adolescents compared with adults. This suggests that the ability to regulate distress resulting from ostracism continues to develop between adolescence and adulthood. The results are discussed in the context of models of neurocognitive development.

  13. Social deprivation and adverse perinatal outcomes among Western and non-Western pregnant women in a Dutch urban population.

    PubMed

    Poeran, Jashvant; Maas, Arno F G; Birnie, Erwin; Denktas, Semiha; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2013-04-01

    Social deprivation is considered a key factor in adverse perinatal outcomes. Rotterdam, the second largest city in The Netherlands, has large inequalities in perinatal health and a high number of deprived neighbourhoods. Social deprivation is measured here through a composite variable: 'Social Index' (SI). We studied the impact of the SI (2008-2009; 5 categories) in terms of perinatal mortality, congenital anomalies, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and low 5-minute Apgar score as registered in The Netherlands Perinatal Registry (Rotterdam 2000-2007, n = 56,443 singleton pregnancies). We applied ethnic dichotomisation as Western (European/North-American/Australian) vs. Non-Western (all others) ethnicity was expected to interact with the impact of SI. Tests for trend and multilevel regression analysis were applied. Gradually decreasing prevalence of adverse perinatal outcomes was observed in Western women from the lowest SI category (low social quality) to the highest SI category (high social quality). In Western women the low-high SI gradient for prevalence of spontaneous preterm birth (per 1000) changed from 57.2 to 34.1, for iatrogenic preterm birth from 35.2 to 19.0, for SGA from 119.6 to 59.4, for low Apgar score from 10.9 to 8.2, and for perinatal mortality from 14.9 to 7.6. These trends were statistically confirmed by Chi2-tests for trend (p < 0.001). For non-Western women such trends were absent. These strong effects for Western women were confirmed by significant odds ratios for almost all adverse perinatal outcomes estimated from multilevel regression analysis. We conclude social deprivation to play a different role among Western vs. non-Western women. Our results suggest that improvements in social quality may improve perinatal outcomes in Western women, but alternative approaches may be necessary for non-Western groups. Suggested explanations for non-Western 'migrant' groups include the presence of 'protective' effects through knowledge

  14. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African-Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  15. Developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness. Children who knew of broadly held stereotypes more often explained hypothetical negative interracial encounters between White actors and Black targets as discriminatory. In addition, among African American and Latino children who knew about broadly held stereotypes, diagnostic testing conditions led to stereotype threat effects on a standardized working memory task. Findings are discussed in terms of the contribution to our understanding of children's developing thinking about and response to stereotypes and related phenomena.

  16. Newcomers to Social Categories: Longitudinal Predictors and Consequences of Ingroup Identification.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Ruth; Eisenbeiss, Kerstin Karen; Otten, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    In the present article, we propose a dynamic model of the longitudinal predictors and consequences of ingroup identification among newcomers to a social category. We hypothesize a shift in the relative importance of intragroup affiliation as compared with intergroup differentiation for ingroup identification. Two longitudinal studies confirm the theoretical model assessing cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between ingroup identification and interpersonal attraction, self-prototypicality, and ingroup favoritism at three measurement points during the first 4 months of group membership in two different social categories. Results demonstrate that in the initial phases of group membership, ingroup identification is mainly determined by intragroup affiliation (interpersonal attraction) and that ingroup favoritism starts playing a relevant role later on, when category membership has been established.

  17. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status.

  18. Pharmacovigilance from social media: mining adverse drug reaction mentions using sequence labeling with word embedding cluster features

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Abeed; O’Connor, Karen; Ginn, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks, particularly for pharmacovigilance, via the use of natural language processing (NLP) techniques. However, the language in social media is highly informal, and user-expressed medical concepts are often nontechnical, descriptive, and challenging to extract. There has been limited progress in addressing these challenges, and thus far, advanced machine learning-based NLP techniques have been underutilized. Our objective is to design a machine learning-based approach to extract mentions of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from highly informal text in social media. Methods We introduce ADRMine, a machine learning-based concept extraction system that uses conditional random fields (CRFs). ADRMine utilizes a variety of features, including a novel feature for modeling words’ semantic similarities. The similarities are modeled by clustering words based on unsupervised, pretrained word representation vectors (embeddings) generated from unlabeled user posts in social media using a deep learning technique. Results ADRMine outperforms several strong baseline systems in the ADR extraction task by achieving an F-measure of 0.82. Feature analysis demonstrates that the proposed word cluster features significantly improve extraction performance. Conclusion It is possible to extract complex medical concepts, with relatively high performance, from informal, user-generated content. Our approach is particularly scalable, suitable for social media mining, as it relies on large volumes of unlabeled data, thus diminishing the need for large, annotated training data sets. PMID:25755127

  19. Assessing Middle School Students' Knowledge of Conduct and Consequences and Their Behaviors regarding the Use of Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, Stacey L.; Gable, Robert; Filippelli, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Cyberbullying and threats of Internet predators, not to mention the enduring consequences of postings, may lead to dangerous, unspeakable consequences. Cyberbullying and threats of Internet predators through social networking sites and instant messaging programs are initiating numerous problems for parents, school administrators, and law…

  20. Repeated restraint stress alters sensitivity to the social consequences of ethanol differentially in early and late adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P

    2013-11-15

    In rats, considerable differences in the social consequences of acute ethanol are seen across ontogeny, with adolescents being more sensitive to low dose ethanol-induced social facilitation and less sensitive to the social inhibition evident at higher ethanol doses relative to adults. Stressor exposure induces social anxiety-like behavior, indexed via decreases in social preference, and alters responsiveness to the social consequences of acute ethanol by enhancing ethanol-associated social facilitation and anxiolysis regardless of age. Given that substantial ontogenetic differences in the social consequences of ethanol are evident even within the adolescent period, the present study was designed to investigate whether similar stress-associated alterations in social behavior and ethanol responsiveness are evident in early and late adolescents. Juvenile-early adolescent [postnatal days (P) 24-28] and mid-late adolescent (P38-42) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly restrained (90 min/day) for 5 days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Responsiveness to restraint stress in terms of both stress-induced behavioral alterations and stress-associated changes in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge differed drastically at the two ages. Repeated restraint increased anxiety-like behavior in a social context in older adolescents, whereas previously stressed young adolescent males showed substantial increases in play fighting - an effect of stress not evident in P28 females or P42 adolescents of either sex. Unexpectedly, repeated restraint eliminated sensitivity to ethanol-induced social facilitation in P28 adolescent males and made their female counterparts less sensitive to this effect. In contrast, previously stressed late adolescents became sensitive to the socially facilitating and anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol.

  1. Phenotypic and evolutionary consequences of social behaviours: interactions among individuals affect direct genetic effects.

    PubMed

    Trubenová, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar

    2012-01-01

    Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic effects occur. In this study, we explore the effects of indirect genetic effects on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic effects but can also modify direct genetic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both direct and indirect genetic effects substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of direct versus indirect genetic effects. Our model reveals that both direct and indirect genetic effects can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic effects with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation.

  2. No place called home: the causes and social consequences of the UK housing 'bubble'.

    PubMed

    Bone, John; O'Reilly, Karen

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the key causes and social consequences of the much debated UK 'housing bubble' and its aftermath from a multidimensional sociological approach, as opposed to the economic perspective of many popular discussions. This is a phenomenon that has affected numerous economies in the first decade of the new millennium. The discussion is based on a comprehensive study that includes exhaustive analysis of secondary data, content and debate in the mass media and academia, primary data gathered from the monitoring of weblogs and forums debating housing issues, and case histories of individuals experiencing housing difficulties during this period. This paper is intended to provide a broad overview of the key findings and preliminary analysis of this ongoing study, and is informed by a perspective which considers secure and affordable housing to be an essential foundation of stable and cohesive societies, with its absence contributing to a range of social ills that negatively impact on both individual and collective well being. Overall, it is argued that we must return to viewing decent, affordable housing as an essential social resource, that provides the bedrock of stable individual, family and community life, while recognizing that its increasing treatment as a purely economic asset is a key contributor to our so-called 'broken society'.

  3. Social anxiety and drinking refusal self-efficacy moderate the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in drinking games is associated with excessive drinking and alcohol risks. Despite the growing literature documenting the ubiquity and consequences of drinking games, limited research has examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the experience of negative consequences as the result of drinking game participation. Objectives The current event-level study examined the relationships among drinking game participation, social anxiety, drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of college students. Methods Participants (n =976) reported on their most recent drinking occasion in the past month in which they did not preparty. Results After controlling for sex, age, and typical drinking, higher levels of social anxiety, lower levels of DRSE, and playing drinking games predicted greater alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, two-way interactions (Social Anxiety × Drinking Games, DRSE × Drinking Games) demonstrated that social anxiety and DRSE each moderated the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences. Participation in drinking games resulted in more alcohol problems for students with high social anxiety, but not low social anxiety. Students with low DRSE experienced high levels of consequences regardless of whether they participated in drinking games; however, drinking game participation was associated with more consequences for students confident in their ability to resist drinking. Conclusion Findings highlight the important role that social anxiety and DRSE play in drinking game-related risk, and hence provide valuable implications for screening at-risk students and designing targeted harm reduction interventions that address social anxiety and drink refusal in the context of drinking games. PMID:25192207

  4. Toward a Social Conflict Evolution Model: Examining the Adverse Power of Conflictual Social Interaction in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Kui; Miller, Nicole C.; Allison, Justin R.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined an authentic online learning phenomenon where social conflict, including harsh critique and negative tone, weaved throughout peer-moderated online discussions in an online class. Opening coding and content analysis were performed on 1306 message units and course artifacts. The results revealed that a model of social…

  5. Metabolic consequences and vulnerability to diet-induced obesity in male mice under chronic social stress.

    PubMed

    Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Cabassi, Aderville; Govoni, Paolo; Ceresini, Graziano; Cero, Cheryl; Berra, Daniela; Dadomo, Harold; Franceschini, Paolo; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Social and psychological factors interact with genetic predisposition and dietary habit in determining obesity. However, relatively few pre-clinical studies address the role of psychosocial factors in metabolic disorders. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated in male mice: 1) opposite status-dependent effect on body weight gain under chronic psychosocial stress; 2) a reduction in body weight in individually housed (Ind) male mice. In the present study these observations were extended to provide a comprehensive characterization of the metabolic consequences of chronic psychosocial stress and individual housing in adult CD-1 male mice. Results confirmed that in mice fed standard diet, dominant (Dom) and Ind had a negative energy balance while subordinate (Sub) had a positive energy balance. Locomotor activity was depressed in Sub and enhanced in Dom. Hyperphagia emerged for Dom and Sub and hypophagia for Ind. Dom also showed a consistent decrease of visceral fat pads weight as well as increased norepinephrine concentration and smaller adipocytes diameter in the perigonadal fat pad. On the contrary, under high fat diet Sub and, surprisingly, Ind showed higher while Dom showed lower vulnerability to obesity associated with hyperphagia. In conclusion, we demonstrated that social status under chronic stress and individual housing deeply affect mice metabolic functions in different, sometime opposite, directions. Food intake, the hedonic response to palatable food as well as the locomotor activity and the sympathetic activation within the adipose fat pads all represent causal factors explaining the different metabolic alterations observed. Overall this study demonstrates that pre-clinical animal models offer a suitable tool for the investigation of the metabolic consequences of chronic stress exposure and associated psychopathologies.

  6. [Environmental medicine in public health service--a social responsibility and its consequences].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2001-02-01

    The special committee for "Environmental Medicine" established by the Federal Association of Doctors in the German Public Health Service presents its paper entitled "Environmental Medicine in the Public Health Service--A Social Responsibility and its Consequences: Propositions with regard to the situation, aims, strategies, and opportunities for action". The paper includes core ideas and responsibilities in the public health service. It aims at providing a number of guidelines for implementing "Environment and Health" ("Umwelt und Gesundheit"), an action programme by the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health, as well as "Health 21" ("Gesundheit 21"), the framework concept "Health for all" for the WHO's European Region. The paper also aims at initiating and facilitating steps for joint action by the Public Health Service. These theses were passed on to Mrs. Andrea Fischer, the Federal Minister of Health, during a meeting with the Board of the Association. In Germany, environment-related public health protection is well established in the Public Health Departments and state institutes/departments within the scope of public health provision and disease prevention. Typical responsibilities include environmental hygiene and environment-related medical services which have increased in importance. The range of responsibilities and its current political importance are a result of environment-related public health risks, the social situation of the population, also with regard to health issues, and the scope of responsibilities and competencies by doctors and staff in the public health departments. With the people's demands for health, quality of life and life expectancy, this need for action increases. In this paper, judicial, professional, and personal consequence are presented which arise as public health authorities assume these responsibilities.

  7. Early life adversity during the infant sensitive period for attachment: Programming of behavioral neurobiology of threat processing and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Regina

    2017-02-16

    Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver's presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

  8. [The Spanish economic crisis and its consequences on social spending. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem

    2014-06-01

    This article offers a brief summary of the factors that the author believes should be considered when analyzing the multiple interrelations between the economic crisis and its effects on public finances, social spending, and the health and welfare of Spaniards. For the sake of brevity, a linear argument is followed, with the basic contents of the message, leaving some of the more controversial issues whose interpretation may be heavily influenced by ideology to the discussion. The core of the argument is that, despite the double dip of the Spanish recession, healthcare has survived the consequences of the crisis fairly well. This is particularly the case when the situation is analyzed in terms of the share of public expenditure to GDP and in per capita terms, given the evolution of these ratios, although the final effect is unknown in terms of the actual and potential beneficiaries. This relatively low incidence so far on the health of Spaniards is basically due to family networks, pooling their incomes, and to the acceptance by Spanish health professionals of budget cuts, which have allowed services and their apparent quality to be maintained, contrasting with private employment and public finances. Obviously, this is not a guarantee of sustainability unless economic growth recovers. Even if the Spanish economy and public finances improve, the composition of health care delivery needs to be reevaluated to achieve a new allocation between public and private responsibilities for healthcare in accordance with the social development of the 21st century.

  9. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  10. Viral depletion of VTA BDNF in rats modulates social behavior, consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, and long-term weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Sanya; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M

    2011-09-20

    Mesolimbic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in sustained behavioral changes following chronic social stress, and its depletion may reduce susceptibility to such behavioral alterations. Enhanced mesolimbic BDNF is proposed as pro-depressive and anhedonic, while depleting ventral tegmetal area (VTA) BDNF increases weight by enhancing hedonic eating. Here, we questioned whether depletion of VTA BDNF would alleviate social defeat stress-induced deficits in weight regulation, or affect social behavior in the presence or absence of social stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral intra-VTA infusions of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors containing shRNA against BDNF or a control virus. Three weeks later, rats underwent 4 episodes of social defeat stress involving exposure to an aggressive Long-Evans resident rat, or control handling every third day. Depleted VTA BDNF conferred resistance to the deficient weight regulation normally observed during intermittent social defeat stress, and enhanced long-term weight gain regardless of stress history. In addition, social approach and avoidance behavior towards a novel social target were measured 7 weeks after stress. Social defeat stress chronically reduced social behavior, whereas depletion of VTA BDNF chronically increased social behavior. Our results reveal that depletion of VTA BDNF alleviates some consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, enhances social behavior, and may contribute to weight gain. These data implicate VTA BDNF in protracted behavioral responses to stress, social stimuli, and weight regulation.

  11. An analysis of social consequences of rapid fertility decline in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Liu, L

    1988-12-01

    Rapid fertility decline in China has brought about 2 direct effects: 1) the natural increase of the population has slowed down, and 2) the age structure has changed from the young to the adult type. These 2 effects have caused a series of economic and social consequences. Rapid fertility decline increases the gross national product per capita and accelerates the improvement of people's lives. Rapid fertility decline slows population growth and speeds up the accumulation of capital and the development of the economy. Since 1981, accumulation growth has exceeded consumption growth. Fertility decline alleviates the enrollment pressure on primary and secondary schools, raises the efficiency of education funds, and promotes the popularization of education. The family planning program strengthens the maternal and child health care and the medical care systems. As the result of economic development, the people's nutritional levels are improving. The physical quality of teenagers has improved steadily. The change in the age structure will alleviate the tension of rapid population growth and benefit population control in the next century. Fertility decline forces the traditional attitude toward childbearing from "more children, more happiness" to improved quality of children. The rapid fertility decline has caused a great deal of concern both inside and outside China about the aging of the population. The labor force, however, will continue to grow for the next 60 years. At present, China's population problems are still those of population growth.

  12. Structural Brain Network Reorganization and Social Cognition Related to Adverse Perinatal Condition from Infancy to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Batalle, Dafnis; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Eixarch, Elisenda; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Gratacós, Eduard; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse conditions during fetal life have been associated to both structural and functional changes in neurodevelopment from the neonatal period to adolescence. In this study, connectomics was used to assess the evolution of brain networks from infancy to early adolescence. Brain network reorganization over time in subjects who had suffered adverse perinatal conditions is characterized and related to neurodevelopment and cognition. Three cohorts of prematurely born infants and children (between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age), including individuals with a birth weight appropriated for gestational age and with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), were evaluated at 1, 6, and 10 years of age, respectively. A common developmental trajectory of brain networks was identified in both control and IUGR groups: network efficiencies of the fractional anisotropy (FA)-weighted and normalized connectomes increase with age, which can be related to maturation and myelination of fiber connections while the number of connections decreases, which can be associated to an axonal pruning process and reorganization. Comparing subjects with or without IUGR, a similar pattern of network differences between groups was observed in the three developmental stages, mainly characterized by IUGR group having reduced brain network efficiencies in binary and FA-weighted connectomes and increased efficiencies in the connectome normalized by its total connection strength (FA). Associations between brain networks and neurobehavioral impairments were also evaluated showing a relationship between different network metrics and specific social cognition-related scores, as well as a higher risk of inattention/hyperactivity and/or executive functional disorders in IUGR children. PMID:28008304

  13. Anxiolytic activity and evaluation of potentially adverse effects of a bradykinin-related peptide isolated from a social wasp venom.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos, Lilian Carneiro; Gomes, Flávia Maria Medeiros; do Couto, Lucianna Lopes; Mourão, Cecília Alves; Moreira, Karla Graziela; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Mortari, Márcia Renata

    2016-03-15

    Anxiety disorders are major health problems in terms of costs stemming from sick leave, disabilities, healthcare and premature mortality. Despite the availability of classic anxiolytics, some anxiety disorders are still resistant to treatment, with higher rates of adverse effects. In this respect, several toxins isolated from arthropod venoms are useful in identifying new compounds to treat neurological disorders, particularly pathological anxiety. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify and characterize an anxiolytic peptide isolated from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. The peptide was identified as Polisteskinin R, with nominal molecular mass [M+H](+)=1301Da and primary structure consisting of Ala-Arg-Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Thr-Pro-Phe-Arg-OH. The anxiolytic effect was tested using the elevated plus maze test. Moreover, adverse effects on the spontaneous behavior and motor coordination of animals were assessed using the open field and rotarod tests. Polisteskinin R induced a dose-dependent anxiolytic effect. Animals treated with the peptide and diazepam spent significantly more time into the open arms when compared to the groups treated with the vehicle and pentylenetetrazole. No significant differences in spontaneous behavior or motor coordination were observed between the groups, showing that the peptide was well tolerated. The interaction by agonists in both known BK receptors induces a variability of physiological effects; Polisteskinin R can act on these receptors, inducing modulatory activity and thus, attenuating anxiety behaviors. The results of this study demonstrated that the compound Polisteskinin R exerted potent anxiolytic effects and its analogues are promising candidates for experimental pharmacology.

  14. Destalking the Wily Tomato: A Case Study in Social Consequences in California Agricultural Research. Research Monograph No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.; Barton, Amy

    The end of the bracero program after 1965 brought about a major change in the growing, harvesting, and processing of California tomatoes which dramatically influenced the structure of the harvesting labor force. In order to determine the social consequences of the transition from man to mechanized harvesting procedures, the following areas of…

  15. The evolutionary and ecological consequences of animal social networks: emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Jens; Croft, Darren P; Wilson, Alexander D M; Wolf, Max

    2014-06-01

    The first generation of research on animal social networks was primarily aimed at introducing the concept of social networks to the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology. More recently, a diverse body of evidence has shown that social fine structure matters on a broader scale than initially expected, affecting many key ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we review this development. We discuss the effects of social network structure on evolutionary dynamics (genetic drift, fixation probabilities, and frequency-dependent selection) and social evolution (cooperation and between-individual behavioural differences). We discuss how social network structure can affect important coevolutionary processes (host-pathogen interactions and mutualisms) and population stability. We also discuss the potentially important, but poorly studied, role of social network structure on dispersal and invasion. Throughout, we highlight important areas for future research.

  16. Metabolic maladaptation: individual and social consequences of medical intervention in correcting endemic hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Geelhoed, G W

    1999-01-01

    Endemic hypothyroidism has been studied in a Central African population in remote Congo (ex-Zaire) to investigate the prevalence, severity, causes, and potential control of this disorder, with questions as to why this disease is conserved, and whether it confers any adaptive advantage in this resource-constrained environment. Iodine deficiency, cassava goiterogens, and selenium deficiency were found to be the factors implicated in the severe hypothyroidism expressed in congenital cretinism and high goiter incidence in this isolated population, which continues to be under observation following medical intervention. Profound hypothyroidism was encountered in whole village populations as measured by serum thyrotropin determinations ranging from very high to over 1000 IU, and thyroxin levels ranging from low to undetectable; cretinism rates were as high as 11% and goiter incidence approached 100%. Assessment of endocrinologic status, caloric requirement, energy output, fertility, and ecologic factors was carried out before and during iodine repletion by depot injection. Hypothyroidism was corrected and cretinism eliminated in the treatment group, with goiters reduced in most instances (with regrowth exhibited in some who escaped control) and some symptomatic goiter patients were offered surgical treatment for respiratory obstruction. Individual patient benefits, including improved strength and increased energy output, were remarkable. The social and developmental consequences observed within the collective groups of treated patients were remarkable for an increase in caloric requirement and a dramatic increase in fertility that led to quantitative as well as qualitative increases in resource consumption. Micronutrient iodine repletion was not accompanied by any concomitant increase in macronutrient supply, and hunger and environmental degradation resulted. The highly prevalent disease of hypothyroidism is found in highest incidence in areas of greatest resource

  17. Long-Lasting Consequences of Neonatal Maternal Separation on Social Behaviors in Ovariectomized Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2012-01-01

    Maternal separation (MS) stress is known to induce long-lasting alterations in emotional and anxiety-related behaviors, but effects on social behaviors are not well defined. The present study examined MS effects on female social behaviors in the social investigation (SIT) and social preference (SPT) tests, in addition to non-social behaviors in the open-field (OFT) and light-dark transition (LDT) tests in C57BL/6J mice. All females were tested as ovariectomized to eliminate confounding effects of endogenous estrogen during behavioral testing. Daily MS (3 hr) from postnatal day 1 to 14 did not affect anxiety levels in LDT, but were elevated in OFT with modified behavioral responses to the novel environment. Furthermore, MS altered social investigative behaviors and preference patterns toward unfamiliar stimulus mice in SIT and short- and long-term SPT paradigms. In SIT, MS reduced social investigation duration and increased number of stretched approaches towards both female and male unfamiliar stimulus mice, suggesting increased social anxiety levels in MS females. Similarly, MS heightened levels of social anxiety during short-term SPT but no MS effect on social preference was found. On the other hand, MS females displayed a distinctive preference for female stimuli, unlike control females, when tested for long-term SPT over a prolonged period of 5 days. Evaluation of FosB expression in the paraventricular nucleus, medial and central amygdala following stimulus exposure demonstrated greater number of FosB immunopositive cells in all three brain regions in MS females compared to control females. These results suggest that MS females might differ in neuroendocrine responses toward unfamiliar female and male opponents, which may be associated with modifications in social behaviors found in the present study. Taken together, this study provides new evidence that early life stress modifies female social behaviors by highlighting alterations in behavioral responses to

  18. Vigilance to a persisting personal threat: unmasking cardiovascular consequences in adolescents with the Social Competence Interview.

    PubMed

    Ewart, Craig K; Jorgensen, Randall S; Schroder, Kerstin E; Suchday, Sonia; Sherwood, Andrew

    2004-09-01

    We report the first systematic study of hemodynamic responses to the Social Competence Interview, using the original Ewart protocol, which focuses attention on a persisting personal threat. Physiologic changes in 212 African American and Caucasian urban adolescents during the Social Competence Interview, mirror tracing, and reaction time tasks showed that the Social Competence Interview elicits a pronounced vasoconstrictive response pattern, with diminished cardiac activity, that is more typical of alert mental vigilance than of active coping. This pattern was observed in all race and gender subgroups. Results suggest that the Social Competence Interview may be a broadly useful procedure for investigating the role of threat-induced vigilance in cardiovascular and other diseases.

  19. Social diversity in humans: implications and hidden consequences for biological research.

    PubMed

    Duster, Troy

    2014-05-01

    Humans are both similar and diverse in such a vast number of dimensions that for human geneticists and social scientists to decide which of these dimensions is a worthy focus of empirical investigation is a formidable challenge. For geneticists, one vital question, of course, revolves around hypothesizing which kind of social diversity might illuminate genetic variation-and vice versa (i.e., what genetic variation illuminates human social diversity). For example, are there health outcomes that can be best explained by genetic variation-or for social scientists, are health outcomes mainly a function of the social diversity of lifestyles and social circumstances of a given population? Indeed, what is a "population," how is it bounded, and are those boundaries most appropriate or relevant for human genetic research, be they national borders, religious affiliation, ethnic or racial identification, or language group, to name but a few? For social scientists, the matter of what constitutes the relevant borders of a population is equally complex, and the answer is demarcated by the goal of the research project. Although race and caste are categories deployed in both human genetics and social science, the social meaning of race and caste as pathways to employment, health, or education demonstrably overwhelms the analytic and explanatory power of genetic markers of difference between human aggregates.

  20. Social Diversity in Humans: Implications and Hidden Consequences for Biological Research

    PubMed Central

    Duster, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Humans are both similar and diverse in such a vast number of dimensions that for human geneticists and social scientists to decide which of these dimensions is a worthy focus of empirical investigation is a formidable challenge. For geneticists, one vital question, of course, revolves around hypothesizing which kind of social diversity might illuminate genetic variation—and vice versa (i.e., what genetic variation illuminates human social diversity). For example, are there health outcomes that can be best explained by genetic variation—or for social scientists, are health outcomes mainly a function of the social diversity of lifestyles and social circumstances of a given population? Indeed, what is a “population,” how is it bounded, and are those boundaries most appropriate or relevant for human genetic research, be they national borders, religious affiliation, ethnic or racial identification, or language group, to name but a few? For social scientists, the matter of what constitutes the relevant borders of a population is equally complex, and the answer is demarcated by the goal of the research project. Although race and caste are categories deployed in both human genetics and social science, the social meaning of race and caste as pathways to employment, health, or education demonstrably overwhelms the analytic and explanatory power of genetic markers of difference between human aggregates. PMID:24789817

  1. The Consequences of Internet Cafe use on Turkish College Students' Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet cafe use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet cafe usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafes. Social capital, on the other hand, was…

  2. The Consequences of Internet Café Use on Turkish College Students' Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koç, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet café use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet café usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafés. Social capital, on the other hand, was…

  3. The Social and Academic Consequences of Birth Order: Real, Artifactual, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…

  4. Is Self-Esteem a Cause or Consequence of Social Support? A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah L.; Parker, Phillip D.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M[subscript…

  5. [Changes in social relations as a consequence of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Kapidzić-Basić, Nedima; Kikanović, Sahza; Hotić-Hadziefendić, Asja; Dzananović, Dzevad

    2013-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) suffer from a lot of pain, have difficulties with movement, so it is therefore logical for them to have less social contact, i.e. socializing with friends and family. Aim of the study was to examine social relations of the patients with RA and OA, and to establish the reasons for such relations. Survey conducted 55 patients, 29 patients with RA and 26 patients with knee OA. From all patients data from domain of social contacts have been taken. They filled in self-evaluation scale for depression by Zung-SDS, and functional ability was assessed by Health Assessment Questionnaire HAQ (for RA) and by Laquesne index (for OA). Most patients in both groups narrowed the number of people with whom they socialize 82.8% RA patients and 80.7% OA patients and now they socialize with the closest family. Able to socialize are 31% RA patients and 53 % OA patients. Daily pain cites 71% RA patients and 64% OA patients. Depression is present by most of the patients, 82.8 % RA patients, and 73.1% OA patients. Functional ability is decreased by all patients, slightly more by RA patients. Most examined patients narrowed the number of people with whom they socialize, where RA patients feel more unable for going for visit. The reason for decreased social contact is not just reduced functional ability, and daily pain, but also depression that is present in high percentage in both groups, more and in higher level by patients with RA.

  6. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences.

    PubMed

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health.

  7. Authentic leadership, social support and their role in workplace bullying and its mental health consequences

    PubMed Central

    Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how authentic leadership is related to social support and exposure to workplace bullying and how these variables are related to mental health. For our sample of 820 office workers employed in different Polish organizations and sectors, social support from supervisors moderated the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace bullying. Social support from co-workers moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health and authentic leadership moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and mental health. PMID:26323771

  8. Association of Antenatal Depression with Adverse Consequences for the Mother and Newborn in Rural Ghana: Findings from the DON Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Weobong, Benedict; ten Asbroek, Augustinus H. A.; Soremekun, Seyi; Manu, Alexander A.; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Prince, Martin; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whilst there is compelling evidence of an almost 2-fold increased risk of still births, and suggestive evidence of increased mortality among offspring of mothers with psychotic disorders, only three studies have addressed the role of antenatal depression (AND) on survival of the baby. We examined these associations in a large cohort of pregnant women in Ghana. Methods A Cohort study nested within 4-weekly surveillance of all women of reproductive age to identify pregnancies and collect data on births and deaths in the Kintampo Health Research Centre study area of Ghana. Women were screened for AND using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to ascertain DSM-IV major or minor depression. Outcomes were adverse birth outcomes, maternal/infant morbidity, and uptake of key newborn care practices, examined using logistic regression; effect sizes reported as relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Results 20679 (89.6%) pregnant women completed the PHQ-9. The prevalence of AND was 9.9% (n = 2032) (95% confidence interval 9.4%–10.2%). AND was associated with: prolonged labour (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02–1.53); peripartum complications (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.15);postpartum complications (RR 1.27, 96% CI 1.21–1.34); non-vaginal delivery (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02–1.40); newborn illness (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.16–1.99); and bed net use during pregnancy (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89–0.98), but not neonatal deaths, still births, low birth weight, immediate breast feeding initiation, or exclusive breastfeeding. AND was marginally associated with preterm births (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.98–1.76). Conclusion This paper has contributed important evidence on the role of antenatal depression as a potential contributor to maternal and infant morbidity. Non-pharmacological treatments anchored on primary care delivery structures are recommended as an immediate step. We further recommend that trials are designed to assess if treating antenatal depression in conjunction with

  9. Social and Economic Consequences of Extreme Hydrological Regimes in Relationship to Federal Hydropower Generation on the Missouri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    parrish, M. A.; Otstot, R.; Moradkhani, H.

    2011-12-01

    After suffering from a ten year drought the main-stem Missouri reservoir system has now reached full capacity with flooding across a significant part of the region. Hydropower generation as a secondary purpose to both navigation and flood control is both directly and indirectly effected by these extreme hydrological regimes with sub-optimal generation timing, loss of dependable capacity, decrease in turbine efficiency, and operating in-flexibilities to buffer other renewable resources such as wind power. Hydropower operations under these extreme conditions are expected to continue with the recent SECURE Water Act Report issued by the Bureau of Reclamation predicting that the mean annual basin runoff may increase as much as 9.7% over the next fifty years. This study seeks to map the social and economic consequences of these extreme hydrologic regimes. First, using fifty years of historical generation a cumulative monthly frequency curve for each of the six federal plants on the Missouri River is developed. Then following the scenario analysis technique performed by the Department of Interior's study on the Deepwater Horizon Spill social and economic consequence chains are mapped into quartiles of the monthly frequency curves utilizing guidance from U.S Army Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, and Western area Power Administration. Locating the placement of the monthly generation for periods of extreme hydrological conditions within the frequency curve provides an objective relationship between the extreme event and the social and economic consequences. Using this approach over the fifty year period of record provides a way to analyze the cumulative multi-year effect of drought and flood, while also providing a way to calculate the uncertainty of the consequence associated with the extreme event.

  10. Child maltreatment increases sensitivity to adverse social contexts: Neighborhood physical disorder and incident binge drinking in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Goldmann, Emily; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for behavioral disorders in adulthood. One explanation for this life-course association is that child maltreatment increases vulnerability to the effects of subsequent stressors; however, the extent to which maltreatment increases sensitivity to social context has never been examined. We evaluated whether the association between neighborhood physical disorder and binge drinking was modified by child maltreatment exposure. METHODS Data were drawn from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, a prospective representative sample of predominately African Americans in the Detroit population. Neighborhood physical disorder was measured via systematic neighborhood assessment. Child maltreatment indicators included self-reported physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Incident binge drinking was defined as at least one episode of ≥5 drinks (men) or ≥4 drinks (women) in the past 30-day period among those with no binge drinking at baseline (N=1,013). RESULTS Child maltreatment and neighborhood physical disorder interacted to predict incident binge drinking (B=0.16, p=0.02) and maximum number of past 30-day drinks (B=0.15, p=0.04), such that neighborhood physical disorder predicted problematic alcohol use only among individuals with high exposure to child maltreatment. CONCLUSION The results add to the growing literature that African Americans in the U.S. are exposed to an array of stressors that have pernicious consequences for problematic alcohol use. Our results document the need for increased attention to the potential for at-risk alcohol use among populations with a high degree of stress exposure. PMID:21981990

  11. Risky Sexual Behavior: A Race-Specific Social Consequence of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…

  12. Children's Scripts for Social Emotions: Causes and Consequences Are More Central than Are Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and recognition of emotions relies on emotion concepts, which are narrative structures (scripts) specifying facial expressions, causes, consequences, label, etc. organized in a temporal and causal order. Scripts and their development are revealed by examining which components better tap which concepts at which ages. This study…

  13. Alcohol Use and Perceived Social and Emotional Consequences among Perpetrators of General and Sexual Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relation among alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last 3 months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple…

  14. Child and Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury: Academic, Behavioural, and Social Consequences in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Paul B.; Coulter, Gail A.

    2007-01-01

    More than five million children suffer from brain injuries each year. While the majority of these children are treated and released without permanent consequences, many children return to the classroom with lasting effects. Symptoms of brain injury can be misconstrued as common behaviour or academic problems. Therefore, teachers need to recognize…

  15. Social-cognitive correlates of protective drinking behaviors and alcohol-related consequences in college students.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anne E; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Beau; Peters, Katherine E

    2009-11-01

    Although heavy episodic drinkers are at risk to experience alcohol-related consequences, studies show that a large percentage of student drinkers do not experience problems as a result of their drinking. The present study was a more in-depth examination of factors beyond just drinking quantity and frequency to explain why students experience consequences. The current research examined the relationship between the use of protective behaviors, alcohol use, and alcohol related consequences, as well as the relationship between attitudinal and cognitive predictors of engaging in protective behaviors when drinking. We hypothesized there would be a significant direct effect of protective behaviors on consequences after taking into account the effect of alcohol use and that cognitive predictors, including perceived self-efficacy, perceived effectiveness, and subjective norm, would be associated with the attitude and frequency of engaging in protective behaviors. Results supported both hypotheses, indicating good model fit for all models and significant paths between constructs (p's<.05). These findings extend the literature on protective behaviors by providing insight as to their utility in preventing harm and why students choose to engage in these behaviors. Implications for interventions are also discussed.

  16. Kin selection-mutation balance: a model for the origin, maintenance, and consequences of social cheating.

    PubMed

    Van Dyken, J David; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Wade, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Social conflict, in the form of intraspecific selfish "cheating," has been observed in a number of natural systems. However, a formal, evolutionary genetic theory of social cheating that provides an explanatory, predictive framework for these observations is lacking. Here we derive the kin selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton's rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater lineages are transient and do not invade. Instead, cheating lineages are eliminated by kin selection but are constantly reintroduced by mutation, maintaining a stable equilibrium frequency of cheaters. The presence of cheaters at equilibrium creates a "cheater load" that selects for mechanisms of cheater control, such as policing. We find that increasing relatedness reduces the cheater load more efficiently than does policing the costs and benefits of cooperation. Our results provide new insight into the effects of genetic systems, mating systems, ecology, and patterns of sex-limited expression on social evolution. We offer an explanation for the widespread cheater/altruist polymorphism found in nature and suggest that the common fear of conflict-induced social collapse is unwarranted.

  17. Mothers Roles in Traditional and Modern Korean Families: The Consequences for Parental Practices and Adolescent Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye-On; Hoppe-Graff, Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Compares mothers' roles in socializing their children in traditional South Korean families with that of mothers' in modern families. While Confusion influence remains strong, significant changes in South Korean culture often create complex, ambiguous, and emotionally unstable relationships between mothers and their adolescent children. Discusses…

  18. Social Capital, Cultural Values, Immigration, and Academic Achievement: The Host Country Context and Contradictory Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankston, Carl L., III

    2004-01-01

    Social-capital explanations of school outcomes, particularly of the school outcomes of immigrant children and children of immigrants, have come into wide use in recent years. These explanations attempt to account for individual or group variations in school performance by viewing the family and community relations that surround children as forms…

  19. Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…

  20. The Social and Psychological Consequences of Intragenerational Mobility. Working Paper 73.4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojek, Dean G.

    The relationship between prior and present socioeconomic status and 10 symptoms of social and psychological stress were examined for mobility effects. The analysis was confined to a 5-year, intragenerational mobility panel from 2 Illinois regions--Putnam County and segments of 3 other adjacent counties in north-central Illinois, and a portion of…

  1. The Social Patterning of Work-Related Insecurity and Its Health Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Marshall, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between work-related insecurity and health, with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by social location (gender, age and race). Drawing on longitudinal data from a Canadian labour market survey (1999-2004) the findings show that certain groups have a higher prevalence of exposure to certain types of…

  2. The Antecedents, Objects, and Consequents of User Trust in Location-Based Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Online social networks provide rich opportunities to interact with friends and other online community members. At the same time, the addition of emerging location-sharing technologies--which broadcast a user's location online, including who they are with and what is happening nearby--is creating new dimensions to the types of interactions…

  3. "Frayed All Over:" the Causes and Consequences of Activist Burnout among Social Justice Education Activists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.; Chen, Cher

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of scholarship on burnout among social justice activists who are working on a variety of issues, from labor rights to queer justice, little attention has been paid to burnout among those whose activism focuses on issues of educational justice. To begin to address this omission and understand what supports might help social…

  4. The Social Consequences of Natural and Man-Made Emergency: The Regional Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikerova, Gulnapis; Omarova, Assem

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the causes of natural and social disasters of the extraordinary character, show the importance of preventive measures at the level of the state and public organizations, and suggest ways to improve the quality of training and emergencies is the purpose of the proposed work. With particular emphasis on the study of emergencies…

  5. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  6. Cars, corporations, and commodities: Consequences for the social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation) and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car) offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest. PMID:18291031

  7. Cars, corporations, and commodities: consequences for the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel

    2008-02-21

    Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation) and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car) offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest.

  8. The threat of biological weapons. Prophylaxis and mitigation of psychological and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Holloway, H C; Norwood, A E; Fullerton, C S; Engel, C C; Ursano, R J

    1997-08-06

    The microbial world is mysterious, threatening, and frightening to most people. The stressors associated with a biological terrorist attack could create high numbers of acute and potentially chronic psychiatric casualties who must be recognized, diagnosed, and treated to facilitate triage and medical care. Media communications, planning for quarantine and decontamination, and the role of community leaders are important to the mitigation of psychological consequences. Physicians will need to accurately diagnose anxiety, depression, bereavement, and organic brain syndromes to provide treatment, reassurance, and the relief of pain.

  9. The effect of political generation on identity and social change: Age cohort consequences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rohlinger, Deana A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how political generation affects the ways in which diverse individuals come together and change their social and personal identities. Drawing on 52 in-depth interviews with members of the Red Hat Society, we show that women draw on their political generation, and the gains of the women's movement specifically, to oppose cultural constructions of aging. The Red Hat Society provides a "free space" for women to foster a collective identity that both visibly challenges aging norms and provides its members new standards for self-approval. We conclude by highlighting the importance of focusing on political generation to understand collective action over the life course and call for more scholarship on the function of political generation in social change.

  10. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity: Uncovering the mechanism (social connectedness) and consequence (eudaimonic well-being).

    PubMed

    Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Hepper, Erica G; Arndt, Jamie; Vail, Kenneth; Zhou, Xinyue; Brackstone, Kenny; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-06-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, is an emotion that arises from self-relevant and social memories. Nostalgia functions, in part, to foster self-continuity, that is, a sense of connection between one's past and one's present. This article examined, in 6 experiments, how nostalgia fosters self-continuity and the implications of that process for well-being. Nostalgia fosters self-continuity by augmenting social connectedness, that is, a sense of belongingness and acceptance (Experiments 1-4). Nostalgia-induced self-continuity, in turn, confers eudaimonic well-being, operationalized as subjective vitality (i.e., a feeling of aliveness and energy; Experiments 5-6). The findings clarify and expand the benefits of nostalgia for both the self-system and psychological adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. The mediating and moderating effects of workplace social capital on the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2014-01-01

    Our current study investigated how workplace social capital (WSC) mediates and moderates the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers. We collected cross-sectional data (N=9,350) from a baseline survey of an occupational Japanese cohort study. We focused on individual WSC and considered job demands/control, effort/reward, and two types (i.e., procedural and interactional) of organizational justice as work-characteristic variables. We defined psychological distress as a score of ≥5 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6 scale). Multivariate logistic regression analyses predicted a binary variable of psychological distress by individual WSC and adverse work characteristics, adjusting for individual-level covariates. Individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress in almost all model specifications. Additionally, individual WSC moderated the associations of psychological distress with high job demands, high effort, and low interactional justice when we used a high WSC cutoff point. In contrast, individual WSC did not moderate such interactions with low job control, reward, or procedural justice. We concluded that individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers while selectively moderating their associations at high levels of WSC.

  12. Droughts, dry spells, low water levels and their environmental-social consequences in late medieval Hungary (and Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Nikolic, Zrinka

    2016-04-01

    Based on medieval, contemporary evidence, in the presentation 14th-15th-century droughts, dry spells and documented low water-level events of large rivers (e.g. Danube, Tisza) and their detected environmental and social consequences are discussed in more detail, with special emphasis on the years of 1361-1364, 1393-1394, 1440, the early 1540s, 1474, 1479-1480 and 1494. The poster presentation is centred around the following topics: - magnitude, intensity and frequency of droughts and dry spells (in comparison with famous 18th-19th-century drought periods); - provide information (and a comparison) on Central European parallels; - other natural hazards combined with drought and dry spells (e.g. convective events); - the relationship of multiannual water-deficits and locust invasions, their intensity and documented further impacts; - the consequences of droughts, dry spells and low water levels on society, with special emphasis on food production (e.g. bad harvests, grazing permissions, high prices, threatening food shortage), transportation problems (esp. salt transportation), military defence (Ottoman Turkish attacks) and their further social effects (e.g. land-ownership debates; royal intervention and export prohibition).

  13. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  14. Geographic Disparities in Liver Availability: Accidents of geography or consequences of poor social policy?

    PubMed

    Ladin, Keren; Zhang, Gregory; Hanto, Douglas W

    2017-04-08

    Recently, a redistricting proposal intended to equalize MELDs recommended expanding liver sharing to mitigate geographic variation in liver transplantation. Yet, it is unclear whether variation in liver availability is arbitrary and a disparity requiring rectification, or whether it reflects differences in access to care. We evaluate the proposal's claim that organ supply is an "accident of geography" by examining the relationship between local organ supply and the uneven landscape of social determinants and policies that contribute to differential death rates across the United States. We show that higher mortality leading to greater availability of organs may partly result from disproportionate risks incurred at the local-level. Disparities in public safety laws, healthcare infrastructure, and public funding may influence the risk of death and subsequent availability of deceased donors. These risk factors are disproportionately prevalent in regions with high organ supply. Policies calling for organ redistribution from high-supply to low-supply regions may exacerbate existing social and health inequalities by redistributing the single benefit (greater organ availability) of greater exposure to environmental and contextual risks (e.g. violent death, healthcare scarcity). Variation in liver availability may not be an "accident of geography", but rather a byproduct of disadvantage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Team negotiation: social, epistemic, economic, and psychological consequences of subgroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir

    2008-12-01

    Large collectives (e.g., organizations, political parties, nations) are seldom unitary players. Rather, they consist of different subgroups that often have conflicting interests. Nonetheless, negotiation research consistently regards negotiating teams, who represent these collectives, as monolithic parties with uniform interests. This article integrates concepts from social psychology, management, political science, and behavioral game theory to explore the effects of subgroup conflict on team negotiation. Specifically, the present research introduced a conflict of interests within negotiating teams and investigated how this internal conflict affects the outcome of the negotiation between teams. An experiment with 80 four-person teams found that conflict between subgroups had a detrimental effect on the performance of negotiating teams. This research also employed a recent model of motivated information processing in groups to investigate possible processes underlying the effect of subgroup conflict on team negotiation.

  16. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramanjit; Wood-Harper, Trevor

    This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical design principles. The results confirm that better role boundary management, self-discipline, work negotiation, and e-mail communication skills may be required for the knowledge workers to manage the demands of nomadic working. Similarly, rewarding nomadic work performance, building employee supervisor trust relations, and designing jobs that enhance work and life balance can be imperative.

  17. Bringing human, social, and natural capital to life: practical consequences and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William P

    2011-01-01

    Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital.

  18. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  19. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised.

  20. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  1. Costly hide and seek pays: unexpected consequences of deceit in a social dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-11-01

    Deliberate deceptiveness intended to gain an advantage is commonplace in human and animal societies. In a social dilemma, an individual may only pretend to be a cooperator to elicit cooperation from others, while in reality he is a defector. With this as motivation, we study a simple variant of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game entailing deceitful defectors and conditional cooperators that lifts the veil on the impact of such two-faced behavior. Defectors are able to hide their true intentions at a personal cost, while conditional cooperators are probabilistically successful at identifying defectors and act accordingly. By focusing on the evolutionary outcomes in structured populations, we observe a number of unexpected and counterintuitive phenomena. We show that deceitful behavior may fare better if it is costly, and that a higher success rate of identifying defectors does not necessarily favor cooperative behavior. These results are rooted in the spontaneous emergence of cycling dominance and spatial patterns that give rise to fascinating phase transitions, which in turn reveal the hidden complexity behind the evolution of deception.

  2. Health and social consequences of an alcohol-related admission to critical care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    McPeake, Joanne; Forrest, Ewan; Quasim, Tara; Kinsella, John; O'Neill, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of critical care on future alcohol-related behaviour. Further, it aimed to explore patterns of recovery for patients with and without alcohol use disorders beyond the hospital environment. Design In-depth, semistructured interviews with participants (patients) 3–7 months post intensive care discharge. Setting The setting for this study was a 20-bedded mixed intensive care unit (ICU), in a large teaching hospital in Scotland. On admission, patients were allocated to one of the three alcohol groups: low risk, harmful/hazardous and alcohol dependency. Participants 21 participants who received mechanical ventilation for greater than 3 days were interviewed between March 2013 and June 2014. Interventions None. Measurements and main results Four themes which impacted on recovery from ICU were identified in this patient group: psychological resilience, support for activities of daily living, social support and cohesion and the impact of alcohol use disorders on recovery. Participants also discussed the importance of personalised goal setting and appropriate and timely rehabilitation for alcohol-related behaviours during the critical care recovery period. Conclusions There is a significant interplay between alcohol misuse and recovery from critical illness. This study has demonstrated that at present, there is a haphazard approach to rehabilitation for patients after ICU. A more targeted rehabilitation pathway for patients leaving critical care, with specific emphasis on alcohol misuse if appropriate, requires to be generated. PMID:27048633

  3. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects.

  4. Self-reported urge urinary incontinence (UUI) among older Mexican-American men: risk factors and psycho-social consequences.

    PubMed

    Gerst, K; Ray, L A; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D V; Markides, K S

    2011-12-01

    Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic Whites and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditions and men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey.

  5. Predictors and Social Consequences of Online Interactive Self-Disclosure: A Literature Review from 2002 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Desjarlais, Malinda; Gilmour, Jillian; Sinclair, Jasmine; Howell, Kaitlyn B; West, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Computer-mediated communication has become ubiquitous in the lives of today's youth. The current review synthesizes recent findings regarding adolescents' and young adults' online interactive self-disclosure, with a particular emphasis on the direct antecedents and effects. Three broad categories of predictors are discussed, including demographic information and internal states, dispositional factors, as well as contextual factors. In addition, the synthesis of studies exploring consequences of online interactive self-disclosure indicates positive outcomes for social-related constructs. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including the analysis of actual computer-mediated exchanges and longitudinal research that takes into account the dynamic process of self-disclosure over time and across media.

  6. Attribution and social cognitive neuroscience: a new approach for the "online-assessment" of causality ascriptions and their emotional consequences.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, Paul; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Leodolter, Ulrich; Bauer, Herbert

    2008-08-15

    Attribution theory plays a central role in understanding cognitive processes that have emotional consequences; however, there has been very limited attention to its neural basis. After reviewing classical studies in social psychology in which attribution has been experimentally manipulated we developed a new approach that allows the investigation of state attributions and emotional consequences using neuroscience methodologies. Participants responded to the Erikson Flanker Task, but, in order to maintain the participant's beliefs about the nature of the task and to produce a significant number of error responses, an adaptive algorithm tuned the available time to respond such that, dependent on the subject's current performance, the negative feedback rate was held at chance level. In order to initiate variation in attribution participants were informed that one and the same task was either easy or difficult. As a result of these two different instructions the two groups differed significantly in error attribution only on the locus of causality dimension. Additionally, attributions were found to be stable over a large number of trials, while accuracy and reaction time remained the same. Thus, the new paradigm is particularly suitable for cognitive neuroscience research that evaluates brain behaviour relationships of higher order processes in 'simulated achievement settings'.

  7. "Cross'd with Adversity": The Education of Socially Disadvantaged Children in Secondary Schools. Working Paper 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council Research and Development Project in Compensatory Education, Swansea (Wales).

    This report sponsored by the Schools Council, Great Britain is that of a "Working Party" set up to consider the education of the socially disadvantaged in secondary schools. Contents include: background to educational deprivation; recognition of deprivation in schools; an account of practice in some schools; case histories; curriculum…

  8. Conflict and cooperation over sex: the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success in dunnocks.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eduardo S A; Santos, Luana L S; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-11-01

    Conflict and cooperation within and between the sexes are among the driving forces that lead to the evolution of mating systems. Among mating strategies, female genetic polyandry and male reproductive cooperation pose challenging evolutionary questions regarding the maintenance of systems where one sex suffers from reduced fitness. Here, we investigate the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success of females and males in a population of the dunnock, Prunella modularis. We show that female multiple mating ameliorates the negative effects of inbreeding. We, however, found little evidence that females engage in extra-group (pair) mating with less related or more heterozygous males. Breeding in socially polyandrous groups reduced the amount of paternity lost to extra-group males, such that, on average, cobreeding and monogamous males fledged a similar number of young. Importantly, c. 30% of cobreeding male dyads were related, suggesting they could gain indirect fitness benefits. Taken together, cobreeding males achieve equivalent reproductive success to monogamous counterparts under most circumstances. Our study has revealed unexpected complexities in the variable mating system of dunnocks in New Zealand. Our results differ from the well-known Cambridge dunnock study and can help our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of various breeding systems in the animal kingdom.

  9. Antagonistic pleiotropy at the human IL6 promoter confers genetic resilience to the pro-inflammatory effects of adverse social conditions in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cole, Steven W; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Manu, Kavya; Telzer, Eva H; Kiang, Lisa; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2011-07-01

    The authors tested the evolutionary genetic hypothesis that the functional form of an asymmetrically risky Gene × Environment interaction will differ as a function of age-related antagonistic pleiotropy (i.e., show opposite effects in young vs. old individuals). Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the human IL6 promoter (rs1800795; IL6-74 G/C) that interacts with adverse socioenvironmental conditions to promote chronic inflammation in older adults (elevated C-reactive protein). This study identifies a protective effect of the same polymorphism in 17- to 19-year-old adolescents confronting socioeconomic adversity. Over 60% of the environmental risk contribution to the IL6 × Socioeconomic Status interaction could be accounted for by interpersonal stress and adult role burden. Thus, the IL6-174G allele does not represent an undifferentiated risk factor but instead sensitizes inflammatory biology to socioenvironmental conditions, conferring either genetic vulnerability or resilience depending on the developmental "somatic environment" that interacts with social conditions to influence gene expression.

  10. The symbiotic lifestyle and its evolutionary consequences: social monogamy and sex allocation in the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata pederseni.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts female-biased sex allocation for simultaneous hermaphrodites with a monogamous mating system. Mating systems theory predicts that monogamy is advantageous in environments where refuges are discrete, scarce, relatively small, and when predation risk is high outside of these refuges. These predictions were tested with the Caribbean shrimp Lysmata pederseni, a simultaneous hermaphrodite which has an early male phase and lives inside tubes of the sponge Callyspongia vaginalis. This host sponge is a scarce resource that, together with the high predation risk typical of tropical environments, should favor monogamy in the shrimp. Field observations demonstrated that shrimps were frequently encountered as pairs within these tube sponges. Pairs were equally likely to comprise two hermaphrodites or one hermaphrodite and one male. Several of these pairs were observed for long periods of time in the field. Experiments demonstrated that hermaphrodites tolerated other hermaphrodites but not males in their host sponge. These results suggest that pairs of hermaphroditic L. pederseni are socially monogamous; they share the same host individual and might reproduce exclusively with their host partners for long periods of time. Nevertheless, males appeared less likely to establish long-term associations with hermaphrodites as indicated by the rate of their disappearance from their hosts (greater than that of hermaphrodites). Sex allocation was female biased in monogamous hermaphrodites. On average, hermaphrodites invested 34 times more to female than to male reproductive structures. Monogamy and female-biased sex allocation seem to be evolutionary consequences of adopting a symbiotic lifestyle in simultaneous hermaphrodites.

  11. Learning about the history of landscape use for the future: consequences for ecological and social systems in Swedish Bergslagen.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Isacson, Maths; Gavrilov, Dmitri V; Axelsson, Robert; Bäckström, Mattias; Degerman, Erik; Elbakidze, Marine; Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu; Sartz, Lotta; Sädbom, Stefan; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  12. The symbiotic lifestyle and its evolutionary consequences: social monogamy and sex allocation in the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata pederseni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, J. Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts female-biased sex allocation for simultaneous hermaphrodites with a monogamous mating system. Mating systems theory predicts that monogamy is advantageous in environments where refuges are discrete, scarce, relatively small, and when predation risk is high outside of these refuges. These predictions were tested with the Caribbean shrimp Lysmata pederseni, a simultaneous hermaphrodite which has an early male phase and lives inside tubes of the sponge Callyspongia vaginalis. This host sponge is a scarce resource that, together with the high predation risk typical of tropical environments, should favor monogamy in the shrimp. Field observations demonstrated that shrimps were frequently encountered as pairs within these tube sponges. Pairs were equally likely to comprise two hermaphrodites or one hermaphrodite and one male. Several of these pairs were observed for long periods of time in the field. Experiments demonstrated that hermaphrodites tolerated other hermaphrodites but not males in their host sponge. These results suggest that pairs of hermaphroditic L. pederseni are socially monogamous; they share the same host individual and might reproduce exclusively with their host partners for long periods of time. Nevertheless, males appeared less likely to establish long-term associations with hermaphrodites as indicated by the rate of their disappearance from their hosts (greater than that of hermaphrodites). Sex allocation was female biased in monogamous hermaphrodites. On average, hermaphrodites invested 34 times more to female than to male reproductive structures. Monogamy and female-biased sex allocation seem to be evolutionary consequences of adopting a symbiotic lifestyle in simultaneous hermaphrodites.

  13. Consequence-based communication about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents: A qualitative study underpinned by social constructionism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Fuller, Jeffrey; Hutton, Alison; Grant, Julian

    2017-02-24

    Chinese adolescents are increasingly engaging in romantic experiences and high-risk sexual behaviors within a rapidly-changing cultural and socio-economic context. Parental communication about sexuality has been recognized as protective for adolescents to make informed decisions about sexual practice. In this study, we explored what was discussed about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents in China. Twenty-seven parents and 38 adolescents from a northern-eastern city of China were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using a social constructionism framework. Four themes were identified: (i) detriments of romantic experience to education and future prospect; (ii) health and sociocultural risks of romantic and sexual engagement; (iii) ways of handling romantic experience; and (iv) marriage and family building. The messages were mainly prohibitive and consequence oriented in nature, and lacked specific romantic and sexual information. These messages reflected sociocultural beliefs in education, sexuality, marriage, and family in China, but did not meet the needs of current adolescents. External support from health professionals, such as nurses, is important for parents and adolescents to improve their sexual knowledge and communication skills.

  14. Are emotion and mind understanding differently linked to young children's social adjustment? Relationships between behavioral consequences of emotions, false belief, and SCBE.

    PubMed

    Deneault, Joane; Ricard, Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    According to empirical findings, emotional knowledge and false belief understanding seem to be differently linked to social adjustment. However, whereas false belief is assessed through the capacity to identify its behavioral consequences, emotion tasks usually rely on the comprehension of facial expressions and of the situational causes of emotions. The authors examined if the documented relationship between social adjustment and emotion knowledge in children extends to the understanding of behavioral consequences of emotions. Eighty French-speaking preschoolers undertook false belief and consequence-of-emotion tasks. Their social adjustment was measured by the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation. Children's language ability, their parent's level of education, and the familial socioeconomic score were taken into account. Results showed that children's social adjustment was significantly predicted by their knowledge of emotion, but not by their understanding of false belief. The findings confirm the special status of emotion among mental states for social adaptation and specify which dimensions of adaptation to peers and adults are predicted by the child's emotion understanding. They also suggest that the distinction between mind and emotion understanding may be conceptual rather than methodological.

  15. Unbalanced international collaboration affects adversely the usefulness of countries' scientific output as well as their technological and social impact.

    PubMed

    Zanotto, Sonia R; Haeffner, Cristina; Guimarães, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    The unbalanced international scientific collaboration as cause of misleading information on the country's contribution to the scientific world output was analyzed. ESI Data Base (Thomson Reuters' InCites), covering the scientific production of 217 active countries in the period 2010-2014 was used. International collaboration implicates in a high percentage (33.1 %) of double-counted world articles, thus impacting qualitative data as citations, impact and impact relative to word. The countries were divided into three groups, according to their individual contribution to the world publications: Group I (24 countries, at least 1 %) representing 83.9 % of the total double-counted world articles. Group II (40 countries, 0.1-0.99 % each). Group III, 153 countries (70.5 %) with <0.1 % and altogether 1.9 % of the world. Qualitative characteristics of each group were also analyzed: percentage of the country's GNP applied in R&D, proportion of Scientists and Engineers per million inhabitants and Human Development Index. Average international collaboration were: Group I, 43.0 %; Group II, 55.8 % and Group III, 85.2 %. We concluded that very high and unbalanced international collaboration, as presented by many countries, misrepresent the importance of their scientific production, technological and social outputs. Furthermore, it jeopardizes qualitative outputs of the countries themselves, artificially increasing their scientific impact, affecting all fields and therefore, the whole world. The data confirm that when dealing with the qualitative contribution of countries, it is necessary to take in consideration the level of international cooperation because, as seen here, it can and in fact it does create false impression of the real contribution of countries.

  16. Everyday life in the suburbs of Berlin: consequences for the social participation of aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Giesel, Flemming; Rahn, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change, mobility issues are becoming crucial. Especially for the elderly, daily outdoor activities are essential for participation in social life. This article addresses the question of what extent older people, especially women, are threatened by limited social participation in Berlin's suburbia. The mobility of older women (70+) is characterized by the least number of trips, the shortest distances, and more than 50% walking trips. Besides, many older women are dissatisfied with their residential area. Given the lack of essential facilities, older women have to be considered as disadvantaged in terms of limited social participation.

  17. Declining Negative Consequences Related to Alcohol Misuse among Students Exposed to a Social Norms Marketing Intervention on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James; Perkins, H. Wesley; Bauerle, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined whether alcohol-related negative consequences decreased among students exposed to an intervention. Participants: Beginning in 1999, approximately 2,500 randomly selected undergraduates from a 4-year US university annually participated in a Web-based survey over 6 years. Methods: The educational intervention used…

  18. Industrialization of Rural Areas: Recent Trends and the Social and Economic Consequences. Staff Paper No. SP-79-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Brady J.

    There is no present consensus regarding long-term consequences of rural industrialization on society. Since 1950, smaller rural communities in the South and Southwestern United States have gained in industrialization due to their generally low-wage non-union labor supply and lower tax structure, both attractive to industry seeking greater profits.…

  19. Smoking: The Health Consequences of Tobacco Use. An Annotated Bibliography with Analytical Introduction. Science and Social Responsibility Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Cecilia M.; Gray, Richard A.

    This volume contains an extensive introduction to the health consequences of tobacco use and extended annotations of the most important English-language monographs and articles to appear on the subject in the 1980s and 1990s arranged in classified order under select headings. The introductory analytical essay by Richard A. Gray covers: early and…

  20. Perceived Changes in Social Relations after Earthquake Trauma among Eastern Anatolian Women: Associated Factors and Mental Health Consequences.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, A Ufuk; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we examined social relations in women exposed to earthquake trauma in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. We examined women's perceptions regarding the changes in their social relations within their neighbourhood, within their marriage and with their children; analysed the factors that were associated with these relations; and tested the hypothesis that an improvement in social relations will protect women's mental health from the negative impact of earthquake trauma. Participants consisted of a random selection of 1253 women, who were interviewed regarding their psychosocial needs and mental health status 1 year after earthquake. They reported trauma-related changes in their social relations; their mental health was evaluated using the Post Traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory. Our study demonstrated severe earthquake trauma was associated with deteriorated social relations, especially neighbourhood and marital relations. Deteriorated marital and child relations were associated with increased levels of psychiatric distress; deteriorated neighbourhood relations were associated with intrusive posttraumatic stress symptoms. Improved neighbourhood relations, but not family relations, were able to protect women's mental health from the negative impact of trauma. The results are discussed regarding their relevance to gender effects and the provision of relation-specific and symptom-specific disaster relief. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. "A world crazier than us": Vanishing social contexts and the consequences for psychiatric practice in contemporary Romania.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jack R

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Communism, mental health care in Romania has increasingly sought to align its practices with idealized models of Western psychiatric practice. Much of this realignment has been made possible by accessing and integrating new pharmaceuticals into psychiatric hospital settings. Less straightforward have been the painful attempts to create a system modeled on international standards for training and certifying psychotherapists. Unfortunately, the political, economic, infrastructural, and epistemological environment of the Romanian mental health care system has prevented many other reforms. This paper examines the ironic trajectory that Romanian psychiatry has taken since the end of state socialism. Specifically, this paper shows how psychiatric practice in most places (outside of university-training hospitals) is increasingly disconnected from a concern with the social conditions that surround mental illness during a period when social upheaval is profoundly impacting the lives of many people who receive mental health care. Thus, as the contribution of social problems to the suffering of those with mental illnesses has increased, some Romanian mental health practitioners have moved away from a concern with these social problems under the guise of aligning their psychiatric practices with (imagined) Western standards of biomedical care. The paper provides a brief history of Romanian psychiatry and explores contemporary challenges and contradictions in many Romanian psychiatric treatment settings through the case study of a 31-year-old Romanian female diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia.

  2. Psychological and social consequences of losing a child in a natural or human-made disaster: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Herrman, Helen; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Fisher, Jane

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to natural and human-made disasters is associated with long-term health consequences, including for mental health. Parents who have lost children, particularly their only children, in any circumstances are also at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence about the psychological and social consequences for parents who had faced these circumstances simultaneously through losing children in a disaster. Systematic searching of the English and Chinese language literatures about the psychological and social functioning of bereaved parents after disasters revealed that a small number of studies met inclusion criteria. The results showed that bereaved parents had more mental health problems than bereaved spouses and non-bereaved parents, and mothers appeared to be more vulnerable to mental health problems than fathers. Potential protective factors for bereaved parents' mental health included having psychological interventions, having adequate social support, seeing their children's bodies and having a subsequent baby. Although the literature was modest and methodologically diverse, there was a consistent finding that parents who have lost children in disasters were at high risk of suffering mental health problems, especially bereaved mothers. As there was little evidence, further studies are needed to understand the best advice and interventions to offer bereaved parents and provide enhanced mental health care of such bereaved populations after disasters.

  3. The social consequences of conspiracism: Exposure to conspiracy theories decreases intentions to engage in politics and to reduce one's carbon footprint.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    The current studies explored the social consequences of exposure to conspiracy theories. In Study 1, participants were exposed to a range of conspiracy theories concerning government involvement in significant events such as the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to engage in politics, relative to participants who were given information refuting conspiracy theories. This effect was mediated by feelings of political powerlessness. In Study 2, participants were exposed to conspiracy theories concerning the issue of climate change. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting the conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to reduce their carbon footprint, relative to participants who were given refuting information, or those in a control condition. This effect was mediated by powerlessness with respect to climate change, uncertainty, and disillusionment. Exposure to climate change conspiracy theories also influenced political intentions, an effect mediated by political powerlessness. The current findings suggest that conspiracy theories may have potentially significant social consequences, and highlight the need for further research on the social psychology of conspiracism.

  4. My Friends Right Next to Me: A Laboratory Investigation on Predictors and Consequences of Experiencing Social Closeness on Social Networking Sites.

    PubMed

    Neubaum, German; Krämer, Nicole C

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, research has provided a series of insights into how and why the use of social networking sites (SNSs) can be socially and psychologically beneficial for individuals. The present research extends this evidence by focusing on the concept of social closeness as a feeling experienced when using SNSs. In a laboratory setting, participants (N=60) spent 10 minutes on Facebook, and then reported their experiences during this session. Analyses of participants' usage behavior and their experiences revealed that the more time users spent interacting with other users (e.g., commenting on updates), the closer they felt to other people. Interacting with others also predicted users' positive emotional states after Facebook use; this effect may be explained by the perception of social closeness. This study is one of the first to employ momentary measures, offering a further theoretical link between active SNS use and well-being.

  5. Overcoming Social Disconnection and Its Consequences for Transition into Adulthood: Case Studies of Adults Who Exited Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taglianetti, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Devastating life experiences continually plague many foster care youth throughout their entire lives on social, emotional, educational, psychological, and physical levels. Oftentimes, the cumulative effect of these events results in large numbers of individuals dropping out of school and becoming increasingly disconnected from people and many…

  6. "What Works" in Education and Social Welfare? A Mapping of the "Evidence Discourse" and Reflections upon Consequences for Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about "evidence" for "What Works" in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom-up professional strategy.…

  7. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  8. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: An Example of the Potential Consequence of Negatively Worded Items in Factorial Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Conroy, David E.; Horan, Patrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Used confirmatory factor analysis to examine whether the two-factor solution to the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (E. Hart, M. Leary, and W. Rejeski, 1989) was meaningful. Results for 4 samples of data for college students, high school students, and athletes (n=1,053) from previous studies support the existence of a single substantive factor…

  9. The Micro Consequences of Macro-Level Social Transition: How Did Russians Survive in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuanping; Hwang, Sean-Shong

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we investigate the possible links between the Russian mortality crisis of the 1990s and social transition that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union. The results of the analysis demonstrate that Russians' life chances and their psychological resources and well-being were…

  10. Ability of palatable food consumption to buffer against the short- and long-term behavioral consequences of social defeat exposure during juvenility in rats.

    PubMed

    MacKay, J C; Kent, P; James, J S; Cayer, C; Merali, Z

    2017-04-07

    In adult rats, access to a palatable diet can buffer against the effects of stressors. Approximately 10% of all adolescents are repeatedly victimized by their peers raising the possibility that palatable food consumption may be relevant to this developmental window. This study assessed the long-term impact of juvenile social defeat exposure on anxiety and depressive-like behavior and whether daily limited access to a palatable diet moderated these behavioral consequences. We also investigated the impact of the palatable diet on behavior during the defeat sessions. Juvenile rats were exposed to either a different adult resident rat (Stress) or handling (Control) from postnatal day (PD) 28-34. All rats had ad libitum access to either chow alone or both chow and limited access (4h/day) to palatable food commencing on PD 21. Results showed that during the defeat sessions, juvenile rats with access to the palatable diet spent less time in submissive postures and displayed significantly longer latencies to submit to the resident. In adulthood, previous exposure to juvenile social defeat resulted in a mild anxiogenic profile in the open field among rats with access to Chow only. Furthermore, defeated rats, regardless of diet, displayed reduced locomotor activity and increased social interaction as adults. These findings suggested only minimal enduring negative consequences from juvenile social defeat exposure which made it challenging to assess potential stress-buffering effects of the palatable diet. This was not the case during the defeat sessions where previous exposure to palatable food appeared protective against the acute stressor effects.

  11. Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Dauvergne, Peter; Neville, Kate J

    2010-01-01

    The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major biofuel feedstocks - such as sugar, oil palm, and soy - are already entrenched in industrial agricultural and forestry production systems, the authors extrapolate from patterns of production for these crops to bolster their argument that state capacities, the timing of market entry, existing institutions, and historical state-society land tenure relations will particularly affect the potential consequences of further biofuel development. Although the impacts of biofuels vary by region and feedstock, and although some agrarian communities in some countries of the global South are poised to benefit, the analysis suggests that already-vulnerable people and communities will bear a disproportionate share of the costs of biofuel development, particularly for biofuels from crops already embedded in industrial production systems. A core reason, this paper argues, is that the emerging biofuel alliances are reinforcing processes and structures that increase pressures on the ecological integrity of tropical forests and further wrest control of resources from subsistence farmers, indigenous peoples, and people with insecure land rights. Even the development of so-called 'sustainable' biofuels looks set to displace livelihoods and reinforce and extend previous waves of hardship for such marginalised peoples.

  12. The Academic and Social Life Styles of Students and Teachers of Higher Education Institutions in Bangladesh as Consequences of Using Social Network Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Che Kum

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of social network sites (SNS), students and teachers of higher education institutions all over the world have been making efforts to meet up with the demands of these information and communication technology (ICT) tools. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted at four private universities in Bangladesh with the aim…

  13. Online Work Force Analyzes Social Media to Identify Consequences of an Unplanned School Closure – Using Technology to Prepare for the Next Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Jeanette J.; Kenney, Jasmine; Wilburn, Ben; Putman, Ami; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; O’Sullivan, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background During an influenza pandemic, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) may recommend school closures. These closures could have unintended consequences for students and their families. Publicly available social media could be analyzed to identify the consequences of an unplanned school closure. Methods As a proxy for an unplanned, pandemic-related school closure, we used the district-wide school closure due to the September 10–18, 2012 teachers’ strike in Chicago, Illinois. We captured social media posts about the school closure using the Radian6 social media-monitoring platform. An online workforce from Amazon Mechanical Turk categorized each post into one of two groups. The first group included relevant posts that described the impact of the closure on students and their families. The second group included irrelevant posts that described the political aspects of the strike or topics unrelated to the school closure. All relevant posts were further categorized as expressing a positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. We analyzed patterns of relevant posts and sentiment over time and compared our findings to household surveys conducted after other unplanned school closures. Results We captured 4,546 social media posts about the district-wide school closure using our search criteria. Of these, 930 (20%) were categorized as relevant by the online workforce. Of the relevant posts, 619 (67%) expressed a negative sentiment, 51 (5%) expressed a positive sentiment, and 260 (28%) were neutral. The number of relevant posts, and especially those with a negative sentiment, peaked on day 1 of the strike. Negative sentiment expressed concerns about childcare, missed school lunches, and the lack of class time for students. This was consistent with findings from previously conducted household surveys. Conclusion Social media are publicly available and can readily provide information on the impact of an unplanned school closure on students

  14. Social networks of experientially similar others: formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience.

    PubMed

    Gage, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child's care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents' perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child's care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences.

  15. The loss of behavioral diversity as a consequence of anthropogenic habitat disturbance: the social interactions of black howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Negrín, Ariadna Rangel; Fuentes, Alejandro Coyohua; Espinosa, Domingo Canales; Dias, Pedro Américo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    To date, no study has investigated how human disturbance affects the size of the behavioral repertoire of a species. The aim of the present study is to illustrate how measurement of behavioral diversity assists in documenting biodiversity loss, demonstrating that human disturbance has a negative effect on behavioral diversity. We studied the social interaction repertoire of 41 adult black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) belonging to 10 groups living in different habitats in Campeche (Mexico), and related repertoire size to a proxy of human-induced habitat disturbance, habitat size. The social interaction repertoire of groups living in habitats with higher human-induced disturbance included lower number of behavioral types, and in particular, fewer energy-demanding behaviors. Thus, in addition to a loss in biodiversity, measured through organismal diversity, the disturbance of black howler monkeys' habitats is accompanied by a loss in behavioral diversity. We believe that the study of behavioral diversity as an element of biodiversity will become an increasingly important research topic, as it will improve our understanding of the behavioral strategies displayed by wildlife facing anthropogenic disturbance.

  16. Changes in the hydrocarbon proportions of colony odor and their consequences on nestmate recognition in social wasps.

    PubMed

    Costanzi, Elena; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève; Lorenzi, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In social insects, colonies have exclusive memberships and residents promptly detect and reject non-nestmates. Blends of epicuticular hydrocarbons communicate colony affiliation, but the question remains how social insects use the complex information in the blends to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. To test this we altered colony odor by simulating interspecific nest usurpation. We split Polistes dominulus paper-wasp nests into two halves and assigned a half to the original foundress and the other half to a P. nimphus usurper for 4 days. We then removed foundresses and usurpers from nests and investigated whether emerging P. dominulus workers recognized their never-before-encountered mothers, usurpers and non-nestmates of the two species. Behavioral and chemical analyses of wasps and nests indicated that 1) foundresses marked their nests with their cuticular hydrocarbons; 2) usurpers overmarked foundress marks and 3) emerging workers learned colony odor from nests as the odor of the female that was last on nest. However, notwithstanding colony odor was usurper-biased in usurped nests, workers from these nests recognized their mothers, suggesting that there were pre-imaginal and/or genetically encoded components in colony-odor learning. Surprisingly, workers from usurped nests also erroneously tolerated P. nimphus non-nestmates, suggesting they could not tell odor differences between their P. nimphus usurpers and P. nimphus non-nestmates. Usurpers changed the odors of their nests quantitatively, because the two species had cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that differed only quantitatively. Possibly, P. dominulus workers were unable to detect differences between nestmate and non-nestmate P. nimphus because the concentration of some peaks in these wasps was beyond the range of workers' discriminatory abilities (as stated by Weber's law). Indeed, workers displayed the least discrimination abilities in the usurped nests where the relative odor changes due

  17. Childhood adversity, perceived discrimination, and coping strategies in relation to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Robyn Jane; Bombay, Amy; McInnis, Opal Arilla; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples are at greater risk of experiencing early life adversity relative to non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and as adults frequently experience high levels of discrimination that act as a further stressor. Although these factors appear to contribute to high rates of depressive disorders and suicidality in Aboriginal peoples, the psychosocial factors that contribute to the relationship between childhood adversity and the development of depressive symptoms have hardly been assessed in this group. The present investigation explored potential mediators to help explain the relation between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms among a sample of First Nations adults from across Canada. These mediated relationships were further examined in the context of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members. In Study 1, (N = 225), the relationship between childhood trauma and depression scores was mediated by perceived discrimination, and this was particularly notable in the presence of unsupportive relations with outgroup members. In Study 2, (N = 134) the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion-focused coping that was specific to coping with experiences of ethnic discrimination, and this mediated effect was moderated by both outgroup and ingroup unsupportive social interactions. Thus, it seems that experiences of discrimination and unsupport might contribute to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults who had experienced early life adverse events.

  18. Rationale and Consequences of Reclassifying Obesity as an Addictive Disorder: Neurobiology, Food Environment and Social Policy Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Patricia; Batra, Payal; Geiger, Brenda M.; Wommack, Tara; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Pothos, Emmanuel N.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity is a priority for investigators from across numerous disciplines, including biology, nutritional science, and public health and policy. In this paper, we systematically examine the premise that common dietary obesity is an addictive disorder, based on the criteria for addiction described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, version IV, and consider the consequences of such a reclassification of obesity for public policy. Specifically, we discuss evidence from both human and animal studies investigating the effects of various types and amounts of food and the food environment in obese individuals. Neurobiological studies have shown that the hedonic brain pathways activated by palatable food overlap considerably with those activated by drugs of abuse and suffer significant deficits after chronic exposure to high-energy diets. Furthermore, food as a stimulus can induce the sensitization, compulsion and relapse patterns observed in individuals who are addicted to illicit drugs. The current food environment encourages these addictive-like behaviors where increased exposure through advertisements, proximity and increased portion sizes are routine. Taking lessons from the tobacco experience, it is clear that reclassifying common dietary obesity as an addictive disorder would necessitate policy changes (e.g., regulatory efforts, economic strategies, and educational approaches). These policies could be instrumental in addressing the obesity epidemic, by encouraging the food industry and the political leadership to collaborate with the scientific and medical community in establishing new and more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:22583861

  19. Rationale and consequences of reclassifying obesity as an addictive disorder: neurobiology, food environment and social policy perspectives.

    PubMed

    Allen, Patricia J; Batra, Payal; Geiger, Brenda M; Wommack, Tara; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Pothos, Emmanuel N

    2012-08-20

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity is a priority for investigators from across numerous disciplines, including biology, nutritional science, and public health and policy. In this paper, we systematically examine the premise that common dietary obesity is an addictive disorder, based on the criteria for addiction described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, version IV, and consider the consequences of such a reclassification of obesity for public policy. Specifically, we discuss evidence from both human and animal studies investigating the effects of various types and amounts of food and the food environment in obese individuals. Neurobiological studies have shown that the hedonic brain pathways activated by palatable food overlap considerably with those activated by drugs of abuse and suffer significant deficits after chronic exposure to high-energy diets. Furthermore, food as a stimulus can induce the sensitization, compulsion and relapse patterns observed in individuals who are addicted to illicit drugs. The current food environment encourages these addictive-like behaviors where increased exposure through advertisements, proximity and increased portion sizes are routine. Taking lessons from the tobacco experience, it is clear that reclassifying common dietary obesity as an addictive disorder would necessitate policy changes (e.g., regulatory efforts, economic strategies, and educational approaches). These policies could be instrumental in addressing the obesity epidemic, by encouraging the food industry and the political leadership to collaborate with the scientific and medical community in establishing new and more effective therapeutic approaches.

  20. DID SEND-DOWN EXPERIENCE BENEFIT YOUTH? A REEVALUATION OF THE SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF FORCED URBAN-RURAL MIGRATION DURING CHINA’S CULTURAL REVOLUTION*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jiang, Yang; Greenman, Emily

    2008-01-01

    During China’s Cultural Revolution, a large proportion of urban youth were forced to go to the countryside as a result of the state’s “send-down” policy. Past research has been ambivalent about the long-term social consequences for the Chinese youth who experienced send-down. Some scholars have suggested that the send-down experience may have yielded beneficial effects. To test this claim, we analyze data from the Survey of Family Life in Urban China, which we conducted in three large cities in 1999. Questions available in this data set allow us to ascertain the send-down experience of both the respondent and a sibling and educational attainment at the times of send-down and return. Our analyses of the new data show that the send-down experience does not seem to have benefited the affected Chinese youth. Differences in social outcomes between those who experienced send-down and those who did not are either non-existent or spurious due to other social processes. PMID:19069066

  1. Consequences of elevating plasma testosterone in females of a socially monogamous songbird: evidence of constraints on male evolution?

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Neal, Dawn M; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M; Casto, Joseph M; Parker-Renga, Ian M; Snajdr, Eric A; Duffy, Deborah L; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2004-08-01

    To explore whether selection for testosterone-mediated traits in males might be constrained by costs of higher testosterone to females, we examined the effects of experimental elevation of plasma testosterone on physiological, reproductive, and behavioral parameters in a female songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We used subcutaneous implants to elevate testosterone (T) in captive and free-living female juncos. In captive birds, we measured the effects of high T on body mass, feather molt, and brood patch formation. In the field, we monitored its effects on the timing of egg laying, clutch size, egg size, egg steroid levels, incubation, and nest-defense behavior. Females implanted with testosterone (T-females) had significantly higher circulating levels of testosterone than did control females (C-females). Captive T-females had lower body mass, were less likely to develop brood patches, and delayed feather molt relative to C-females. Among free-living females, the interval between nest completion and appearance of the first egg was longer for T-females than for C-females and egg yolk concentrations of testosterone were higher, but there were no significant differences in estradiol levels, clutch size, or egg size. Incubation and nest defense behavior were also similar between T- and C-females. Our results suggest that selection on males for higher testosterone might initially lead to a correlated response in females producing changes in body mass and feather molt, both of which could be detrimental. Other possible female responses would be delayed onset of reproduction, which might reduce reproductive success, and higher yolk testosterone, which might have either positive or negative effects on offspring development. We found no reason to expect reduced parental behavior by females as a negative fitness consequence of selection for higher testosterone in males.

  2. Evolutionary and social consequences of introgression of nontransgenic herbicide resistance from rice to weedy rice in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Merotto, Aldo; Goulart, Ives C G R; Nunes, Anderson L; Kalsing, Augusto; Markus, Catarine; Menezes, Valmir G; Wander, Alcido E

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have expressed concerns about the effects of gene flow from transgenic herbicide-resistant crops to their wild relatives, but no major problems have been observed. This review describes a case study in which what has been feared in transgenics regarding gene flow has actually changed biodiversity and people's lives. Nontransgenic imidazolinone-resistant rice (IMI-rice) cultivars increased the rice grain yield by 50% in southern Brazil. This increase was beneficial for life quality of the farmers and also improved the regional economy. However, weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides started to evolve three years after the first use of IMI-rice cultivars. Population genetic studies indicate that the herbicide-resistant weedy rice was mainly originated from gene flow from resistant cultivars and distributed by seed migration. The problems related with herbicide-resistant weedy rice increased the production costs of rice that forced farmers to sell or rent their land. Gene flow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has proven to be a large agricultural, economic, and social constraint in the use of herbicide-resistant technologies in rice. This problem must be taken into account for the development of new transgenic or nontransgenic rice technologies.

  3. [Social and economic consequences of night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport].

    PubMed

    Greiser, E; Glaeske, G

    2013-03-01

    A prospective calculation of disease-related social and economic costs due to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport was performed for the calendar years 2012-2021. It was based on risk estimates for a variety of diagnostic entities (cardiovascular disease, depression, psychosis, diabetes mellitus, dementia and Alzheimer's disease, all cancers except malignancies of the respiratory system) from a previous case-control study on more than 1 million persons enrolled in compulsory sickness funds in the vicinity of the Cologne-Bonn airport, on disease-related cost estimates performed by the German Federal Statistical Office for the calender years 2002-2008, and calculations of the population exposed to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport (2005 aircraft routes and flight frequencies). Total estimated costs came to more than 1.5 billion € with an excess of 23 400 cases of diseases treated in hospitals and of 3 400 subsequent deaths.

  4. Cost of care and social consequences of very low birth weight infants without premature- related morbidities in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Maria Caterina; Gugiatti, Attilio; Fattore, Giovanni; Gerzeli, Simone; Barbieri, Dario; Zanini, Rinaldo

    2015-08-19

    Aim of this study was to estimate the cost that is borne by the Italian National Health Service, families, and social security due to very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) without prematurity-related morbidities up to the age of 18 months. We followed up on 150 VLBWIs and 145 comparable full-term infants (FTIs) who were born in one of 25 different neonatal intensive care units upon discharge from the hospital and at six and 18 months of age. The average length of the primary hospitalisation of the VLBWIs was 59.7 days (SD 21.6 days), with a total cost of €20,502 (SD €8409), compared with three days (SD 0.4 days) with a total cost of €907 (SD €304) for the FTIs. The total societal cost of the VLBWIs for the first 18 months of life was €58,098 (SD €21,625), while the corresponding figure for FTIs was €24,209 (SD €15,557). Among VLBWIs, both low birth weight and gestational age were correlated with the length of hospitalisation after birth (r(2) = 0.61 and r(2) = 0.57, respectively; p values < 0.0005). Our findings highlight that the existing DRGs and tariffs inadequately reflect the actual costs for Italian National Health Service.

  5. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  6. Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  7. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of

  8. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  9. Mental health consequences of international migration for Vietnamese Americans and the mediating effects of physical health and social networks: results from a natural experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongyun; VanLandingham, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    Although the existing literature on immigrant mental health is extensive, major substantive and methodological gaps remain. Substantively, there is little population-based research that focuses on the mental health consequences of migration for Vietnamese Americans. More generally, although a wide range of mental health problems among immigrants has been identified, the potential causal or mediating mechanisms underlying these problems remain elusive. This latter substantive shortcoming is related to a key methodological challenge involving the potentially confounding effects of selection on migration-related outcomes. This article addresses these challenges by employing a "natural experiment" design, involving comparisons among three population-based samples of Vietnamese immigrants, never-leavers, and returnees (N=709). Data were collected in Ho Chi Minh City and in New Orleans between 2003 and 2005. The study investigates the long-term impact of international migration on Vietnamese mental health, and the potential mediating effects of social networks and physical health on these migration-related outcomes. The results reveal both mental health advantages and disadvantages among Vietnamese immigrants relative to the two groups of Vietnamese nationals. Selection can be ruled out for some of these differences, and both social networks and physical health are found to play important explanatory roles.

  10. The relation between an adverse psychological and social environment in childhood and the development of adult obesity: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is on a global-wide increase, but still the aetiology of adult obesity is poorly understood. It has been shown that overweight children suffer from adverse psychological events, but less is known about the potential effects of adverse psychological factors among normal weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE (silverplatter 1977-2008), PsycINFO (1972-2008) and PsycINFO Weekly (week 1 January 2007-week 3 July 2008) to identify studies of interest. Six prospective and two retrospective studies were identified. Psychosocial factors related to adult obesity were lack of childhood care, abuse and childhood anxiety disorders. In addition, depression in adolescence tended to be related to adult obesity but among young girls only. Learning difficulties and scholastic proficiencies below average were also risk factors. The current literature suggests that specific psychosocial factors in childhood may act as determinants for developing obesity in adulthood.

  11. [The end of discrimination in social security for the elderly? Some remarks on the consequences of the paradigm shift in a life course perspective on gender].

    PubMed

    Fachinger, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    woman's life are important factors to combat the disadvantages of private funded pension systems of which mainly women are affected in building up rights to future benefits. The analysis shows that the paradigm shift primarily brings disadvantages to women. They disproportionally depend on statutory pension system benefits, and therefore also on compensating benefits of the negative consequences of private and occupational pension systems. For the future an increase in poverty of older people - and especially women - can be seen to emerge because of pension privatisation and the reduction of the pension level in the German social security system.

  12. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  13. [Allergies and adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones].

    PubMed

    Muller, Y; Andrey, D; Emonet, S; Harr, T; Spoerl, D

    2015-04-08

    The prescription ot fluoroquinolones has been constantly increasing over the past decade. consequently, an increasing number of hyper-sensitivity reactions and adverse events have been reported. The aim of the review is to discuss the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions either IgE (immediate) or T cells mediated (delayed). We will make an overview ofthe diagnostic tools available to detect such hypersensitivity reactions. Finally, the specific adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones, including tendinopathy, chondrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy or retinal detachment will be discussed.

  14. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mashhood A; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%), health (7.01%), and well-being (9.09%), as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  15. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Mashhood A.; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%), health (7.01%), and well-being (9.09%), as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  16. Adverse effects of psychological therapy: An exploratory study of practitioners' experiences from child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Johanson, Josefin; Nilsson, Elin; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The scientific knowledge about adverse effects of psychological therapies and how such effects should be detected is limited. It is possible that children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable and need specific support in order to express adverse effects. In this exploratory study, we used a qualitative approach to explore practitioners' experiences of this phenomenon. Fourteen practitioners providing psychological therapy within the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was applied to the data. Four overarching categories brought up by the practitioners were identified: vagueness of the concept (reflecting that the concept was novel and hard to define), psychotherapist-client interaction (encompassing aspects of the interaction possibly related to adverse effects), consequences for the young person (including a range of emotional, behavioural and social consequences) and family effects (e.g. professional complications and decreased autonomy for the parent). Professional discussions on these issues could improve psychological therapy for children and adolescents. Based on our findings and previous research, we propose three basic aspects to consider when adverse effects are detected and managed in this context: typology (form, severity and duration), aetiology (hypothesis about the causes) and perspective (adverse effects seen from the points of view of different interested parties).

  17. Human-Computer Interactions: Are There Adverse Health Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emurian, Henry H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the hypothesis that similarities may exist between laboratory research paradigms evoking elevated blood pressure during task performance by normal subjects and video display terminal (VDT) work done by data clerks and college students. Type A behavior and the development of coronary heart disease are discussed, and further research needs…

  18. Classroom-level adversity: Associations with children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors across elementary school.

    PubMed

    Abry, Tashia; Bryce, Crystal I; Swanson, Jodi; Bradley, Robert H; Fabes, Richard A; Corwyn, Robert F

    2017-03-01

    Concerns regarding the social-behavioral maladjustment of U.S. youth have spurred efforts among educators and policymakers to identify and remedy educational contexts that exacerbate children's anxiety, depression, aggression, and misconduct. However, investigations of the influence of collective classroom student characteristics on individuals' social-behavioral functioning are few. The present study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between adversity factors facing the collective classroom student group and levels of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors across the elementary school years, and whether the pattern of relations differed for girls and boys. First-, third-, and fifth-grade teachers reported on the extent to which adversity-related factors (e.g., home/family life, academic readiness, social readiness, English proficiency, tardiness/absenteeism, student mobility, health) presented a challenge in their classrooms (i.e., classroom-level adversity [CLA]). Mothers reported on their child's internalizing and externalizing behavior at each grade. Autoregressive, lagged panel models controlled for prior levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior, mothers' education, family income-to-needs, and class size. For all children at each grade, CLA was concurrently and positively associated with externalizing behavior. For first-grade girls, but not boys, CLA was also concurrently and positively associated with internalizing behavior. Indirect effects suggested CLA influenced later internalizing and externalizing behavior through its influence on maladjustment in a given year. Discussion highlights possible methods of intervention to reduce CLA or the negative consequences associated with being in a higher-adversity classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  20. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  1. The Consequences of the Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Carragher, Marcella; Foster, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impact of the environment on the participation of people with aphasia depends on one's perspective. A long-term perspective provides a unique insight into the myriad of ways in which the environment can influence the participation of people living with aphasia over decades. In this article, the authors present the real-life story of “Hank,” who has lived with aphasia for more than 15 years. The authors consider how 2 different conceptual frameworks—the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Social Determinants of Health—account for Hank's experience. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is useful to conceptualize the range of factors that influence living with aphasia at a particular point in time. In contrast, the Social Determinants of Health is useful to conceptualize the cumulative impact of living with aphasia on long-term health and well-being. Viewing aphasia as a social condition that impacts social determinants of health has potentially wide ranging implications for service design and delivery and the role of speech–language pathologists. PMID:28232769

  2. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children.

  3. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  4. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  5. Ties between ageing plasticity and reproductive physiology in honey bees (Apis mellifera) reveal a positive relation between fecundity and longevity as consequence of advanced social evolution.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Aumer, Denise; Moritz, Robin Fa

    2016-08-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the best studied model of ageing among the social insects. As in other social insects, the reproductive queen far outlives her non-reproductive workers despite developing from the same genome in the same colony environment. Thus, the different social roles of the two female castes are critical for the profound phenotypic plasticity. In several special cases, such as the reproductive workers of Apis mellifera capensis, within-caste plasticity enables further studies of the fecundity-longevity syndrome in honey bees. At present, molecular evidence suggests that a reorganization of physiological control pathways may facilitate longevity of reproductive individuals. However, the social role and social environment of the different colony members are also very important and one of the key future questions is how much social facilitation versus internal regulation is responsible for the positive association between fecundity and longevity in honey bees.

  6. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  7. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

  8. Childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations.

    PubMed

    Fiddler, Maggie; Jackson, Judy; Kapur, Navneet; Wells, Adrian; Creed, Francis

    2004-01-01

    We assessed possible psychological mediators of the relationship between childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations among new outpatients at neurology, cardiology, and gastroenterology clinics. We assessed whether these differed in patients with and without organic disease that explained their symptoms. At first clinic visit we recorded Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS--anxiety and depression subscale scores), Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ--four subscales: consequences, cure, identity, timeline), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (total score), and Symptom Amplification Scale (total score). Subjects were divided into two groups according to whether they had experienced any type of childhood adversity using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Schedule. Outcome was the (log) number of medical consultations for 12 months before and 6 months after the index clinic visits. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine mediators; this was performed separately for patients with symptoms explained and not explained by organic disease. One-hundred and twenty-nine patients (61% response) were interviewed. Fifty-two (40.3%) had experienced childhood adversity; they made a median of 16 doctor visits compared with 10 for those without adversity (adjusted P=.026). IPQ identity score (number of symptoms attributed to the illness) and HAD depression scores were significantly associated with both childhood adversity and number of medical consultations and these variables acted as mediators between childhood adversity and frequency of consultation in the multiple regression analyses. This association was limited to patients with medically unexplained symptoms and was mediated by IPQ Identity Score (number of symptoms attributed to the patient's illness) and HAD depression score. Sexual abuse and overt neglect were the adversities most closely associated with frequent consultations. In patients with medically unexplained symptoms the association

  9. The political and socioeconomic predicates of risk analysis: Integration of natural and social science in anticipating the environmental consequences of development

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.P.

    1995-12-31

    The fundamental origins of industrial development and land-use changes that generate physical and chemical threats to biological natural resources are social, political, and economic forces. Two new international economic trade treaties, NAFTA in North America and MERCOSUR in South America, are major forces inducing a complex of changes and regional economic developments that will pose new regional treats to natural resources. Current strategies of ecological risk assessment rarely include an analysis of social, political, or economic factors in any systematic form. Nor are these social sciences integrated with natural sciences in performing a comprehensive risk analysis. A suggested strategy is delineated here that would incorporate social sciences in risk analysis for large programs like NAFTA and MERCOSUR. This strategy would also be applicable in regional risk analysis to estimate the probability and location of development of certain types of industrial development and large scale land-use change. The implications of projected regional economic growth and the development of specific types of industries and land-use changes stimulated by these or other social, political, or economic forces could be addressed using more traditional forms of evaluation and ecological risk analysis. Ultimately, a more comprehensive and synthetic definition and delineation of the procedures of risk analysis must evolve to include aspects of both natural and social sciences.

  10. Early Adverse Experiences and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to various forms of adversity early in life are at increased risk for a broad range of developmental difficulties, affecting both cognitive and emotional adjustment. We review a growing body of evidence suggesting that exposure to adverse circumstances affects the developing brain in ways that increase risk for a myriad of problems. We focus on two forms of adversity, one in which children are exposed to childhood maltreatment in family environments, and another in which children are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation in contexts of institutional rearing. We discuss ways in which each of these experiences represent violations of species-expected caregiving conditions, thereby imposing challenges to the developing brain. We also review emerging data pointing to the effectiveness of early intervention in remediating neurodevelopmental consequences associated with maltreatment or institutional rearing. We conclude by discussing implications of this work for public health efforts and highlight important directions for the field. PMID:26334107

  11. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2017-04-05

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article defined the different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and explored when they can occur. It emphasised the importance of being knowledgeable about medications, considering patient safety when patients are taking medications, being alert to the possibility of ADRs, and recognising and responding to suspected ADRs.

  12. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence.

  13. Is HIV/AIDS a consequence or divine judgment? Implications for faith-based social services. A Nigerian faith-based university's study

    PubMed Central

    Olaore, Israel B.; Olaore, Augusta Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A contemporary reading of Romans 1:27 was disguised as a saying by Paul Benjamin, AD 58 and administered to 275 randomly selected members of a private Christian university community in south western Nigeria in West Africa. Participants were asked to respond to a two-item questionnaire on their perception of the cause of HIV/AIDS either as a judgment from God or consequence of individual lifestyle choices. The apparent consensus drifted in the direction of God as the culprit handing down his judgment to perpetrators of evil who engage in the homosexual lifestyle. The goal of this paper was to examine the implications of a judgmental stance on addressing the psychosocial needs of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in religious environments. It also explores how service providers in faith-based environments can work around the Judgment versus Consequence tussle in providing non-discriminatory services to persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. PMID:24820240

  14. The Complement System and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Regal, Jean F.; Gilbert, Jeffrey S.; Burwick, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the feta allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  15. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  16. Adverse reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Michael R; Hershey, Joyce N; Engler, Renata J M

    2003-06-01

    (The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.) Immunization healthcare is becoming increasingly complex as the number and types of vaccines have continued to expand. Like all prescription drugs, vaccines may be associated with adverse events. The majority of these reactions are self-limited and not associated with prolonged disability. The media, Internet and public advocacy groups have focused on potentially serious vaccine-associated adverse events with questions raised about causal linkages to increasing frequencies of diseases such as autism and asthma. Despite a lack of evidence of a causal relationship to a variety of vaccine safety concerns, including extensive reviews by the Institute of Medicine, questions regarding vaccine safety continue to threaten the success of immunization programs. Risk communication arid individual risk assessment is further challenged by the public health success of vaccine programs creating the perception that certain vaccines are no longer necessary or justified because of the rare reaction risk. There is a need for improved understanding of true vaccine contraindications and precautions as well as host factors and disease threat in order to develop a patient specific balanced risk communication intervention. When they occur, vaccine related adverse events must be treated, documented and reported through the VAERS system. The increasing complexity of vaccination health care has led the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to identify Vaccine Safety Assessment and Evaluation as a potential new specialty.

  17. Navigating Racialized Contexts: The Influence of School and Family Socialization on African American Students' Racial and Educational Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Shuntay Z.

    2013-01-01

    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…

  18. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications…

  19. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  20. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  1. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions.

  2. Behavioral Correlates of Depression: Antecedents or Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David A.; Milstead, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Compared Coyne's interpersonal model of depression to Lewinsohn's social skill model of depression in a large sample of nonreferred college students (N=202). Contrary to both Coyne and Lewinsohn, no evidence of a direct relation between social support and depression was found. Results suggest social skills deficits are a consequence, not a cause,…

  3. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy.

  4. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  5. Consequences of use of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Casavant, Marcel J; Blake, Kathleen; Griffith, Jill; Yates, Andrew; Copley, LaRae M

    2007-08-01

    Whether providing anticipatory guidance to the young adolescent patient, conducting a preparticipation examination on a young athlete, or treating a sick user of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), the primary care physician must be familiar with the adverse consequences of the use of these compounds. This article reviews the endocrine, cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, musculoskeletal, hematologic, hepatic, and miscellaneous effects of AASs, highlighting effects reported in children and adolescents, and relying on consequences in adults when pediatric data is unavailable.

  6. Social determinants, lived experiences, and consequences of household food insecurity among persons living with HIV/AIDS on the shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jason M; Magerenge, Richard O; Young, Sera L; Oguta, Joel O; Weiser, Sheri D; Cohen, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity is a considerable challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, disproportionately affecting persons living with HIV/AIDS. This study investigates the lived experience, determinants, and consequences of food insecurity and hunger among individuals living with HIV/AIDS on the shore of Lake Victoria in Suba District, Kenya. Parallel mixed methods included semi-structured interviews and administration of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale among a systematic sample of 67 persons living with HIV/AIDS (49 of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART]). All respondents were either severely (79.1%) or moderately (20.9%) food insecure; no respondents were mildly food insecure or food secure. Qualitative data and simple and multiple linear regression models indicated that significant determinants of food insecurity include increased age, a greater number of children, and not being married. A number of themes related to food insecurity and ART emerged, including: (1) an increase in hunger or appetite since initiating ART; (2) exacerbation of ART-related side effects; and (3) non-adherence to ART due to hunger, food insecurity, or agricultural work responsibilities. HIV interventions should address food insecurity and hunger, particularly among at-risk populations, to promote ART adherence and better health outcomes.

  7. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  8. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  9. School-Based Intervention for Social Skills in Children from Divorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angacian, Sevan; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Byer-Alcorace, Gabriel; Theodore, Lea A.; Cross, Karen; DeBiase, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Divorce is an increasingly prevalent occurrence in society that has the potential to result in many adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and their parents. Social skills, such as those with peers, are one of the problems that may emerge for children of divorce. Despite this growing problem, there is a paucity of research…

  10. A preliminary investigation of risks for adverse outcomes of relationship seeking on social network sites (SNS): a descriptive study of women over 50 seeking relationships on MySpace in Hillsborough County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Vandeweerd, Carla; Corvin, Jaime; Coulter, Martha; Perkins, Elizabeth; Telford, Robin; Yalcin, Ali; Myers, Jaime; Yegidis, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to younger populations, little attention has been paid to the increase in seniors using Internet-based venues to find relationships and the potential risk for adverse outcomes this poses. This study examined data collected via an online survey from 45 ethnically diverse women aged 50+ "seeking relationships" on MySpace. The majority of women reported a relationship with someone they met online (85%). They also reported experiencing adverse events including financial exploitation (40%), threats (55%), and physical harm (38%) by someone they met online at levels greater than traditional relationship seeking in the general population. Directions for future research are explored.

  11. Telithromycin: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Telithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has been marketed since the early 2000s. It has not been shown to be more effective against any bacteria than other macrolide antibiotics. Its antibacterial activity is in no way remarkable. In early 2014, we reviewed its adverse effect profile using data from periodic safety update reports, drug regulatory agencies, and detailed published case reports. In addition to the adverse effect profile telithromycin shares with the other macrolides, it provokes several specific adverse effects: visual disturbances due to impaired accommodation; taste and smell disorders; severe liver damage; worsening of myasthenia gravis; rhabdomyolysis; and loss of consciousness. Prolongation of the QT interval with standard oral doses is a worrisome adverse effect. In practice, it is better not to use telithromycin as it exposes patients to disproportionate, serious adverse effects. When treatment with a macrolide antibiotic appears necessary, it is prudent to choose a different macrolide, such as spiramycin or azithromycin, which have fewer adverse effects.

  12. Prevalence, Motivations, and Social, Mental Health and Health Consequences of Cyberbullying Among School-Aged Children and Youth: Protocol of a Longitudinal and Multi-Perspective Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David

    2016-01-01

    Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with

  13. Cardiovascular consequences of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tune, Johnathan D; Goodwill, Adam G; Sassoon, Daniel J; Mather, Kieren J

    2017-01-09

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. While advances in understanding the etiology and consequences of this complex disorder have been made, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain incompletely understood, and it is unclear how these concurrent risk factors conspire to produce the variety of obesity-associated adverse cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we highlight current knowledge regarding the pathophysiological consequences of obesity and the MetS on cardiovascular function and disease, including considerations of potential physiological and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to these adverse outcomes.

  14. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  15. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).

  16. [Health consequence of stalking victimization].

    PubMed

    Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B

    2012-05-01

    Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people.

  17. Adverse effects of public health interventions: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Theo; Oliver, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Public health interventions may have a range of adverse effects. However, there is limited guidance as to how evaluations should address the possibility of adverse effects. This discussion paper briefly presents a framework for thinking about the potential harms of public health interventions, focusing on the following categories: direct harms; psychological harms; equity harms; group and social harms; and opportunity harms. We conclude that the possibility of adverse effects needs to be taken into account by those implementing and evaluating interventions, and requires a broad perspective on the potential impacts of public health strategies.

  18. [Photodegradation of chlorpromazine, a drug-related adverse event].

    PubMed

    Chabi, Yossounon; Brahim, Kheira; Da Costa, Maryline; Caffin, Anne-Gaëlle; Camus, Gisèle; Paillet, Michel; Bohand, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of an active substance during treatment is a rare drug-related adverse event which can sometimes have serious consequences. Health professionals must be aware of the specific storage and administration instructions with regard to chlorpromazine and ensure that they are respected.

  19. Cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, S; Allegra, A; Calapai, G; Musolino, C; Gangemi, S

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) used principally in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), myelodysplastic syndromes (MS) and amyloidosis. Adverse reactions related to lenalidomide include myelosuppression (mainly neutropenia but also thrombocytopenia), gastrointestinal problems, skin eruption, atrial fibrillation and asthenia, decreased peripheral blood stem cell yield during stem cell collection, venous thromboembolism, and secondary malignances. In this review we focused our attention on the cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.

  20. The Social Consequences of Insecure Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Stefani

    2009-01-01

    Forms of insecure employment have been increasing all over Europe in recent decades. These developments have been welcomed by those who argued that these types of flexible employment would not only foster employment but could also help women, in particular, to positively combine work and family life. This vision was questioned by others who argued…

  1. The Social and Political Consequences of Overeducation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Val

    1983-01-01

    Estimates the extent of overeducation in the labor force by sex, race, age, and class background and examines its impact on workers' attitudes in terms of job satisfaction, political leftism, political alienation, and stratification ideology. Findings fail to support the common prediction of major political repercussions of overeducation. (AOS)

  2. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  3. Increased alpha-amylase response to an acute psychosocial stress challenge in healthy adults with childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Kuras, Yuliya I; McInnis, Christine M; Thoma, Myriam V; Chen, Xuejie; Hanlin, Luke; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and linked to lasting psychological and physiological consequences. A potential mechanism for negative health outcomes is altered stress reactivity. While previous research has addressed associations of childhood adversity with stress system reactivity, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity is understudied. We therefore set out here to examining salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity in relation with childhood adversity. Forty-one healthy adult subjects (n = 24 male; n = 17 female) aged 18-34 years underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Saliva for measurement of sAA was collected at three time points; before the TSST, immediately after, and 10 min post-TSST. We found that those with childhood trauma had a higher overall sAA response to the TSST, as seen in a repeated measures ANOVA (CTQ by time interaction: F(1.8,71.5) = 6.46, p = .01) and an independent samples t-test indicating higher sAA baseline to peak response (t = 3.22, p = .003). There was also a positive correlation between sAA reactivity and the CTQ subscales of childhood physical abuse (r = .46, p = .005) and emotional abuse (r = .37, p = .024). Healthy adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity had a heightened sAA response immediately following the stressor. Higher SNS reactivity could be a link to negative health outcomes in adults with early adversity. Future research should address whether altered sAA reactivity is predictive of negative health outcomes in those with childhood adversity.

  4. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents (N=357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed. PMID:26998189

  5. Early adverse experiences in schizophrenia and unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Rubino, I Alex; Nanni, Roberta C; Pozzi, Daniela M; Siracusano, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    To study the prevalence of early adversities in schizophrenia and unipolar depression, 2 groups of consecutive adult-onset inpatients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 173) and unipolar depression (n = 305) were compared with an unscreened control group of volunteers from the general population (n = 310), with respect to their association with 4 types of childhood abuse and with early parental adversities (discord, separation, death, psychiatric caseness). Compared with general population, most types of early adversities (except sexual abuse and parental death) were significantly associated with both clinical groups. Compared with depression, all early adversities with the same 2 exceptions were significantly associated with schizophrenia; both frequency of abuse and number of types of abuse increased the risk of schizophrenia in a dose-response pattern, suggesting causality. These findings stress the role of social developmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  6. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype.

  7. PUTATIVE ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAY FOR INHIBITON ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) provides a framework for organizing knowledge to define links between a molecular initiating event (MIE) and an adverse outcome (AO) occurring at a higher level of biological organization, such as the individual or population. The AOP framework proceeds from a general (e.g., not chemical specific) molecular mode of action, designated as a MIE, through stepwise changes in biological status, defined as key events (KEs), to a final AO that can be used in risk assessment. Because aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals are widely used to treat breast cancer patients, we explored the unintended consequences that might occur in fish exposed to these chemicals through wastewater discharge into the aquatic environment. Unlike mammals, fish have two isoforms of aromatase, one that predominates in the ovary (cyp19a1a) and a second (cyp19a1b) that prevails in the brain. Aromatase activity in fish brain can be 100 to 1000 times that in mammals and is associated with reproduction. We have developed a putative AOP for inhibition of brain aromatase in fish leading to reproductive dysfunction based on review of relevant literature and reproductive experiments with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) exposed to aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals in the laboratory. The first KE in this AOP is a decrease in brain aromatase activity due to exposure to an aromatase inhibitor. KEs then progress through subsequent steps including decreas

  8. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  9. Maternal Psychosocial Adversity and the Longitudinal Development of Infant Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Alison; Halligan, Sarah L.; Murray, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Research has identified associations between indicators of social disadvantage and the presence of child sleep problems. We examined the longitudinal development of infant sleep in families experiencing high (n = 58) or low (n = 64) levels of psychosocial adversity, and the contributions of neonatal self-regulatory capacities and maternal settling…

  10. With a Little Help from My Friends: Psychological, Endocrine and Health Corollaries of Social Support in Parental Caregivers of Children with Autism or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Brian; Moss, Mark; Wetherell, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated psychological distress and concomitant dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated as one pathway that links the stress of caregiving with adverse health outcomes. This study assessed whether perceived social support might mitigate the psychological, endocrine and health consequences of caregiver…

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  12. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

  13. Reverse engineering adverse outcome pathways.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Chipman, J Kevin; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or incompletely characterized, mechanisms of action. The application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) can be used to overcome these limitations. This approach was used to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas). Gene expression changes in FHM ovaries in response to seven different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions, were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. Potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide were examined using two mutual information-based methods to infer gene regulatory networks and potential AOPs. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict network paths from stressor to adverse outcome as candidate AOPs. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment, thus leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biological processes, biomarkers, or alternative endpoints that can be used to monitor an AOP. Finally, the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology were identified and a road map for the utilization of these tools presented.

  14. Validity and the Consequences of Test Interpretation and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of measures have, at their core, a purpose of personal and social change. If test developers and users want measures to have personal and social consequences and impact, then it is critical to consider the consequences and side effects of measurement in the validation process itself. The consequential basis of test interpretation…

  15. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  16. Utilizing the salutogenic paradigm to investigate well-being among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and other adversities.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Rishi, Shobhana

    2017-02-26

    The long-term negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences are well documented. However, less is known about salutogenesis (well-being) among adult survivors of childhood adversity. The 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed to assess the contribution of four health promoting factors (physical activity, smoking abstinence, educational level, social-emotional support) with positive health-related quality of life (HRQoL), among adults who retrospectively reported childhood abuse or exposure to other childhood toxic stressors (n=12,032) and separately for adults who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Outcomes examined included positive self-rated health (good/very good/excellent); mentally unhealthy days (MUDS) and physically unhealthy days (PUDS) in the past 30 days. After controlling for demographic characteristics and existing health conditions, physical activity (p<.05), smoking abstinence (p<.05), education of high school or greater (p<.05), and social-emotional support (p<.05) were associated with positive HRQoL outcomes among adult survivors of childhood adversity and adult survivors of CSA. Each unit increase of the health promoting factor score (0-4) resulted in adjusted odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3-2.4) for self-rated health and 1.6 (95%CI: 1.1-2.6) for <14 PUDs among male CSA survivors; among female survivors the adjusted odds ratios were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.8-3.2) for self-rated health, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7-3.1) for <14 MUDs, and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.6-3.0) for <14 PUDs. The study validates that a large proportion of adults survive childhood adversities and underscores the importance of the salutogenic paradigm to identify strategies that may contribute to well-being.

  17. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    PubMed Central

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies may become distorted by the social contingencies that maintain verbal behavior. Verbal behavior is an exceedingly efficient way in which one organism can change the behavior of another. All other functions of verbal behavior derive from this most basic function, sometimes called verbal governance. Functional verbal antecedents in verbal governance may be extended across time and space when individuals replicate the verbal behavior of others or their own verbal behavior. Differential contact with different verbal antecedents may follow from differential attention to verbal stimuli correlated with consequential events. Once in place, verbal behavior can be shaped by (usually social) consequences. Because these four verbal processes (verbal governance, replication, differential attention, and verbal shaping) share common stimulus and response terms, they produce interlocking contingencies in which extensive classes of behavior come to be dominated by verbal antecedents. Very different consequences follow from verbal behavior depending on whether it is anchored to environmental events, as in scientific verbal practices, or becomes independent of it, as in religious fundamentalism. PMID:22477347

  18. Adverse drug reactions: part II.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2010-11-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must be effectively practiced by all health care providers in order to avoid ADRs.

  19. Adverse drug reactions: Part I.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2010-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must effectively be practiced by all health providers in order to avoid ADRs.

  20. [Finasteride adverse effects: An update].

    PubMed

    Carreño-Orellana, Néstor; Moll-Manzur, Catherina; Carrasco-Zuber, Juan Eduardo; Álvarez-Véliz, Sergio; Berroeta-Mauriziano, Daniela; Porras-Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-01

    Finasteride is a 5-α reductase inhibitor that is widely used in the management of benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern hair loss. It is well known that these agents improve the quality of life in men suffering from these conditions. However, they are associated with some transient and even permanent adverse effects. The aim of this article is to clarify the controversies about the safety of finasteride by analyzing the evidence available in the literature.

  1. [Pain as adverse drug reaction].

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Birgit; Schaffarzick, Daniel; Nagano, Marietta; Janowitz, Susanne Melitta; Schweitzer, Ekkehard

    2012-09-01

    We present a multidisciplinary (anaesthesiology--clinical pharmacy--bioinformatics) analysis of pain as possible adverse drug reaction taking different manifestations of pain, indication groups, relevance to the Austrian drug market and possible mechanistic influence of drugs on development and apprehension of pain into consideration.We designed an overview that shows how transmitters that play a part in nociception and antinociception can be influenced by drugs. This allows conclusions to the dolorigene potential of therapeutics.

  2. Thiocolchicoside: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Thiocolchicoside has long been used as a muscle relaxant, despite a lack of proven efficacy beyond the placebo effect. Its chemical structure consists of colchicine, a sugar (ose) and a sulphur-containing radical (thio), and its adverse effects are therefore likely to be similar to those of colchicine. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we reviewed the available data on the adverse effects of thiocolchicoside. Liver injury, pancreatitis, seizures, blood cell disorders, severe cutaneous disorders, rhabdomyolysis and reproductive disorders have all been recorded in the French and European pharmacovigilance databases and in the periodic updates that the companies concerned submit to regulatory agencies. These data do not specify the frequency of the disorders nor do they identify the most susceptible patient populations. Thiocolchicoside is teratogenic in experimental animals and also damages chromosomes. Human data are limited to a follow-up of about 30 pregnant women (no major malformations) and reports of altered spermatogenesis, including cases of azoospermia. In practice, there is no justification for exposing patients to the adverse effects of thiocolchicoside. It is better to use an effective, well-known analgesic for patients complaining of muscle pain, starting with paracetamol.

  3. Adverse food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Alie; van Hunsel, Florence; Bast, Aalt

    2015-12-01

    Food supplements and herbal products are increasingly popular amongst consumers. This leads to increased risks of interactions between prescribed drugs and these products containing bioactive ingredients. From 1991 up to 2014, 55 cases of suspected adverse drug reactions due to concomitant intake of health-enhancing products and drugs were reported to Lareb, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre. An overview of these suspected interactions is presented and their potential mechanisms of action are described. Mainly during the metabolism of xenobiotics and due to the pharmacodynamics effects interactions seem to occur, which may result in adverse drug reactions. Where legislation is seen to distinct food and medicine, legislation concerning these different bioactive products is less clear-cut. This can only be resolved by increasing the molecular knowledge on bioactive substances and their potential interactions. Thereby potential interactions can be better understood and prevented on an individual level. By considering the dietary pattern and use of bioactive substances with prescribed medication, both health professionals and consumers will be increasingly aware of interactions and these interactive adverse effects can be prevented.

  4. "Diabetes Has Instant Consequences..."

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Diabetes has instant consequences…" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... want to chuck it all. But Diabetes has instant consequences. You learn to be responsible pretty quickly, ...

  5. Childhood adversities and adult-onset asthma: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Korkeila, Jyrki; Lietzen, Raija; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Rautava, Päivi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimäki, Mika; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Childhood adversities may be important determinants of later illnesses and poor health behaviour. However, large-scale prospective studies on the associations between childhood adversities and the onset of asthma in adulthood are lacking. Design Prospective cohort study with 7-year follow-up. Setting Nationally representative study. Data were collected from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) survey and national registers. Participants The participants represent the Finnish population from the following age groups: 20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years at baseline in 1998 (24 057 survey participants formed the final cohort of this study). The occurrence of childhood adversities was assessed at baseline with a six-item survey scale. The analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural health risks and common mental disorders. Primary and secondary outcomes The survey data were linked to data from national health registers on incident asthma during a 7-year follow-up to define new-onset asthma cases with verified diagnoses. Results A total of 12 126 (59%) participants reported that they encountered a childhood adversity. Of them 3677 (18% of all) endured three to six adversities. During a follow-up of 7 years, 593 (2.9%) participants were diagnosed with incident asthma. Those who reported three or more childhood adversities had a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.31 to 2.01) greater risk of asthma compared to those without childhood adversities. This hazard attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67). Conclusions Adults who report having encountered adversities in childhood may have an increased risk of developing asthma. PMID:23069774

  6. Resiliency in the Face of Adversity: A Short Longitudinal Test of the Trait Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Karaırmak, Özlem; Figley, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Resilience represents coping with adversity and is in line with a more positive paradigm for viewing responses to adversity. Most research has focused on resilience as coping-a state-based response to adversity. However, a competing hypothesis views resilience or resiliency as a trait that exists across time and types of adversity. We tested undergraduates enrolled in social work classes at a large southern university at two time periods during a single semester using measures of adversity, positive and negative affect, and trait-based resiliency. Consistent with the trait-based resiliency, and in contrast to state-based resilience, resiliency scores were not strongly correlated with adversity at both testing points but were with positive affect, and resiliency scores remained the same over time despite adversity variations. There was no gender or ethnic group difference in resilience scores. Black/African Americans reported significantly less negative affect and more positive affect than White/Caucasians.

  7. Adverse School Context Moderates the Outcomes of Selective Interventions for Aggressive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Meehan, Barbara T.; Zhang, Duan; Collie, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on social ecological theory and empirical studies on the role of school context in aggression, the authors argue that school adversity is an important consideration in choosing selective interventions for aggressive children. The moderating role of school adversity on intervention effectiveness is illustrated with data from a randomized…

  8. Bringing Back the Social History

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Thompson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The social environment of the child is a key determinant of the child’s current and future health. Factors in the child’s family environment, both protective and harmful, have profound impact on the child’s long-term health, brain development, and mortality. Adverse childhood experiences, and specifically, child maltreatment, are directly linked to increased risk for harm, poor outcomes, ill-health as adults, and even death during childhood or early adulthood. Therefore, it is important to obtain a detailed social history from the first medical visit with the dual goals of identifying strengths to reinforce and weaknesses to address. Screening is paramount in order to foster healthy parenting and help identify areas needing intervention. Occasionally, serious problems are uncovered indicating the child is at significant risk for maltreatment. By addressing these risks openly and directly before serious or permanent harm occurs, child maltreatment and its potentially life-altering consequences (for all) may be prevented. The social history may very well be the best all-around tool available for promoting the child’s future health and well-being. It is a key first step in identifying social needs of the child and family so that they may benefit from intervention. This article focuses on key social history elements known to increase a child’s risk of maltreatment and provides case examples. PMID:25242704

  9. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure.

  10. 'Skating on thin ice?' Consultant surgeon's contemporary experience of adverse surgical events.

    PubMed

    Skevington, Suzanne M; Langdon, Joanne E; Giddins, Grey

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about patient safety have prompted studies of adverse surgical events (ASEs), but descriptive classification of errors and malpractice claims have overshadowed qualitative investigations into the processes that lead to expert errors and their solutions. We studied consultant surgeon's perspectives on how and why events occurred through semi-structured interviews about general and specific events. The sample contained heterogeneous cross-section of ages, gender and specialists, with >2 years consultant status and working within a 25-mile radius. Overarching findings included (1) pressures to work harder, faster and beyond capability within a blaming culture; (2) optimism bias from over-confidence and complacency; and (3) multiple pressures to 'finish' an operation or list, resulting in completion bias. Seven high order themes were identified on the healthcare system, adverse event types, contributing factors, emotions, cognitive processes, error detection, and strategies, solutions and barriers. The process of classifying event types guided solution selection, and the decision about whether to formally report it. How serious consequences were for patients and their temporal effects, defined an adversity continuum. Minor events arose routinely i.e. technical discrepancies, side-effects. More problematic were sub-optimal outcomes and avoidable events. Despite their expertise, consultants were vulnerable to unavoidable, uncontrollable events which were major concerns. Most serious were near-misses, errors and mistakes. However, major errors did not inevitably lead to a catastrophe and minor errors could be extremely serious. A 'cascade' of minor events exacerbated by negative emotions can precipitate major events, and interception methods need investigation. Consultants felt powerless and helpless to change environmental, organisational and systemic problems; new communication and action channels are desirable. Confidence building in team leadership would

  11. The psychological impact of chronic environmental adversity: Responding to prolonged drought.

    PubMed

    Stain, Helen J; Kelly, Brian; Carr, Vaughan J; Lewin, Terry J; Fitzgerald, Michael; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-12-01

    The health effects of chronic environmental adversity have received insufficient attention, particularly those associated with the psychological impact of drought. Resilience or adaptive response to drought has received even less attention than vulnerability factors. This research examined factors associated with drought impact in rural and remote Australian communities. In 2008 postal surveys were completed by 302 adults (mean age 53 years; 57% female, 77% married) living in rural areas of prolonged drought exposure. Outcome measures were: (i) psychological distress (Kessler 10) and (ii) an index of concern or worry about drought. A range of predictor variables were assessed: adaptability (hopefulness, neuroticism), other adverse events, personal support and community connectedness, and sense of place, as a measure of connection to the local environment. Predictors of drought related worry differed from those associated with psychological distress levels. The former included socio-economic factors (living on a farm [Odds Ratio, OR 3.09], current employment [OR 3.64]), personal psychological characteristics (neuroticism [OR 1.29]), and greater connection with the environment (sense of place [OR 1.05]). On the other hand, psychological distress was associated chiefly with personal factors, such as higher neuroticism [OR 1.92], lower levels of hopefulness [OR 0.28], and lower perceived social support and community connectedness [OR 0.39]. Practical financial, employment and family factors were identified as important elements of drought impact, as to a lesser extent was sense of place, reflecting a confrontation with the consequences of chronic environmental degradation, while personal hopefulness may help mitigate the psychological impact of such adversity.

  12. Adverse responses to local anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M M; Graham, R

    1984-11-01

    Progressive challenge was used to investigate twenty-seven patients with a history of an adverse response to local anaesthesia. True allergy was detected in only one patient. The method does not exclude reactions to additives and preservatives in local anaesthetics. If preservative-free local anaesthetics are used for subsequent exposure in patients with no response to progressive challenge, subsequent exposure is safe. The possibility that some of these patients may be reacting to preservatives in the solutions cannot be excluded by such testing. Where possible preservative-free local anaesthetic preparations should be used for subsequent anaesthesia.

  13. Adverse Outcomes in Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Roback, Howard B.

    2000-01-01

    Group forms of therapy have been growing at a rapid rate, in part because of their documented effectiveness and economic considerations such as managed care. It is therefore becoming increasingly important to assess the psychological risks of these interventions. The author provides an overview of the published literature and conference presentations on negative effects in adult outpatient groups. Although much of the literature on adverse outcomes in group therapy focuses on single risk factors (e.g., negative leader, group process, or patient characteristics), the author argues that an interactional model should be encouraged. Means of reducing casualties are also discussed, as well as methodological issues and research directions. PMID:10896735

  14. Lifespan adversity and later adulthood telomere length in the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Gemmill, Alison; Weir, David; Adler, Nancy E.; Prather, Aric A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress over the lifespan is thought to promote accelerated aging and early disease. Telomere length is a marker of cell aging that appears to be one mediator of this relationship. Telomere length is associated with early adversity and with chronic stressors in adulthood in many studies. Although cumulative lifespan adversity should have bigger impacts than single events, it is also possible that adversity in childhood has larger effects on later life health than adult stressors, as suggested by models of biological embedding in early life. No studies have examined the individual vs. cumulative effects of childhood and adulthood adversities on adult telomere length. Here, we examined the relationship between cumulative childhood and adulthood adversity, adding up a range of severe financial, traumatic, and social exposures, as well as comparing them to each other, in relation to salivary telomere length. We examined 4,598 men and women from the US Health and Retirement Study. Single adversities tended to have nonsignificant relations with telomere length. In adjusted models, lifetime cumulative adversity predicted 6% greater odds of shorter telomere length. This result was mainly due to childhood adversity. In adjusted models for cumulative childhood adversity, the occurrence of each additional childhood event predicted 11% increased odds of having short telomeres. This result appeared mainly because of social/traumatic exposures rather than financial exposures. This study suggests that the shadow of childhood adversity may reach far into later adulthood in part through cellular aging. PMID:27698131

  15. Internet use by the socially fearful: addiction or therapy?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrew J; Cumming, Steven R; Hughes, Ian

    2006-02-01

    The Internet has often been argued to have adverse psychological consequences, such as depression or anxiety symptoms, among "over-users." The present study offers an alternative understanding, suggesting the Internet may be used as a forum for expanding social networks and consequently enhancing the chance of meaningful relationships, self-confidence, social abilities, and social support. An online sample of 188 people was recruited over the Internet, while paper and pencil tests were administered to an offline sample group of 27 undergraduate university students, who were regular Internet users. Subjects completed the Zung Depression Scale (ZDS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire?Revised Short Scale (EPQ-R Short), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scale, Internet Use Questionnaire (IUQ), and an Internet Effects Questionnaire (IEQ). Results suggested that there was no relationship between time spent online and depression, anxiety, or social fearfulness. Those who primarily used the Internet for online chat believed that the Internet is psychologically beneficial to them, but also believed that frequent Internet users are lonely and that the Internet can be addictive. It is argued that "chat" users who are socially fearful may be using the Internet as a form of low-risk social approach and an opportunity to rehearse social behavior and communication skills, which, may help them improve interaction with offline, face-to-face, social environments.

  16. The knowledge, attitude and behaviours of nurses about pharmacovigilance, adverse drug reaction and adverse event reporting in a state hospital

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Fisun; Ciftci, Seval; Vural, Birol

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: With the use of any drug comes the possibility of unintended consequences which when harmful are referred to as adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The development of national pharmacovigilance systems is the responsibility of all health workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of nurses about pharmacovigilance and attitudes about ADR and adverse event reporting. METHODS: This descriptive-cross sectional study was performed in 112 nurses working in a public hospital. The questionnaire was applied about pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions. The knowledge, attitudes and practices about adverse drug reactions were asked. RESULTS: The 74.1% of the nurses definition of “severe adverse effect” of drug therapy. The ratio of participants who knew that ADRs are reported to contact person responsible from pharmacovigilance was 34.9%. Although 70.5% of nurses knew the necessity of ADR reporting, the 8% of the nurses knew Turkish Pharmacovigilance Center (TÜFAM). Only 8% of nurses reported ADRs in their professionality. CONCLUSION: Although most of the participants knew the importance of ADR event reporting, event reporting was low. Thiese results showed that there is a lack of knowledge about pharmacovigilance. Futher studies with different settings and healthcare staff are needed to improve awareness about pharmacovigilance. PMID:28058321

  17. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    MedlinePlus

    ... food options, peer and social supports, marketing and promotion, and policies that determine how a community is ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ...

  18. [Psychic consequences of natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Agnieszka; Malyszczak, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters were presented according to: development of the diagnosis of PTSD, variability of factors impacting on formation and sustenance (support) of distemper related to a cataclysm. The natural disaster causing emotional sufferings might be also the reason of psychic distempers that led to: 1. real or anticipate fear of death, 2. physical injuries, 3. economic loss, or 4. death of the relatives. Occurrence of PTSD relies on the pre-traumatic factors (like sex, coexistence of psychic disaster and/or risk of any other traumatic disturbances in the past, economical status, education), on the sort, intensity and duration of keeping the disorders initiated by the stressor and on the posttraumatic features such as social and psychological support.

  19. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  20. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  1. The international serious adverse events consortium.

    PubMed

    Holden, Arthur L; Contreras, Jorge L; John, Sally; Nelson, Matthew R

    2014-11-01

    The International Serious Adverse Events Consortium is generating novel insights into the genetics and biology of drug-induced serious adverse events, and thereby improving pharmaceutical product development and decision-making.

  2. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship—as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)—with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary–adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a ‘lonely’ phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. PMID:25870400

  3. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  4. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    PubMed

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-27

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  5. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516

  6. Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-03-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques.

  7. Mechanisms and Clinical Consequences of Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dongxing; Mackenzie, Neil C. W.; Farquharson, Colin; MacRae, Vicky E.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in arteries and cardiac valves. However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone formation. In this article, we outline the current understanding of key mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight the clinical consequences. By understanding better the molecular pathways and genetic circuitry responsible for the pathological mineralization process novel drug targets may be identified and exploited to combat and reduce the detrimental effects of vascular calcification on human health. PMID:22888324

  8. Intuitions, principles and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, A

    2001-01-01

    Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences. Key Words: Intuitions • principles • consequences • utilitarianism PMID:11233371

  9. Quality of life issues in hypertension: consequences of diagnosis and considerations in management.

    PubMed

    Wenger, N K

    1988-08-01

    Most patients with mild to moderate hypertension are asymptomatic. Any adverse response to nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic therapies can negatively influence some aspect of the patient's sense of well-being and life satisfaction; this will likely limit the compliance with and the resultant benefits of therapy. The diagnosis of hypertension itself is associated with psychological consequences, termed the "labeling effect," that impair life quality. A number of life-style modifications and a variety of highly effective and safe classes of antihypertensive agents can satisfactorily control blood pressure in most patients. Evaluation of the patient's response to an antihypertensive regimen should, in addition to measurement of the level of blood pressure and review of laboratory test values, include assessment of quality of life outcomes: impact of therapy on the patient's daily routine, fatigue or activity limitation, sexual dysfunction, impairment of memory, alertness, mood, or cognitive ability, sleep dysfunction, work performance and satisfaction, and satisfaction with family, social, and leisure time activities.

  10. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety.

  11. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds.

  12. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  13. Consequences of Violent Victimization for Native American Youth in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Turanovic, Jillian J; Pratt, Travis C

    2016-10-07

    Native American youth are at an elevated risk of violent victimization. And because of their vulnerable position in society, they may also be at risk of experiencing a host of adverse consequences as a result of being victimized. Accordingly, using a subsample of 558 Native American youth and two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (49.8 % female; 12-19 years at Wave I; 19-26 years at Wave III), we examined the effects of violent victimization during adolescence on a range of outcomes in early adulthood (poor health, depressive symptoms, suicidality, financial hardship, violent and property offending, alcohol problems, hard drug use, and marijuana use). We also assessed whether youth's attachments to family and to school moderate the effects of victimization on these outcomes. The results showed that adolescent victimization is linked to a small number of outcomes-poor health, depressive symptoms, and violent offending-and that the protective effects of social attachments are not widespread. Specifically, family attachments moderated the effects of victimization on poor health and depressive symptoms, and school attachments moderated the effects of victimization on property offending. These findings suggest that the consequences of victimization and the protective effects of social attachments may differ for Native American youth, and that further quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to understand these patterns.

  14. Consequences of gynecological cancer in patients and their partners from the sexual and psychological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Katarzyna; Iżycka, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of gynecological cancer and the following consequences of the treatment radically change the lives of cancer patients and their partners. Women experience negative consequences in terms of sexual, psychological and social functioning. Surgical treatment may result in a decrease in sexual pleasure and pain during intercourse. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause a loss of libido and negatively affect the capacity to experience pleasure or orgasm. Treatment-related changes may include the occurrence of body image disorders, decreased quality of life as well as depressive and anxiety disorders among patients. Furthermore, a negative influence on the relationship between the affected women and their partners, as well as an adverse effect on the social activity, can be observed. Cancer is not an individual experience. It also affects partners of the sick women in terms of psychological and sexual functioning. This article depicts possible problems encountered by cancer patients and their partners from the psychological and sexual perspective. The emphasis is put on understanding sexuality not only in the context of sexual performance, but also in a wider perspective. PMID:27582686

  15. Adverse drug events in hospital: pilot study with trigger tool

    PubMed Central

    Rozenfeld, Suely; Giordani, Fabiola; Coelho, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the frequency of and to characterize the adverse drug events at a terciary care hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was carried out of 128 medical records from a hospital in Rio de Janeiro in 2007, representing 2,092 patients. The instrument used was a list of triggers, such as antidotes, abnormal laboratory analysis results and sudden suspension of treatment, among others. A simple random sample of patients aged 15 and over was extracted. Oncologic and obstetric patients were excluded as were those hospitalized for less than 48 hours or in the emergency room. Social and demographic characteristics and those of the disease of patients who underwent adverse events were compared with those of patients who did not in order to test for differences between the groups. RESULTS Around 70.0% of the medical records assessed showed at least one trigger. Adverse drug events triggers had an overall positive predictive value of 14.4%. The incidence of adverse drug events was 26.6 per 100 patients and 15.6% patients suffered one or more event. The median length of stay for patients suffering an adverse drug event was 35.2 days as against 10.7 days for those who did not (p < 0.01). The pharmacological classes most commonly associated with an adverse drug event were related to the cardiovascular system, nervous system and alimentary tract and metabolism. The most common active substances associated with an adverse drug event were tramadol, dypirone, glibenclamide and furosemide. Over 80.0% of events provoked or contributed to temporary harm to the patient and required intervention and 6.0% may have contributed to the death of the patient. It was estimated that in the hospital, 131 events involving drowsiness or fainting 33 involving falls, and 33 episodes of hemorrhage related to adverse drug effects occur annually. CONCLUSIONS Almost one-sixth of in-patients (16,0%) suffered an adverse drug event. The instrument used may prove useful as a technique for

  16. Adverse consequences of altering the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test.

    PubMed

    Applegate, R A; Trick, L R

    1985-04-01

    Modifications of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test (e.g., selection of new fixed-reference caps from within the test) have been proposed, with little or no theoretical justification or experimental verification. Predictions based on theoretical considerations of the underlying nature of the test and verified by experimental measurements on subjects with known color defects demonstrate that (1) modification can destroy the very nature of the test; (2) modification can alter axis determination and therefore, potentially, the diagnosis; (3) the resulting test scores cannot be compared reliably to established norms; and (4) accurate predictions of test performance can be made from theoretical considerations.

  17. Pathophysiology of Coronary Thrombus Formation and Adverse Consequences of Thrombus During PCI

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sundararajan; Ambrose, John A

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic vascular pathology that is preceded by endothelial dysfunction. Vascular inflammation “fuels” atherosclerosis and creates the milieu for episodes of intravascular thromboses. Thrombotic events in the coronary vasculature may lead to asymptomatic progression of atherosclerosis or could manifest as acute coronary syndromes or even sudden cardiac death. Thrombus encountered in the setting of acute coronary syndromes has been correlated with acute complications during percutaneous coronary interventions such as no-reflow, acute coronary occlusion and long term complications such as stent thrombus. This article reviews the pathophysiology of coronary thrombogenesis and explores the complications associated with thrombus during coronary interventions. PMID:22920487

  18. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3 to 6 years old at the study start. Additionally, the…

  19. Reducing the adverse consequences of workplace aggression and violence: the buffering effects of organizational support.

    PubMed

    Schat, Aaron C H; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the buffering effects of 2 types of organizational support--instrumental and informational--on the relationships between workplace violence/aggression and both personal and organizational outcomes. Based on data from 225 employees in a health care setting, a series of moderated multiple regression analyses demonstrated that organizational support moderated the effects of physical violence, vicariously experienced violence, and psychological aggression on emotional well-being, somatic health, and job-related affect, but not on fear of future workplace violence and job neglect. These findings have implications for both research and intervention related to workplace violence.

  20. Belatacept and Sirolimus Prolong Nonhuman Primate Islet Allograft Survival: adverse consequences of concomitant alefacept therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, MC; Badell, IR; Turner, AP; Thompson, PW; Leopardi, FV; Strobert, EA; Larsen, CP; Kirk, AD

    2012-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and steroids are known to promote insulin resistance, and their avoidance after islet transplantation is preferred from a metabolic standpoint. Belatacept, a B7-specific mediator of costimulation blockade (CoB), is clinically indicated as a CNI alternative in renal transplantation, and we have endeavored to develop a clinically translatable, belatacept-based regimen that could obviate the need for both CNIs and steroids. Based on the known synergy between CoB and mTOR inhibition, we studied rhesus monkeys undergoing MHC-mismatched islet allotransplants treated with belatacept and the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus. To extend prior work on CoB-resistant rejection, some animals also received CD2 blockade with alefacept (LFA3-Ig). Nine rhesus macaques were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin and underwent islet allotransplantation. All received belatacept and sirolimus; six also received alefacept. Belatacept and sirolimus significantly prolonged rejection-free graft survival (median 225 days compared to 8 days in controls receiving basiliximab and sirolimus; p=0.022). The addition of alefacept provided no additional survival benefit, but was associated with Cytomegalovirus reactivation in 4/6 animals. No recipients produced donor-specific alloantibodies. The combination of belatacept and sirolimus successfully prevents islet allograft survival in rhesus monkeys, but induction with alefacept provides no survival benefit and increases the risk of viral reactivation. PMID:23279640

  1. Consequences of the Allee effect and intraspecific competition on population persistence under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Blackshaw, Rod; Li, Bai-Lian

    2008-02-01

    The impact of intraspecific interactions on ecological stability and population persistence in terms of steady state(s) existence is considered theoretically based on a general competition model. We compare persistence of a structured population consisting of a few interacting (competitive) subpopulations, or groups, to persistence of the corresponding unstructured population. For a general case, we show that if the intra-group competition is stronger than the inter-group competition, then the structured population is less prone to extinction, i.e. it can persist in a parameter range where the unstructured population goes extinct. For a more specific case of a population with hierarchical competition, we show that relative viability of structured and unstructured populations depend on the type of density dependence in the population growth. Namely, while in the case of logistic growth, structured and unstructured populations exhibit equivalent persistence; in the case of Allee dynamics, the persistence of a hierarchically structured population is shown to be higher. We then apply these results to the case of behaviourally structured populations and demonstrate that an extreme form of individual aggression can be beneficial at the population level and enhance population persistence.

  2. Unintended adverse consequences of electronic health record introduction to a mature universal HIV screening program.

    PubMed

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Yang, Katharine; Pasalar, Siavash; Pillow, M Tyson; Miertschin, Nancy P; Peacock, William F; Giordano, Thomas P; Hoxhaj, Shkelzen

    2016-01-01

    Early HIV detection and treatment decreases morbidity and mortality and reduces high-risk behaviors. Many Emergency Departments (EDs) have HIV screening programs as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recent federal legislation includes incentives for electronic health record (EHR) adoption. Our objective was to analyze the impact of conversion to EHR on a mature ED-based HIV screening program. A retrospective pre- and post-EHR implementation cohort study was conducted in a large urban, academic ED. Medical records were reviewed for HIV screening rates from August 2008 through October 2013. On 1 November 2010, a comprehensive EHR system was implemented throughout the hospital. Before EHR implementation, labs were requested by providers by paper orders with HIV-1/2 automatically pre-selected on every form. This universal ordering protocol was not duplicated in the new EHR; rather it required a provider to manually enter the order. Using a chi-squared test, we compared HIV testing in the 6 months before and after EHR implementation; 55,054 patients presented before, and 50,576 after EHR implementation. Age, sex, race, acuity of presenting condition, and HIV seropositivity rates were similar pre- and post-EHR, and there were no major patient or provider changes during this period. Average HIV testing rate was 37.7% of all ED patients pre-, and 22.3% post-EHR, a 41% decline (p < 0.0001), leading to 167 missed new diagnoses after EHR. The rate of HIV screening in the ED decreased after EHR implementation, and could have been improved with more thoughtful inclusion of existing human processes in its design.

  3. Adverse metabolic consequences in humans of prolonged sleep restriction combined with circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Orfeu M; Cain, Sean W; O'Connor, Shawn P; Porter, James H; Duffy, Jeanne F; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A; Shea, Steven A

    2012-04-11

    Epidemiological studies link short sleep duration and circadian disruption with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We tested the hypotheses that prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption, as can occur in people performing shift work, impairs glucose regulation and metabolism. Healthy adults spent >5 weeks under controlled laboratory conditions in which they experienced an initial baseline segment of optimal sleep, 3 weeks of sleep restriction (5.6 hours of sleep per 24 hours) combined with circadian disruption (recurring 28-hour "days"), followed by 9 days of recovery sleep with circadian re-entrainment. Exposure to prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption, with measurements taken at the same circadian phase, decreased the participants' resting metabolic rate and increased plasma glucose concentrations after a meal, an effect resulting from inadequate pancreatic insulin secretion. These parameters normalized during the 9 days of recovery sleep and stable circadian re-entrainment. Thus, in humans, prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption alters metabolism and could increase the risk of obesity and diabetes.

  4. Loneliness, eudaimonia, and the human conserved transcriptional response to adversity

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Levine, Morgan E.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Weir, David R.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic social adversity activates a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) marked by increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and decreased expression of antiviral- and antibody-related genes. Recent findings suggest that some psychological resilience factors may help buffer CTRA activation, but the relative impact of resilience and adversity factors remains poorly understood. Here we examined the relative strength of CTRA association for the two best-established psychological correlates of CTRA gene expression – the risk factor of perceived social isolation (loneliness) and the resilience factor of eudaimonic well-being (purpose and meaning in life). Methods Peripheral blood samples and validated measures of loneliness and eudaimonic well-being were analyzed in 108 community-dwelling older adults participating in the longitudinal US Health and Retirement Study (56% female, mean age 73). Mixed effect linear model analyses quantified the strength of association between CTRA gene expression and measures of loneliness and eudaimonic well-being in separate and joint analyses. Results As in previous studies, separate analyses found CTRA gene expression to be up-regulated in association with loneliness and down-regulated in association with eudaimonic well-being. In joint analyses, effects of loneliness were completely abrogated whereas eudaimonic well-being continued to associate with CTRA down-regulation. Similar eudaimonia-dominant effects were observed for positive and negative affect, optimism and pessimism, and anxiety symptoms. All results were independent of demographic and behavioral health risk factors. Conclusions Eudaimonic well-being may have the potential to compensate for the adverse impact of loneliness on CTRA gene expression. Findings suggest a novel approach to targeting the health risks associated with social isolation by promoting purpose and meaning in life. PMID:26246388

  5. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  6. Rethinking the Measurement of Adversity.

    PubMed

    Mersky, Joshua P; Janczewski, Colleen E; Topitzes, James

    2017-02-01

    Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has unified the study of interrelated risks and generated insights into the origins of disorder and disease. Ten indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction are widely accepted as ACEs, but further progress requires a more systematic approach to conceptualizing and measuring ACEs. Using data from a diverse, low-income sample of women who received home visiting services in Wisconsin ( N = 1,241), this study assessed the prevalence of and interrelations among 10 conventional ACEs and 7 potential ACEs: family financial problems, food insecurity, homelessness, parental absence, parent/sibling death, bullying, and violent crime. Associations between ACEs and two outcomes, perceived stress and smoking, were examined. The factor structure and test-retest reliability of ACEs was also explored. As expected, prevalence rates were high compared to studies of more representative samples. Except for parent/sibling death, all ACEs were intercorrelated and associated at the bivariate level with perceived stress and smoking. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed that conventional ACEs loaded on two factors, child maltreatment and household dysfunction, though a more complex four-factor solution emerged once new ACEs were introduced. All ACEs demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability. Implications and future directions toward a second generation of ACE research are discussed.

  7. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  8. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  9. The NAS Perchlorate Review: Adverse Effects?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Richard; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    ), a dose of 9.2 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks had no effect on thyroid function. In occupational studies, doses as high as 0.5 mg/kg per day were not associated with adverse effects on thyroid function in workers. In epidemiologic studies, there were no abnormalities in growth or thyroid function in children exposed life-long to 100 to 120 mg of perchlorate per liter of drinking water, or in pregnant women and newborn infants similarly exposed. Given the choice of a non-adverse effect (inhibition of iodide uptake by the thyroid) as the point of departure and the multiple studies in which doses of perchlorate much larger than 0.007 mg/kg per day had no effect on any aspect of thyroid function, the committee did not apply a database uncertainty factor. Finally, Ginsberg and Rice argue that inhibition of thyroid iodide uptake is adverse. That conclusion assumes that any acute inhibition would be sustained, so that thyroid hormone production would fall. That is not the case. There is remarkable compensation for even substantial reductions in thyroid iodide uptake – and thyroid hormone production. As noted above, subjects given 0.04 mg/kg per day for 6 months and 9.2 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks-doses that certainly would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake for a few weeks-had no fall in serum thyroid hormone or rise in serum thyrotropin concentrations (the hallmark of even minor systemic thyroid deficiency). Short-term inhibition of thyroid iodide uptake is not an adverse effect; it has no adverse consequences, because there is rapid compensation mediated by several independent processes. One is upregulation of the thyroid sodium-iodide transport system, as a result of intrathyroidal iodide deficiency. The second, should there be even a very small fall in thyroid hormone production, is an increase in thyrotropin secretion, resulting in overall stimulation of the thyroid gland.

  10. The consequences of bilharziasis

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, D. M.; Bradley, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    A survey of the prevalence of bilharsiasis and its consequences in north-west Tanzania showed that, although Schistosoma mansoni infections were light and had little effect on public health, S. haematobium, rampant in the area, was giving rise to hydronephrosis, ureteric lesions or non-functioning kidneys in more than 20% of the child population and in over 10% of the adults. These figures, from an unselected community sample, were higher than had been expected; in addition, evidence of a significant mortality of young men from this cause was obtained. S. haematobium in Tanzania is therefore of considerable public health importance. PMID:5296234

  11. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-03-09

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice.

  12. College students' evaluations of alcohol consequences as positive and negative.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol expectancy, motivation, and consequences measures assume a known valence of 'positive' and 'negative' outcomes. However, different individuals may rate the same consequences of alcohol use as good or bad. The current study examines the extent to which: (a) college students rate researcher-defined positive consequences as good and researcher-defined negative consequences as bad, and (b) these evaluations predict alcohol use and problems after controlling for previous use. In longitudinal self-reports via web-surveys across the first three semesters of college, students (N=600; 54% women) reported their alcohol use and problems, experienced consequences, and evaluations of those consequences. Contrary to the generally-accepted valence of positive consequences, Fun/Social consequences were viewed as neutral or negative by 22% (having more fun) to 73% (relieving boredom) of participants. Over half of participants evaluated each of the Relaxation, Sex, and Image consequences items as neutral or negative. Consistent with the generally-accepted valence of negative consequences, Physical/Behavioral consequences were viewed by the majority as negative, although 11% (getting in trouble with police/authorities) to 34% (doing/saying something embarrassing) of students rated these consequences as neutral or positive. Independent of levels of previous drinking, more positive evaluations of Fun/Social consequences prospectively predicted frequency, quantity, and maximum drinks. Less negative evaluations of Physical/Behavioral consequences predicted more alcohol problems. There is variation in the evaluations of consequences among college students, and understanding characteristics of those who view consequences as positive or negative may have implications for future alcohol-related behaviors and problems.

  13. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  14. The interplay between structure and agency in shaping the mental health consequences of job loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job loss is a discrete life event, with multiple adverse consequences for physical and mental health and implications for agency. Our research explores the consequences of job loss for retrenched workers’ mental health by examining the interplay between their agency and the structures shaping their job loss experiences. Methods We conducted two waves of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a sample of 33 of the more than 1000 workers who lost their jobs at Mitsubishi Motors in South Australia during 2004 and 2005 as a result of industry restructuring. Interviews capturing the mental health consequences of job loss were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed to determine the health consequences of the job loss and the impact of structural factors. Results Main themes that emerged from the qualitative exploration of the psychological distress of job loss included stress, changes to perceived control, loss of self-esteem, shame and loss of status, experiencing a grieving process, and financial strain. Drawing on two models of agency we identified the different ways workers employed their agency, and how their agency was enabled, but mainly constrained, when dealing with job loss consequences. Conclusions Respondents’ accounts support the literature on the moderating effects of economic resources such as redundancy packages. The results suggest the need for policies to put more focus on social, emotional and financial investment to mediate the structural constraints of job loss. Our study also suggests that human agency must be understood within an individual’s whole of life circumstances, including structural and material constraints, and the personal or interior factors that shape these circumstances. PMID:23384322

  15. “It Is Me Who Endures but My Family That Suffers”: Social Isolation as a Consequence of the Household Cost Burden of Buruli Ulcer Free of Charge Hospital Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Peeters Grietens, Koen; Um Boock, Alphonse; Peeters, Hans; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Toomer, Elizabeth; Muela Ribera, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Despite free of charge biomedical treatment, the cost burden of Buruli ulcer disease (Bu) hospitalisation in Central Cameroon accounts for 25% of households' yearly earnings, surpassing the threshold of 10%, which is generally considered catastrophic for the household economy, and calling into question the sustainability of current Bu programmes. The high non-medical costs and productivity loss for Bu patients and their households make household involvement in the healing process unsustainable. 63% of households cease providing social and financial support for patients as a coping strategy, resulting in the patient's isolation at the hospital. Social isolation itself was cited by in-patients as the principal cause for abandonment of biomedical treatment. These findings demonstrate that further research and investment in Bu are urgently needed to evaluate new intervention strategies that are socially acceptable and appropriate in the local context. PMID:18923711

  16. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103) and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103). Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43) and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23) between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events. PMID:21929810

  17. Coping with the Asian tsunami: perspectives from Tamil Nadu, India on the determinants of resilience in the face of adversity.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Premkumar, Titus S; Tharyan, Prathap

    2008-09-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 wreaked havoc along the southeastern coast of India and resulted in devastating losses. The high rates of long-term mental health consequences in adult survivors predicted immediately after the disaster have not been borne out by recent surveys. This qualitative study explored the psychological impact of the tsunami on survivors with a view to gaining insights into the ethno-cultural coping mechanisms of affected communities and evaluating resilience in the face of incomprehensible adversity. We conducted focus group discussions 9 months after the tsunami with two groups of fishermen, two groups of housewives, a group of village leaders and a group of young men in four affected villages of Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu, India. In spite of incomplete reconstruction of their lives, participants reconstructed meaning for the causes and the aftermath of the disaster in their cultural idiom. Qualitative changes in their social structure, processes and attitudes towards different aspects of life were revealed. Survivors valued their unique individual, social and spiritual coping strategies more than formal mental health services. Their stories confirm the assertion that the collective response to massive trauma need not necessarily result in social collapse but also includes positive effects. The results of this study suggest that interventions after disaster should be grounded in ethno-cultural beliefs and practices and should be aimed at strengthening prevailing community coping strategies.

  18. Characterizing "Adversity" of Pathology Findings in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The identification of adverse health effects has a central role in the development and risk/safety assessment of chemical entities and pharmaceuticals. There is currently a need for better alignment in the toxicologic pathology community regarding how nonclinical adversity is determined and characterized. The European Society of Toxicologic Pathology (ESTP) therefore coordinated a workshop in June 2015 to review available definitions of adversity, weigh determining and qualifying factors of adversity based on case examples, and recommend a practical approach to define and characterize adversity in toxicology reports. The international group of expert pathologists and toxicologists emphasized that a holistic, weight-of-evidence, case-specific approach should be followed for each adversity assessment. It was recommended that nonclinical adversity should typically be determined at a morphological level (most often the organ) in the pathology report and should refer specifically to the test species. Final adversity calls, integration of target pharmacology/pathway information, and consideration of human translation should generally be made in toxicology overview reports. Differences in interpretation and implications of adversity calls between (agro)chemical and pharmaceutical industries and among world regions were highlighted. The results of this workshop should serve a valuable prerequisite for future organ- or lesion-specific workshops planned by the ESTP. This

  19. Economic Consequences Of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlávik, János; Füle, Miklós

    2009-07-01

    Even though the climate conflict resulting from green houses gases (GHG) emissions was evident by the Nineties and the well-known agreements made, their enforcement is more difficult than that of other environmental agreements. That is because measures to reduce GHG emissions interfere with the heart of the economy and the market: energy (in a broader sense than the energy sector as defined by statistics) and economical growth. Analyzing the environmental policy responses to climate change the conclusion is that GHG emission reduction can only be achieved through intensive environmental policy. While extensive environmental protection complements production horizontally, intensive environmental protection integrates into production and the environment vertically. The latter eliminates the source of the pollution, preventing damage. It utilizes the biochemical processes and self-purification of the natural environment as well as technical development which not only aims to produce state-of-the-art goods, but to make production more environmentally friendly, securing a desired environmental state. While in extensive environmental protection the intervention comes from the outside for creating environmental balance, in intensive environmental protection the system recreates this balance itself. Instead of dealing with the consequences and the polluter pays principle, the emphasis is on prevention. It is important to emphasize that climate strategy decisions have complex effects regarding the aspects of sustainability (economical, social, ecological). Therefore, all decisions are political. At present, and in the near future, market economy decisions have little to do with sustainability values under normal circumstances. Taking social and ecological interests into consideration can only be successful through strategic political aims.

  20. Functional consequences of hemispherectomy.

    PubMed

    van Empelen, R; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Buskens, E; Helders, P J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2004-09-01

    Using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001), impairments, activities and social participation are reported in 12 children (mean age at surgery 5.9 years) who were investigated before and three times over a 2-year period after hemispherectomy. Impairments were assessed (i) in terms of seizure frequency (Engel classification) and seizure severity (HASS) and (ii) with respect to muscle strength (MRC), range of motion (JAM score) and muscle tone (modified Ashworth scale). Activities were assessed in terms of gross motor functioning (GMFM) and self-care, mobility and social function (PEDI). Participation was assessed in terms of epilepsy-related restrictions and quantified by means of the Hague Restrictions in Childhood Epilepsy Scale (HARCES). Nine out of 12 children could be classified as free of seizures (Engel class I), and in the remaining three seizure frequency was Engel class III. HASS scores showed maximum improvement in 10 out of 12 children and near-maximum improvement in the two remaining children. Muscle strength and muscle tone on the side of the body contralateral to the hemispherectomy, which were already decreased preoperatively, decreased even further in the first 6 months after surgery, but returned to the presurgical baseline thereafter, except for the distal part of the arm. Range of motion was abnormal prior to operation and remained so after operation. Mean GMFM increase was 20% after 2 years (95% confidence interval 10-33); all five dimensions improved statistically significantly (P < 0.05). Mean PEDI increase was more than 20 scale points (95% confidence interval 10-35); again, all domains improved significantly (P < 0.05). In nearly all children, HARCES scores had normalized 2 years after surgery. In conclusion, decrease of seizure frequency and severity widens the scope of motor and social functioning, which overrides the effects of remaining motor impairments.

  1. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-12-22

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players' unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.

  2. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population. PMID:26925182

  3. Introduction: consequences of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Noji, Eric K

    2003-01-01

    Recent acts of terrorism have ranged from the dissemination of anthrax spores to intentional contamination of food to the release of chemical weapons to suicide attacks using explosives. The prediction of such events is difficult, if not impossible. The recent attacks that have generated massive numbers of injured and dead may signal the crossing of a new threshold from multi-casualty events to the use of weapons of mass destruction. Consequently, the medical and healthcare infrastructure must be able to prevent and treat illness and injury resulting from such events. Thus, a first step in improving the preparation for and responses to such events must include a sustained commitment to training physicians, nurses, identification specialists, pathologists, and other first responders. The rapid spread of SARS gives reason to believe that the distribution of such agents has potential advantages over the use of other weapons. Investments in the public health and healthcare systems provide the best defense against terrorism.

  4. Adverse effects of glucocorticoids: coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Maria Caroline Alves; Santos, Camila Vicente; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2015-10-01

    Hypercortisolism is associated with various systemic manifestations, including central obesity, arterial hypertension, glucose intolerance/diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis, gonadal dysfunction, susceptibility to infections, psychiatric disorders, and hypercoagulability. The activation of the hemostatic system contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have identified an increased risk of both unprovoked and postoperative thromboembolic events in patients with endogenous and exogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS). The risk for postoperative venous thromboembolism in endogenous CS is comparable to the risk after total hip or knee replacement under short-term prophylaxis. The mechanisms that are involved in the thromboembolic complications in hypercortisolism include endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and stasis (Virchow's triad). It seems that at least two factors from Virchow's triad must be present for the occurrence of a thrombotic event in these patients. Most studies have demonstrated that this hypercoagulable state is explained by increased levels of procoagulant factors, mainly factors VIII, IX, and von Willebrand factor, and also by an impaired fibrinolytic capacity, which mainly results from an elevation in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Consequently, there is a shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and increased thrombin generation. For these reasons, anticoagulant prophylaxis might be considered in patients with CS whenever they have concomitant prothrombotic risk factors. However, multicenter studies are needed to determine which patients will benefit from anticoagulant therapy and the dose and time of anticoagulation.

  5. High social anxiety and poor quality of life in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kibrisli, Erkan; Bez, Yasin; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Aslanhan, Hamza; Taylan, Mahsuk; Kaya, Halide; Tanrikulu, Abdullah Cetin; Abakay, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) has been previously related with various psychosocial adverse consequences including stigmatization and social isolation.Social anxiety is a psychiatric condition that may be associated with social isolation and fear of social exclusion.To date no study has investigated social anxiety and its impact on quality of life (QoL) among patients with PT. Therefore, we aimed to determine the severity of social anxiety in a group of patients with PT.Among patients who were recently discharged from hospital with the diagnosis of PT 94 patients and 99 healthy control subjects who had similar demographical features have been included in the study. A psychiatrist interviewed all participants and a semistructured interview form, which was prepared by the authors, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and Short Form-36 were administered to them.Patients with PT showed higher levels of performance avoidance and social avoidance than healthy control subjects. They reported lower QoL scores across all dimensions. Among patients women showed higher levels of LSAS subscale scores and total score. Fear of social exclusion was predicted by perceived illness severity and emotional role difficulty. On the other hand, perceived illness severity was predicted by fear of exclusion and sedimentation level.PT patients seem to experience higher levels of social anxiety and associated fear of social exclusion that add to their worse QoL during the earlier months of their disease. Among them fear of social exclusion is related with perceived illness severity.

  6. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  7. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  8. Tennessee's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Christian

    2010-01-01

    High school dropouts adversely impact the state of Tennessee each year--financially and socially. Dropouts' lower incomes, high unemployment rates, increased need for medical care, and higher propensity for incarceration create a virtual vortex that consumes Tennesseans' tax dollars at a vicious rate. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on…

  9. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  10. [Rodenticide resistance and consequences].

    PubMed

    Esther, A; Endepols, S; Freise, J; Klemann, N; Runge, M; Pelz, H-J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, such as warfarin was first described in 1958. Polymorphisms in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene and respective substitutions of amino acids in the VKOR enzyme are the major cause for rodenticide resistance. Resistant Norway rats in Germany are characterized by the Tyr139Cys genotype, which is spread throughout the northwest of the country. Resistant house mice with the VKOR variants Tyr139Cys, Leu128Ser and Arg12Trp/Ala26Ser/Ala48Thr/Arg61Leu (spretus type) are distributed over a number of locations in Germany. Resistance can reduce management attempts with consequences for stored product protection, hygiene and animal health. Anticoagulants of the first generation (warfarin, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl) as well as bromadiolone and difenacoum are not an option for the control of resistant Norway rats. The same applies for house mice whereby the tolerance to compounds can be different between local incidences. Due to the higher toxicity and tendency to persist, the most potent anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone should be applied but only where resistance is known. In other cases less toxic anticoagulants should be preferred for rodent management in order to mitigate environmental risks. Resistance effects of further VKOR polymorphisms and their combinations, the spread of resistant rats and conditions supporting and reducing resistance should be investigated in order to improve resistance management strategies.

  11. [Chinese medicine adverse reactions' literature statistical analysis in recent five years].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved.

  12. Adverse events to monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently registered and approved for the treatment of a range of different cancers. These mAbs are specific for a limited number of targets (9 in all). Four of these molecules are indeed directed against the B-lymphocyte antigen CD20; 3 against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ErbB2), 2 against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and 1 each against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD30, CD52, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 11 (TNFSF11, best known as RANKL), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4). Collectively, the mAbs provoke a wide variety of systemic and cutaneous adverse events including the full range of true hypersensitivities: Type I immediate reactions (anaphylaxis, urticaria); Type II reactions (immune thrombocytopenia, neutopenia, hemolytic anemia); Type III responses (vasculitis, serum sickness; some pulmonary adverse events); and Type IV delayed mucocutaneous reactions as well as infusion reactions/cytokine release syndrome (IRs/CRS), tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and cardiac events. Although the term “hypersensitivity” is widely used, no common definition has been adopted within and between disciplines and the requirement of an immunological basis for a true hypersensitivity reaction is sometimes overlooked. Consequently, some drug-induced adverse events are sometimes incorrectly described as “hypersensitivities” while others that should be described are not. PMID:24251081

  13. Cultural consequences of miscarriages of justice.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2009-01-01

    Social science scholarship has tended to focus more on the causes than the consequences of miscarriages of justice. Within the literature on consequences, the overwhelming emphasis has been on individual consequences: psychological and material impacts on the wrongly convicted individual and, in some cases, other indirectly impacted individuals such as family members of the wrongly convicted and victims of the true perpetrator's future crimes. Some attention has been devoted to social harms, the impact of miscarriages of justice on the broader society within which they are situated, such as the undermining of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. This paper focuses on what are called here cultural consequences of miscarriages of justice: the way in which some high-profile miscarriages of justice can shape the public's beliefs about some of the most basic "facts" about crime, such as the nature, prevalence, or even existence of certain categories of crime and the types of individual who tend to perpetrate particular types of crime. In this way, the paper argues, miscarriages of justice may have hitherto underexplored consequences: reshaping, based on false premises, the public's belief about the very nature of crime itself. This paper discusses three cases studies of miscarriages of justice that for varying periods of time created widespread false beliefs about the nature of crime in large segments of the public. The paper concludes by noting that the "righting" of these false beliefs was in most cases fortuitous. This suggests that unexposed miscarriages of justice may still be shaping popular beliefs about the nature of crime, and aspects of the public's current conception of crime may yet be based on false premises.

  14. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A rapidly expanding body of research indicates that early social environments characterized by adversity, subordination and stress, along with individual differences in susceptibility to such environments, create risks for lifelong chronic diseases, including declines in oral health. Emerging findings suggest that gene-environment interplay, resulting in epigenetically regulated differences in gene expression, underlie many such declines in health. The origins of these processes in early life reveal how many of the chronic morbidities of adulthood should be viewed as developmental disorders, with etiologic roots in childhood.

  15. Commentary: Childhood exposure to environmental adversity and the well-being of people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Emerson, E

    2013-07-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. They are also more likely to be exposed to a wide range of environmental adversities in childhood. Research undertaken in the general population has demonstrated that exposure to environmental adversity in childhood can have an adverse impact on health and well-being across the life course. Recently, research in this area has added new breadth and depth to our understanding of: (1) the extent to which cumulative exposure to environmental adversities across the life course, but especially in early childhood, can reduce health and well-being; (2) the social, psychological and biological mediating pathways through which environmental adversities may impair health; (3) the processes associated with resilience and vulnerability in the face of exposure to adversity; and (4) the social significance of these effects in accounting for the magnitude of the inequalities in health that are apparent both between and within populations. This new knowledge is making a significant contribution to the development of social policies that seek to combine health gain with the reduction in health inequalities. This paper attempts to apply this knowledge to research aimed at understanding and improving the health and well-being of people with intellectual disabilities.

  16. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  17. The Consequences of Hunger and Food Insecurity for Children: Evidence from Recent Scientific Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA. Center on Hunger and Poverty.

    Asserting that 13 million U.S. children live in households with limited or uncertain access to sufficient food, this report highlights recent findings showing the adverse consequences of hunger and food insecurity for children. The findings are grouped into three broad areas: health consequences, psychosocial and behavioral impacts, and learning…

  18. The Programming of the Social Brain by Stress During Childhood and Adolescence: From Rodents to Humans.

    PubMed

    Tzanoulinou, Stamatina; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The quality and quantity of social experience is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Early life stress is known to be an important factor in the programming of the social brain that exerts detrimental effects on social behaviors. The peri-adolescent period, comprising late childhood and adolescence, represents a critical developmental window with regard to the programming effects of stress on the social brain. Here, we discuss social behavior and the physiological and neurobiological consequences of stress during peri-adolescence in the context of rodent paradigms that model human adversity, including social neglect and isolation, social abuse, and exposure to fearful experiences. Furthermore, we discuss peri-adolescent stress as a potent component that influences the social behaviors of individuals in close contact with stressed individuals and that can also influence future generations. We also discuss the temporal dynamics programmed by stress on the social brain and debate whether social behavior alterations are adaptive or maladaptive. By revising the existing literature and defining open questions, we aim to expand the framework in which interactions among peri-adolescent stress, the social brain, and behavior can be better conceptualized.

  19. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  20. Fetal and perinatal consequences of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Chakrapani; Renfrew, Mary; McGuire, William

    2011-09-01

    In many industrialised countries, one in five women booking for antenatal care is obese. As well as affecting maternal health, maternal obesity may have important adverse consequences for fetal, neonatal and long-term health and well-being. Maternal obesity is associated with a higher risk of stillbirth, elective preterm birth and perinatal mortality. The incidence of severe birth defects, particularly neural tube and structural cardiac defects, appears to be higher in infants of obese mothers. Fetal macrosomia associated with maternal obesity and gestational diabetes predisposes infants to birth injuries, perinatal asphyxia and transitional problems such as neonatal respiratory distress and metabolic instability. Maternal obesity may also result in long-term health problems for offspring secondary to perinatal problems and to intrauterine and postnatal programming effects. Currently, the available interventions to prevent and treat maternal obesity are of limited proven utility and further research is needed to define the effects of maternal weight management interventions on fetal and neonatal outcomes.

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases: magnitude, determinants and consequences.

    PubMed

    Aral, S O

    2001-04-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infections constitute a major reproductive health burden for sexually-active individuals. The short-term and long-term consequences of STD have been well documented and include genital and other cancers, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and adverse outcomes of pregnancy including pre-term delivery and low birth weight. The burden of sexually transmitted infections falls disproportionately on the young, the poor, minorities and women. At the societal level, there is a continuing need to educate people, particularly adolescents, about their risk for STDs and their sequelae and to increase the use of barrier methods including condoms. Policy decisions that facilitate more open discussion of sexuality and STDs, and that expand the accessibility and acceptability of sexual risk assessment, STD screening and treatment services would help decrease STD rates in the United States to levels similar to those observed in other industrialized countries.

  2. Behavioral and physiological consequences of sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2007-08-15

    Adequate sleep is essential for general healthy functioning. This paper reviews recent research on the effects of chronic sleep restriction on neurobehavioral and physiological functioning and discusses implications for health and lifestyle. Restricting sleep below an individual's optimal time in bed (TIB) can cause a range of neurobehavioral deficits, including lapses of attention, slowed working memory, reduced cognitive throughput, depressed mood, and perseveration of thought. Neurobehavioral deficits accumulate across days of partial sleep loss to levels equivalent to those found after 1 to 3 nights of total sleep loss. Recent experiments reveal that following days of chronic restriction of sleep duration below 7 hours per night, significant daytime cognitive dysfunction accumulates to levels comparable to that found after severe acute total sleep deprivation. Additionally, individual variability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction appears to be stable, suggesting a trait-like (possibly genetic) differential vulnerability or compensatory changes in the neurobiological systems involved in cognition. A causal role for reduced sleep duration in adverse health outcomes remains unclear, but laboratory studies of healthy adults subjected to sleep restriction have found adverse effects on endocrine functions, metabolic and inflammatory responses, suggesting that sleep restriction produces physiological consequences that may be unhealthy.

  3. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients.

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacky T.

    2016-01-01

    Alarming rates of burnout, compassion fatigue, and turnover in the social work profession have focused attention on factors influencing risk and resilience among professional social workers and, more recently, social work students. This article explores the prevalence and relevance of early trauma among social work students and describes a…

  5. [Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Risks and adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Voigt, N; Heijman, J; Dobrev, D

    2014-03-01

    Adverse side effects of drugs are a significantly underestimated problem in modern medicine. In this review article, we summarize common adverse side effects of cardiovascular drugs. In particular, we highlight the factors promoting these adverse side effects in patients, including reduced hepatic or renal clearance in elderly patients that often requires dosage adjustment. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs (e.g. through the cytochrome P450 system or P-glycoproteins) can modify the plasma concentration of many compounds, thereby also increasing the likelihood of unwanted side effects. The most prominent cardiac side effects include arrhythmias, e.g. atrioventricular (AV) block, drug-induced long-QT syndrome and torsade de pointes and altered inotropy. Non-cardiac side effects are subsequently discussed grouped by drug class. A better understanding of the risks and side effects of cardiovascular drugs is expected to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with adverse side effects.

  6. Childhood adversities and psychosis: evidence, challenges, implications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Gayer‐Anderson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities – particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat – do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. PMID:27265690

  7. Childhood adversity: a review of measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Burgermeister, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Measurement instruments are needed to stimulate research on the long-term outcomes of childhood adversity. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to locate, describe, and assess instruments to measure retrospective perceptions of childhood adversity. An electronic search of instruments was conducted using a combination of keywords that included child maltreatment, child trauma, and childhood stressful events. Nine instruments were located and described according to format, definition of childhood adversity as measured by the instrument, characteristics of the sample used in development and testing, reliability and validity evidence, and feasibility for use. Six out of the nine instruments were suitable for investigators who require a comprehensive measure of childhood adversity. Corroboration with independent sources and use of randomized samples are needed to improve upon reports of validity.

  8. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  9. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  10. Physical activity to overcome the adversity of widowhood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Lee, June Han; Chang, Ly-yun; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chan, Yan-Lan; Wen, Christopher; Chiu, Mu-Lin; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows. A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008. Each individual provided detailed health history, and extensive lab tests results. The number of widows increased with time trend. Every other woman above age 65 was a widow (44%). Widows were less active, more obese, and smoked and drank more, had sleep problems, were more depressed with taking sedatives or psychoactive drugs, leading to more suicides. In the global development of health policies by World Health Organization (WHO), physical activity is one of the main factors to reverse poor health. The poor health of inactive widow was mitigated when becoming fully active in this study. Exercise not only reduced the observed 18% increase in all-cause mortality, but also gained 4 years and as much as 14% mortality advantage over the married but inactive. More importantly, becoming physically active energized their mental status, improved sleep quality and quantity, reduced depressions and the need for psychoactive drugs, and increased socialization circles. Widows, a rapidly growing and socially stigmatized group, suffered from social and financial inequality and tended to develop poorer health. Sustained physical activity could be one of the ways for them to overcome and reverse some of the physical and mental adversities of widowhood, and improve their quality and quantity of life. PMID:27512856

  11. Design of Adverse Drug Events-Scorecards.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Chazard, Emmanuel; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Hackl, Werner; Băceanu, Adrian; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Adverse Drug Event-Scorecards. The scorecards described are innovative and novel, not having previously been reported in the literature. The Scorecards provide organizations (e.g. hospitals) with summary information about Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) using a Web-based platform. The data used in the Scorecards are routinely updated and report on ADEs detected through data mining processes. The development of the ADE Scorecards is ongoing and they are currently undergoing clinical testing.

  12. Adverse drug reactions in hospitalized Colombian children

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Agudelo, Daniela; Burgos-Flórez, Francisco Javier; Vaca, Claudia; Serrano-Meriño, Dolores Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of adverse drug reactions is an important issue due to the lack of drug safety data in children. Objective: To describe the Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatient children under 6 years of age in two general pediatrics wards located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on intensive pharmacovigilance was conducted during six months in order to monitor the emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatients children under 6 years of age with at least one medication prescribed. The study was conducted in two pediatric wards of two hospitals located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Naranjo´s Algorithm was used to evaluate imputability, the modified Hartwig and Siegel assessment scale to establish severity and the Schumock and Thornton criteria to determine preventability. Results: Of a total of 772 monitored patients, 156 Adverse Drug Reactions were detected on 147 children. The cumulative incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions was 19.0% (147/772); the incidence density was 37.6 Adverse Drug Reactions per 1,000 patients-days (147/3,913). The frequency was higher in children under 2 years of age (12.7%). Emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions was higher in male patients (RR= 1.66; 95% CI= 1.22-2.22, p= 0.001) and in those who used systemic antibiotics (RR= 1.82; 95% CI= 1.17-2.82, p= 0.005). Conclusions: Adverse Drug Reactions are common among hospitalized children and represent an additional burden of morbidity and risk, particularly in those who used several medicines, including antibiotics. PMID:27821893

  13. Recognizing and reporting adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, L. M.; Colley, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Although physicians in practice are most likely to see patients with adverse drug reactions, they may fail to recognize an adverse effect or to attribute it to a drug effect and, when recognized, they may fail to report serious reactions to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To recognize and attribute an adverse event to a drug effect, physicians should review the patient's clinical course, looking at patient risk factors, the known adverse reactions to the suspected drug, and the likelihood of a causal relationship between the drug and the adverse event-based on the temporal relationship, response to stopping or restarting the drug, and whether other factors could explain the reaction. Once an adverse drug reaction has been identified, the patient should be informed and appropriate documentation made in the patient's medical record. Serious known reactions and all reactions to newly released drugs or those not previously known to occur (even if the certainty is low) should be reported to the FDA. PMID:1536067

  14. The mediating effect of parental neglect on adolescent and young adult anti-sociality: a longitudinal study of twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Lindon J; Prom, Elizabeth C; Silberg, Judy L

    2010-07-01

    The causes of correlation between parental treatment and offspring behavior are ambiguous since genetic and social factors are correlated in typical family studies. The problem is complicated by the need to characterize the effects of genes and environment on both juvenile and adult behavioral outcomes. A model is developed for the resemblance between juvenile and adult twins and their parents that allows some of these effects to be resolved. Data on childhood adversity, parental anti-social behavior, and longitudinal adult and juvenile anti-social behavior were obtained from 1,412 families of adolescent and young adult twins. A structural model is fitted that allows for the effects of genetic and social transmission of information from parents to children. Environmental effects of parents may be mediated through measured features of the home environment. Parameters were estimated by diagonal weighted least squares applied to the 33 distinct polychoric correlations between relatives and between variables within and between ages. Sub-hypotheses were tested. Results confirmed that effects of genes and environment were both highly significant. Genetic effects were large in juveniles and largely age and sex-specific. Approximately 30% of the variation due to the shared environment was due to the effect of childhood adversity. The remaining shared environmental effects are unexplained. Adversity is affected significantly by maternal anti-social behavior. The correlation between paternal ASP and adversity may be explained by antisocial fathers selecting (or creating) antisocial mothers. All significant environmental effects of parental ASP are mediated through the measure of adversity. Though transmission of ASP is both genetic and social, passive genotype-environment correlation is very small. Assortative mating for ASP has barely detectable consequence for the genetic correlation between siblings. The longitudinal study of twins and their parents makes it possible to

  15. Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Hartgens, Fred

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone. Illegally, these drugs are regularly self-administered by body builders and power lifters to enhance their sportive performance. Adverse side effects of AAS include sexual dysfunction, alterations of the cardiovascular system, psyche and behavior, and liver toxicity. However, severe side effects appear only following prolonged use of AAS at high dose and their occurrence is limited. Occasionally, AAS abuse may be linked to certain social and psychological traits of the user, like low self-esteem, low self-confidence, suffered hostility, childhood conduct disorder, and tendency to high-risk behavior. The overwhelming stereotype about AAS is that these compounds cause aggressive behavior in males. However, the underlying personality traits of a specific subgroup of the AAS abusers, who show aggression and hostility, may be relevant, as well. Use of AAS in combination with alcohol largely increases the risk of violence and aggression. The dependence liability of AAS is very low, and withdrawal effects are relatively mild. Based on the scores for acute and chronic adverse health effects, the prevalence of use, social harm and criminality, AAS were ranked among 19 illicit drugs as a group of drugs with a relatively low harm.

  16. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI) predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI), this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL). Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI) with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life. PMID:26246968

  17. Human Social Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural “social signal transduction” pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving. PMID:25166010

  18. The Consequence of Consequence: Motivation, Anxiety, and Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lisa F.; Smith, Jeffrey K.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships of test consequence, motivation, anxiety, and performance were studied with 158 undergraduates taking a child development course. Results indicated that test consequence (grade or no grade) had a strong influence on motivation and a modest influence on performance. Motivation and anxiety had opposite effects on performance. (SLD)

  19. Long-Term Consequences of Neonatal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of the central nervous system’s (CNS’s) sensory connectivity is driven by modality-specific sensory input in early life. For the somatosensory system, this input is the physical, tactile interaction with the environment. Nociceptive circuitry is functioning at the time of birth; however, there is still considerable organization and refinement of this circuitry that occurs postnatally, before full discrimination of tactile and noxious input is possible. This fine-tuning involves separation of tactile and nociceptive afferent input to the spinal cord’s dorsal horn and the maturation of local and descending inhibitory circuitry. Disruption of that input in early postnatal life (for example, by tissue injury or other noxious stimulus), can have a profound influence on subsequent development, and consequently the mature functioning of pain systems. In this review, the impact of neonatal surgical incision on nociceptive circuitry is discussed in terms of the underlying developmental neurobiology. The changes are complex, occurring at multiple anatomical sites within the CNS, and including both neuronal and glial cell populations. The altered sensory input from neonatal injury selectively modulates neuronal excitability within the spinal cord, disrupts inhibitory control, and primes the immune system, all of which contribute to the adverse long-term consequences of early pain exposure. PMID:26174217

  20. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Borges, Guilherme; Santana, Geilson Lima; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies. Method This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata. Results Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1). Among adults 20–29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation. Conclusion Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently. PMID:27192171

  1. Socially isolated mice exhibit a blunted homeostatic sleep response to acute sleep deprivation compared to socially paired mice.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Navita; Nair, Deepti; Gozal, David; Ramesh, Vijay

    2012-05-15

    Sleep is an important physiological process underlying maintenance of physical, mental and emotional health. Consequently, sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with adverse consequences and increases the risk for anxiety, immune, and cognitive disorders. SD is characterized by increased energy expenditure responses and sleep rebound upon recovery that are regulated by homeostatic processes, which in turn are influenced by stress. Since all previous studies on SD were conducted in a setting of social isolation, the impact of the social contextual setting is unknown. Therefore, we used a relatively stress-free SD paradigm in mice to assess the impact of social isolation on sleep, wakefulness and delta electroencephalogram (EEG) power during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Paired or isolated C57BL/6J adult chronically-implanted male mice were exposed to SD for 6h and telemetric polygraphic recordings were conducted, including 18 h recovery. Recovery from SD in the paired group showed a significant decrease in wake and significant increase in NREM sleep and rapid eye movement (REM), and a similar, albeit less robust response occurred in the isolated mice. Delta power during NREM sleep was increased in both groups immediately following SD, but paired mice exhibited significantly higher delta power throughout the dark period. The increase in body temperature and gross motor activity observed during the SD procedure was decreased during the dark period. In both open field and elevated plus maze tests, socially isolated mice showed significantly higher anxiety than paired mice. The homeostatic processes altered by SD are differentially affected in paired and isolated mice, suggesting that the social context of isolation stress may adversely affect the quantity and quality of sleep in mice.

  2. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  3. Depression among Black bisexual men with early and later life adversities.

    PubMed

    Allen, Vincent C; Myers, Hector F; Williams, John K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a 6-session health intervention, and, at baseline, reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination, R² = .25, F(3, 112) = 12.67, p < .001, and chronic stress, R² = .17, F(3, 112) = 7.41, p < .001. Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination, b = -.154, t(111) = -2.82, p < .01, and chronic stress, b = -.019, t(111) = -3.759, p < .01. Men's early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW's early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults.

  4. Adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, A; Alain, L; Pless, R; Robert, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of severe adverse events temporally associated with meningococcal vaccines administered as part of a mass vaccination program. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study of events reported to a passive provincial surveillance system. SETTING: The province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: The 1,198,751 individuals aged 6 months to 20 years who were vaccinated against meningococcal disease between Dec. 27, 1992, and Mar. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Total numbers and rates of severe adverse events, including allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions, neurological events (other than abnormal crying and screaming) and other serious or unusual events. RESULTS: A total of 118 reports of severe adverse events were selected from the surveillance system. The most frequent were allergic reactions (9.2 per 100,000 doses). Few anaphylactic or neurologic reactions were reported (0.1 and 0.5 per 100,000 doses respectively). There were no reports of sequelae or of encephalopathy, meningitis or encephalitis. CONCLUSION: Meningococcal vaccines seem to be associated with fewer adverse events than have previously been reported. Existing surveillance programs are useful for determining the incidence of adverse events temporally associated with vaccines. PMID:8630839

  5. Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J.; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J.; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

  6. Is It Adverse, Nonadverse, Adaptive, or Artifact?

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Arun R; Kerlin, Roy L; Mann, Peter C; Everds, Nancy E; Sharma, Alok K; Myers, L Peyton; Steinbach, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    One of the principal challenges facing a toxicologic pathologist is to determine and differentiate a true adverse effect from a nonadverse or an adaptive response. Recent publications from the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the European STP provide guidance for determining and communicating adversity in nonclinical toxicology studies. In order to provide a forum to inform and engage in a discussion on this important topic, a continuing education (CE) course was held during the 2016 STP Annual meeting in San Diego, CA. The lectures at this course provided guidance on determining and communicating adversity using case studies involving both clinical pathology and anatomic pathology. In addition, one talk also focused on data quality, study design, and interpretation of artifacts that could hinder the determination of adversity. The CE course ended with a talk on understanding adversity in preclinical studies and engaging the regulatory agencies in the decision-making process. This manuscript is designed to provide brief summaries of all the talks in this well-received CE course.

  7. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Andras, Peter; Lazarus, John; Roberts, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher) or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies. PMID:18053138

  8. The Consequences of School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossell, Christine H., Ed.; Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

    Materials on a variety of subjects related to school desegregation are collected in this book. Chapter 1 discusses assumptions about the overall consequences of desegregation. Chapters 2 to 5 synthesize the findings of existing research on the consequences of school desegregation for children and communities. Finally, Chapter 6 describes…

  9. Consequences of Diffusion of Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Kevin F.

    1979-01-01

    The article traces evolution of diffusion theory; illustrates undesirable consequences in a cross-cultural setting, reviews criticisms of several scholars; considers distributional effects and unanticipated consequences for potential ameliorative impact on diffusion theory; and codifies these factors into a framework for research into consequences…

  10. Institutional Consequences of Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joao Rosa, Maria; Tavares, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the opinions of Portuguese university rectors and academics on the quality assessment system and its consequences at the institutional level. The results obtained show that university staff (rectors and academics, with more of the former than the latter) held optimistic views of the positive consequences of quality assessment…

  11. Strong Medicine and Unintended Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkdoll, Gerald L.

    1992-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence from interviews with some program managers gives evidence that unintended negative consequences of evaluations are more than a theoretical concern; they are a real problem deserving an evaluator's attention and energy. Negative consequences usually include: (1) wasted resources; (2) demotivation; and (3) program destruction and…

  12. Standardizing drug adverse event reporting data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Normalizing data in the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), an FDA database, would improve the mining capacity of AERS for drug safety signal detection. In this study, we aim to normalize AERS and build a publicly available normalized Adverse drug events (ADE) data source.he drug information in AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT). Adverse drug events (ADE) are aggregated through mapping with the PT (Preferred Term) and SOC (System Organ Class) codes of MedDRA. Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). The AERS-DM could provide more perspectives to mine AERS database for drug safety signal detection and could be used by research community in the data mining field.

  13. [Adverse reaction to not iodinated contrast].

    PubMed

    Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions to drugs are relatively frequent in clinical practice, and some of them can be life threatening. Reactions to contrast material (CM) represent an important percentage of these adverse reactions. It has been found that 70% of reactions to contrast material happen within the first five minutes of their administration. Despite the fact that hypersensitivity reactions are traditionally classified as non-allergic, in recent years investigators have reported positive skin prick tests in patients with immediate and late reactions to contrast material. This paper reports the case of a female patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma that has presented on two distinct occasions adverse reactions to contrast material. We discuss on the type of reaction, severity, suggested prophylaxis, prognosis and recommendations, keeping in mind the underlying disease and the need to have further image studies performed.

  14. Adverse events related to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-09-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided.

  15. Adverse perinatal events associated with ART.

    PubMed

    Skora, Daniel; Frankfurter, David

    2012-04-01

    Since the advent of ART, much research has focused on the potential adverse for resultant harm. Prematurity, low birth-weight, PIH, congenital malformations, and CP are closely tied to multiple gestation. With the increase in elective single embryo transfer, there will be a reduction in adversity related to multiple birth. It is understood that underlying causes of infertility, including advanced maternal age, PCOS, thyroid disease, and uterine fibroids, predispose to adverse outcomes. However, imprinting abnormalities do not appear to stem from multiple births, and thus the need to consider the association between fertility treatment and methylation disorders remains essential. These, as well as risks of multi-fetal gestation, must be discussed with patients when considering using assisted reproduction.

  16. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.   Results Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than < 30 years and weighing < 70 kg were significantly associated with VVR, hyperventilation, and nausea (p < 0.005). Undergraduates and Urdu speaking donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p < 0.05).   Conclusion The prevalence of adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions. PMID:27168923

  17. Pattern mining for extraction of mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions from user comments.

    PubMed

    Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela H

    2011-01-01

    Rapid growth of online health social networks has enabled patients to communicate more easily with each other. This way of exchange of opinions and experiences has provided a rich source of information about drugs and their effectiveness and more importantly, their possible adverse reactions. We developed a system to automatically extract mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) from user reviews about drugs in social network websites by mining a set of language patterns. The system applied association rule mining on a set of annotated comments to extract the underlying patterns of colloquial expressions about adverse effects. The patterns were tested on a set of unseen comments to evaluate their performance. We reached to precision of 70.01% and recall of 66.32% and F-measure of 67.96%.

  18. Pattern Mining for Extraction of mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions from User Comments

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela H.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid growth of online health social networks has enabled patients to communicate more easily with each other. This way of exchange of opinions and experiences has provided a rich source of information about drugs and their effectiveness and more importantly, their possible adverse reactions. We developed a system to automatically extract mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) from user reviews about drugs in social network websites by mining a set of language patterns. The system applied association rule mining on a set of annotated comments to extract the underlying patterns of colloquial expressions about adverse effects. The patterns were tested on a set of unseen comments to evaluate their performance. We reached to precision of 70.01% and recall of 66.32% and F-measure of 67.96%. PMID:22195162

  19. Adversity in childhood and depression: linked through SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Lo Iacono, L; Visco-Comandini, F; Valzania, A; Viscomi, M T; Coviello, M; Giampà, A; Roscini, L; Bisicchia, E; Siracusano, A; Troisi, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Carola, V

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing an adverse childhood and parental neglect is a risk factor for depression in the adult population. Patients with a history of traumatic childhood develop a subtype of depression that is characterized by earlier onset, poor treatment response and more severe symptoms. The long-lasting molecular mechanisms that are engaged during early traumatic events and determine the risk for depression are poorly understood. In this study, we altered adult depression-like behavior in mice by applying juvenile isolation stress. We found that this behavioral phenotype was associated with a reduction in the levels of the deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) in the brain and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Notably, peripheral blood mRNA expression of SIRT1 predicted the extent of behavioral despair only when depression-like behavior was induced by juvenile—but not adult—stress, implicating SIRT1 in the regulation of adult behavior at early ages. Consistent with this hypothesis, pharmacological modulation of SIRT1 during juvenile age altered the depression-like behavior in naive mice. We also performed a pilot study in humans, in which the blood levels of SIRT1 correlated significantly with the severity of symptoms in major depression patients, especially in those who received less parental care during childhood. On the basis of these novel findings, we propose the involvement of SIRT1 in the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences. PMID:26327687

  20. Adverse drug reactions in special populations – the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E A; O’Mahony, M S

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Harmonization considers older people a ‘special population’, as they differ from younger adults in terms of comorbidity, polypharmacy, pharmacokinetics and greater vulnerability to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Medical practice is often based on single disease guidelines derived from clinical trials that have not included frail older people or those with multiple morbidities. This presents a challenge caring for older people, as drug doses in trials may not be achievable in real world patients and risks of ADRs are underestimated in clinical trial populations. The majority of ADRs in older people are Type A, potentially avoidable and associated with commonly prescribed medications. Several ADRs are particularly associated with major adverse consequences in the elderly and their reduction is therefore a clinical priority. Falls are strongly associated with benzodiazepines, neuroleptics, antidepressants and antihypertensives. There is good evidence for medication review as part of a multifactorial intervention to reduce falls risk in community dwelling elderly. Multiple medications also contribute to delirium, another multifactorial syndrome resulting in excess mortality particularly in frail older people. Clostridium difficile associated with use of broad spectrum antibiotics mainly affects frail older people and results in prolonged hospital stay with substantial morbidity and mortality. Antipsychotics increase the risk of stroke by more than three-fold in patients with dementia. Inappropriate prescribing can be reduced by adherence to prescribing guidelines, suitable monitoring and regular medication review. Given the heterogeneity within the older population, providing individualized care is pivotal to preventing ADRs. PMID:25619317

  1. Depot risperidone-induced adverse metabolic alterations in female rats.

    PubMed

    Horska, Katerina; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Karpisek, Michal; Suchy, Pavel; Opatrilova, Radka; Kotolova, Hana

    2017-04-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are associated with adverse metabolic effects including weight gain, increased adiposity, dyslipidaemia, alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Increasing evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation precedes weight gain development. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in adipokines, hormones and basic serum biochemical parameters induced by chronic treatment with depot risperidone at two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Dose-dependent metabolic alterations induced by risperidone after 6 weeks of treatment were revealed. Concomitant to weight gain and increased liver weight, an adverse lipid profile with an elevated triglyceride level was observed in the high exposure group, administered a 40 mg/kg dose repeatedly, while the low dose exposure group, administered a 20 mg/kg dose, developed weight gain without alterations in the lipid profile and adipokine levels. An initial peak in leptin serum level after the higher dose was observed in the absence of weight gain. This finding may indicate that the metabolic alterations observed in this study are not consequent to body weight gain. Taken together, these data may support the primary effects of atypical antipsychotics on peripheral tissues.

  2. Pharmacovigilance, risks and adverse effects of self-medication.

    PubMed

    Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Abadie, Delphine; Lacroix, Isabelle; Berreni, Aurélia; Pugnet, Grégory; Durrieu, Geneviève; Sailler, Laurent; Giroud, Jean-Paul; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, François

    2016-04-01

    Self-medication means resorting to one or more drugs in order to treat oneself without the help of a doctor. This phenomenon is developing fast. In this review, we will discuss the main definitions of self-medication; we will then present a few important characteristics of this therapeutic practice: prevalence, reasons, populations involved and drugs used. Whilst the theoretical risks of self-medication have been abundantly discussed in the literature (adverse effects, interactions, product, dosage or treatment duration errors, difficulty in self-diagnosis, risk of addiction or abuse…), there is in fact very little detailed pharmacovigilance data concerning the characteristics and the consequences of this usage in real life. This study therefore describes the all too rare data that is available: patients, clinical characteristics, "seriousness" and drugs involved in the adverse effects of self-medication. It also discusses leads to be followed in order to minimize medication risks, which are obviously not well known and clearly not sufficiently notified.

  3. [Adverse reactions and risks associated with non compliance].

    PubMed

    Russmann, Stefan; Curkovic, Ivanka; Huber, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Non compliance is a frequent and underestimated problem in clinical practice, that is associated with considerable risks, adverse reactions and costs. Next to omitting one or several doses with consequent lack of efficacy, other forms of non compliance can be described. These include administration of a wrong dose or at a wrong time, early termination of therapy or also its unwarranted continuation, and self-administered comedication without consideration of potential interactions. A number of risks and adverse effects can be derived from these different forms of non compliance, for which we present several examples from clinical practice and the literature. Anticipation, recognition and appropriate countermeasures are important elements for the prevention of non compliance, which may target the pharmacotherapy itself, the patient, or the health system providing the therapeutic framework. Furthermore, a climate of trust and good communication between the patient and the health care provider is the cornerstone for all strategies that aim to improve compliance. Computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems may have an additional important role for the prevention of non compliance in the future.

  4. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

  5. Consequence Prioritization Process for Potential High Consequence Events (HCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Sarah G.

    2016-10-31

    This document describes the process for Consequence Prioritization, the first phase of the Consequence-Driven Cyber-Informed Engineering (CCE) framework. The primary goal of Consequence Prioritization is to identify potential disruptive events that would significantly inhibit an organization’s ability to provide the critical services and functions deemed fundamental to their business mission. These disruptive events, defined as High Consequence Events (HCE), include both events that have occurred or could be realized through an attack of critical infrastructure owner assets. While other efforts have been initiated to identify and mitigate disruptive events at the national security level, such as Presidential Policy Directive 41 (PPD-41), this process is intended to be used by individual organizations to evaluate events that fall below the threshold for a national security. Described another way, Consequence Prioritization considers threats greater than those addressable by standard cyber-hygiene and includes the consideration of events that go beyond a traditional continuity of operations (COOP) perspective. Finally, Consequence Prioritization is most successful when organizations adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, engaging both cyber security and engineering expertise, as in-depth engineering perspectives are required to recognize and characterize and mitigate HCEs. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview of the prioritization process.

  6. Depicting adverse events in cardiac theatre: the preliminary conception of the RECORD model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human error is a byproduct of the human activity and may results in random unintended events; they may have major consequences when it comes to delivery of medicine. Furthermore the causes of error in surgical practice are multifaceted and complex. This article aims to raise awareness for safety measures in the cardiac surgical room and briefly “touch upon” the human factors that could lead to adverse outcomes. Finally, we describe a model that would enable us to depict and study adverse events in the operating theatre. PMID:23510398

  7. Transgenerational transmission of pregestational and prenatal experience: maternal adversity, enrichment, and underlying epigenetic and environmental mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Taouk, L; Schulkin, J

    2016-12-01

    Transgenerational transmission refers to positive and negative adaptations in brain function and behavior that affect following generations. In this paper, empirical findings regarding the transgenerational transmission of maternal adversity during three critical periods - childhood, pregestational adulthood and pregnancy - will be reviewed in terms of pregnancy outcomes, maternal care, offspring behavior and development, and physiological functioning. Research on the transgenerational transmission of enrichment and the implications for interventions to ameliorate the consequences of adversity will also be presented. In the final section, underlying epigenetic and environmental mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how experience is transferred across generations through transgenerational transmission will be reviewed. Directions for future research are suggested throughout.

  8. Analysis of 415 adverse events in dental practice in Spain from 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Pérez, Bernardo; Labajo-González, Elena; Santiago-Sáez, Andrés; Albarrán-Juan, Elena; Villa-Vigil, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The effort to increase patient safety has become one of the main focal points of all health care professions, despite the fact that, in the field of dentistry, initiatives have come late and been less ambitious. The main objective of patient safety is to avoid preventable adverse events to the greatest extent possible and to limit the negative consequences of those which are unpreventable. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain what adverse events occur in each dental care activity in order to study them in-depth and propose measures for prevention. Objectives: To ascertain the characteristics of the adverse events which originate from dental care, to classify them in accordance with type and origin, to determine their causes and consequences, and to detect the factors which facilitated their occurrence. Material and Methods: This study includes the general data from the series of adverse dental vents of the Spanish Observatory for Dental Patient Safety (OESPO) after the study and analysis of 4,149 legal claims (both in and out of court) based on dental malpractice from the years of 2000 to 2010 in Spain. Results: Implant treatments, endodontics and oral surgery display the highest frequencies of adverse events in this series (25.5%, 20.7% and 20.4% respectively). Likewise, according to the results, up to 44.3% of the adverse events which took place were due to predictable and preventable errors and complications. Conclusions: A very significant percentage were due to foreseeable and preventable errors and complications that should not have occurred. Key words:Patient safety, adverse event, medical care risk, dentistry. PMID:24880444

  9. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken:…

  10. Educational Leadership: The Uses of Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack

    1976-01-01

    Skepticism about the power of education challenges the educational administrator to (1) attain a better understanding of the sources of dissatisfaction and their implications for change, (2) learn to cope with adversity and make constructive use of it, and (3) define the leadership requirements needed to address education's problems. (MB)

  11. The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

  12. Clinical spectrum of adverse reactions to tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Collins-Williams, C

    1985-01-01

    Tartrazine, a common additive in foods and drugs, often causes adverse reactions such as recurrent urticaria, angioedema, and asthma and is frequently implicated in hyperkinesis. This paper summarizes the recent literature on the subject and outlines a practical approach for the practicing physician to diagnose and treat these patients in an optimal manner.

  13. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues.

  14. Adverse skin reactions following intravitreal bevacizumab injection

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, S; Entabi, M; Lee, N; Stavrakoglou, A

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe two separate cases of skin eruption following intravitreal bevacizumab injection with evidence to suggest that these were adverse drug reactions to bevacizumab. The authors also discuss how each case was treated and report on the final outcome. PMID:22715260

  15. Due Process in Adverse Personnel Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A detailed checklist and timeline for ensuring due process are provided for adverse personnel actions, and the need to supplement this with expert, same-jurisdiction legal advice is stressed. This approach emphasizes the importance of treating due process as an ethical as well as a legal requirement. (SLD)

  16. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development and evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway provides a construct for assembling mechanistic information at different levels of biological organization in a form designed to support regulatory decision making. In particular, it frames the link between molecular and cellular events that can be mea...

  17. [Laser trabeculoplasty: therapeutic options and adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Wacker, T; Eckert, S

    2010-01-01

    Laser trabeculoplasty is a simple method for treating glaucoma and ocular hypertension and has few adverse effects. There are different laser systems for reducing the intraocular pressure of patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Complications include transient intraocular pressure elevation, iritis, and anterior synechiae.

  18. Resilience in the Face of Adversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    "Resilience" is the capacity for moving ahead under adverse circumstances. School superintendents are advised to stay upbeat and mindful of "both-and" opportunities; stay focused on what they care about; remain flexible and tolerant of ambiguity; be proactive, not reactive; and apply resilience-conserving strategies during…

  19. High social phobia frequency and related disability in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Sir, Aytekin

    2011-01-01

    Acne is an easily recognizable abnormality which may cause some adverse psychosocial consequences. We aimed to determine the social phobia frequency, social anxiety level, and disease related disability in a group of acne vulgaris patients. One-hundred and forty acne vulgaris patients and 98 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Acne severity was determined by the Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). A psychiatrist interviewed each participant and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was administered to all participants, who also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Social phobia was diagnosed in 45.7% of acne vulgaris patients and in 18.4% of control subjects. Acne vulgaris patients demonstrated higher performance avoidance and total avoidance scores in LSAS than controls. Acne vulgaris patients without social phobia had higher scores in HADS and LSAS than the acne vulgaris patients with social phobia. They were more disabled in their occupational, social, and familial lives. Social phobia diagnosis predicted disability at work, whereas education level predicted the disability in family life of acne vulgaris patients. Social phobia seems to be a common psychiatric comorbidity which may give rise to some additional disability among acne vulgaris patients.

  20. Software Systems: Consequence versus Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Ray; Winter, Victor L.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this panel is to present different perspectives and opinions regarding the issues surrounding why software should or shouldn't be entrusted with critical (high consequence) functionality.

  1. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse

  2. Parenting begets parenting: A neurobiological perspective on early adversity and the transmission of parenting styles across generations.

    PubMed

    Lomanowska, A M; Boivin, M; Hertzman, C; Fleming, A S

    2017-02-07

    The developing brains of young children are highly sensitive to input from their social environment. Nurturing social experience during this time promotes the acquisition of social and cognitive skills and emotional competencies. However, many young children are confronted with obstacles to healthy development, including poverty, inappropriate care, and violence, and their enhanced sensitivity to the social environment means that they are highly susceptible to these adverse childhood experiences. One source of social adversity in early life can stem from parenting that is harsh, inconsistent, non-sensitive or hostile. Parenting is considered to be the cornerstone of early socio-emotional development and an adverse parenting style is associated with adjustment problems and a higher risk of developing mood and behavioral disorders. Importantly, there is a growing literature showing that an important predictor of parenting behavior is how parents, especially mothers, were parented themselves. In this review, we examine how adversity in early-life affects mothering behavior in later-life and how these effects may be perpetuated inter-generationally. Relying on studies in humans and animal models, we consider evidence for the intergenerational transmission of mothering styles. We then describe the psychological underpinnings of mothering, including responsiveness to young, executive function and affect, as well as the physiological mediators of mothering behavior, including hormones, brain regions and neurotransmitters, and we consider how development in these relevant domains may be affected by adversity experienced in early life. Finally, we explore how genes and early experience interact to predict mothering behavior, including the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding how adverse parenting begets adverse parenting in the next generation is critical for designing interventions aimed at preventing this intergenerational cycle of early adversity.

  3. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students

    PubMed Central

    NASUI, Bogdana Adriana; POPA, Monica; POPESCU, Codruta Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. Results The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Conclusion Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students’ alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour. PMID:27647090

  4. World without Work. Causes and Consequences of Black Male Joblessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Social Policy, Washington, DC.

    This document examines the causes and consequences of Black male joblessness. First, key insights and recommendations of a 1993 policy roundtable on labor force participation and family formation are summarized. Discussed next are the following issues related to the economic and social alienation of Black men: joblessness and absence from the…

  5. California's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuit, David A.; Springer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the economic and social costs of the high school dropout problem in California from the perspective of a state taxpayer. The authors' analysis considers the consequences of this problem in terms of labor market, tax revenue, public health, and incarceration costs. The authors' quantification of these costs reveals the sizeable…

  6. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  7. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  8. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  9. Frequency of Adverse Events after Vaccination with Different Vaccinia Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco; Teunis, Peter; Xing, Shuqin; Mikolajczyk, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Background Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-related adverse events, compared to the risk of contracting an infection. Although considerable effort has been made to understand the dynamics of smallpox transmission in modern societies, little attention has been paid to estimating the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination. Studies exploring the consequences of smallpox vaccination strategies have commonly used a frequency of approximately one death per million vaccinations, which is based on a study of vaccination with the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain of vaccinia virus. However, a multitude of historical studies of smallpox vaccination with other vaccinia strains suggest that there are strain-related differences in the frequency of adverse events after vaccination. Because many countries have stockpiled vaccine based on the Lister strain of vaccinia virus, a quantitative evaluation of the adverse effects of such vaccines is essential for emergency response planning. We conducted a systematic review and statistical analysis of historical data concerning vaccination against smallpox with different strains of vaccinia virus. Methods and Findings We analyzed historical vaccination data extracted from the literature. We extracted data on the frequency of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to vaccinia strain and age of vaccinees. Using a hierarchical Bayesian approach for meta-analysis, we estimated the expected frequencies of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to age at vaccination for smallpox vaccines based on the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. We found large heterogeneity between findings from different studies and a time-period effect that showed

  10. Baby on board: do responses to stress in the maternal brain mediate adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-07-01

    Stress and adverse environmental surroundings result in suboptimal conditions in a pregnant mother such that she may experience poor pregnancy outcome including complete pregnancy failure and preterm labor. Furthermore her developing baby is at risk of adverse programming, which confers susceptibility to long term ill health. While some mechanisms at the feto-maternal interface underlying these conditions are understood, the underlying cause for their adverse adaptation is often not clear. Progesterone plays a key role at many levels, including control of neuroendocrine responses to stress, procuring the required immune balance and controlling placental and decidual function, and lack of progesterone can explain many of the unwanted consequences of stress. How stress that is perceived by the mother inhibits progesterone secretion and action is beginning to be investigated. This overview of maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress throughout pregnancy analyses how they interact to compromise progesterone secretion and precipitate undesirable effects in mother and offspring.

  11. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  12. Recurrent adverse pregnancy outcome and antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Reece, E A; Gabrielli, S; Cullen, M T; Zheng, X Z; Hobbins, J C; Harris, E N

    1990-07-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies, which include lupus-like anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibody, have been linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes, although their exact pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly defined. The relative risk of complications such as intrauterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortions, and stillbirth in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies also remains undetermined. Heightened attention has been focused on the association, leading to investigations into the pathogenesis. Uncontrolled studies have also explored therapeutic regimens such as aspirin, steroids, and heparin, and clinical trials have used various treatment protocols. Although knowledge into the association of antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent adverse pregnancy outcome is limited and continues to evolve, this association provides new insights into the disease and offers promise for pharmacologic prophylaxis. In this article, current concepts on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy are reviewed and recommendations are made for clinical care of these patients.

  13. Enduring Consequences of Right-Wing Extremism: Klan Mobilization and Homicides in Southern Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Rory; Cunningham, David

    2012-01-01

    Research on the consequences of social movements typically aims to identify determinants of success or to draw attention to ways that social movements are able to secure new benefits for constituents by gaining concessions from political authorities. Yet social movements, even those that are ultimately defeated, may have an enduring impact on the…

  14. Childhood adversities and distress - The role of resilience in a representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Beutel, Manfred E.; Tibubos, Ana N.; Klein, Eva M.; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Reiner, Iris; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    While adverse childhood experiences have been shown to contribute to adverse health outcomes in adulthood, specifically distress and somatic symptoms, few studies have examined their joint effects with resilient coping style on adult adjustment. Hence, we aim to determine the association between resilient coping and distress in participants with and without reported childhood adversities. A representative German community sample (N = 2508) between 14–92 years (1334 women; 1174 men) was examined by the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Brief Resilience Coping Scale, standardized scales of distress and somatoform symptoms. Childhood adversity was associated with reduced adjustment, social support and resilience. It was also strongly associated with increased distress and somatoform complaints. Resilient coping was not only associated with lower distress, it also buffered the effects of childhood adversity on distress. Our study corroborates the buffering effect of resilience in a representative German sample. High trait resilient subjects show less distress and somatoform symptoms despite reported childhood adversities in comparison to those with low resilient coping abilities. PMID:28296938

  15. An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

  16. Childhood Adversities and Adult Cardiometabolic Health: Does the Quantity, Timing, and Type of Adversity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Montez, Jennifer Karas; Sheehan, Connor McDevitt; Guenewald, Tara L.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse events in childhood can indelibly influence adult health. While evidence for this association has mounted, a fundamental set of questions about how to operationalize adverse events has been understudied. Method We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States to examine how quantity, timing, and types of adverse events in childhood are associated with adult cardiometabolic health. Results The best-fitting specification of quantity of events was a linear measure reflecting a dose–response relationship. Timing of event mattered less than repeated exposure to events. Regarding the type of event, academic interruptions and sexual/physical abuse were most important. Adverse childhood events elevated the risk of diabetes and obesity similarly for men and women but had a greater impact on women’s risk of heart disease. Discussion Findings demonstrate the insights that can be gleaned about the early-life origins of adult health by examining operationalization of childhood exposures. PMID:25903978

  17. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory.

  18. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk research. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, AOPs are pathways with one MIE anchored to an adverse outcome (AO) by key events (KEs) and key event relationships (KERs). However, this approach does not always capture the cumulative impacts of multiple MIEs on the AO. For example, hepatic lipid flux due to chemical-induced toxicity initiates from multiple ligand-activated receptors and signaling pathways that cascade across biology to converge upon a common fatty liver (FL, also known as steatosis) outcome. To capture this complexity, a top-down strategy was used to develop a FL AOP network (AOPnet). Literature was queried based on the terms steatosis, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Search results were analyzed for physiological and pathophysiological organ level, cellular and molecular processes, as well as pathway intermediates, to identify potential KEs and MIEs that are key for hepatic lipid metabolism, maintenance, and dysregulation. The analysis identified four apical KE nodes (hepatic fatty acid uptake, de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis, fatty acid oxidation, and lipid efflux) juxtaposed to the FL AO. The apic

  19. Serious Adverse Events After Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Over the past several decades there have been many advances in the equipment, instrumentation and techniques of performing cataract surgery. This review will address the impact of these advances on the safety profile of cataract surgery. Recent Findings Recent studies have demonstrated a decline in the risk of serious postoperative adverse events (endophthalmitis, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, retinal detachment) following cataract surgery. Factors that increase the risk of serious complications from cataract surgery include patient-related factors (male sex, concomitant diabetic retinopathy, same day cataract surgery combined with another intraocular surgery, tamsulosin use) and surgeon-related factors (low surgical volume, limited experience, operating on patients who are most prone to adverse events). Summary Cataract surgery continues to be a very safe surgical procedure with few patients experiencing serious sight-threatening adverse events. Studies in the literature have helped surgeons identify patients who are at high risk for surgical complications and to develop strategies to limit surgical complications when operating on these patients. As multifocal intraocular lenses, femtosecond laser technology, and other surgical innovations continue to gain popularity, it will be interesting in the coming years to determine whether there will be a continued reduction in complications of cataract surgery. PMID:22450221

  20. Statin-Associated Muscle Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A.; Ignaszewski, Martha J.; Frohlich, Jiri; Ignaszewski, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are potent medications which reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Their efficacy in cardiovascular risk reduction is well established and indications for their use are expanding. While statins are generally well tolerated and safe, adverse events are relatively common, particularly statin-associated muscle adverse events (SaMAEs), which are the most frequently encountered type of adverse event. Recent guidelines and guideline updates on SaMAEs and statin intolerance have included revised definitions of SaMAEs, incorporating new evidence on their pathogenesis and management. As SaMAEs emerge as a therapeutic challenge, it is important for physicians to be aware of updates on management strategies to ensure better patient outcomes. The majority of patients who are considered statin-intolerant can nevertheless tolerate some forms of statin therapy and successfully achieve optimal LDL-C levels. This review article discusses the recent classification of SaMAEs with emphasis on pathogenesis and management strategies. PMID:28003885

  1. Metabolic and adverse effects of diuretics.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, C S

    1999-11-01

    Diuretics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. They enjoy a very high clinical reputation for safety and efficacy. However, more than 3 decades of clinical investigation have disclosed a number of abnormalities in fluid electrolyte handling, metabolism, and other adverse effects that can complicate therapy with diuretic drugs. Some of these complications are a direct extension of the wanted action of the drug. These include extracellular fluid volume depletion, associated orthostatic hypotension, and prerenal azotemia. Others are not a direct action of the diuretic, but can be explained as an intranephronal compensation to the diuretic action. These include hypokalemia, in part to increased potassium secretion secondary to the enhanced tubular fluid flow and aldosterone secretion induced by diuretic administration. Metabolic abnormalities are usually mild. Hyperglycemia and carbohydrate intolerance have been related to diuretic-induced hypokalemia, which inhibits insulin secretion by the beta cells, and reductions in extracellular fluid volume and cardiac output. This is compounded by increases in catecholamines from sympathetic nerve activity which decrease peripheral glucose utilization. A mild increase in serum cholesterol concentration is seen frequently during initiation of diuretic therapy, but during steady state therapy after 6 to 12 months, values usually return to baseline. Knowledge of the more common adverse effects induced by diuretics helps the physician in predicting patients at risk and taking effective steps to anticipate or treat adverse responses.

  2. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors.

  3. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment.

  4. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  5. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments.

  6. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy. PMID:23112921

  7. Neurodevelopment in children with intrauterine growth restriction: adverse effects and interventions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Fu, Wei; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with higher rates of fetal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The consequences of IUGR include short-term metabolic, hematological and thermal disturbances that lead to metabolic syndrome in children and adults. Additionally, IUGR severely affects short- and long-term fetal brain development and brain function (including motor, cognitive and executive function) and neurobehavior, especially neuropsychology. This review details the adverse effects of IUGR on fetal brain development and discusses intervention strategies.

  8. Roll-up of vorticity in adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Durbin, P. A.; Leib, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how the unsteady, nonlinear critical-layer equation determines the evolution of instability waves in a weak adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Numerical solutions show that the nonlinearity halts the growth of these inviscidly unstable waves. The stabilizing effect of nonlinearity, in the present case, can be described as a consequence of either the increase (toward zero) of the phase jump across the critical layer or the roll-up of the critical-layer disturbance vorticity.

  9. Physical and psychological consequences of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are clearly associated with many serious conditions, including type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Excess weight also increases the risk of death. Recent evidence suggests that weight gain itself, even if persons remain within the "normal" weight range, also increases the risk of medical illnesses and premature death. Persons who gain 5.0 to 7.9 kg (11 to 17.3 lb) as adults are 1.9 times more likely to develop type II diabetes mellitus and 1.25 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than those who lose weight or maintain a stable weight after age 18 years. Gaining 11 to 20 kg (24.2 to 44 lb) or more in adulthood increases the risk of ischemic stroke 1.69 to 2.52 times. The relationship between weight gain and breast cancer has been difficult to study, primarily because postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy can mask the effect of weight gain on cancer risk. Accordingly, weight gain in adulthood has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer only among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy. In addition to its adverse effects on disease outcomes, weight gain also impairs physical functioning, reduces quality of life, and is associated with poor mental health. These psychological and mental health consequences of weight gain can become an added burden for patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.

  10. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW) or obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is

  11. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW) or obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is

  12. Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.

    1996-03-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.

  13. Self-destructive consequences of sex-role socialization.

    PubMed

    Clifton, A K; Lee, D E

    1976-01-01

    Suicide proneness and self-destruction scales, together with measures of self-favorability and self-confidence, were administered to two samples (n = 106 and n = 213). The affective responses of the second sample (134 women and 79 men) were measured by asking respondents to circle adjectives classified for activity-passivity, positive-negativeness, and extroversion-introversion that expressed their feelings toward eight situations. Women scored lower than men on suicide proneness, higher on self-destruction, and lower on self-favorability and self-confidence. Women reacted more passively to the situations than men and more negatively to the public challenge situation. Women tend to extrovert (turn outward on others) their positive feelings in pleasant situations and to introvert (turn blame on themselves) their negative reactions to unpleasant situations. Men do the reverse. It is suggested that women are self-destructive in passive ways, reflecting their lack of self-favorability and confidence and manifested by failure to react to everyday situations in ego-building ways.

  14. China's urbanization: magnitudes, social-economic causes and ecological consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S.; Tian, H.; Liu, M.; Liu, J.

    2006-05-01

    China, the third largest country of the world, is in transition from a largely rural society to a predominantly urban one. The Chinese urban system has experienced dramatic growth since the economic reforms were introduced in late 1970s. Two decades ago, fewer than 20% of China's people lived in urban areas; today 36% of the population was classified as urban; and an estimated 80% will be as urban in 2030. By integrating GIS and remote sensing technologies, we have quantified and characterized the magnitude and patterns of urbanization across China for the time period from 1980 to 2000. Our analysis suggests that in the traditional agricultural zones in China, e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, Yangtze River Delta, Peril River Delta and Sichuan Basin, the urban and built-up areas increased by 1.76 million hectares, of which 0.82 million hectares are expansion of urban areas, an increase of 24.78% compared with 1990 at the national scale. The Yellow River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and Peril River Delta also showed an increase of build-up area by 63.9%, 66.2% and 83.0% respectively. By using an econometric model in conjunction with spatial data and census records, we also examined how population growth and economic development have affected China's urbanization in the past decades. By using DLEM (the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model), we further examined the potential impacts of urbanization on net primary productivity, carbon storage and water yield in China during 1980-2000.

  15. Educational Testing and Schooling: Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Wind, Stefanie A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Edward Haertel received the NCME Career Contributions Award. The focus article for this issue emerged from his address on the topic "How Is Testing Supposed to Improve Schooling?" His focus article provides a discussion of the relationships between testing and schooling in which he issues a call to action to the measurement community to…

  16. Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Technology on Social Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Reeves, Todd D.; Stich, Amy

    2016-01-01

    While much has been written in the field of educational technology regarding educational excellence and efficiency, less attention has been paid to issues of equity. Along these lines, the field of educational technology often does not address key equity problems such as academic achievement and attainment gaps, and inequality of educational…

  17. Homelessness in the Elementary School Classroom: Social and Emotional Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Kirby A.; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Melchor, Vanessa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' experiences working with homeless students. Specifically, we focused on the psychosocial impacts of homelessness on students and their teachers. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 teachers who worked at designated public schools for family homeless shelters. A prominent…

  18. Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

  19. Global consequences of US environmental policies

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Attempts to quantify the financial and social benefits and costs, and their critiques, of habitat protection, have missed a major element: the global environmental consequences. In a global economy linked by international trade a significant reduction in timber harvests in on region will probably precipitate actions in other regions that may be detrimental to the global environment. These reactions would offset most or all of the alleged environmental benefits. The author uses the spotted owl controversy in the Pacific Northwest to illustrate his points. Global aspects of employment, marketing evaluations, fossil fuel implications are all discussed. The author feels that responses from environmentally responsible citizens would be influenced if it was more widely known that in a global system, domestic habitat protection and land-use decisions involved substantial environmental costs elsewhere.

  20. Life course adversity in the lives of formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness: context and meaning.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Deborah K; Smith, Bikki Tran; Henwood, Benjamin F; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study assessed the frequency and subjective meaning of adverse experiences using case study analyses of interviews with 38 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) and substance abuse histories. Adverse life events were inventoried using an adaptation of Lloyd and Turner's (2008) 41-item checklist. Participants averaged 8.8 adverse events, with approximately one-third having experienced incarceration (37%), suicidality (32%), abandonment by one or both parents (30%), and death of their mother (34%). Cross-case analyses yielded 3 themes: social losses because of death and estrangement; the significance of chronic stressors as well as acute events; and the cumulative lifetime nature of adversity. Findings suggest that life course experiences of trauma and loss have a cumulative influence in the lives of this population in addition and in relation to SMI, substance abuse, and homelessness. In this context, the mental health recovery movement should address prior adverse experiences beyond comorbid diagnoses in this population.